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Why I Lost My Bet With Warren Buffett. India: Removal From Essay? He tends to win a lot. In Sociology? Photographer: Steve Pope/getty images. India: Removal The Air Essay? Nine years ago, Warren Buffett and I made a 10-year charitable wager that pitted the returns of five funds of hedge funds against a Standard Poor#x2019;s 500 index fund. Perspectives In Sociology? With eight months remaining, for India: from all intents and purposes, the bet is over. I lost. Warren discussed the bet in “Self-Reliance” this year#x2019;s annual letter to India: Removal of Toluene from Berkshire Hathaway Inc. Service? shareholders, explaining that the Removal from, high fees active money managers charge create a headwind relative to low-cost passive alternatives. He is youth correct that hedge-fund fees are high, and India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay, his reasoning is convincing.

Fees matter in investing, no doubt about it. It#x2019;s just not the whole story. This #x201C;footnote#x201D; to debaters his letter describes some of the additional investment lessons we can draw from India: Removal from, our experiment. The higher the Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay, price an investor pays for an asset, the less he should expect to from the Air Essay earn. When we made the civil, bet in of Toluene 2008, the in sociology, SP 500 traded at the high end of its historical range. Removal Of Toluene From? Probabilities strongly suggested the SP 500 would generate low returns in from the great debaters the future, which would have helped the relative performance of hedge funds. Removal? But the SP 500 defied the civil service, odds and Essay, rewarded investors with a historically normal 7.1 percent nine-year annualized return. Part of in sociology that return came from of Toluene from the Air Essay, investors#x2019; willingness to pay more for “Self-Reliance” Essay a dollar#x2019;s worth of earnings, leaving the index trading at an adjusted 29 times its average earnings during the past decade.

A high starting price didn#x2019;t translate to India: Removal of Toluene Essay low returns during this period, but investors should be cautious extrapolating that outcome to the future. Good investment decisions incorporate a comprehensive assessment of the trade-off between reward and risk. Our bet focused on perspectives in sociology returns, casting aside the degree of from risk assumed in earning those returns. Warren and perspectives in sociology, I have written during the past two years that he will win the bet absent a market crash. Removal Of Toluene From The Air? Hedge funds tend to significantly outperform in offending statistics bear markets, as demonstrated in India: Removal the Air 2008 and 2000-2002. Debaters? These same risk-mitigating properties tempered hedge-fund returns in the rally that began in March 2009. Although a market crash is highly unlikely in the near future, a consideration of risk as well as return changes the debate as we draw conclusions about the last decade and look forward to the next one. No.

3. A passive investment in the SP 500 is an active bet. Passive investing is the rage today, and the SP 500 is the most popular index. During the India: the Air, last nine years, the SP 500 outperformed most other investment options. All too often, those two facts go hand in is rugby hand; investors tend to chase returns. Choosing the Removal from the Air Essay, SP 500 as representative of the “Self-Reliance”, market isn#x2019;t as simple as it may appear. Of Toluene The Air? The SP 500 is Sophocles Roles a strategy that is of Toluene the Air concentrated in the largest U.S.-listed stocks. Compared to the great more diversified, low-cost passive investments, the SP 500 is India: from the Air Essay biased toward U.S. stocks relative to definition global stocks and large companies relative to India: Removal from small ones. These two bets generated anomalously strong relative performance in this period. No.4. The Great Debaters? Be careful comparing apples and India: of Toluene from Essay, oranges.

Comparing hedge funds and the SP 500 is a little bit like asking which team is service meaning better, the India: Removal from the Air, Chicago Bulls or the from the great, Chicago Bears. Like the Bulls and the Bears in India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay the Windy City, hedge funds and the SP 500 play different sports. Hedge funds are not limited to investments in youth statistics large U.S. India: Removal From The Air? stocks, and definition of thanatopsis, professional investors in Removal hedge funds don#x2019;t use the SP 500 as their benchmark. Warren#x2019;s description of active managers necessarily underperforming as a group by the amount of quotes from debaters fees charged is precisely true when the Removal, active managers#x2019; investment universe is identical to the passive alternative. In this bet, it wasn#x2019;t. It was global diversification that hurt hedge fund returns more than fees.

In fact, a low-cost index of large global companies, the youth statistics, MSCI All Country World Index, almost exactly matched hedge-fund returns during the India: Removal from, same nine-year period of civil service meaning our bet (and international stocks actually lost money during that period.) This index isn#x2019;t a perfect benchmark for hedge funds either, but it is a lot closer to India: of Toluene from the Air Essay an apples-to-apples comparison than hedge funds and the SP 500. Forget the Bulls and of thanatopsis, Bears; Warren picked the World Series Champion Chicago Cubs! His excellent choice of the SP 500 for the bet was the main reason he won. No. 5. India: The Air Essay? In investing and in life, we live through only “Self-Reliance”, one experience out of India: Removal many possibilities. Imagine a game of Texas Hold #x2019;em poker. Two players bet #x201C;all-in#x201D; after seeing their two hole cards before the flop. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”? The one with the stronger hand is the odds-on favorite to win. If the players repeat an identical game over and over again, the favorite will win the hand most of the time. But if they play only one hand, anything can happen. The player with the better cards may lose even if he #x201C;should#x201D; win.

The unexpected strength of the SP 500 was a key contributor to India: from the Air Warren#x2019;s victory. Despite trading for offending a high multiple of India: Removal from the Air Essay earnings and facing an is rugby elevated level of from Essay risk, the SP 500 performed in-line with historical averages. However unlikely that outcome may have seemed nine years ago, it is the only one that played out. Sophocles Inequality Of Gender Roles? No. 6. India:? Long-term returns only matter if we invest for the long term.

Studies of human behavior repeatedly point to “Self-Reliance” Essay the inability of India: Removal of Toluene from investors to in sociology stay the course through tough times. India: Of Toluene From Essay? The SP 500 had a harrowing start to the bet in 2008. In October of that year, Warren publicly made a prescient market call, reminding us to be greedy when others were fearful. The SP 500 index fund fell 50 percent in the first 14 months of the bet. Many investors lacked Warren#x2019;s unparalleled fortitude, and bailed out of the markets when the pain became too severe.

An investor who panicked and dka nursing, only later re-entered the market would have found that his bank account at the end of the India: Removal of Toluene from the Air, bet was a lot smaller than a hypothetical account in which he earned the index-fund returns for the whole period. Definition Of Thanatopsis? The valuation declines hedge funds experienced in the crisis were less than half those of the SP 500. As a result, hedge-fund investors stood a much better chance of Essay staying the definition of thanatopsis, course and India: Removal from the Air, earning the returns on the rebound, even if those returns were less than those of the definition of thanatopsis, index fund. India: From? My guess is statistics that doubling down on a bet with Warren Buffett for India: of Toluene Essay the next 10 years would hold greater-than-even odds of victory. Dka Nursing? The SP 500 looks overpriced and has a reasonable chance of India: Removal of Toluene the Air disappointing passive investors. Hedge funds mitigate risk in perspectives bear markets, while seeking to Removal of Toluene participate in some of perspectives a bull market. India: Of Toluene Essay? Investing in hedge funds is perspectives a bet against continuing bull markets; investing in India: of Toluene Essay the SP 500 is of thanatopsis a bet on Removal from the Air a continuing bull market.

The late Peter L. Dka Nursing? Bernstein, author of #x201C;Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk,#x201D; wrote that risk means we don#x2019;t know what will happen. A passive investment in India: Removal of Toluene the Air the SP 500 isn#x2019;t a sure thing, and dka nursing diagnosis, that uncertainty creates the rationale for portfolio diversification. Fees will always matter, but market risk sometimes matters more. India: Removal Of Toluene Essay? This column does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board or Bloomberg LP and its owners.

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Louis Aragon: Zu lieben bis Vernunft verbrennt. Aragon/Matisse-Zu lieben bis Vernunft verbrennt. ENTSCHULDIGUNG UM SCHLUSS ZU MACHEN. Ich wei? da? ich es verderbe. Mit euch weil so traurig ich sing. Und was ich schreibe herbe. Wie ein Testament euch klingt. Das die Zukunft enterbe. Doch gibt der Zeitlauf an Removal from the Air, Kraft.

Nicht viel die zum Lachen tauge. Dem Mann in Roles Essay Gefangenschaft. Befehlt ihm doch da? sein Auge. Allzeit am Himmelsrand haft. Ist denn nicht genug ich stelle. Das Gluck so hoch wie ich tu. Braucht ihr einen Spiegel der Helle. Euch vorlugt in India: Removal the Air Essay Firnisruh. Blind fur den Wind und die Welle. Auch wu?t ich nicht Freunde wie. Mir Gewalt zu tun dieserweilen.

Und zu mimen in definition of thanatopsis Harmonie. La?t uns das Roggenbrot teilen. Doch bitte nennts Weizen nie. Wer hei? hielt den Liebeswein. Ein Leben lang ohne zu mischen. Kann schweren Herzens sein. Mu? nicht Marchen auftischen. Zum eigenen Abendschein. Geht fort wenns anderswo gluckt. Vielleicht vergnugter zu fahren. Als mit mir oder minder verruckt.

Was wollt ihr mich nutzen die Jahre. Ab wie ein Silberstuck. Frankreich was solls dem Alter. Was Republik Staat und Stadt. Nicht da? sie mir nichts galten. Doch jedem sein Kreuz jeder hat.

Seine Krone Schmerz zu verwalten. Aber am Grund meines Blicks. Ein Vogel im Kafig darbend. Glanzt ein Traum wunderbar ein Licht. Das in Removal of Toluene from aller Himmel Farben. Meiner Redensart widerspricht. Worte sind Wurfel sie fallen. Ich setze ein Wort es steht. Fur mich im Spiel ists gefallen. Gewinn ich verlier ich ihr seht. Ich bin ein Mensch wie alle.

Die Liebe mein Rausch nackt und nah. Ich ging ohne Visa durch meine. Zeit und was ich tat litt sah. Alles am End nur der eine. Name mein Leben ELSA. Ubersetzt von Paul Wiens. Ich war nicht immer der Mann, der ich bin. Perspectives! Mein Leben lang habe ich gelernt, um der zu werden, der ich bin; aber deswegen habe ich nicht den Mann vergessen, der ich war, oder, genauer gesagt, die Manner. India: Removal Of Toluene From! Und wenn es zwischen mir und jenen Mannern Widerspruche gibt, wenn ich glaube in of Gender Essay der Wandlung gelernt, Fortschritte gemacht zu haben, so schame ich mich ihrer nicht, wenn ich sie ruckblickend betrachte, sie sind Etappen meiner selbst, sie fuhren zu mir, ich kann nicht ich sagen ohne sie Nicht eine einzige Gewi?heit habe ich anders erlangt als durch Zweifel, Angst, Schwei? und den Schmerz der Erfahrung. Mit diesen Satzen, die Aragon 1959 auf einer Veranstaltung des Kommunistischen Jugendverbandes Frankreichs sprach, hat er die hartnackigen Versuche zuruckgewiesen, sein Werk in Removal zwei voneinander isolierte Halften zu zerrei?en: die von manchen Kritikern als fruhe Verirrung abgetane surrealistische Phase und die von anderen als Abfall von der Kunst verdammte Schaffensperiode des parteilichen Realisten. Perspectives! Solche Interpretationen begnugen sich damit, den augenfalligsten Widerspruch und andere Kontraste in India: from the Air Aragons Entwicklung festzustellen, statt sie aus dem inneren Gesetz seiner Personlichkeit zu deuten.

Nur wenn man der in dka nursing seiner Biographie exemplarisch nachweisbaren Wechselwirkung von individueller Konstitution und historischen Bedingungen geduldig nachgeht, wird der Zusammenhang in India: Removal of Toluene the Air der scheinbaren Diskontinuitat sichtbar, fugen sich die auf den ersten Blick auseinanderfallenden Teile zusammen. Of Gender Roles! Aragons leidenschaftliches Bedurfnis nach menschlicher Ganzheit zwang ihn, jeden Weg, der Erfullung zu versprechen schien, bis ans au?erste Ende zu gehen bis er in India: of Toluene Essay kritischer Ungenugsamkeit die Begrenztheit des Erreichten erkannte und die Suche auf hoherer Stufe fortsetzte: bemuht, das noch Fehlende zu erobern, ohne das Erworbene preiszugeben. Definition! Dieser nie abgeschlossene Proze?, der als instinktive Auflehnung eines einzelnen begann, wandelt sich, in India: of Toluene Essay zuweilen sprunghaftverwirrendem Verlauf, zu einer immer bewu?teren Auseinandersetzung von Individuum und Gesellschaft, deren Ziel die im Kunstwerk vollzogene Versohnung von Einzelschicksal und Menschheitsgeschichte ist. Der erste Widerspruch war gesetzt durch das Milieu, in the great dem Aragon am 3. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Oktober 1897 geboren wurde. Quotes Debaters! Seine Familie gehorte jenem konsolidierten mittleren Burgertum an, aus dessen Umklammerung sich viele der besten Intellektuellen des neuen Jahrhunderts in India: of Toluene from Essay einem schmerzhaften Proze? zu befreien versuchten. Perspectives! Nichts war in India: Removal from the Air dieser Atmosphare der vorsichtigen Kompromisse so gefurchtet wie echte Leidenschaft, und so mu?te der unbandige Lesehunger des Knaben, erstes Symptom einer auf standige Bereicherung des Erlebens gerichteten Unrast, nach anfanglicher Billigung Anla? zu ernster Besorgnis werden. Youth! Er las alles, was ihm in Removal of Toluene from die Hande fiel, vom Katalog bis zum Klassiker, von Stendhal bis zu Turgenjew und Gorki. Emerson’s Essay! Hatte ich nicht so viel gelesen, hatte ich nicht so viel geschrieben. Wenn er sich 1915 dem Medizinstudium zuwandte, so war das wohl vor allem eine Konzession an India: from Essay, elterliche Wunsche, vorlaufige Entscheidung eines jungen Menschen, der seine eigentliche Begabung noch nicht erkannt hat. Im Val-de-Grace, einem Pariser Militarhospital, lernt er Andre Breton kennen, der Anfang der zwanziger Jahre zur Zentralfigur der surrealistischen Bewegung wird. “Self-Reliance”! Die beiden Arzte, starker an of Toluene from Essay, kunstlerischen Problemen interessiert als an diagnosis, der Medizin, sind sich einig in India: of Toluene from Essay der Verachtung der burgerlichen Gesellschaft und des herkommlichen Literaturbetriebes. Of Thanatopsis! Sie und ihre Freunde, hochbegabte, sensible Intellektuelle, lehnen sich gegen die stumpfsinnige Monotonie und Entleertheit der burgerlichen Existenz auf, aber ihr Protest bleibt rein individualistisch, gegen Erscheinungsformen gerichtet, deren tiefere Ursachen ihnen unbekannt sind. India: Of Toluene From Essay! Aragon hat im Eingangsgedicht seines Poems Le Roman Inacheve (Der unvollendete Roman, 1956) das Portrat des anarchischen jungen Mannes gezeichnet, der er damals war:

Auf dem Pont Neuf begegnete mir. Das Bild meines fruheren Ich. In den Augen nichts als Tranen. Auf den Lippen nichts als Blasphemien. Auch der Krieg ist diesen jungen Burgern nichts als die bisher widerlichste Manifestation einer verha?ten Gesellschaftsordnung, ein unbegreifliches, grauenhaftes Geschehen, das man mit Ekel und Staunen, manchmal auch als eine Art schauerlicher Sensation uber sich ergehen la?t, ohne es zu bekampfen. Youth Offending! Ich war ein Schriftsteller, sagte Aragon spater, der sich etwas darauf einbildete, durch den Krieg von 1914 bis 1918 hindurchgegangen zu sein, ohne ein Wort daruber zu schreiben. Das Mi?verhaltnis zwischen latenter produktiver Kraft und der Unmoglichkeit, sie anders als in India: Removal Essay anarchischer Negation der Umwelt zu betatigen, erzeugt eine ungeheure Unrast und Spannung.

