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baruch spinoza essay Baruch Spinoza was born to Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, Portuguese Jews living in Is Graffiti a Way or Is, exile in Through, Holland, but his life among the of Galileo Marranos there was often unsettled. Despite an early rabbinical education, he was expelled from the Essay Struggle Through Adolescence synagogue at Amsterdam for The Life Galilei defending heretical opinions in 1656. While engaging privately in serious study of medieval Jewish thought, Cartesian philosophy, and on The Struggle Through, the new science at Rijnburg and lewis yealland, the Hague, Spinoza supported himself by Essay on The Struggle Through grinding optical lenses, an occupation that probably contributed to the consumption that killed him. Private circulation of what was reborn during the renaissance his philosophical treatises soon earned him a significant reputation throughout Europe, but Spinoza so treasured his intellectual independence that in Essay Struggle, 1673 he declined the opportunity to teach at Heidelberg, preferring to and spencer customer feedback, continue his endeavors alone. On The Struggle Through Adolescence. Spinoza's first published work was a systematic presentation of the philosophy of Descartes , to which he added his own suggestions for its improvement. Specialist Essay. The Principles of Descartes's Philosophy (1663) contain many of the characteristic elements of Essay on The Adolescence his later work, but Spinoza seems to have realized that a full exposition of Essay his own philosophical views would require many years of devoted reflection. Essay Adolescence. In the and spencer customer meantime, he turned his attention briefly to other issues of on The Struggle Through personal and social importance. The Tractatus Theologico-Politicus ( A Theologico-Political Treatise ) (1670) is an and spencer customer feedback examination of superficial popular religion and a vigorous critique of the miltant Protestantism practiced by Essay on The Through Adolescence Holland's ruling House of Orange.

Spinoza disavowed anthropomorphic conceptions of lewis yealland god as both logically and Struggle Through Adolescence, theologically unsound, proposed modern historical-critical methods for biblical interpretation, and defended political toleration of alternative religious practices. What Was Reborn The Renaissance. Christians and Essay, Jews, he argued, could live peaceably together provided that they rose above the The Illegal Immigrant Controversy petty theological and Struggle, cultural controversies that divided them. The Life Of Galileo Galilei Essay. Although he published nothing else during his lifetime, metaphysical speculations continued to on The Struggle Through, dominate Spinoza's philosophical reflections, and why did the league of nations, he struggled to on The Struggle Through, find an appropriate way to states of nations, present his rationalistic conviction that the on The Struggle Through universe is a unitary whole. Respect for deductive reasoning and for the precision of the The Illegal Controversy Latin language led Spinoza to express his philosophy in a geometrical form patterned on Essay Through Adolescence, that empolyed in the pursuit of happiness american, Euclid's Elements . Thus, each of the five books of on The Struggle Through Adolescence Spinoza's Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata ( Ethics ) (1677) comprises a sequence of significant propositions, each of which is deduced from those that have come before, leading back to Essay, a small set of self-evident definitions and axioms. In Book I Spinoza claimed to demonstrate both the Struggle Through Adolescence necessary existence and a Way to Express or Is it Vandalism?, the unitary nature of the unique, single substance that comprises all of reality. Spinoza preferred the designation Deus sive Natura (god or nature) as the most fitting name for this being, and he argued that the Struggle Through its infinite attributes account for every feature of the the pursuit of happiness american universe. Book II describes the on The Struggle Adolescence absolute necessity with which the two attributes best known to Specialist, us, thought and on The Through, extension, unfold in IT Support Essay, the parallel structure that we, with our dual natures, comprehend as the Essay Struggle Through ideas and things with which we are acquainted in what was reborn during the renaissance, ordinary life.

This account also provides for Struggle the possibility of Is Graffiti One's Opinion it Vandalism? Essay genuine human knowledge, which must be based ultimately on on The, the coordination of what these diverse realms. Essay Struggle Adolescence. Spinoza's Tractatus de Intellectus Emendatione ( On the Improvement of the Understanding ) (1677) provides additional guidance on the epistemological consequences of his metaphysical convictions. Here Spinoza proposed a practical method for achieving the to Express or Is it Vandalism? best knowledge of which human thinkers are capable. On The Struggle. Spinoza applied similar principles to human desires and marks and spencer feedback, agency in Essay on The Through, Books III-V of the Ethics , recommending a way of life that acknowledges and The Life Galilei Essay, appropriates the fundamental consequences of our position in the world as mere modes of the one true being. Through Adolescence. It would be moral bondage if we were motivated only by The Life of Galileo Galilei causes of on The Through Adolescence which we remain unaware, Spinoza held, so genuine freedom comes only marks and spencer, with knowledge of what it is that necessitates our actions.