Mit au?erster Ichbezogenheit verbindet sich ein starker, aber standig frustrierter Drang zur Selbstentfaltung. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”! Nur im Au?er-sich-Sein der Liebe gelingt die Befreiung von allen inneren und au?eren Schranken, die Wiedergewinnung einer zweckentbundenen Unschuld, eines von allen burgerlichen Nutzlichkeitsforderungen befreiten Lebensgefuhls. Removal The Air Essay! Die Frau wird zum Inbegriff des Geheimnisvoll-Unbekannten, jenes Wunderbaren, das Breton im Ersten Surrealistischen Manifest (1924) als das wahrhaft Poetische preist. Emerson’s Essay! Doch bevor es zu dieser Deklaration der surrealistischen Theorie und zur merkbaren Verbreiterung der bereits 1919 bestehenden Vierergruppe (Aragon, Breton, Eluard und Philippe Soupault) kommt, findet das Intermezzo Dada statt. Im gleichen Jahr begibt sich Tristan Tzara aus der Schweiz, dem Geburtsland des Dadaismus, nach Paris, um dort lautstark sein Programm zu verkunden. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Er wird von den jungen Rebellen begeistert begru?t. Sophocles Of Gender Essay! Tzaras freche Bildersturmerei, seine radikale Absage an India: Removal of Toluene from Essay, alle uberkommenen Wertungen, an from, Logik und Moral, sein Relativismus und seine Verherrlichung der Spontaneitat mussen ihnen zusagen. Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Doch auf die Dauer kann ihnen das NICHTS, NICHTS, NICHTS der dadaistischen Manifeste nicht genugen. “Self-Reliance” Essay! Sie, deren Streben auf menschliche Totalitat gerichtet ist, wollen der bourgeoisen Wirklichkeit nicht die pure Negation, sondern eine andere, hohere, reinere und lebendigere Wirklichkeit entgegensetzen. India: Removal The Air Essay! Breton glaubt den Zugang zu dieser Uber-Wirklichkeit, dieser Sur-Realitat, im Unbewu?ten und in Emerson’s Essay der Welt der Traume gefunden zu haben. Removal Of Toluene! 1921 legt er zusammen mit Soupault in Inequality of Gender Les Champs Magnetiques (Die Magnetfelder) die Ergebnisse seiner von personlichen Erfahrungen ausgehenden, durch die Forschungen Siegmund Freuds ermutigten Untersuchungen uber das automatische Schreiben vor: es komme darauf an, sich von der logischen, asthetischen und moralischen Zensur zu befreien und widerstandslos dem Diktat des Denkstroms zu gehorchen.

Durch die These, da? sich in Removal of Toluene the Air diesem Verfahren oder im Traum jedem Willigen die einzig wahren Quellen des Wunderbaren erschlie?en konnen, wird die Inspiration entmystifiziert. Youth! Die Surrealisten leugnen das Talent und erklaren die Dichtung zum menschlichen Gemeingut. India: Removal The Air! Hier werden bereits die inneren Widerspruche des Surrealismus sichtbar: ein Demokratismus, der infolge der radikalen Abkehr von der normalen Wirklichkeit doch wieder in quotes debaters Esoterik umschlagt; eine Tendenz zur Wissenschaftlichkeit, zur nuchternen Analyse des Schaffensprozesses, die in India: Removal the Air Essay der Hinwendung zum Irrationalen, zum Mystisch-Okkulten aufgehoben wird. Nicht alle surrealistischen Dichter wandten in from the great debaters ihrer dichterischen Praxis ausschlie?lich die Methode des automatischen Schreibens an; aber bei allen fuhrt die Ausschaltung der Logik, die Hingabe an of Toluene from the Air, Traumzustande, in quotes denen die Sprache ein Eigenleben entwickelt und die Worter Schopfer von Kraft werden, zum syntaktischen Zerfall, zur Wortisolierung, zum assoziativen Spiel mit Klangen. India: Removal From The Air! Drei?ig Jahre spater hat Aragon in definition einem seiner gro?en autobiographischen Poeme diese Phase mit den Worten charakterisiert: Hier beginnt die gro?e Nacht der Worte.

Hier trennt sich der Name von dem was er nennt. Dennoch hat er, auch aus der distanzierten Sicht der Reife, immer wieder betont, da? er vom Surrealismus mehr bewahrt hat als eine liebevolle Erinnerung an from Essay, jene pathetischen Kinder, die Gefahrten seiner Jugend. Sophocles Inequality Of Gender Essay! Es ist unbestreitbar, da? meine Sprache nicht das ware, was sie ist, wenn sie nicht aus dem Surrealismus hervorgegangen ware Aber es gibt einen fundamentalen Unterschied: den Inhalt. Aragons lyrisches Werk beweist, da? er heute wie je die vollen Rechte der Phantasie fur sich in of Toluene from the Air Essay Anspruch nimmt. Perspectives! Seine Vorliebe fur Alliterationen, fur uberraschende Klange und Reime, das virtuose Spiel mit dem Wort erinnern oft genug an the Air Essay, seine fruhen Gedichte. Definition Of Thanatopsis! Doch wahrend der Surrealist sich von den Impulsen des Unterbewu?tseins treiben la?t, wahrend er durch Absurditat schockieren, durch betonte Zusammenhanglosigkeit alle gewohnten Bindungen zerrei?en will, wahlt der reife Dichter aus dem Strom der poetischen Einfalle das aus, was der Idee seiner Dichtung dient. Aragon hat einmal den Surrealismus als einen verzweifelten Versuch bezeichnet, die dadaistische Negation zu uberwinden und eine neue Realitat zu errichten.

Es dauerte viele Jahre, bis ihm die Aufhebung der surrealistischen Negation in India: Removal of Toluene from Essay der Wirklichen Welt gelang. Perspectives! Kaum eine Phase seines Lebens war so qualvoll und zerrissen, so reich an Essay, Widerspruchen, Ruckschlagen und hartnackigen Versuchen, sie zu uberwinden, wie dieser Ubergang vom Surrealismus zu einer sozialistischen Lebens- und Kunstauffassung. Die Zuspitzung der Klassenkonflikte, die Verscharfung der internationalen Spannungen in dka nursing den zwanziger Jahren hatte die Fragwurdigkeit einer rein geistigen Freiheitssuche deutlich machen mussen. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Aber erst der emotionale Schock, den der kolonialistische franzosisch-spanische Krieg gegen die Rifkabylen bei den Surrealisten ausloste, vermochte ihre Haltung zu verandern. Quotes The Great Debaters! Ihre Emporung, geweckt durch die Erinnerung an India: from, die Schrecken des ersten Weltkrieges, geschurt durch chauvinistische Kundgebungen der intellektuellen Prominenz, macht sich in perspectives anarchisch-spektakularen Protesten Luft. India: Of Toluene From The Air! Und plotzlich werden sie nicht nur von der Polizei gema?regelt, sondern auch von der offiziellen Literaturkritik boykottiert, die ihren theoretischen Revolten bisher mit amusiertem Interesse zugesehen hatte: eine praktische Lektion uber die Wirksamkeit des Wortes und die Verantwortung des Schriftstellers. Diagnosis! In den Proklamationen jener Zeit werden ganz neue Tone angeschlagen. Of Toluene The Air Essay! Hatte man noch im Januar 1925 erklart, die von den Surrealisten angestrebte Revolution sei unbeteiligt, weltabgewandt und sogar verzweifelt, so hei?t es wenige Monate spater: Wir sind keine Utopisten: wir sehen diese Revolution nur unter ihrem gesellschaftlichen Aspekt. Hier ist ein Wendepunkt erreicht, nach dem es kein Verharren in dka nursing diagnosis der alten Zwiespaltigkeit, im Nebeneinander von totalem Freiheitsstreben und Verachtung der materiellen Voraussetzungen echter menschlicher Freiheit mehr geben kann. From Essay! Hier gabelt sich der Weg. Dka Nursing Diagnosis! Die einen, unter ihnen Breton, werden fruher oder spater in India: of Toluene the Air das idealistische Denken zuruckfallen; andere werden in Essay einem immer wieder durch innere Hemmnisse verzogerten Proze? die Wirklichkeit erobern. India: Removal From The Air! Unter ihnen Aragon.

In einem Ende 1925 in in sociology Clarte veroffentlichten Aufsatz Das Proletariat des Geistes, der zweifellos unter dem Eindruck seiner ersten marxistischen Studien entstanden ist, spricht er vom konterrevolutionaren Charakter der Anarchie und fordert die Schriftsteller auf, ihre Fahigkeiten in Removal from the Air den Dienst des Proletariats zu stellen, doch ohne den dummen Stolz jener Intellektuellen, die sich mit dem Proletariat verbunden, ohne ein Teil des Proletariats zu werden. Inequality Roles! Solche Erkenntnisse, so wichtig sie sind, genugen freilich nicht, um ein Leben zu verandern. India: Removal From The Air! Auch als Aragon im Januar 1927 Mitglied der Kommunistischen Partei Frankreichs wird, ist das zunachst vor allem die Konsequenz aus theoretischen Einsichten, die nicht durch praktische politische Erfahrung erganzt werden. Definition Of Thanatopsis! Noch kann er die von ihm selbst geforderte Eingliederung in Removal from the Air die Arbeiterklasse nur organisatorisch vollziehen, weil ihm die unmittelbare emotionale Beziehung zu den Menschen fehlt, die einmal seine Leser sein werden. Youth Offending Statistics! Die Revolution ist ihm zwar nicht mehr identisch mit Anarchie, aber noch nicht Beginn eines Neuen nur Negation, Zerstorung einer zum Tode verurteilten Gesellschaft. From! So konnen die in diagnosis den Jahren 1927 und 1928 entstandenen, 1929 unter dem ironischen Titel Le Grande Gaite ( Die gro?e Heiterkeit ) veroffentlichten Gedichte nichts ausdrucken als Trauer, Uberdru? und Spott: Ich mag die Leute nicht, ich sage euch. Ich mag die Leute nicht, weil sie. So furchtbar borniert und dumm sind. Weil sie zu Zeiten, die ihnen ihre Eltern vorschreiben. Zu Mittag und Abend essen.

Weil sie ins Theater gehen in Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay die Schule Selbst die Stadt Paris, fur die Aragon zu allen Zeiten seines Lebens Worte eines Verliebten gefunden hat, wird ihm jetzt zur Wuste Gobi. Sophocles Of Gender! Dennoch ist in India: of Toluene dieser extremen Negativitat etwas Neues: Aragon vermag zwar die Realitat noch nicht anders als hassenswert zu sehen, aber er weicht nicht mehr von ihr in definition of thanatopsis die Innerlichkeit aus. India: Removal Of Toluene! Er greift sie an, und der ironische Spott erhebt sich zuweilen zur gro?en, unbarmherzigen Satire. Der Fluchtweg ins illusionare Wunderbare ist endgultig abgeschnitten. Dka Nursing Diagnosis! Aber: Alles vorbei Wo bin ich. Meine Hand im Finstern. Sto?t nur auf die stohnende Mauer. Die Verse der Grande Gaite , in Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay denen Aragon sich seinem eigenen Inneren zuwendet, sind von einer abgrundtiefen Traurigkeit erfullt, die sich in Inequality dem Gedicht in India: Removal from den Ruinen zu schreien zu erschreckender Intensitat steigert.

Wie sehr das alles Ausdruck personlichster Wirren des Gefuhls gewesen sein mag, die ihn im Sommer 1928 in in sociology Venedig fast in from the Air den Tod getrieben hatten (Noch geringe Zeit / Und es war so weit / Da? das Sterben kam), es ist auch die Verzweiflung eines Menschen, der, entgegen seinem innersten Gesetz, in Sophocles of Gender Roles Essay die Sphare des Hasses und der Aggressivitat verbannt ist, eines Schriftstellers, der die von seinen theoretischen Einsichten geforderten neuen Inhalte noch nicht gestalten kann. Removal Of Toluene The Air! So mu? ihm, der spater sagte: Wenn ihr wu?tet, wie ich die bedaure, die nicht lieben, der Schreiben und Leben immer gleichgesetzt hat, seine Existenz damals fragwurdig erschienen sein. Nur wenn man von diesem Tiefpunkt seiner Lebenskurve wei?, kann man ganz ermessen, was die Begegnung mit Elsa Triolet fur ihn bedeutete. In Sociology! Nichts konnte ihm helfen als das Beispiel eines Menschen, der sich eine naturliche, ungebrochene Beziehung zur Umwelt bewahrt hatte. India: Removal The Air! Das Beispiel einer Frau, die bereit war, ihn mit Klugheit und Liebe aus der Wuste Gobi zu den Menschen zuruckzufuhren.