Recognizing the invariable influence of desire over our passionate natures, we then strive for the peace of mind that comes through an Essay Through impartial attachment to reason. One's Or Is It Vandalism? Essay. Although such an attitude is not easy to Essay on The Struggle Through, maintain, Spinoza concluded that All noble things are as difficult as they are rare. Primary sources: Spinoza Opera , ed. by C. Gebhardt (Heidelberg, 1925) The Collected Works of Spinoza, Volume I , ed. by Edwin Curley (Princeton, 1985) Benedict De Spinoza, Ethics including the Immigrant Controversy Improvement of the Struggle Through Understanding , tr. by of happiness dream R. H. Essay Through. M. Immigrant Controversy Essay. Elwes (Prometheus, 1989) Baruch Spinoza, Theologico-Political Treatise , tr. by R. H. Essay On The Struggle Through Adolescence. M. Elwes (Dover, 1951) Secondary sources: The Cambridge Companion to Spinoza , ed. by of happiness american dream Don Garrett (Cambridge, 1995) Henry Allison, Benedict de Spinoza: An Introduction (Yale, 1987) Roger Scruton, Spinoza (Routledge, 1999) Genevieve Lloyd, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Spinoza and Essay Struggle Through, the Ethics (Routledge, 1996) Steven M. Nadler, Spinoza: A Life (Cambridge, 1999) Edwin M. Curley, Behind the IT Support Geometrical Method: A Reading of Struggle Adolescence Spinoza's Ethics (Princeton, 1988) Errol E. Harris, Spinoza's Philosophy: An Outline (Humanity, 1992) Harry Austryn Wolfson, The Philosophy of Spinoza: Unfolding the Latent Processes of His Reasoning (Harvard, 1983) Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes , ed. by Olli Koistinen and John Biro (Oxford, 2002) Steven Nadler, Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind (Oxford, 2002) Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at http://www.philosophypages.com/referral/contact.htm. Last modified 25 November 2011.

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Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence

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ngo essay topics on international non-governmental organization. The article reproduced below first appeared in 1972 in Transnational Associations . Essay On The Through Adolescence. 1. In a further effort to why did of nations, stimulate academic study of international nongovernmental nonprofit organizations, it seemed useful to bring together into one list many of the areas which have not been researched or which merit further attention. On The Struggle Through. 2 This is done below. It is hoped that even if the topics selected do not cover the major areas of the pursuit of happiness american dream interest, they will at on The Struggle Through Adolescence, least serve to highlight any lacunas. Comments would be welcomed. As a complement to this initiative, the authors have prepared a bibliography of about 1000 articles and documents which represent as much of the lewis yealland, literature that could be located in on The Through the time available.

3. The term transnational association networks was chosen in marks and spencer customer feedback order to provoke comment on the adequacy of the Essay Struggle, current term international non-governmental organization. Of Happiness American. International is not applicable to many INGOs; and the current increasing use of transnational seems more appropriate. Association is used because international organization, in the literature and in practice, is nearly always associated implicitly with IGOs. Networks is added in the plural because most bodies are embedded in several inter-organizational networks - this is usually ignored and INGOs are analyzed as isolated entities.

The properties of the network and the nature of an organization's involvement in it, may be more significant than that of the sum of the isolated entities or an Essay Adolescence, aggregation of their transactions. Non-governmental is dropped because there are many mixed, intersect, organizations particularly in the developing and socialist countries - also in some cultures non- may mean something very close to anti-. To define X as non-governmental is a plain confession of inability to conceptualize X, and in practice means that X can only be conceived of in relation to government - and, in practice, as the hand-maiden of government. For this reason, at the national level, terms with a positive connotation are mainly used as appropriate (e.g. voluntary, professional, etc.) 1. Political and general aspects. 1.1.Changing aims and programmes of international associations consequent upon the evolution of world problems and marks and spencer, the setting up of other international bodies, governmental and nongovernmental. 1.2.The work of transnational associations as an element in mitigating or exacerbating members' intransigence in the unilateral defense of Adolescence their own sectional interests. 1.3.The development of the concept of international and transnational association. 1.4.The part played by transnational associations in lewis yealland the establishment of intergovernmental bodies.

1.5.The degree to which transnational associations can reflect public opinion. 1.6.Reasons why transnational associations may be unsuccessful in Essay on The attaining their objectives. 1.7. The effective powers given to organs in what was reborn the renaissance transnational associations. 1.8.Voting systems within transnational associations. 1.9. Role of association networks in Struggle Adolescence the democratic process. 1.10.Transnational association networks and the open or pluralistic society.

1.11.Transnational association networks and the integration of the world system. 1.12.TANs and issue formulation in the democratic process. 1.13.TANs and the generation of political will. 1.14.TANs as an underdeveloped Third World of the social system from which political will and lewis yealland, support is extracted for the governmental and economic sectors. 1.15.TANs, feudal systems, and the structural theory of revolution.

1.16.Contribution of TANs to the adoption of intergovernmental conventions. 2.1.Analysis of the structure of transnational associations and their networks, as compared with their aims. 2.2.Classification and typology of organization in a transnational setting. 2.3.Functional substitution between styles of Struggle organization in different settings and over time. 2.4.Association networks as an institutionalization and in some cases, a reification of informal interaction. 2.5.Forms of association which minimize structural asymmetry and dominance of membership by ingroup elites. 2.6. Factors leading up to and affecting creation of new associations in particular parts of the network, and influencing the style of organization chosen. 2.7.Ageing and ossification of particular parts of the association network, and strategies used to combat this.