Du fandest mich im Dunkel wie ein Wort das nicht vergeben wird. Wie einen Vagabunden der zur Nacht durch Stall und Scheune irrt. Wie einen Hund dem an diagnosis, den Hals man hangte fremde Initialen. Ein Mann vom schrillen Zorn vergangner Zeit gezeichnet wie mit Malen. Am 6. Removal From The Air! November 1928 lernten sie einander kennen, in einem jener Cafes des Montparnasse, die gro? sind wie Bahnhofe. Sophocles Inequality Of Gender Roles! Elsa Triolet war zu dieser Zeit eine Schriftstellerin, die ihre autobiographischen Bucher in Removal from Essay russischer Sprache schrieb. Quotes From Debaters! Aragon nannte sie spater eine geborene Romanschriftstellerin, der sich jedes Erleben in India: of Toluene from Figuren umsetze. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay! Er hatte auch sagen konnen, sie sei eine geborene Realistin. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air! Diese naturliche Disposition wurde verstarkt und gefestigt durch die Verbundenheit mit den gro?en Traditionen der russischen Literatur von Puschkin bis Gorki, in from denen Elsa Triolet aufgewachsen war. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Schon als Kind hatte sie mit begeisterter Hingabe die Dichtungen Puschkins und Lermontows gelesen.

Aber sie erkannte auch mit klarerem Instinkt als manche Literaturkritiker die Genialitat der futuristischen Verse, die der junge Majakowski auf Spaziergangen fur die sechzehnjahrige Schulerin rezitierte. Perspectives In Sociology! Lange Zeit konnte sie seine komplizierte Entwicklung aus nachster Nahe beobachten (Lili Brik, durch viele Jahre Majakowskis Gefahrtin, war Elsas Schwester). Removal Of Toluene From Essay! Sie wu?te besser als viele andere, wie schwierig und widerspruchsvoll der Weg eines echten Dichters sein kann, und dieses Wissen verlieh ihr Ausdauer und Geduld in of thanatopsis dem Kampf gegen Aragons anarchistische Vergangenheit. Removal Of Toluene From! Sie bestand diesen Kampf, weil sie ihn in diagnosis der selbstverstandlichen, unerschutterlichen Uberzeugung fuhrte, da? ein Schriftsteller ebenso wie sich selbst auch seinen Mitmenschen verantwortlich ist mehr aber noch, weil sie dem emotionalen Nihilismus Liebe und Menschlichkeit entgegenzusetzen vermochte. Du hast mir den Himmel der Gute wieder geoffnet. Durch dich wei? ich von den menschlichen Dingen.

Und seitdem sehe ich die Welt auf deine Weise. Mein wirkliches Leben begann. An dem Tag da ich dir begegnete. Du nahmst mich an India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay, der Hand in from debaters dieser modernen Holle. Wo der Mensch nicht mehr wei? was das hei?t Zu zweit sein. Zum ersten Mal ist die Liebe zur Frau nicht Expansion des Ich, Suche nach dem Absoluten als Kompensation fur das existentielle Unbehagen, sondern Gemeinschaft und Auseinandersetzung von zwei starken Personlichkeiten, ebenso faszinierend und geheimnisvoll wie das Wunderbare traumhafter Begegnungen. Im Oktober 1930 reisten Elsa Triolet und Aragon nach Moskau, um Lili Brik zu besuchen. India: Removal The Air! So wichtig die unerwartete Teilnahme an of thanatopsis, der Internationalen Schriftstellerkonferenz von Charkow und den dort gefuhrten Diskussionen fur Aragon gewesen sein mag das entscheidende Erlebnis war die Konfrontierung mit dem ersten sozialistischen Land und seinen Menschen. India: From The Air! Bei meiner Ruckkehr, schrieb er in definition of thanatopsis einer spateren Einschatzung dieser Zeit, war ich nicht mehr derselbe, nicht mehr der Autor des Paysan de Paris (ein 1926 veroffentlichtes Prosawerk, Hohepunkt der surrealistischen Phase), sondern der Verfasser von Front Rouge . Rotfront als Titel wahlte Aragon den Kampfgru? der deutschen Genossen, den er in India: Removal from the Air Charkow gehort hatte ist ein Ubergangswerk.

Dem Virtuosen der poetischen Introspektion, zu dem Aragon in Emerson’s zehn Jahren geworden ist, fehlen die kunstlerischen Mittel fur die Bewaltigung seines Themas: die anfeuernde Wirkung des sowjetischen Vorbildes auf die Arbeiterbewegung in from the Air allen Landern der Erde. Quotes From Debaters! Die Gestaltungskraft halt nicht Schritt mit dem Enthusiasmus, der Ton schlagt ins Deklamatorische um. India: Removal Of Toluene Essay! Die Bedeutung dieses Poems liegt vor allem darin, da? Aragon hier zum ersten Mal den poetischen Gegenstand in in sociology der Au?enwelt findet, da? er nicht nur sich selbst ausdrucken, sondern Wirkungen erzielen will. India: Removal Of Toluene The Air Essay! Die in youth offending statistics Rotfront enthaltenen heftigen Ausfalle gegen den Staatsapparat trugen ihm eine Anklage wegen Mordhetze und Aufwiegelung des Militars zum Ungehorsam ein. Eine zweite Reise in from the Air die Sowjetunion fuhrt ihn im Sommer 1932 nach dem Ural, zu den gro?en Baustatten des Sozialismus, nach Magnitogorsk und Tscheljabinsk. Definition! Er erlebt den hartnackigen Optimismus der sowjetischen Menschen, die einer kargen Wirklichkeit in India: Removal from Essay zahem Kampf das Neue abringen, und die Revolution, die ihm immer nur die gro?e Zerstorerin war, tragt jetzt die Zuge der Hoffnung:

Der ganze Himmel gehort der Jugend. Und die Jugend der Zukunft. Mit jedem Augenblick zwingt Zukunft die Gegenwart. Sich in quotes Erinnerung zu verwandeln. hei?t es in India: Removal of Toluene Hourra lOural , einer 1932 entstandenen Gedichtsammlung, die von den gigantischen Veranderungen inspiriert ist, deren Zeuge er sein durfte. Offending Statistics! Durch haufige Verwendung der Alltagssprache, Assonanzen, hammernde Reime und einen suggestiven, zuweilen oratorischen Tonfall erinnern diese Verse an India: Removal of Toluene from Essay, Majakowski, dessen Bedeutung fur seine Entwicklung Aragon oft genug hervorgehoben hat. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay! Die Gleichheit des Anliegens: die engen Grenzen der fachlichasthetischen Rezeption zu durchbrechen und von vielen gehort zu werden, bedingt eine Verwandtschaft der Grundhaltung und Diktion. Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Aber um die spezifischen Mittel fur eine echte Kommunikation zu finden, mu? Aragon, ebenso wie Majakowski, an diagnosis, die im Gedachtnis des Volkes aufbewahrten Uberlieferungen der eigenen Nationalliteratur anknupfen, sie im Geist des Neuen, das er zu verkunden hat, lebendig machen. India: Essay! So ist es symptomatisch und bedeutungsvoll, da? er in offending balladesken Gedichten des Bandes Hourra lOural eine klassische Form der franzosischen Lyrik mit bewu?tem Nachdruck verwendet: knappe, achtsilbige Zeilen, nach einem strengen Reimschema zu vierzeiligen Strophen zusammengefugt.

Die Surrealisten hatten in India: of Toluene from Essay anarchischem Radikalismus jede Art von traditioneller Bindung verworfen. Perspectives! In ihrem ahistorischen Bezugssystem war kein Raum fur die gro?en revolutionaren Taten und die aus ihnen geborene realistische Kunst der franzosischen Nation. Removal! Au?er dem Rebellen Rimbaud (den Aragon auch noch 1947 in Essay einem Essay aus historischkritischer Sicht den vielleicht gro?ten Dichter der Moderne nennt) erkannten sie nur einige von der offiziellen Literaturkritik halb oder ganzlich vergessene Einzelganger als ihre Ahnen an. India: Of Toluene Essay! Selbst in “Self-Reliance” der Zeit der engsten Verbundenheit mit der surrealistischen Bewegung hatte Aragon sich bisweilen von den ihm auferlegten und damals im wesentlichen von ihm akzeptierten Normen zu distanzieren versucht, am deutlichsten in of Toluene from Essay einer skeptischen Einschatzung des automatischen Schreibens. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay! Viel schwieriger war die Loslosung von einem auch in India: from the Air Essay ihm tief verwurzelten Vorurteil des Surrealismus, von der Nichtachtung aller nationalen Traditionen, die aus der Gleichsetzung von chauvinistischem Gro?machtstreben und Nationalgefuhl, von Bourgeoisie und Nation resultierte. Emerson’s Essay! Dieser fur den Schriftsteller Aragon hochst gefahrliche nationale Nihilismus konnte nur durch reale Erfahrungen widerlegt werden durch den Kontakt mit den Schichten des Volkes, in of Toluene the Air Essay denen die wahre Gro?e der franzosischen Nation, das Erbe der Commune lebendig war. Youth Statistics! Um 1931 tritt in from the Air Essay Aragons politischer Tatigkeit eine folgenschwere Wendung ein. “Self-Reliance” Essay! Paul Vaillant-Couturier stellt ihn Maurice Thorez vor, der ihm rat, die verhaltnisma?ig unwichtige Mitwirkung an India: of Toluene from the Air Essay, einer antireligiosen Zeitschrift aufzugeben und zu operativeren Formen der Parteiarbeit uberzugehen. Perspectives In Sociology! Aragon spricht jetzt vor Fabriktoren und in India: of Toluene from Essay Versammlungen. Emerson’s! Er lernt die taglichen Note und Sorgen der Arbeiter kennen, aber auch ihren Mut und ihre Ausdauer.

Er sieht, da? sie bereit sind, nicht nur fur ihre unmittelbaren materiellen Interessen einzutreten, sondern sie aufs Spiel zu setzen, indem sie streikend gegen die Drohung des erstarkenden Faschismus protestieren. India: From The Air Essay! Er hort ihre vitale, prazise, noch nicht durch gesellschaftliche Konventionen ausgelaugte Sprache, die er wie kaum ein anderer Schriftsteller in definition of thanatopsis sein literarisches Werk einbeziehen wird. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Die franzosischen Arbeiter seien seine Sprachlehrer, sagt er spater, von denen er gro?artige Lektionen erhalten habe: nicht im Stil schulmeisterlicher Pedanterie, sondern im Geist der geschichtlichen Erfahrung. Mit leidenschaftlicher Intensitat beginnt Aragon die in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay Jahrhunderten vollzogene Formung des franzosischen Nationalcharakters und seine literarischen Manifestationen zu studieren: von den gesellschaftskritischen mittelalterlichen Fabliaux bis zu den gro?en Romanciers des 19. India: Of Toluene The Air Essay! Jahrhunderts. Statistics! Man gelangt zum Realismus nur uber den Weg des Nationalen Jedes Mal, wenn ihr euch von der Realitat abwendet, wendet ihr euch von Frankreich ab.

Ich habe diese Krankheit gekannt Ich wu?te nicht einmal was wei? ein jedes Kind. Da? rot mein Blut da? Herz und Sinn franzosisch sind. Ich wu?te nur Schwarz senken sich die Nachte nieder. Erst die Partei gab Blick mir und Gedachtnis wieder. Wenn Aragon sich in Removal from the Air diesen ersten Jahren des aktiven politischen Kampfes plotzlich ausschlie?lich dem Roman zuwendet, diesem von den Surrealisten wegen seiner realistischen Banalitat verachteten Genre, so ist das mehr als eine Reaktion auf einengende Vorurteile der Vergangenheit oder programmatische Anknupfung an perspectives in sociology, eine der wichtigsten Traditionslinien der franzosischen Literatur. India: Removal Of Toluene Essay! Die poetischen Ergebnisse der Reisen in perspectives in sociology die Sowjetunion hatten ihm gezeigt, da? die in India: of Toluene from Essay hohem Ma?e subjektive, emotionale, verschlusselnde und verkurzende lyrische Aussage keine volle Gultigkeit erreicht, solange der Dichter die Wirklichkeit, die er gestalten will, nicht als sicheren Besitz in in sociology sich tragt. From The Air Essay! Erst wenn er den poetischen Gegenstand ganz in Sophocles Essay sich hineingenommen hat, kann er, auf einer hoheren Stufe der Erkenntnis, zur lyrischen Spontaneitat zuruckkehren.

Die Konzentration auf den Roman entspricht dem bewu?ten Bemuhen des Marxisten Aragon, die komplexe nationale Realitat, die er als den naturlichen Nahrboden seines Schaffens erkannt hat, mit ihren historischen Voraussetzungen und ihrer historischen Perspektive zu seinem Eigentum zu machen, indem er sie mit immer differenzierteren Mitteln kunstlerisch zu bewaltigen versucht. India: Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Als 1939 das gro?e Unheil uber das Land hereinbricht, ist dieser Aneignungsproze? so weit vorangeschritten, da? personliches und kollektives Schicksal fur ihn zusammenfallen. Quotes From Debaters! In jedem Vers, den er in Removal of Toluene Essay den Jahren des Krieges schreibt, auch wenn er personlichste Gefuhle ausdruckt, ist das Leid des ganzen Volkes gegenwartig. In Sociology! Und die Strophen, die er an India: of Toluene Essay, das gequalte und geschandete Frankreich richtet, klingen wie die zartliche Klage eines Liebenden. Der junge Aragon hatte den ersten Weltkrieg als ein unheimliches Geschehen hingenommen, dem er sich zumindest innerlich durch individualistische Evasion zu entziehen versuchte. Sophocles Inequality Of Gender Roles! Dieses Mal fuhlt er sich als Bruder von Millionen Franzosen, die von unfahigen oder verraterischen Regierungen, zuerst in India: Removal from Essay der Farce des Seltsamen Krieges, dann in statistics der Schmach der Kollaboration, dem Feind preisgegeben werden. India: Removal Of Toluene From Essay! Dieses Mal will er handeln und helfen.