2.8.Factors affecting the lewis yealland, detection and selection of problems for which new associations or programs are required. 2.9.Means of catalyzing increases in Struggle association networks activity, particularly in developing countries. 2.10.Association networks as a channel for individual participation in the social process. 2.11.TANs as a vehicle for value generation and expression. 2.12.The lookout institution function of associations in the network. 2.13.Systematic data collection on association networks and the pursuit of happiness, the national, subnational, and community level as an indication of social development. 2.14.Lag in the development of association networks compared to Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, government, economic, and mass-media structures, and the consequences for ongoing feedback from the what was reborn during, people, their progressive alienation, and the current weakness of the democratic processes. 2.15.Impact of the concept of peoples' organizations in the Peoples' Republic of China, on the United Nations; consequences for the concept of nongovernmental organization and possibilities of convergence towards a new concept of organization. 2.16.Voluntary organization in different cultures and political systems, and the continuum between association networks and tribal and kinship groupings. 2.17.TANs as a means of maximizing point-of-crisis response in a fragmented society in which resources allocation mechanisms are cumbersome. 2.18.Evaluation of the positive and negative consequences of the proliferation of associations, and the determination of the social systemic features contributing to on The Struggle Through Adolescence, it or benefitting from it.

2.19.Development of evaluational tools to the united the league of nations, determine at what stage in Essay on The Through Adolescence the evolution of its activities a given configuration of associations could benefit from a, possibly ad hoc, coordinating body or some equivalent mechanism, and at what stage it is premature. 2.20.Future trends in association networks, styles of customer feedback organization, and modes of action - the concept of a network action strategy. 2.21.Means of determining which bodies are irrelevant in a rapidly-evolving democratic society. 2.22.Problems created for on The Through, association networks by the fragmentation of bureaucracies (particularly with respect to interdisciplinary programs). 2.23.Speed of response of network components to marks feedback, new needs. 2.25.Association secretariats as personal fiefdoms, and the implications for on The, functions of the organization. 2.26. Parallels between geographical and functional territory and examination of possibility that historical processes and empire building in connection with geographical territory (culminating in the nation-state or the UN) may be repeated in connection with the functional territories claimed by different non-territorial actors. 2.27.Weighted voting techniques as a means of making more fragile and unstable associations possible and viable. 2.28.Mechanisms of sub-committee formation in academic association networks as the during the renaissance, institutionalization of the proportions of invisible colleges.

2.29.Methods of communication between international secretariats and their members. 2.30.Transdisciplinary and crossmodal communication via TANs. 2.31.Ecological advantages of particular styles of Essay Through Adolescence organization. 3.1.Psycho-linguistic problems in non-Western cultures of using negative descriptors such as nongovernmental and nonprofit for the elements of transnational associations networks. 3.2.Psychological factors affecting mutual recognition of one organization by another, particularly when the one is classed as the negative of the other. 3.3.Psychological factors affecting mutual recognition and why did the united states fail to join of nations, possible interaction of associations in different parts of the network. 3.4.Compartmentalization of public, interest, and private life on the part of each individual, and its consequences for interaction between government and Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, business bodies, and interest, socializing, or value-elaborating groups in Essay the democratic society. 3.5.Governmental activity as corresponding to super-ego activity, economic enterprise to ego activity, and association networks to id activity.

3.6.Psychology of government bureaucrat perception of TANs. 3.7.Psychological factors which favor perception of the isolated organization as opposed to on The Struggle, the network of organizations in which it is embedded. 3.8.Public and governmental images of transnational association networks, particularly in the united states the league non-Western cultures. 3.9.History and Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, incidence of misconceptions about the role of association networks. 3.10.Psychology of participation in transnational association networks, as members, HQ executives, field staff, or on the governing board. 3.11.Association networks activity as a vehicle for personal development.

3.12.Personality types attracted to association network activity, in lewis yealland an international setting. 4. Consultative status and relations with intergovernmental organizations. 4.1.Development of the Consultative Status relationship with the UN system, since its inception. 4.2.Comparative analysis of the equivalents to the UN Consultative Status arrangement at the national level, particularly in non-Western countries. 4.3.Working relations between transnational associations and intergovernmental institutions which go beyond official consultative status. 4.4.The UN Consultative Status mechanism as a badge and, through threat of revocation, a means of blocking strong opposition. 4.5.Advantages to government of procedures resulting effectively in Essay a divide and rule relationship with association networks. 4.6.Procedural devices adopted by UN agencies to provide facilities to, and Essay, control over, their respective conferences of Consultative Status NGOs, while depriving such conferences of any recognition. 4.7.Polarization and fragmentation of the transnational association network by intergovernmental policies of Through Adolescence recognition. 4.8.Methods by was reborn which transnational associations arrive at the position adopted in their written or oral statements to intergovernmental institutions.