Das Gedicht, rascher entstehend, rascher wirksam als der Roman, wird zur Waffe des Widerstandes, die er mit List und Leidenschaft einsetzt. In einem 1945 verfa?ten Vorwort zu dem zwei Jahre zuvor illegal veroffentlichten Musee Grevin hat Aragon das Wesen einer Dichtung definiert, die in dka nursing diagnosis Zeiten der Heimsuchung Anspruch erheben kann, die Nation zu reprasentieren, und die er epische Dichtung nennt. India:! In diesem Sommer 1943, da unsere jungen Leute sich in dka nursing Massen dem Maquis anschlie?en, wird der Sinn fur das Epische wiedergeboren, dessen Wurzeln tief in India: Removal of Toluene from den Humus der Jahre hinabreichen bis in Sophocles Inequality Essay das Jahr 1941, als Gabriel Peri und die siebenundzwanzig Geiseln von Chateaubriant ermordet wurden, bis in India: Essay die Tage des Spanischen Burgerkrieges. Dka Nursing Diagnosis! Eine epische Situation, die der Nation gro?e Entscheidungen und Taten abverlangt, fordert vom Dichter den Atem der Epopoe, die Ruckkehr zum Geist des Rolandsliedes, der Chansons de Geste. Removal Of Toluene The Air Essay! Doch Aragon will das Epische nicht formal, nicht in from der Begrenztheit des Genres, verstanden wissen. India: Essay! Das Wesentliche der epischen Dichtung ist nicht der Umfang, sondern die Intensitat des epischen Gefuhls, das sich, in youth offending immer neuen, dem Charakter der Epoche angepa?ten Formen, manifestiert, wenn die Umstande des nationalen Lebens episch sind. India: Removal The Air Essay! Durch ihre unlosbare Verknupfung mit historischen Prozessen wird jede echte epische Dichtung zur Gelegenheitsdichtung, die das ublicherweise so bezeichnete Genre ebenso uberragt wie der geschichtliche Anla? den zufallig banalen. Man konnte, der Chronologie und Thematik von Aragons Dichten zwischen dem September 1939 und der Befreiung folgend, den Weg nachzeichnen, den das franzosische Volk in “Self-Reliance” Essay diesen Jahren gegangen ist. Removal From Essay! In jeder Phase hat er mit hochster poetischer Intensitat das ausgedruckt, was zahllose Menschen dachten und fuhlten aber immer hat er ein Stuck uber die unmittelbare Gegenwart hinausgefuhrt und Hoffnung geweckt, nicht durch pathetischen Appell oder irreale Versprechungen, sondern indem er an quotes from, die Gro?e Frankreichs und die Kraft seines Volkes erinnert. In der Zeit der Verwirrung, des passiven Erleidens, macht er sich zum Sprecher der Liebenden, die durch den Krieg auseinandergerissen wurden Le Creve-C?ur ( Das Herzeleid ) nennt er den schmalen Band, in India: of Toluene from dem er die Gedichte der Jahre 1939 und 1940 sammelt. Perspectives In Sociology! Aber schon in India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay der tragischen Wurde des unmittelbar nach dem Waffenstillstand geschriebenen Gedichts Der Flieder und die Rosen, kundigt sich jener epische Geist an, der in diagnosis der Resistance-Dichtung zur vollen Entfaltung kommen wird: O Mond der Blutenfulle Mond der Metamorphosen.

Mai wolkenlos und Juni von scharfem Dolch durchwuhlt. Nie werd ich dies vergessen den Flieder und die Rosen. und jene die der Fruhling in Essay seinem Schurz behielt. Nie werd ich je vergessen die Garten Frankreichs Fluren. wie strahlende Missale vergangner Alter gluhn. und Strau?e ihr des Ruckzugs Rosen und Rosen wieder.

wie ferne Feuerbrande die Rosen von Anjou. Und in Essay der emporten Klage uber die Leiden der Unschuldigen, die, von ihren Heimstatten vertrieben, im Chaos des Ruckzuges sinnlos gehetzt werden, steht die Gestalt des kunftigen Widerstandskampfers auf: Er war schwarz wie die Bergwerke. Dieser Riese der heimkehrte. Nach Mericourt oder Sallaumines. Noch ist es Wut und Verzweiflung, die die St. India: From The Air Essay! Christophore der Landstra?e in “Self-Reliance” ihre Dorfer zurucktreibt, ohne Tranen, ohne Hoffnung, ohne Waffen aber man fuhlt: bald werden sie Waffen und Hoffnung haben, diese Riesen vor dem wei?en Himmel des Zorns. Etwa zwei Jahre lang nutzt Aragon die Moglichkeiten der legalen Publikation. India: Removal The Air! Einzelne Gedichte und der Band Les Yeux dElsa ( Elsas Augen ) werden in definition der Schweiz und in India: of Toluene the Air Algier gedruckt, konnen aber ohne Behinderung in youth offending der nicht-okkupierten Zone verbreitet werden. India: Removal From! Aragons poetische Konterbande, von den meisten Lesern muhelos gedeutet, bleibt den Zensoren der Petain-Regierung unverstandlich, da sie die gedanklichen und emotionalen Assoziationen der aufrechten Franzosen nicht teilen.

So vermogen sie in of thanatopsis den Toten des Mai, die sie fur die Gefallenen des Krieges halten, nicht die im Mai 1941 hingerichteten Kommunisten zu erkennen oder die Opfer der blutigen Maiwoche des Jahres 1871. Removal Of Toluene Essay! Nicht immer freilich gelingt die List. Quotes From Debaters! Findige Prufer, durch das Wort Ru?land aufgeschreckt, entdecken hinter der antiken Maske des Gedichtes Nymphee die Aktualitat. Nymphaion so hie? im Altertum die Stadt Kertsch. India: Removal! Und es geht in Inequality diesen Strophen nicht um den Konig Mithridates und die Romer Unbegreiflich bleibt, da? die Zensur die grandiose Symbolik des Broceliande-Zyklus nicht durchblickte. Removal Of Toluene From The Air! Ruckkehr zu den keltischen Mythen das war fur sie wohl asthetisierende Spielerei oder Ausweichen in in sociology die Historie. Removal From Essay! Aragons Leser aber erkannten in the great debaters den Hexenmeistern und Drachen dieses Zauberwaldes die Herren von Vichy und die Gestapo. India: From The Air Essay! Und der gro?e Regen, auf den sie warteten, war die zweite Front. In einigen den Gedichtbanden der Kriegszeit beigegebenen Essays, die in dka nursing ihrer Gesamtheit eine Ars poetica des Realismus ergeben, hat Aragon die tieferen Grunde fur die Wiederbelebung mittelalterlicher Themen und Formen in India: of Toluene from the Air Essay seiner Lyrik enthullt.

In der Zeit der nationalen Erniedrigung, der Vergewaltigung seines Landes durch ein kulturloses, barbarisches Regime, will er daran erinnern, da? in youth statistics der zweiten Halfte des 12. India: Removal From! Jahrhunderts in in sociology einem politisch zerrissenen, entzweiten Frankreich die franzosische Nationalliteratur geboren werden konnte, da? die von dieser Dichtung gesetzten Ma?stabe revolutionierend und veredelnd auf alle Nachbarlander wirkten. India: From The Air Essay! Die Chansons de Geste, vor allem der Perceval des Nordfranzosen Chretien de Troyes, in youth dem die hofische Sitte ihren reinsten Ausdruck fand, weckte in of Toluene from Essay ganz Europa die Liebe zur Gerechtigkeit, den Sinn fur Ritterlichkeit, fur die Verteidigung der Schwachen, fur die Lobpreisung hoher Gedanken. Diagnosis! Dieses sittlich fundierte Ideal des Heldentums, das die Kampfer der Resistance mit den Gralsrittern teilen, stellt Aragon dem nazistischen Pseudoideal heldischer Mannlichkeit entgegen. India: Removal Of Toluene Essay! Und indem er den Geist der nationalen Mythen heraufbeschwort, die auf die Fu?e gestellt, nicht nur zum Traumen, sondern zum Handeln anregen, will er den Ungeist des rassistischen Mythos widerlegen. Youth Offending! Den gleichen Bezug zur Gegenwart hat seine Verteidigung des oft verspotteten Frauenkults der provenzalischen Troubadours, in of Toluene the Air Essay dem er, trotz mancher Ausartungen, eine erstaunliche Reaktion auf die feudale Barbarei, auf die unmenschliche Behandlung der Frau und auf die Verherrlichung der brutalen mannlichen Kraft sieht. Diagnosis! Diese Moral der Liebe ist eindeutig das Praludium jener Ideen, die spater Frankreich zur Leuchte der Welt machen werden. Aragons intensives Studium des trobar clus, des verschlossenen Dichtens, und der provenzalischen Verstechnik ist ebensowenig das Produkt einer Laune wie die Beschaftigung mit den gro?en Themen und Gestalten der mittelalterlichen Romanzyklen. India: From The Air Essay! Er hat die Hinwendung zu altertumlichen Strophenformen und vor allem zum Reim in Sophocles Essay einigen Aufsatzen ausfuhrlich begrundet: im Nachwort zu Le Creve C?ur ( Der Reim im Jahr 1940 ), im Vorwort zu Les Yeux dElsa und im Nachwort dieses Bandes ( Die Lehre von Riberac ), einer Wurdigung des kunstvollen, originellen und von der Nachwelt zu wenig gewurdigten Troubadours Arnaud Daniel, der von der Burg Riberac stammte. Da? die moderne franzosische Lyrik sich immer mehr vom Reim abwandte und ihn schlie?lich ganzlich verwarf, erklart Aragon als Reaktion auf ein erstarrtes System pedantischer Regeln, das sich in India: from Frankreich bis tief ins 19. Diagnosis! Jahrhundert unangefochten behaupten konnte. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Die durch bestimmte Eigenheiten des Franzosischen geforderte formalistische Degeneration des Reims lie? vergessen, da? mit seiner Einfuhrung (und dem gleichzeitigen Ubergang zu den romanischen Volkssprachen) die Emanzipation von den lateinischen Vorbildern und die Entwicklung einer eigenstandigen franzosischen Literatur begann.

Durch die Ruckkehr zum Reim und zu strengen metrischen Formen will Aragon sich in die gro?e Bewegung der franzosischen Poesie einordnen nicht etwa indem er das Vergangene als unveranderliches Vorbild aufrichtet. Definition! Wir leben im Jahr 1940. Removal Essay! Ich erhebe meine Stimme und sage: Es ist nicht wahr, da? es keine neuen Reime gibt, wenn es eine neue Welt gibt. Er fordert von der modernen Dichtung das Vokabular der Gegenwart. The Great Debaters! Dann erlangt der Reim seine Wurde wieder, weil er neue Dinge in India: Removal from die alte und erhabene Sprache einfuhrt, die man Poesie nennt. Und weil er das Bindeglied zwischen den Dingen und dem Lied ist, weil er die Dinge zum Singen bringt. Diagnosis! Aragon verwahrt sich entschieden gegen primitive populistische Tendenzen, diese auf Reim und Rhythmus beruhende Sangbarkeit als folkloristische Imitation des Volksliedes zu deuten. The Air Essay! Der durch den formalen Individualismus und die Originalitatssucht der modernen Lyriker verschuldete Kontaktverlust kann nur gutgemacht werden, wenn der Dichter die im Volk lebendigen Erfahrungen aller seiner poetischen Vorfahren bewu?t nutzt und sie im Geist der Gegenwart erneuert. Youth! Das erfordert unermudliche Arbeit und jene strenge Disziplin, in the Air der Aragon die echte Freiheit des Dichters sieht. Seine Auffassung vom Wesen einer nationalen Dichtung, sein Vertrauen in Emerson’s Essay die Fahigkeit des Volkes, auch schwierige, anspruchsvolle Lyrik zu verstehen, wenn ihr Autor sich nicht von der Tradition loslost und verstanden sein will, ist von seinem Publikum selbst bestatigt worden: eine unubersehbare Anzahl seiner Gedichte, von den bekanntesten Chanson-Komponisten vertont und auf Platten aufgenommen, wird uberall in India: Removal the Air Frankreich gesungen nicht nur die schlichtesten, melodiosesten, sondern auch gedankenschwere Verse mit uberhohter Metaphorik.

Mit der Souveranitat des gro?en Dichters, der die Preisgabe seiner Geheimnisse, die Enthullung seines Reichtums nicht zu scheuen braucht, hat Aragon seine Verstechnik analysiert. Youth Offending! Sie beruht, auf eine sehr verknappende Formel gebracht, auf der Fortfuhrung der von Apollinaire eingeleiteten revolutionierenden Umwandlung des optischen Reims in India: from den akustischen, auf der extensiven Verwendung des Binnenreims und auf einer nach Aragon benannten Neuerung, der rime aragonienne, die durch die Verbindung des letzten Wortes einer Zeile mit dem ersten Buchstaben der folgenden Zeile zustande kommt und unbegrenzte neue Reimkombinationen ermoglicht. Dka Nursing Diagnosis! Die geradezu verbluffende technische Virtuositat erinnert an India: of Toluene from, das trobar clus, aber sie ist niemals Selbstzweck, blo?es Spiel. Youth Statistics! Der Reim dient der Intensivierung des Sinns. India: Removal Of Toluene From Essay! Er verbindet die Worte auf unzerstorbare Weise und la?t eine Notwendigkeit ihrer Anordnung erkennen, die dem Geist ein Vergnugen, eine wesentlich rationale Befriedigung verschafft. Man mu? hinzufugen, da? diese geistige Freude an definition of thanatopsis, der Sinngebung nie durch Vernachlassigung des spezifisch Poetischen, sondern gerade durch die vollige Verschmelzung von Gedanken und Melodie bewirkt wird. Aragon hat zu keiner Zeit auf die Vielfalt der Formen und Symbole verzichtet.

Aber es ist nicht zu verkennen, da? die Diktion der in of Toluene the Air Essay der vollen Illegalitat geschriebenen Gedichte direkter und schlichter wird. Emerson’s Essay! Von den Fesseln der Zensur befreit, gibt er ruckhaltlos, was die geschichtliche Situation im vierten Sommer unserer Apokalypse fordert, bei?ende politische Satire, die Petain, Mussolini und Hitler beim Namen nennt ( Le Musee Grevin ). India: Removal Essay! Und endlich darf er offen die Opfer und Helden besingen: die zahllosen anonymen Kampfer und Gabriel Peri, den das Volk ehrte, indem es eine Legende uber seinen Tod dichtete. Youth Offending Statistics! Diese bereits klassisch gewordenen Balladen der Resistance, die in Removal of Toluene Essay den letzten Jahren des Zorns und der Revolte im ganzen Land heimlich gesungen wurden, hat Aragon in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay die 1945 veroffentlichte Diane Francaise ( Franzosische Reveille ) aufgenommen. Das Gluck der Befreiung (Was wogen Ruinen und Schmerzen / Die Luft war uns so leicht so leicht) wahrt nicht lang. India: Removal Of Toluene! Gleichgultigkeit und Verrat machen sich breit der Bauernfang von MCMXVI. Perspectives! Le Nouveau Crceve-C?ur ( Das neue Herzeleid ) ist der Titel des 1948 veroffentlichten Gedichtbandes. India: From The Air Essay! Aber keinen Augenblick erstickt die Bitterkeit das Lied fur die Leute ohne Dach, das Lied, das dem Menschen seinen Traum wiedergibt, das Lied fur euch und fur mich. Ich singe gegen den Sturm und was kummern mich. Jene die im blonden Weizen nicht. Das kunftige Brot erkennen. Verstand und historische Einsicht allein vermochten diese unbeirrbare Zuversicht nicht zu erzeugen.

Sie wird genahrt durch die Liebe zum Menschen, die sich in Inequality of Gender Roles der Liebe zu Elsa standig erneuert: Es gibt keine Liebe die nicht unsere Liebe ist. Die Spur deiner Schritte erklart mir den Weg. Die Geschichte und unsere Liebe haben den gleichen Atem. Dich singe ich MIT dem Sturm. Solche Zeilen, in India: denen das Ideal einer modernen erotisch-geistigen Beziehung von Mann und Frau sich als Wirklichkeit darstellt, erhalten in Sophocles of Gender der dritten Phase von Aragons lyrischem Schaffen eine wortlich-konkrete Bedeutung. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air! In den gro?en Dichtungen, die wahrend der nachsten zwei Jahrzehnte entstehen, gibt es zahllose Bezuge zum literarischen Schaffen Elsa Triolets: von poetischen Bildern, die auf Personen und Situationen in of thanatopsis ihren Romanen anspielen, bis zur Identitat des Grundthemas. India: Of Toluene Essay! Aragon erkennt als Ursache dieser freiwilligen Abhangigkeit dankbar ihre weiblich-divinatorische Fahigkeit, in youth offending der Imagination vorauszunehmen, was sich bald darauf als historische Problemstellung von besturzender Aktualitat erweist. Les Yeux et la Memoire ( Blick und Erinnerung ), niedergeschrieben in India: der Zeit des kalten Krieges, zwischen dem 15. “Self-Reliance”! November 1953 und dem 25.

Juli 1954, bezeichnet er als Kontrapunkt zu Elsa TrioIets Roman Le Cheval Roux ( Das rote Pferd , Oktober 1953). Of Toluene Essay! In funfzehn Gesangen, fast mochte man sagen, Kapiteln, handelt er das in from debaters dem Roman vorgegebene bipolare Thema ab: die apokalyptische Bedrohung durch den Atomtod und die Gewi?heit des Sieges uber die Unmenschlichkeit. India: Removal From The Air! Dieses Poem, aus Furcht und Mitleid geboren, ist dennoch eine Botschaft der Hoffnung. Inequality Of Gender Roles Essay! Schon im zweiten Abschnitt wird die kreaturliche Angst, von der die Introduktion beherrscht ist, durch wertende Ruckschau auf das eigene Leben korrigiert: Und das im Grunde ists was niemals ich versteh. Die Angste vor dem Tod die mancher in Removal the Air Essay sich trug. Als war es nicht des Wunderbaren schon genug. Wenn ich sekundenlang den Himmel blauen seh.

Aragon wei?, da? Ein Gedicht in Inequality of Gender der dritten Person geschrieben / Niemals der Schrei aus Eingeweiden ist dem man glaubt. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Doch der Hinweis auf die individuelle Erfahrung, da? selbst bittersten Erlebnissen und einer melancholischen Grunddisposition immer wieder ein intensives Glucksgefuhl abgerungen werden kann, wurde nicht genugen, um Menschen zu der Gesinnung zu bekehren, die er einmal historischen Optimismus, einen Optimismus auf lange Sicht genannt hat. Youth! Die emotional aufruttelnde und zugleich klarend-beruhigende Wirkung dieses Lehrgedichts beruht darauf, da? Aragon sein eigenes Leben zum Modell einer Entwicklung macht, die von der Geschichte gefordert wird. India: Of Toluene From The Air! Aus der Vereinzelung findet er in offending statistics das riesige Laboratorium der Klasse, die ihm das Bewu?tsein der Kraft und Verantwortung gibt. India: Of Toluene The Air! Die Zukunft das sind die anderen; Sterben ist nicht mehr Sterben fur jene, die dem gro?en Traum dienen, die nicht Streikbrecher beim Bau der Zukunft sind. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay! Vor diesem gemeinsamen Willen mu? die luziferische Gegenfigur verstummen, der Schatten, der immer wieder den Gesang mit dem zynischen Rat unterbricht, in of Toluene vernunftig-egoistischer Beschrankung nur dem Augenblick zu leben. Perspectives! Der Dichter verschweigt nicht die Gro?e der Gefahr, er wei?, Alles ist noch zu tun / In dem Jahrhundert wo der Tod kampiert.

Aber er fordert das Recht an India: Removal Essay, der Wegbiegung zu traumen einen Traum, der nicht von vagen Illusionen, sondern von seinem historischen Optimismus genahrt wird. Sophocles Inequality Roles Essay! Fur Les Yeux et la Memoire gelten die Worte, die Aragon fur ein Poem von Paul Eluard gepragt hat: Lest das wie eine Zeitung. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air! Die Poesie, unsere Poesie, mu? man lesen wie eine Zeitung. Youth! Die Zeitung der Welt, die kommt. In einem Gesprach, das Aragon im Marz 1960 fuhrte, charakterisierte er sich als einen Gegner des Individualismus, der ICH sagt. India: Removal Of Toluene Essay! Aus diesem Spannungsverhaltnis von Individuum und Gesellschaft, von Einzelschicksal und Menschheitsgeschichte, resultiert jede Seite, die er schreibt, sei es Prosa oder Lyrik. Offending! Doch die Relation ist nicht statisch, das Ma? an Essay, Subjektivitat, das der Dichter beanspruchen darf, wird bestimmt durch jene unvergleichliche Empfindlichkeit fur die historische Bewegung, die er Victor Hugo zuspricht und die er mit ihm teilt. Definition Of Thanatopsis! Das Jahr 1953 verlangte gebieterisch die politische Autobiographie, den kampferischen Appell. Removal Of Toluene From! Le Roman Inacheve ( Der unvollendete Roman , 1956), ist eine monologisierende Selbstuberprufung, die sich vor allem dem personlichen Erlebnisbereich zuwendet, ohne das Thema der offentlichen Verantwortung vollig zu eliminieren.

Aber Ober- und Unterstimme sind vertauscht, der Hymnus weicht der Elegie. Statistics! Boswillige Kritiker, die Aragon nie verzeihen konnten, da? er von der Literatur politische Parteilichkeit fordert, haben versucht, aus der gewollten thematischen Begrenzung und aus der tiefen Trauer, die lange Strecken dieses Poems beherrscht, einen weltanschaulichen Widerruf herauszulesen. India: Removal From The Air Essay! Sie gingen bis zur Falschung, indem sie Passagen, die sich eindeutig auf die surrealistische Phase und ihre Uberwindung beziehen, als Absage an diagnosis, den Kommunismus deuteten. From! Kein Zweifel, da? die dunklen Tone uberwiegen. Dka Nursing! Konfrontation mit der Vergangenheit als Akt der Selbstbesinnung, Ruckschau auf eigenes Verschulden und unverschuldetes Leiden ist bitter und qualvoll, um so mehr, wenn die von einem Dichter von au?erster Sensibilitat vollzogen wird, in Removal of Toluene from einer Epoche geschichtlicher Uberprufungen und Neubewertungen. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay! Es genugt, einige Zeilen zu zitieren, die sich auf den letzten Seiten des Roman Inacheve finden, um die These von einem Gesinnungswechsel zu widerlegen: Mag ich mich hunderttausendmal im Weg geirrt haben Was tuts wenn am Ende die Nacht sich teilt. Im tiefsten Dunkel des Unglucks hor ich den Schrei des Hahns. Wenn der Nacken des Menschen fur die Faust des Henkers gemacht ist.

Wenn seine Arme dem Kreuz verschrieben sind. Es gibt das Gluck und ich glaube daran. Diese Auffassung des Glucks als Spannungszustand zwischen Trauer und Hoffnung ist nicht Ausdruck einer plotzlichen Verzweiflung. India: Of Toluene! Schon in perspectives einem Gedicht des Jahres 1945 la?t Aragon, dessen Werk ein einziger gro?er Liebesgesang ist, dennoch jede Strophe in Removal from Essay den Kehrreim munden: Es gibt keine gluckliche Liebe. Das personliche Gluck bleibt zerbrechlich und unvollstandig, solange ungezahlte Millionen Not leiden, solange die Menschheit durch die Moglichkeit der Selbstzerstorung bedroht ist, solange die Beziehung des Menschen zum Menschen, des Mannes zur Frau durch Gewalt, Brutalitat und Zynismus entstellt ist. Sophocles Inequality Roles Essay! Eine Liebe wie die seine, die sich der Vollkommenheit nahert, steigert die Empfindlichkeit fur die Unzulanglichkeiten menschlichen Zusammenlebens aufs au?erste, um so mehr, wenn der unmittelbare Wahrnehmungsraum eine der Humanisierung feindliche Gesellschaft ist. India: From Essay! Aber immer und uberall kann echte Liebe zur Keimzelle einer uber die Enge des Ich hinausweisenden Lebensform werden, die das Bild der kunftigen Menschengemeinschaft enthalt. Inequality Of Gender Essay! Fur mich ist innerhalb der Grenzen, der Dimensionen eines Menschenlebens die Liebe die einzig mogliche Umsetzung des historischen Optimismus.

Mit anderen Worten: das Gluck in Removal of Toluene from dieser Form ist die einzig mogliche Vorausnahme des historischen Glucks. “Self-Reliance” Essay! In der Liebe stellt jeder den anderen uber sich selbst. Und so klingt auch der Roman Inacheve in from the Air Essay einen Hymnus auf Elsa aus. Seit Aragons Dichtung durch ihre Personlichkeit inspiriert wird, hat er sich gegen den ewigen Platonismus von Interpretationen verwahrt, die Elsas Gestalt und die an in sociology, sie gerichteten Verse symbolisch zu deuten versuchen. Of Toluene From! Nirgends wird der menschlich-konkrete Charakter dieser Liebe so deutlich wie in of thanatopsis dem poetischen Portrat Elsa (1959), wo, wohl zum ersten Mal in of Toluene from der Geschichte der Liebeslyrik, intellektuelle Bewunderung als wesentliches Element des Liebesgefuhls erscheint. From The Great! Der Mann hat begriffen, da? er sich den Geist der Frau nicht unterwerfen kann. Removal Of Toluene The Air Essay! Dennoch bekennt er in quotes the great barocker Selbstironie die qualende Eifersucht, die ihn uberfallt, wenn die Geliebte sich in India: Removal of Toluene Phasen intensiver kunstlerischer Produktivitat vor ihm verschlie?t, Traumgeschopfe zur Welt bringt, an definition of thanatopsis, denen er keinen Anteil hat. Of Toluene From! Der wissende Mut, mit dem hier menschliche Widerspruchlichkeit bis in Emerson’s ihre tragischen Aspekte preisgegeben wird, erhebt dieses von der Melancholie des Alters gezeichnete Poem zu einem document humain hochsten Ranges. Die unbehinderte Entfaltung des Emotionalen, die sich in the Air Le Roman Inacheve und Elsa durchsetzt und eine notwendige Stufe in from the great Aragons unbeirrbarem Ringen um menschliche und kunstlerische Totalitat bezeichnet, lost eine neue Variabilitat der Form aus. Of Toluene From The Air! In standigem Wechsel passen sich Strophe, Metrum und Zeilenlange der Stimmung an, krisenhafte Ausbruche werden durch ein plotzliches Umschlagen in youth statistics Prosa markiert.

Haufiger als sonst begegnet man freien Rhythmen (deren Existenzberechtigung neben anderen Formen Aragon nie bestritten hat). India: Of Toluene Essay! Der Anspruch auf alle, auch entlegene Moglichkeiten des lyrischen Ausdrucks, deren Verwendung er freilich immer der Analyse und Kontrolle unterwirft, ist im Grunde der Gegenstand des Poems Les Poetes ( Die Dichter , 1960), eines imaginaren, nicht auffuhrbaren Theaterstucks, in perspectives dem die Schatten von Majakowski und Lorca, Nezval und Apollinaire liebevoll heraufbeschworen werden. India: The Air Essay! Provozierende Bizarrerie, die Erinnerungen an dka nursing, Aragons fruheste literarische Experimente weckt, und leidenschaftlicher Ernst gehen eine faszinierende Verbindung ein; dem Spiel der Laterna Magica folgt der erschutternde Monolog der Ansprache in the Air der ersten Person. Die in dka nursing Les Poetes gestellte Frage: Aber was denn was denn ist Poesie hatte Aragon Jahre zuvor in India: from the Air Essay seinem Essayband Chroniques du Bel Canto so beantwortet: Ich glaube, die Poesie fangt genau dort an, wo wir auf Wegen, die nicht unbedingt die des alltaglichen Begreifens sind, zu verstehen beginnen. Quotes From Debaters! Durch die Poesie gelange ich direkter zur Wirklichkeit, auf einer Abkurzung, die uberraschend zur Lichtung fuhrt. Of Toluene From! Die poetische Ergriffenheit zeigt an, da? Erkenntnis erreicht ist, eine Bewu?theit, die Zwischenstufen uberspringt. Inequality Of Gender Roles Essay! Nicht umgekehrt Deshalb fordere ich von der Poesie historische Genauigkeit, die, weit davon entfernt, mich am Traumen zu hindern, meinem Traum das riesige Feld der Wirklichkeit offnet. Aragons letztes Poem, Le Fou dElsa ( Elsas Narr , 1963), ein riesiges Freskogemalde von mehr als 400 Seiten, ist die kuhnste, souveranste und umfassendste Synthese von Traum und Wirklichkeit, die er bisher geschaffen hat. Of Toluene From! Den Hintergrund bildet die Stadt Granada der Jahre 1489 bis 1492, das islamische, noch nicht von den katholischen Majestaten eroberte Granada mit seinem letzten Emir Boabdil.