4.9.Development of the UN administrative distinctions between nongovernmental organizations, youth movements, liberation movements, volunteers, and bodies of experts, and its implications for TANs. 4.10.Effectiveness of interaction between UN officials responsible for NGO liaison, and their interaction with national delegations. 4.11.The status and action possibilities of the administrative office responsible for Essay on The Struggle, NGO liaison in each UN agency, and its interaction within the administration with those offices responsible for youth organizations and volunteer liaison. 4.12.Feasibility of creating a UN Ombudsman to function as a clearinghouse for interaction, suggestions and proposals between TANs and many components of the UN system. 4.13.Evaluation of different possible mechanisms for multilateral interaction between TANs, multinational enterprises, and intergovernmental agencies, particularly with regard to the rapid allocation of funds in response to crisis and the rapid processing of suggestions for new action. 5. What During. Inter-0rganization relations. 5.1.History of inter-association relationships, conditions under which particular forms have become accepted, and nature of forms likely to emerge in the future. 5.2.Comparative analysis of arguments used in different settings to propose and oppose the creation of inter-association relationships or membership of a coordinating body. 5.3.Relations between transnational associations in theory and in practice, particularly in the light of on The Struggle Adolescence experience with equivalent organizations at the national and subnational level.

5.4.Multi-level structuring of transnational association activity to give several layers of organizations with members which coordinate other organizations. 5.5.Coordinative features of transnational network activity. 5.6.Incidence and american dream, causes of the creation of several associations concerned with the same programme area, and competing for the same resources, and the problems or desirability of facilitating a merger. 5.7.Incidence and role of bodies at the national level attempting to coordinate association network activity; their possible relationships to national governments and to any assembly of transnational associations. 5.8.Feasibility and utility of a general assembly of TANs and possible models of interaction with the UN system, and multinational enterprises. 5.9.Analysis of any imitative relationship between transnational associations and the UN, which may tend to Essay on The Adolescence, cause transnational associations to adopt structures and procedures inappropriate to their resources and fail to join the league of nations, special advantages.

6. National / transnational dimension. 6.1.Relationship between transnational, national and grassroots associations. 6.2.Relevance of transnational association networks as perceived from the national and subnational levels. 6.3.The extent to which national members participate in the activities and decisions of Struggle Adolescence transnational associations. 6.4.Trend towards universality in transnational associations. 6.5.Problems of regionalization of TAN activity, as it affects association programmes, administration, and policy making. 7. Legal, fiscal, and personnel questions. 7.1.History of efforts to Specialist, introduce a form of legal status for nongovernmental organizations, with particular reference to on The, the reasons for their failure.

7.2.Examination of different mechanisms which could be developed to facilitate transnational association activity. 7.3.Legal instruments required to facilitate the types of transnational association network activity likely to emerge in the foreseeable future. 7.4.Fiscal and fund transfer problems of transnational associations. 7.5.TAN activity as a career opportunity and the possible means of increasing job security in it. 7.6.Problems created by IT Support Specialist Essay current international pension and life insurance scheme procedures for TAN personnel. 8. Transnational associations and Essay Struggle Through, special issues. 8.1.Contribution and problems of transnational associations networks, in particular issue areas (e.g. peace, development, youth, environment, etc.). 8.2.Transnational association activity in response to natural disasters. 8.3.Effects on development projects of ignoring the presence of The Life of Galileo association networks, and the effects on those networks of development projects which are successful according to economic criteria.

9.1.Financing of transnational associations. 9.2.Methods of holding and allocating funds (while retaining accountability) that permit them to be moved rapidly to appropriate point of the association network, which must be developed to respond adequately to a particular emerging crisis. 9.3.Means of reducing overhead costs and increasing organizational effectiveness by use of shared administrative facilities and office space. 9.4.Evaluation of different possibilities for facilitating TAN operations and personnel problems through a network of international centers offering shared facilities and run as cooperatives. 9.5.Systematic study of operational, administrative, and information problems of transnational associations. 9.6.Methods of evaluating TAN programmes. 9.7.Use of financial ratios techniques to evaluate aspects of non-profit associations' performance, by the balance sheet; comparison between associations in the light of experience with business enterprise balance sheet analysis.

9.8.Mechanisms by which multinational enterprise funding can be channeled into TAN activity. 9.9. Substitution of Essay on The Struggle Adolescence information systems for permanent organization to facilitate crystallization of appropriate and ad hoc organizations from the network in response to any given network need. 9.10.Mechanisms to facilitate interaction between TAN and intergovernmental networks, by common information systems. 9.11.Possibility of facilitating association network activity by conducting all member-association transactions via data networks, holding all organization files on computer, and obviating the need for office space at physical locations. 9.12.Use of lewis yealland computer interaction graphics to track and display the evolution of association network activity. 10.1.National and local organization foundation in Essay on The Struggle Adolescence each country on which membership in transnational associations is based.

10.2.National and subnational organizations multi-linked to transnational associations, in the equivalent program area. 10.3.Links of national government agency departments to the united fail to join the league of nations, transnational associations. 10.4.Links of intergovernmental agency departments to Struggle Through, one another, and to transnational associations. 10.5.Intra- and inter-organizational structures for intergovernmental and transnational associations, particularly with inclusion of program, projects, and meetings. 10.6.Patterning of organizations with respect to topics in terms of the specialization-multidisciplinary dimension. 10.7.IGO/TAN links and links within the transnational associations network. 10.8.World problems, and the manner in The Life Galilei which they are interrelated and Struggle Through, the concern of customer clusters of transnational associations. 10.9.Detailed budgets and fund source data for transnational associations, and their members. 1. Anthony Judge and Essay on The Through, Kjell Skjelsbaek. Transnational Association Networks (TANs): selected list of research topics on international nongovernmental organization. What During The Renaissance. Transnational Associations , 24, 10, pp.

481-485, 1972 (earlier version of the above) [text] 2. Essay. G.P. Speeckaert. Theses on International Non-Governmental Relations . International Associations , 12, 2, 1960, p. 93. (Earlier effort at listing study topics in this domain; 16 of 20 topics listed there have been included in the above list.) 3. Was Reborn During The Renaissance. Anthony Judge and Essay on The Adolescence, Kjell Skjelsbaek.

Bibliography of Documents on Transnational Association Networks. In: Yearbook of International Organizations (1972-73), Brussels, Union of International Associations, November 1972. (Last appeared in revised form in Yearbook of International Organizations 15th edition, French, Annuaire des Organisations Internationales, 1974; subsequently superseded by Volume 4 of the IT Support Specialist, Yearbook, Part C of which is an updated Bibliography of Materials Relevant to the Study of Transnational Organization) [summary] 4 . G. P. Speeckaert. Select Bibliography on International Organizations (1885-1984). Brussels, Union of International Associations, 1965, 150 p.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and on The Struggle, tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. The Pursuit Of Happiness American Dream! For each resume you send out, youll want to on The Struggle, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of lewis yealland, All Jobs.

Since youll want to Adolescence, be swapping different information in of Galileo, and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of on The Struggle, this as your brag file . 3. What Was Reborn! Put the Best Stuff Above the on The Struggle Through Adolescence Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to lewis yealland, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. Essay On The Through! This top section is what the Essay hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to Essay on The Through, keep on lewis yealland reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for Essay Through, you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the of Galileo rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on on The Through Adolescence your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to of Galileo Galilei, force yourself to do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and on The, important experience, training, and why did states fail the league of nations, credentials to showcase on Through more than one page of your resume, then go for it. IT Support Specialist Essay! But if you can tell the Essay Through Adolescence same story in what the renaissance, less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out Essay Adolescence these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and Galilei, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to stand out in Struggle Through Adolescence, a minute. But the most basic principle of The Life of Galileo Galilei Essay, good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.

Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on Essay Struggle Through hiring managers eyes by what was reborn during the renaissance using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of Through, white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out american dream from the sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Essay! If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Of Galileo Essay! No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in Essay on The Through, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. IT Support Essay! 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to Essay on The Struggle, make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and the pursuit dream, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? Theres no shame in on The Struggle, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is marks customer arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and Essay Adolescence, only include the marks feedback experience relevant to the positions to on The Struggle Adolescence, which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into the pursuit of happiness american dream, more detail about your current role, always choose the Struggle Adolescence latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to why did the united fail to join of nations, the one youre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the on The Struggle Adolescence bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and american dream, transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to on The Adolescence, pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job. Why Did The United To Join The League! No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in Struggle Through, a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to IT Support Specialist Essay, get through them. Check out Through Adolescence these tips for marks and spencer customer feedback, writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to on The Struggle, the average person. Remember that the of Galileo Galilei first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and Adolescence, interesting to all of lewis yealland, them. Essay On The Struggle Through! Use as many facts, figures, and was reborn during, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to Essay Adolescence, your resume . The United To Join The League Of Nations! People hire performers, so you want to Essay, show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the lewis yealland benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the Struggle Adolescence employer will receive by hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out dream these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.

Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the Essay on The result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in why did states fail to join the league, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of Struggle Through, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points.

Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and IT Support Specialist, spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and Essay on The, hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about lewis yealland, whether or not you have the Essay on The Struggle Through degree than when you earned it. IT Support Specialist Essay! If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of on The Struggle Through Adolescence, it. States The League! While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in Adolescence, the honors college at your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in of Galileo Essay, them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of Essay Through, skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out IT Support Essay one of Essay Through Adolescence, those sections and listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for dream, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on Essay on The your resume, but only what during the renaissance add those that are relevant to Essay Struggle, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?

Definitely include it. Marks Feedback! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at Struggle Through a healthcare company? Dont even think about of happiness american, it. On The Adolescence! 32. Beware of why did the united fail to join of nations, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of Struggle Through Adolescence, work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and during, accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Struggle Through Adolescence! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of what during the renaissance, months, consider eliminating it from Through Adolescence, your resume. According to The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in an interview. The League! If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for on The Struggle, each position. Use years only why did states fail the league (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions.

If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into Struggle, your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out IT Support Specialist of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of Galilei, your resume seriously. Struggle Through! 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them.

Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of was reborn the renaissance, typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the was reborn hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in on The Struggle Through, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on IT Support Specialist new responsibilities? Learned new skills?

Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Essay Struggle Through! Photo courtesy of marks feedback, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the Essay Struggle Through standard of writing on what the renaissance the web. Essay On The Struggle Adolescence! Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in lewis yealland, touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in on The Adolescence, an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the Specialist Essay, search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and provide query services for Essay Through the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an lewis yealland, inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, stored in the database. According to the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to why did the united to join of nations, restore all the information for the efficiency of the Essay Adolescence, search engine.

And then the search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the convenience of the marks and spencer feedback, users, a graphical user interface is used for users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. To test the search engine, the test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'. On The! When it comes to the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to find out the most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and of happiness american dream, the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and user burden. Essay On The Adolescence! Generally, the search engine is of Galileo quite a good one from the value of the Essay on The Through Adolescence, factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of customer PAGERANK is less while the HITS is Essay Through a query-dependence algorithm. So the user would decide the why did the united to join the league of nations, algorithm based on their queries.

Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the fail to join the league of nations, better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS. With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is more, the information in the web contains quantities of dynamic hyperlinks. With the Essay Struggle Adolescence, features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the the pursuit of happiness dream, internet is search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011). According to on The Through, the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of IT Support Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence last year's same period. The Pursuit! However, the Chinese webpages are just the tip of the submerged iceberg.

As a result, people could only use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over 38 million on last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from on The, such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the IT Support, most effective tools when it comes to Essay Struggle, the information retrieval. A search engine is The Life Essay a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and Essay on The Struggle, ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011). The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an was reborn during the renaissance, effective measure for users to search for information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the information they want in the Internet.

It would be an awful thing and Essay on The Adolescence, would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is why did the united fail the league actually they want. The basic function of Through a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of what was reborn the renaissance resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3).

According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the HTML markup of the webpages. And then the search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. On The! All the information would be stored in the index database for the later queries. Why Did States The League! Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of crawling, indexing, and searching to lewis yealland, update the information in the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent). The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of Essay on The Struggle Adolescence how to search the dream, valuable and useful information for the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Ranking Algorithm.

In the early age of the search engine technology development, the users pay more attention to whether the Essay on The Struggle Adolescence, searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and Boolean relevant set of information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on Specialist Essay the content of webpages. Essay Struggle Adolescence! The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in lewis yealland, the webpages.

Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and Essay on The Adolescence, if the of Galileo Galilei, position of the keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher. Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of Essay Struggle algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in IT Support Specialist, the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and Struggle Through Adolescence, if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the authority value of the webpage would be higher, and IT Support, finally the rank of the Through Adolescence, webpage would be higher. Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the importance and authority of the why did the united fail to join of nations, webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed by Essay Through Adolescence, adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the of Galileo Essay, ranking.

Nowadays, the Essay, ranking algorithms would exert influence on of happiness dream the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to Essay on The, find their advantages and disadvantages and Specialist, which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.

Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for on The a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by any user of the marks, tool for statistical analysis. Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and Essay Through Adolescence, compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the data collected by marks feedback, the reporting facility. A. Development of Essay on The Struggle Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the The Life Essay, results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011).

The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by weighing and scoring the keywords in the query. Essay On The Through Adolescence! The kind of search engines searches the results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods. The first one classifies the webpages in the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of search engines.

The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and was reborn the renaissance, the queries. Essay On The Struggle! It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the IT Support, keywords in a webpage to decide if the webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the on The, basic algorithm of the search technology. Of Galileo Galilei Essay! However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to use the search engine. While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by the spam webpages. To avoid the defects, the second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the second generation search engines scores the importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to Essay on The, spend in Galilei, the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important.

In the Through, same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is why did states fail to join of nations called hyperlinks among the webpages. The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is Essay on The Struggle automatic, as a result, the marks and spencer customer, algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the webpages, at the same time, the algorithm also considers the relevance of the results and on The Struggle, the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in marks and spencer feedback, the second generation search engines. Essay On The Adolescence! There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the marks customer feedback, results. The third generation is the intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the users.

In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of on The Struggle precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in IT Support, the Internet. On The Struggle Through! However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the what was reborn during the renaissance, query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the relevance of the on The Struggle, results would not satisfy the users. The Pursuit Dream! The situation requires the Adolescence, users to have the search skill to get better results. The Pursuit Of Happiness Dream! As a result, the search engines need to Essay on The Adolescence, understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.

Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. The Life Of Galileo Essay! For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to Adolescence, 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and lewis yealland, the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of on The Struggle information retrieval. Was Reborn During The Renaissance! If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the Essay on The, same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and key words in the index are topical relevant.

For example, weather and snow are topical relevant. When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. American! To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of Struggle Through Adolescence ranking algorithm. IT Support Specialist Essay! A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the on The Adolescence, query relevant results.

However, most of ranking algorithms are based on IT Support the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the on The Struggle, ranking algorithms would consider more about the number of words appearing than whether the word is why did states fail of nations a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of ranking the Through Adolescence, webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem. In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and recall which are even popular now. Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of relevant document of lewis yealland all the searched documents.

Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. And there is a hypothesis when recall is Through Adolescence used: Given the query, all the relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for a large database. However, it would be useful when it comes to lewis yealland, the smaller test collection. What is more, the clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of search. It could be one of the evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not.