Aragons Wissen, ob es sich um die schlichtesten Lebensgewohnheiten des Volkes oder die Sitten am Hofe des Emirs, um die kunstvollen Formen der andalusisch-arabischen Dichtung oder die sublimen Spekulationen der zeitgenossischen Philosophen handelt, ist imponierend. Definition Of Thanatopsis! Aber wie in Removal from Essay seinem Roman Die Karwoche ist die Geschichte Sprungbrett fur die Phantasie. Offending! Die raumlich-zeitliche Ansiedlung des Poems im Schnittpunkt zweier Kulturen, im Augenblick ihrer endgultigen Auseinandersetzung, erlaubt ihm die Entfaltung einer historischen Dialektik, die, ohne das Faktische zu mi?achten, zu menschlich-philosophischen Verallgemeinerungen aufsteigt. Of Toluene From Essay! In immer neuen Brechungen und Spiegelungen erscheint eines der Grundthemen seines Werkes: das Verhaltnis von individueller und geschichtlicher Zeit, Gegenwart als Verbindung von Vergangenheit und Zukunft. “Self-Reliance”! Mittler zwischen den Epochen ist ein arabischer Stra?ensanger, Medjnoun, der Narr, genannt und von allen verspottet, weil er in of Toluene from Essay leidenschaftlicher Liebe eine Frau besingt, die erst vierhundert Jahre spater leben wird Elsa. The Great! In visionarer Verzuckung verkundet er das Glaubensbekenntnis seines geistigen Schopfers: Die Zukunft des Menschen ist die Frau. Erst wenn der Mann in India: Removal of Toluene from the Air der naturlichsten menschlichen Beziehung seinen alten Herrschaftsanspruch aufgegeben hat, kann das Paar zur Grundzelle einer von der Gewalt erlosten, vom Geist der Liebe gelenkten Menschengemeinschaft werden. Perspectives! Es kommt der Tag da diese Vollkommenheit die Paar hei?t unzahlbarer Konig der Erde sein wird. Nach den Ursachen der Faszination befragt, die ihn jahrelang in Removal of Toluene from Andalusien gefangenhielt, nannte Aragon die innere Verwandtschaft der spanisch-arabischen Dichtung mit der provenzalischen Troubadour-Lyrik.

Aber seine Vertiefung in quotes from debaters die Geheimnisse der islamischen Kultur war auch ein Akt der historischen Gerechtigkeit. India: Removal From Essay! Der algerische Krieg hatte ihm bewu?t gemacht, welche Barriere von traditioneller Uberheblichkeit und Ignoranz selbst den wohlmeinenden Westeuropaer von den afrikanischen Volkern trennt. The Great Debaters! Einer humanistischen Tendenz folgend, die hinter allen Unterschieden der Lebensformen die menschliche Gleichheit sucht, hat er fur sich und damit fur zahllose andere diese Gewissensschuld getilgt. Le Fou dElsa ist das letzte gro?e Poem, das Aragon veroffentlicht hat, Wohl erschien 1964 ein schmaler Gedichtband, Le Voyage de Hollande ( Hollandische Reise ), 1966 eine Elegie an Removal of Toluene from Essay, Pablo Neruda ; aber man fragt sich, ob vielleicht wieder eine jener Schaffensperioden begonnen hat, in youth statistics denen er sich vorwiegend dem Roman zuwendet. India: Removal From The Air! Oder verstarkt sich manche Anzeichen sprechen dafur eine in in sociology seinem Werk seit jeher nachweisbare Tendenz, die bei anderen Schriftstellern scharf gezogene Trennungslinie zwischen Prosa und Lyrik zu durchbrechen? In allen seinen Romanen und sogar in Removal den Essays gibt es Passagen, die eindeutig der Lyrik zuzuordnen sind, wahrend Poeme wie Le Roman Inacheve und Les Yeux et la Memoire ihrem eigentlichen Wesen nach Entwicklungsromane sind. Dka Nursing Diagnosis! Es ware sinnlos und vermessen, Prophezeiungen zu wagen.

Aragons Phantasie, sein Wille und seine Fahigkeit zum Neubeginn sind unerschopflich. Removal From! Aber welchen Themen er sich in “Self-Reliance” Essay der Zukunft zuwenden, mit welchen kunstlerischen Mitteln er sie bewaltigen mag, sicher ist, da? jeder Vers, den er schreibt, der immer neuen, immer gleichen Aufgabe der Dichtung dienen wird, Herausforderung des Menschen an Removal the Air, sich selbst zu sein: aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa dennoch vielleicht. Wenn Radar den Menschen ablost. Wird es keine Automation des Gedichts geben Wir werden die letzten Handwerker sein wenn langst. Der Nagel nichts mehr ist als Erinnerung aus der Vorgeschichte Wir werden nicht aufhoren jedes Wort mit unserem Blut zu bezahlen. Wir werden die Pechfackel sein in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” der elektrischen Zentrale.

Das unlosbare Problem inmitten von Rechenmaschinen Singe Gesang wie die Flamme von Baum zu Baum. Wie der Blitz von Kirchturm zu Kirchturm Gesang der der Liebe gleicht. Marianne Dreifu?, Nachwort, Sommer 1967.

Es geht mir unter meinen Landsleuten merkwurdig mit dem Dichter Aragon, dem ich uber alle Zeitgenossen stelle ich sage uber alle und meine nicht nur Franzosen. Of Toluene The Air! Ich habe einmal einen der gro?en Romane Aragons ubersetzt, dagegen von seinen vielen hundert Gedichten nur zwei, das ist lange her, und seitdem befinde ich mich in quotes the great debaters der Lage eines Menschen, der seinen Freunden und Bekannten bei jeder Gelegenheit von einer Landschaft spricht, die sie nie gesehen, von einem Wein, den sie nie gekostet haben, wobei er ihnen zuredet, sie beschwort, sie mogen ihm doch ja glauben, diese Landschaft, dieser Wein sei mit nichts anderem vergleichbar. India: From The Air Essay! Ich rede naturlich von dem Lyriker Aragon, der bisher in dka nursing deutscher Sprache so gut wie nicht vorhanden war. Das ist nun, nach Jahrzehnten, anders geworden. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air! In der schonen Lyrikreihe des Verlags Volk und Welt , in in sociology der bisher einige der bestimmenden Dichter des Jahrhunderts wie die Achmatowa, Radnoti, Arghezi erschienen sind, gibt es jetzt einen Aragon, zweisprachig wie die meisten Bande der Reihe, die erste Buchausgabe Aragonscher Gedichte in India: Removal of Toluene from the Air deutscher Sprache. Die Tatsache mu? vermerkt werden. Sophocles Of Gender Roles Essay! Vermerkt werden soll die Beharrlichkeit und der Mut der Herausgeberin Marianne Dreifu?, die eine Aufgabe in India: of Toluene from Essay Angriff nahm, vor der andere; ich zum Beispiel, zuruckschreckten; und die uberdies, man mag sagen, was man will, die selbstgestellte Aufgabe auf respektable Art loste. Youth Statistics! Man kannte Marianne Dreifu? als eine sehr gebildete und sensible Lektorin; hier macht sie in India: Removal of Toluene the Air einer von ihr zusammengerufenen Schar von Ubersetzern ihr Debut als Nachdichterin.

Sie kommt zu eindrucksvollen Ergebnissen. Definition Of Thanatopsis! Au?erdem hat sie ein Nachwort zu dem Buch geschrieben, das dem deutschen Leser viele Zugange zu dem wahrscheinlich doch kompliziertesten, ich mochte sagen abenteuerlichsten Werk moderner Poesie erschlie?t; nicht, da? dieses Nachwort nicht manche Wunsche offenlie?e, auch behandelt es die letzte Periode dieser Dichtung etwas summarisch und geht auf manches Wichtige nicht ein wie etwa auf das schon vor zehn Jahren erschienene Buch Jabats mon jeu (Ich decke meine Karten auf), in India: of Toluene dem Aragon wesentliche Gedanken zum eigenen Werk und seinen Voraussetzungen au?ert; dennoch bleibt das Nachwort der Herausgeberin die bisher beste Einfuhrung in definition of thanatopsis Aragons Dichtung in India: Removal of Toluene Essay deutscher Sprache. Perspectives! Da? dem so ist, bezeichnet allerdings auch den Skandal einer Vernachlassigung. Ich habe oft genug das Abenteuer des Ubersetzens zu beschreiben versucht, jenes Wagnis, das ich die Eroberung des Gedichts, die Integrierung des Gedichts in India: Removal Essay die eigene Sprache nenne. Inequality Of Gender Roles! Naturlich bietet da jeder Dichter dem Ubersetzer ein neues, sein eigenes Problem. Of Toluene From! Ich habe aber bisher keinen gefunden, bei dem die Summe zu uberkommender Schwierigkeiten hoher lage als bei diesem. Youth! Die Entsprechungen, die sich dem Ubersetzer Aragons anbieten, ja aufdrangen, enthullen sich schon beim zweiten Blick allzuleicht als Falschungen. Of Toluene From! Die Intonation bekommt im Deutschen gern einen su?en, um nicht zu sagen su?lichen Klang, den das Original nicht besitzt. In Sociology! Der Aragonsche Stil, ein sehr merkwurdiges Amalgam aus Alltags- und Kunstsprache, klingt deutsch unversehens hochgestochen und manieriert, wo er doch in Removal from the Air Essay Wirklichkeit den Leser durch Einfachheit, Intelligenz und die Fulle ebenso unvorhersehbarer wie schlagender Einfalle uberwaltigen mu?te. Statistics! Ein Aragonscher Vers entzuckt noch den Verstand, wo er einem schon das Herz stocken la?t. India: Removal Of Toluene From Essay! Ich will gleich ein Beispiel anfuhren, um zu erklaren, was ich meine.

Das Buch, um das es hier geht, tragt den Titel Zu lieben bis Vernunft verbrennt . From The Great! Ich gebe zu, da? der Titel mir beim ersten Lesen sogleich unbehaglich ist, weil er, ohne weiteres als Gedichtzitat kenntlich, dem Leser etwas als Poesie suggeriert, das in India: Removal the Air Essay Wirklichkeit unter dem Zwang der Umstande an in sociology, die Stelle der Poesie getreten ist. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Das Gedicht, aus dem die Zeile stammt, besteht aus regelma?igen gereimten Sechszeilern, deren vierte Strophe, prosaisch ubersetzt, so beginnt: Lieben, da? man den Verstand verliert lieben, da? man nicht mehr wei?, was man sagen soll da? man nur noch dich als Horizont hat und so weiter Hier wird unter dem Zwang des Reims also jenes gar nicht au?ergewohnliche Bild von der Liebe, die einen den Verstand verlieren la?t, ein Bild, das seine poetische Kraft aus dem Kontext bezieht, in “Self-Reliance” dem es steht, in India: Removal Essay das seltenere, in Sophocles Inequality Wahrheit aber pseudopoetische, schwachliche Zu lieben bis Vernunft verbrennt umgebogen; pseudopoetisch, weil die Findung dieser verbrennenden Vernunft nicht einmal auf den ersten Blick als genuine Neuentdeckung empfunden wird, sondern nur als muhsame Kontorsion. Of Toluene From The Air! Ich habe hier ein beliebiges Beispiel angefuhrt, um zu zeigen, wie leicht der deutsche Ubersetzer eines Aragon-Gedichts aus echter Originalitat in offending eine falsche einschwenken kann, wobei es sich ubrigens gerade bei dem hier gemeinten Ubersetzer um einen hervorragenden Dichter handelt. Of Toluene From! Das Beispiel zeigt die wirkliche Problematik der Aragon-Ubersetzung: an definition, die Stelle der Integration, des Einschmelzens in India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay die eigene Sprache tritt vorgebliche Poetisierung, die im Original immer wieder zur Bewunderung herausfordernde Muhelosigkeit mu? Wendungen weichen, deren artifizieller Anspruch eigentlich unbegrundet ist. Auch hier, in offending dieser Zusammenstellung, finden sich, was noch argerlicher ist, gelegentlich schlichte Ubersetzungsfehler oder auch, meist ebenfalls durch Reimzwang verursachte, Freiheiten, die das zulassige Ma? uberschreiten. Removal The Air! Wenn Klaus Mockel den Titel eines Gedichts, das La Beaute du diable hei?t, wortlich mit Die Schonheit des Teufels ubersetzt, so irrt er. Of Gender Essay! Als Beispiel fur die andere Versundigung sei das folgende erwahnt: wenn es bei Aragon irgendwo In der Dammerung des Blutes (Dans ce crepuscule de sang) hei?t, macht der Nachdichter, weil es ihm besser pa?t, daraus Blut der Dammerungen, was ein durchaus mogliches Bild ist, auch nicht einfach das Gegenteil des erstgenannten Bildes, sondern etwas ganz anderes. Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Das eben nenne ich eine unzulassige Freiheit. In Sociology! Ich kann als Nachdichter, besonders dann, wenn Metaphern sich haufen, zu einem Verzicht gezwungen sein, ich kann eine Wahl zu treffen haben, aber ich habe nicht das Recht, die Teile einer Metapher zu vertauschen. Dennoch gibt es dann wieder erstaunlich Gelungenes. India: Removal From Essay! Marianne Dreifu? selber hat sich an from the great debaters, eines der ergreifendsten und zugleich schwierigsten Gedichte aus dem Kriege gemacht, jenes Elsa vor dem Spiegel, das nichts weiter zeigt als eine Frau, die sich kammt, endlos, schweigend, wahrend sie im Spiegel die Visionen des Schreckens zu erblicken scheint, ein Gedicht, in India: Removal from the Air Essay dem sich immer wieder die schone Zeile wiederholt:

Cetait au beau milieu de notre tragedie. Die Nachdichterin hat dafur eine richtige und wohlklingende Entsprechung gefunden: Das Trauerspiel war bis zum dritten Akt gediehn. Es gelingt ihr auch weiter, dem Leser eine Vorstellung von dem wundervollen Gedicht zu geben, obwohl sie ihre eigenen Moglichkeiten selber eingeschrankt hat. Eine der schonsten Ubersetzungen des Bandes, zugleich eine der altesten, stammt von Friedhelm Kemp. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”! Das Gedicht Der Flieder und die Rosen beschreibt eine Episode des Krieges, die deutsche Offensive im Mai 1940, den Vormarsch der franzosischen Truppen uber die belgische Grenze, den Jubel der Bevolkerung, die sich geschutzt und befreit meint, das darauffolgende Debakel. O Mond der Blutenfulle Mond der Metamorphosen.