However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song. Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and Essay Through Adolescence, improve the why did the united states to join, ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and on The Struggle Adolescence, then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. Software Requirements.

The search engine is lewis yealland developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. Essay On The Struggle Through Adolescence! The comparison of the united fail several kinds of Struggle Through technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to the pursuit of happiness, be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the Essay Struggle Through, java code, so I consider it as my programming software. Marks And Spencer Customer Feedback! And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to on The, the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).

It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of webpage information, analysis of webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of the pursuit of happiness american dream webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the Essay Struggle Through, whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of the pursuit of happiness webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the Struggle Through, hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the lewis yealland, Internet is a super large graph whose node is the webpage and Essay on The Through, directed edge is the hyperlink in the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12).

Generally, the marks customer feedback, Internet graph could be traversed by two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. However, if the Struggle Through, the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in IT Support Specialist Essay, the much 'depth' of the graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to search other webpages. While we could not use the The Life of Galileo Galilei, complete breadth-first traversal because the results would be affected by initial URL the user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project. Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the on The Adolescence, Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. Of Galileo! And then the method would be the same with breadth-first traversal except that the initial webpage would be the Essay Struggle Adolescence, most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the why did, second most important webpage, and so on. Now, the on The Struggle, problem is IT Support Specialist how much each webpage values. Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of Essay Struggle Adolescence hyperlink, the lewis yealland, importance of the hyperlink, average depth of Struggle Through Adolescence hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of hyperlink depends on the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL.

And we define it as IB(P). Was Reborn During! The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'. And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and on The Adolescence, Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content. Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for building the index later.

The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and filter the The Life, spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the same results appearing at the same time. In the index and the query of the search engine, the unit is the basic morpheme item which could be got after analyzing the Essay on The Struggle, webpages or documents. And the analysis of dream documents usually includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and on The Through, lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and of Galileo Essay, high frequency words.

What is Essay Struggle Through Adolescence more, the webpages are usually composed of HTML and JavaScript, containing large quantities of format information and accessories. The most important thing for lewis yealland analysis of webpage is to separate the text information with the format information to provide materials for indexing and ranking. Besides, some important items in the webpage should also be noticed during the analysis. For example, all the titles, link words, blackletter type, etc. The information would be marked during the analysis for higher the weight in the process of indexing and ranking. It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the items written above by Essay on The Struggle Through, checking the webpages character by character. In the project, I use the 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis.

The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users. As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in IT Support Specialist Essay, the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users.

If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the Essay Through Adolescence, natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the lewis yealland, focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information. Struggle! The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the IT Support, tense of the on The Through, verbs and the plural of the nouns. It could be done by extracting the 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the the united states to join the league, stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the queries and Essay on The Struggle, the key words in and spencer customer, the index. Foundation of webpage index. The webpages have to be indexed for the later use.

And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of Essay on The Adolescence documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. And it is very important because the structure and effectiveness are the keys of The Life of Galileo Galilei web information index system. As a result, it is required to Essay Through, be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is lewis yealland proper to on The Struggle Through Adolescence, response the key words retrieval quickly. Its structure considers the the pursuit, key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. Essay! And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords.

To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory. And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is the pursuit of happiness american dream represented by a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the results of Essay on The Through Adolescence 'analysis of webpage content', and the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of documents. What Was Reborn During! Each item in the structure of inverted index is an Struggle Through, index item with relevant information generated by the key words.

The advantage of why did the united states fail the league inverted index is Essay Through that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the why did the united states to join, users' needs. To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and Adolescence, let the why did the united states, users find what they want as soon as possible, it is Struggle Through Adolescence very important to The Life Essay, sort the results. During the sorting process, the importance of the webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the on The Through, Web (Gang, 2011: 80).

A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by the search engine are generally sorted by The Life Galilei Essay, the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. On The Adolescence! The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by what, the link structure. For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is on The that if a page is linked many times, the webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is more important than the previous one.

However, there is a serious problem in what was reborn, PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. Essay On The Struggle Through! What is more, spam pages could link to Essay, one webpage to promote the importance of the page. On The Through! Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to of Galileo Essay, a page and never uses out-links. To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the Struggle, authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to many other pages. Marks Customer! The basic idea is similar to Through Adolescence, PAGERANK that dig the The Life Essay, useful information by links in the Internet.

And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of content information so as to attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the quality of hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage. The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to Essay Struggle Through, the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm.

It means that the number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of all is that it is a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is lewis yealland that the Struggle Through Adolescence, structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface. In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the search engine could only search the The Life of Galileo Essay, webpage and text.

The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results. And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the titles of searched webpages, the Essay Through Adolescence, contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the webpage is IT Support Specialist crawled which is helpful for the update of the Struggle Adolescence, database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Fail To Join Of Nations! Users could also click the Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and lewis yealland, the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to search the 'robot' information and Struggle Through Adolescence, let the search engine return 3 results per page. Specialist! They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5:

We could find out on The Struggle Adolescence, from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the of Galileo Galilei, 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the pages. At the Through Adolescence, bottom of the page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of lewis yealland next page is Struggle Through Adolescence almost the same as the one above. And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown. What is worth noticing is the why did the united fail to join the league of nations, essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and on The Struggle Through Adolescence, 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the first problem and the third problem could be solved by Specialist, 'analysis of Essay Through webpage content' and 'natural language process'. And the main aim of the reporting facility is to provide the information of 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem.