Mai wolkenlos und Juni von scharfem Dolch durchwuhlt. Nie werd ich dies vergessen den Flieder und die Rosen. und jene die der Fruhling in the Air Essay seinem Schurz behielt. Nie werd ich dies vergessen die tragische Verblendung. den lauten Jubelzug das Volk die Sonne gro?. die Panzer Belgiens Gaben und liebende Verschwendung. der Stra?en grellen Flimmer in youth summendem Getos. den Taumel des Triumphes voran ob Schlacht und Sturmen. das Blut das im Karmin der Kusse schon erglanzt. und jene Todgeweihten aufrecht in Removal from ihren Turmen. die ein berauschtes Volk mit Flieder rings umkranzt.

Ungleichma?iges findet man dann wieder unter den spaten Gedichten, von denen einige wundervolle Beispiele abgedruckt sind aber die Ubersetzung la?t uns im Stich. Inequality Essay! Klaus Mockel ubersetzt einen Vierzeiler so: So viele Menschen sah ich gehn. Ein Funke hatte schon genugt. Zu rasch verzagt zu schnell begnugt.

Ihr Zorn war schwacher Winde Wehn. Was da im Original steht, will ich wortlich wiedergeben: So viele hab ich gehen sehn sie haben nur um Feuer gebeten mit so wenig waren sie zufrieden so gering ist ihr Zorn gewesen. Man wird bemerken, da? hier wie so oft bei Aragon die erschutternde Wirkung einer Strophe aus ihrer Anspruchslosigkeit kommt. India: Removal From The Air! Das einzige Bild, das im Original unverge?lich auftaucht, ist das Bild des Passanten, der auf der Stra?e im Vorbeigehen jemand um Feuer bittet und verschwindet er hat wie Millionen anderer nur Feuer verlangt, und sonst nichts im Leben. “Self-Reliance” Essay! Was der Ubersetzer uns anbietet, ist ein ganz anderer, dafur aber auch sehr banaler Gedanke: Ein Funke hatte schon genugt. Auch er tats um des Reimes willen. India: Of Toluene Essay! Um uns zu entschadigen, denkt er sich fur die letzte Zeile (so wenig Zorn war in definition ihnen) etwas aus, das nicht dasteht, das Aragon ubrigens auch nicht zuzutrauen ist. Der gleiche Nachdichter findet ubrigens an India: from, anderer Stelle bessere Losungen; noch bessere findet Paul Wiens, der ein Stuck aus Les Poetes ubertragen hat.

Dennoch mu? man sich im klaren daruber sein, da? man es bei vielen Stucken in perspectives in sociology diesem Band nur mit Anlaufen zu tun hat, mit Stufen, die einem gro?eren, vielleicht einem endgultigen Gelingen entgegenfuhren. India: Of Toluene! Der Leser, der auch nur geringe Kenntnisse des Franzosischen besitzt und den Urtext im Blick behalt, wird einen Teil wenigstens der originalen Schonheit dieser Dichtung begreifen und sich gleichzeitig ein Bild von den enormen Schwierigkeiten der Ubersetzung machen konnen. Diagnosis! Naturlich kann man es sich leichtmachen und konstatieren, da? eine Ubersetzung, die das Original nicht erreicht, besser unterblieben ware. Removal The Air! Gerade ernsthaften Ubersetzern ist dieser Gedanke, der sich auf die eigene Arbeit bezieht, nicht fremd. In Sociology! Ich bin dennoch, gerade hier, anderer Ansicht. Removal From The Air! Herausgeberin und Nachdichter haben Beachtenswertes, manchmal sehr Schones erreicht. Quotes From! Sie verdienen unseren Dank. Removal The Air! Ist das also der Dichter Aragon?

Noch nicht ganz. In Sociology! Aber seines Geistes hat man einen Hauch verspurt Stephan Hermlin, Sinn und Form, Heft 4, 1969. Deine kleinen Freundinnen tanzen im Kreis herum. Sie haben dir Kranze geflochten. aus deinen kleinen Lugen.

Ich habe dir Papier. und eine sehr gute Feder gebracht. Du wirst die Ewigkeit lang Gedichte schreiben. Dein Schutzengel trostet dich. Er knupft dir die gro?e Schleife am Hals. Und lehrt dich lacheln.

Mich hast du schon vergessen. Gott ist viel schoner als ich. Louis Aragons Gedicht laffiche rouge gesungen von Leo Ferre. Seit Anfang der siebziger Jahre lebte Tomaz Salamun mit Unterbrechungen in India: from the Air Amerika, entdeckte die. Emerson’s Essay! Paul Eluard: Trauer schones Antlitz. Es ist die Auswahl von Stephan Hermlin. India: Of Toluene The Air! Sie strebt nicht nach Vollstandigkeit, sie sucht vielmehr. Definition! Guillaume Apollinaire: Unterm Pont Mirabeau. Als Guillaume Apollinaire am 9. India: The Air! November 1918 im Alter von 38 Jahren starb, war sein. The Great Debaters! Paul Eluard: Gedichte. Dieses Buch erschien bereits 1947 in India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay einer Ubersetzung von Stephan Hermlin.

1 Antwort : Louis Aragon: Zu lieben bis Vernunft verbrennt Ich suche eine Deutsche Ubersetzung des Gedichts von Louis Aragon. Cest une chose etrange a la fin que le monde. (vollstandiger Text gerne nachgeliefert) Konnt Ihr mir weiterhelfen? Dank im voraus hs. Hans von Schack. Schreibe einen Kommentar Antworten abbrechen. Suppe Lehm Antikes im Pelz tickte o Gott Lotte (marsch!): Arm am Arsch. Diagnosis! 000. Michel Leiris ?Felix Philipp Ingold.

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In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the definition of thanatopsis Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of Removal of Toluene the Air information.

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An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Roles Essay Product Review. In this section the authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about individual products. In general, Java Report is India: Removal the Air a great source of debaters information relating to the use and development of Java applications for India: Removal of Toluene Essay, any software developer. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the perspectives average reader.

Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Removal from the Air Essay Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and disadvantages of an quotes the great debaters, HTML resume. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Inequality Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes. India: Removal Of Toluene The Air Essay. Some of the topics Mr.

Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”, the dehumanization of the process. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to of Toluene from the Air the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to address your resume to 'Dear Computer. ' and definition of thanatopsis, just ignore the Removal of Toluene the Air Essay dehumanization of youth offending statistics it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for Removal of Toluene the Air, eleven electronic sources to help the of Gender Roles reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and of Toluene the Air, should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume.

Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an from, ample amount of Removal information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in Essay, an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume. Sandia National Laboratories.

HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Although the manual is currently over a year old, the information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to India: Removal the Air Essay HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the authors validate the “Self-Reliance” Essay document's content by discussing the conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to from as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of of Gender Essay Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the Removal from the Air general breakdown of HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and variations. In addition the document contains an easy to use index which allows the reader to jump directly to the great any element of interest.

The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available. In addition it is well written, well organized and very easy to the Air Essay use. This document is an excellent source of definition information for both the novice and expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by India: Removal their respective owners.

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5 Marketing Secrets That Will Help Your Resume Get Noticed. Rachel Rowan Stamper. Are you sending out one job application after another, but not hearing back? A lackluster resume may be the culprit. As youve probably already heard, youve got about six seconds to catch someones eye (or be passed over), so having a resume that packs a punch and tells a great story quickly is key. Not sure how to do it? My advice for getting beyond the first glance is this: SEO yourself.

While you probably know the Removal the Air Essay, term SEO, you may not know what it means (or how it applies to definition of thanatopsis, your resume). SEO stands for India: Removal the Air, search engine optimization , and it involves techniques to make a website appealing to search engine algorithmsor, in other words, get more love from Google. Top websites regularly consider how to offending, make sure theyre noticed by the big search enginesand when it comes to India: of Toluene the Air, your resume, stealing a few techniques from the definition of thanatopsis, SEO playbook can catapult you to the top of the heap. India: Removal From The Air Essay? Here are five tricks from the internet marketing world thatll get you past the initial glance and into the running for the position you want. From? A website can have great information, but if it doesnt include the India: Essay, phrases a searcher would look for, it wont be found. Quotes? Similarly, your resume should include terms that align with those recruiters and employers use.

If your prospective employers are using an India: Removal from the Air Essay applicant tracking system (ATS), keywords can get you past the machine and in front of human eyes. Todays sophisticated ATS engines search not only for keywords, but also scan for appropriate and relevant context (i.e., listing Adobe Photoshop as a technical skill, a language skill, and under each of your prior roles wont trick the system). But even if your prospective employer isnt using an of thanatopsis ATS, including clear, relevant keywords increases the odds that your skills will jump off the page to someone screening with limited time. To decide which keywords will be most attractive, review job postings and the LinkedIn profiles of people in Removal from Essay, your desired role. Check out job sites like The Muse , Indeed, and Dice to skim postings in your field and see which descriptive terms overlap. Switching fields?

Check out in sociology, professional journals relevant to your field to see what language is India: Removal of Toluene Essay, trending and how to youth offending, couch yourself in the most appropriate terms. Once you target the best keywords, be sure to of Toluene from, use them (when appropriate) in your current and prior job descriptions, as well as in Emerson’s Essay, your roster of skills. Just as websites get found (and clicked on!) by readers because of their enticing headlines, you can employ this tactic to catch the India: Removal of Toluene, eye of dka nursing, recruiters and hiring managers. Consider using headline-type formatting and language on your resume, which helps recruiters skim easily through your qualificationsand see that youre a candidate worth considering. Heres how to India: from the Air, do it: Rather than putting the Sophocles of Gender Roles, names of your prior employers in bold font, make your job titles the focus, including keywords whenever you can.

If your job titles arent impressive or dont quite reflect the scope of Removal of Toluene, what you did, try crafting a short phrase that captions your role (e.g., Administrator: Human Resources Guru). Of Thanatopsis? Just be sure your revised title isnt so far off that it would confuse your references ! Then, think like a headline writer, and India: from the Air weave standout language into your bullet points in diagnosis, job descriptions. For example, a sales manager might use phrases like rocketed sales by India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay 30%, slashed sales cycle by 20%, or supercharged sales staff performance. Better than, increased, right? Exciting, andit goes without sayingaccurate language can make you stand out and earn you a second (or third) glance. On the web, relevant hyperlinks to credible sources improve your readability and page rank within search engines. On a resume? Relevant hyperlinks can provide hiring managers evidence that youre the best candidate for the job. Consider adding links to your personal website, articles youve written in industry journals or publications, or sites that showcase your work. If youre in “Self-Reliance” Essay, a creative field, a link to your portfolio, to apps youve developed, or to articles youve penned can be very persuasive. For tech job seekers, including links to a video resume, online CV , or sites youve built are nice, tech-savvy touches.

However, dont insert hyperlinks just for the sake of doing so. India: Of Toluene From? Make sure all links are relevant, put you in a good light, and (very importantly!) do not go to dead pages. On a website, social media links allow readers to share, like, or pin content. In turn, these social media shares improve SEO. Perspectives In Sociology? On a resume, including your social media handles is a great way to demonstrate your personality, industry knowledge, and of Toluene from the Air personal brand. Especially if youre looking for jobs in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”, marketing, brand management, or social media, this is huge. Start with a link to your LinkedIn profile, so recruiters can easily see your connections, recommendations, projects, and India: Removal Essay more. Quotes? If you use them professionally, you can also include links to India: from Essay, your Twitter, Google+, Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, or Reddit profiles. Bonus: Include links to “Self-Reliance”, industry-specific social media sites where youre an active participant (e.g., IT Central Station for techies, OilPro for Removal from the Air, those in the petroleum field, or Active Rain for Sophocles Roles Essay, realtors).

When it comes to websites, content is king. Informative, well-written, and concise articles improve SEO. When refining your resume, keep this in mind, and India: from make sure you use tight, high-quality verbiage. First things first, cut the fluff. Generic phrases and puffery should go ASAPthink cliches like excellent communicator, team player, results-oriented, and motivated self-starter. Also ditch passive words and phrases (like was responsible for) and definition of thanatopsis opt for active words like directed instead.

Next, strike the of Toluene the Air Essay, objective section. Dont waste valuable resume real estate on thismost readers will skip it (or use it to disqualify you). Finally, use numbers. Hard data (think: dollars and percentages) are easier to digest than text. So, instead of top-seller, opt for “Self-Reliance”, more than $1 million in sales or increased sales by 20% in Q1. Your resume should be brief, but highly effective. These internet marketing strategies can help you streamline and India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay concisely demonstrate that youre a candidate worth a second look. Photo of dka nursing diagnosis, person holding sign courtesy of Shutterstock . Rachel Rowan Stamper is the from the Air, voice of offending,, a resume template developer.

She has more than a decade of HR experience in the staffing sector before shrugging off the corporate coil to pursue a career in freelance writing. Check in with Rachel on Google Plus to talk HR, Doctor Who or Gothic literature. To learn more about Hloom, check out this Daily Muse piece which discusses its resume templates. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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. many countries encourage participation, but provide limited mechanisms to allow user feedback. When questions about participation are discussed and presented in plans there seem to be a tendency towards understanding openness in terms of access to, and gathering of information through the building of infrastructure, better availability, the use of open standards, securing universal accessibility, etc. This becomes evident when the European governments are elaborating on the implementation of e#150;government (Commission of the European Communities, 2002) within the European community, as well as when American authorities discuss similar issues (U.S. Executive Office of the President, 2003). Aspects of openness regarding how the public should become more able to #147;analyse and utilize#148; this information do not seem to be considered as important as those concerning access and availability.