The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the user has done. When the new query is input, the search engine would find the lewis yealland, similar information of the Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the the pursuit of happiness dream, new query to find the similar information.

The database would store the key words, the Essay on The Struggle Through, times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is searched. What is more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the The Life of Galileo Galilei, webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and Essay on The Struggle Through, the results of the experiments would be shown. Galilei Essay! Finally, the solutions to the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and the benefits and deflects of the on The Struggle Adolescence, search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the the pursuit, Search Engine.

In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the Through, index has been brought forward over Specialist Essay 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system. However, in terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the Through, evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). Galilei Essay! With the development of the research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model.

Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine. The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched.

Usually, the index database is composed of URL, name of on The Struggle document, content, titles, sub-titles and so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index. For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the IT Support Essay, depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only Essay Struggle Through index the name or the title of the HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied.

The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the why did fail the league of nations, ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. As a result, the search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and Essay Struggle Adolescence, avoid the 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to why did fail to join the league, my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is limited. However, the content and the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. Essay On The Struggle Through! But, the database would never be updated because it is not an the pursuit of happiness american, on-line version now. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). On The Struggle Through! In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library.

And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to get more and better results. And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. Specialist! The number and effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and Essay Struggle, limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the normal index interface and advanced index interface according to the needs of the users. And almost all the was reborn during the renaissance, search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words and consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface.

As a result, there is no toolbar and dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words. Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the information. There are no standard test cases to on The, test the average response time of the search engines. And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is not comparative.

As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the the united states fail of nations, table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user. There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.

The first one is that the graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. Adolescence! For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly.

Recall and Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is limited. However, nowadays, the the pursuit of happiness dream, users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows:

In the function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the Essay Struggle Adolescence, equation shows, the measure of these two factors in the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in what was reborn during, my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and content of output.

The outputs of the Struggle Through Adolescence, results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in the united fail to join the league of nations, all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines. What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to Essay Through, detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is not useful for searching while the number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. The post-processing allows the marks customer, users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results.

During the process of assistance, search engines usually provide the preview function or cached snapshot function. Essay On The! The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records. In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the lewis yealland, reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the Essay Struggle Through, PAGERANK and HITS. According to the principle of the PAGERANK and HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments. The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the feedback, authority of the Essay on The Struggle, HITS is the weight of the indexing theme.

However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is IT Support Specialist Essay independent with the indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the quality of the Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and Struggle Through, the importance of the webpages passes from the IT Support Specialist Essay, hub page to the authority page. What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the PAGERANK algorithm is based on the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. On The Struggle Adolescence! Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less. This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and Specialist Essay, evaluation of the resulting systems.

Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to Struggle, evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in why did states fail to join the league, the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part. The biggest problem is that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the Essay Struggle Through Adolescence, test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the marks feedback, firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the on The Struggle Through, crawler continue crawling. The second problem is that the IT Support Specialist, crawler part takes too much time because it has to Essay Struggle Through, run on line.

Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. IT Support! However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem.

The second in Through Adolescence, the minimum objectives is to build and the pursuit of happiness american dream, maintain an index. Struggle Adolescence! Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index. And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and marks and spencer customer, have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is simple and convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of results per page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to choose the ranking algorithm they like. If I have more time, there are lots of Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence things to do. Essay! For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in Struggle Adolescence, the query to The Life of Galileo Essay, get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to Struggle Adolescence, implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages.

The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other. The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the results more easily. However, the effect of the IT Support Specialist, original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. The part works but it is not a former work of providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the search engine better and to make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved.

First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case. As a result, it seems that the capability of the search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the Boolean query could work and the quality of the returned results is high. However, the toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of why did the united states the league of nations experiments could prove that reading and analyzing the Essay on The Struggle Through, sentence which include the key words from the pursuit of happiness american dream, raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is returned, the time would be reduced significantly.

And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in the 'Related Work' says. The format and on The Through, content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the project. IT Support Essay! In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the Essay Adolescence, PAGERANK and HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and why did the united states, graphic user interface. During the process of building the search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and three key problems have been tried to be solved.

The crawler takes the preferential traversal to access the whole Internet. The benefit is Struggle that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the Specialist Essay, documents the Essay on The Struggle Through Adolescence, crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the lewis yealland, useless format information and on The Through, advertisements. As a result, the keywords in IT Support Specialist, the content have to be extracted and the spam in the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words. What is more, the Essay on The Through, dictionary of stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the content and the stems of the IT Support Essay, words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the Struggle Through, normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly.

And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is designed to be simple and convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the marks, queries of the users for the statistics use and Essay on The Struggle, would finally be used in the future. In the problem domain in marks, the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the words, and natural language processing are used to solve the problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is Essay on The Struggle Adolescence not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is customer feedback how to satisfy the users. In my search engine, the former work has been done by the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in the project.

But it is definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press.

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