Commercial information providers have another relationship to the quality and India: of Toluene from, sustainability of information. They always have to consider whether the presentation of information is youth offending statistics going to sell their product, and if it is going to improve the customer#146;s experience of the product in which they have decided to invest their time and/or money. From a strictly commercial point of view it does not matter if the quality of information in low, inaccurate, or even false, as long as the production costs are kept down compared to Removal of Toluene from Essay the revenue. Commercial actors are therefore encouraged to design systems facilitating openness by the fact that a large number of quotes the great debaters, people are willing to produce information for free through participation, being both producers and of Toluene from, consumers of Roles Essay, information. These systems may be organised as large communities with tens, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of Removal Essay, users, or the users may be organised in a large number of small groups where the members have closer ties. Small groups may also exist within a large community, as in the physical world, and may provide information on a more personal level.

Information with personal qualities interests users, but these qualities may be difficult to achieve [5]. Perspectives! From the point of view of the vendor the different ways of organising a community are of less concern if there is India: Removal from a large number of users who produce and use information on a regular basis, and Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay, as long as the work moderating and managing this information is kept to a minimum. When talking about openness, commercial vendors tend to use the term as part of their strategic thinking to introduce #147;pervasive media environments#148; (Berman, 2004), not necessarily in Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay, terms of empowering individuals or technology#146;s democratic potential (Rushkoff, 2003). An interesting observation is that education is somewhere in the middle, being obliged to handle all aspects of openness, from a strictly authoritative approach, where the definition learners are given access to one understanding of specific information, to an approach where the learners are expected to explore, re#150;contextualise and produce information on India: of Toluene from their own. When media change information providers are affected most significantly by whether they are able to build new relationships to their previous customers/consumers [6] who now become potential contributors in a participation culture . Civil services will still be restricted by concerns regarding quality of information, issues that are more complex than the considerations made by individuals writing weblogs, online newspapers providing discussion boards, or vendors facilitating online communities, etc. There may be numerous reasons why the different actors do what they do; I would like to emphasize the increasing differences between how information is created and distributed in various parts of society. These differences were not as evident before as long as most public information was produced centrally by state authorities or the press, and distributed to consumers through technical solutions that did not provide any significant possibilities for feedback. To summarise some of these approaches to openness: From an diagnosis, official and public service point of of Toluene, view information providers want openness biased towards information access. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”! One tends to encourage participation, but this is understood as mechanisms facilitating feedback , not as tools making the public producers of content . From a commercial point of Removal from Essay, view information providers also want to facilitate easy access, but these actors also have strong interests in encouraging openness with users acting as producers of content. Youth Offending Statistics! These actors are more likely to develop an understanding of the #147;quality of information#148; with a bias towards information#146;s ability to appeal and engage an audience. Some approaches to openness in communication.

The complexity of from Essay, openness in communication systems range from technical issues, like how information is mediated and distributed, via economical concerns, to a number of social issues that may influence the availability, use and the potential impact of information in society. Therefore, when trying to make classifications of communication, one should not alone look at the technical properties of technologies, or how they are related to time and space, or solely on the basis of information content. These are all important aspects of any technology, but do not provide a vocabulary capable of describing some important features of digital networked media: the different ways in which the users become both consumers and producers of information (Jensen, 1998). Online networked computers, accompanied by digital cameras, small sound recording devices, techniques for positioning, mobile phones etc. all have the potential of enabling groups of various sizes and individuals to participate actively in dka nursing diagnosis, the production of information in numerous ways. When looking for a classification that includes different aspects of openness these features of #147;new media#148; have to be considered. Open vs. India: Essay! closed content.

Mayer (1997) building upon earlier work #151; presents a classification of common computer media applications which focuses on the computer#146;s characteristic semiotic nature and its #147;capacities for symbol manipulation#148;, and the #147;responsive context of reception#148;. In the table below, content scope, temporal, and spatial attributes are compared, and demonstrate how these characteristics can be used to perspectives differentiate between various computer media. The model provides a useful approach to a distinction between open and closed content that is consistent with existing terminology used in traditional media studies. However, this classification fails to grasp the India: from the Air processes related to youth offending statistics how this content came into being, or how it is Removal of Toluene the Air Essay used. Another perspective on openness is provided by Benkler [7] who defines three different layers of communication, a physical layer (wires, cable, radio frequency spectrum), a logical layer (software, protocols), and a content layer (text, images, sound etc). Lessig (2001) uses Benkler#146;s layers when discussing how different communication systems influence on our abilities to act as users instead of Sophocles Inequality Essay, mere consumers of information. The table below is an extension of the model presented by Lessig [8]. Lessig discuss 1, 2, 3 8, and uses #147;free#148; vs. #147;closed#148; where I am using #147;open#148; vs. #147;closed#148;: Speakers#146; Corner and Madison Square Garden are two of the India: Removal from Essay examples used by Lessig.

At Speakers#146; Corner (1) anyone who wants to public performance get access to the park (the physical layer), he may do a presentation of his own choice (the logical level), and Inequality, he is free to chose what to present (the content level). Removal From! One may, however, argue that this openness become a theoretical possibility to most people, not being able to visit Speakers Corner when they have something they want to say, or not being among the relatively few constituting a #147;public sphere#148; where private people come together #147;as a public and articulating the needs of offending statistics, society with the state#148; [9]. Of Toluene Essay! However, communication will always be limited by both physical and quotes from debaters, social/psychological constraints, and for practical purpose we will only of Toluene from the Air Essay, be able to talk about this complete openness within limited communities, though never in the world at large. In an arena like Madison Square Garden (2) an individual will have the same possibilities as at Speakers#146; Corner, save that the building has to be rented. Inequality Of Gender Roles Essay! That is because the access to of Toluene the Air the physical level is restricted by the owner of the infrastructure needed to give a performance. In the of Gender Essay telephone system (3) a user will have to pay for access to the system and he has no influence on how the content is mediated at the logical level. But the system is open on the content level making the users able to say whatever they want, as long as the system does not discriminate between different users on of Toluene the Air the basis of the information they are communicating. Writing by hand (4) is an definition, example of a technology that do not imply any restrictions to the content, and where the physical level is fully accessible, at lest for most practical purposes. The only restrictions to what the of Toluene from the Air Essay users are able to express is found on definition the logical level as limitations implicit in written language.

An example is writings shortcomings when it comes to describe movement in any fulfilling way. One may also argue that the use of recordable media like CD#150;R, DVD#150;R, and Removal from the Air Essay, hard disk recorders, MP3 players etc. can serve as examples of (4), even though the access to the physical level is restricted by the need of specific hardware. However, given that in large parts of the youth statistics world such recording devices are relatively cheap and easy to purchase, this limitation do not imply any practical restriction that prevents these people from India: Removal the Air, using recording devices. The most severe limitations to the use of digital recording technologies are found on the logical level where DRM systems applied in software and the implications of copyright laws are some examples. Lessig argues that the Internet (5) is an example where the of thanatopsis physical layer is completely controlled by governments and commercial vendors. Most of the content is protected by copyright laws, Benkler [10] uses Los Angeles Times v. India: From The Air! Free Republic (Carney, 2001) as an example. However, on the logical level the Internet has been open, as long as protocols and Sophocles, software traditionally have been openly documented, as well as shared and used without severe restrictions, and developed by collective efforts.

Because of this openness Internet technology has been transferable to numerous infrastructures, making the communication facilitated by these technologies difficult to control by introducing restrictions at the physical level. However, this may change from of Toluene from the Air, a number of reasons. Trusted computing , referring to definition the embedding of Removal the Air, end#150;to#150;end validation of the origin and integrity of data into computer hardware and system software (Kay, 2006), is one of several technical solutions that alone, or in combination with other technical and legal solutions, will limit users#146; abilities to produce, back up, copy, and distribute content in Inequality Roles Essay, ways they find opportune (Walker, 2003). A perhaps more common example of how closeness is introduced on the logical level is the use of special applications like Flash to present content on the Web. Instead of of Toluene the Air Essay, making autonomous Web pages that can be linked to, and accessed one by one Flash applications usually close references to different content on a server.

Personal Video Recorders (PVR) (6) are perhaps not the best example where only the content layer is “Self-Reliance” closed, as long as when they are used to of Toluene from the Air Essay record television programs the logical layer will be controlled by the broadcasters, and of thanatopsis, a number of restrictions may be implemented in hardware. However, I am using PVRs as an example to be able to introduce the possibility of technical restrictions taking full control over India: Removal from, the presentation of media content, in definition of thanatopsis, extreme cases even over perception. A concrete example is Philips solution for #147;preventing a viewer from switching from a channel when an advertisement is Removal of Toluene Essay being displayed on the channel#148;, and if the program is recorded on a PVR the technology #147;prevents a viewer of a recorded program from fast forwarding the recorded program in order to skip past advertisements#148; [11]. . individuals will become accustomed to the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. AWhen the physical level is open and there are restrictions to both the content and the logical level we are experiencing an instance of surveillance (7).

Writing this sitting in Volkspark Friedrichshain I am thinking of what Speakers#146; Corner would be like in former East Germany: Most people would have physical access, but would be unable to speak freely or make performances of their own choice. Diagnosis! Aspects of surveillance introduce several questions about power relations, not only between the producers and of Toluene the Air, consumers of Sophocles Roles Essay, information, which will be discussed later, but also to an increasing degree those who the communication is about. An example is India: from Essay services like (at that re#150;mediates parts of gossip#150;journalism, now in the hands of the public. But the potential in #147;surveillance#148; goes much further, and is one of the diagnosis main reasons why Google fund the building of free WiFi systems, making them capable of providing plateatic advertising (advertisements targeted by geographic location). The surveillance potential in different technologies may cause an erosion of of privacy with the result that individuals will become accustomed to Removal from the Air Essay the idea of little or no privacy whenever they visit public places, both physical and virtual. Examples are: when they are travelling; sharing files or communicating on the Internet; they are using their cellphones; in education. In addition to Sophocles of Gender Roles intended use technologies almost always have a #147;function creep#148; that occurs when technical features, designed for a specific purpose, ends up serving many other purposes (Hoepman and Jacobs, 2006). Being accustomed to a general idea that privacy is India: of Toluene from Essay not available, people may become less able to recognize new, potential threats against privacy. Of Thanatopsis! Even if such threats are identified the precedence of Removal from, already accepted solutions will make it increasingly difficult to define and articulate other, alternative solutions that respect privacy.

Cable TV systems (8) are designed to provide a great deal of diagnosis, information from India:, vendors to the consumers, resembling broadcasting. All three levels are restricted: the consumers do not own the wires into dka nursing, their homes, programming is controlled, and the use of the content is India: the Air limited by copyright, or by technical restrictions (see Personal Video Recorder). Cable and ADSL are also technologies used to provide many with broadband access to the Internet, building an asymmetric relationship between information providers and dka nursing, information consumers to a technology (the Internet) that originally treated all actors as peers. Users with unrestricted Internet connections are already a privileged class being able to of Toluene set up their own servers, create new services, establish true peer#150;to#150;peer connections with other sites, etc. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”! By introducing technical solutions to make online computers more easy and secure, like NATs and firewalls, new technologies reproduce the traditional relationship between #147;publishers#148; or #147;broadcasters#148; and their #147;consumers#148; or #147;audience#148; (Walker, 2003). Being able to describe how the different layers of a communication technology influence the production, distribution and use of information is important to an understanding of openness . However, even though Benkler discusses how regulatory choices influence the #147;consumer#150;producer relationship#148;, the model does not provide a vocabulary that considers how users are affected as producers or as consumers of information on different levels. Removal The Air! A comprehensive understanding of openness in communication should be able to classify different media according to how they influence relations between producers and consumers, an of Gender Roles, approach taken by Bordewijk and van Kaam (1986) when explaining the future development of #147;tele#150;information services#148;. They presented a model with four communication patterns describing the relationships between information providers and information consumers. Rather than emphasizing different media#146;s technical characteristics, genres or content Bordewijk and van Kaam answer two initial questions about the #147;provider#148; and the #147;consumer#148; of information: Is the transmitted information owned by of Toluene from the Air Essay, an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer? Is the transmission and use of the information controlled by an information service providing centre or an individual information service consumer?

Answering who delivers the information, and who controls access to and use of information is of thanatopsis represented as a matrix with four #147;ideal information#150;patterns#148;. It is important to note that these patterns are #147;ideal#148; in a sense where they are supposed to be used as analytical tools. In reality no media can be understood as being part of only one of these patterns: Bordewijk and van Kaam use the terms #147;information service centre#148; and #147;information service consumer#148; instead of #147;sender#148; and #147;receiver#148;. Like Benkler#146;s model, one distinctive mark of the typology of communication patterns is that it is defined independently of the India: Removal the Air Essay technical design of the media, the form of of thanatopsis, presentation, and the content of India: Removal of Toluene from the Air, information. But where Benkler is inspired by the topology of computer networks the communication patterns are derived from social power relations.

Focus is on diagnosis the flow of information between different actors ignoring the different quantitative and qualitative aspects of the information content (Jensen, 1996). Of Toluene From The Air Essay! When discussing openness the communication patterns must therefore be used with other aspects of openness in perspectives, mind. Bordewijk and van Kaam came up with their model years before the invention of the Web; their four communication patterns only take into account #147;centre#148; and #147;consumer#148;. Removal Of Toluene The Air Essay! This is hardly surprising, given that their main interests were the future development of broadcasting and telecommunication systems. However the dka nursing diagnosis model does not take into consideration new aspects of India: of Toluene from the Air, digital networked media that facilitate users as producers of information. These perspectives call for an extension of diagnosis, both axes of the model: I am therefore adding information produced by users as a collective and distribution controlled by users as a collective . In the following model my understanding of #147;distribution#148; goes beyond the ability to control the infrastructure (corresponding to India: the Air Benkler#146;s physical level) used for distribution. One also has to consider the users#146; ability to decide when and how the content is re#150;edited, re#150;used, or just consumed. The use of #147;collective#148; also needs some initial explanation. Collective does not necessarily mean that individuals are organised in definable groups; on definition the contrary, individuals forming a networked collective using digital media will often be loosely organised.

One can even describe this organisation, or lack of such, as autonomous individuals #147;out of control#148;, not connected by a hierarchical chain of command. Instead their activities are results from a multitude of simultaneous actions whose collective pattern are called networks, complex adaptive systems, swarms, collective systems, etc. [12]. The members of such collectives are highly connected in a peer network, but without answering to an organisation, or a centre of control. Each member acts individually according to some basic rules and of Toluene from, given situations in their local environment [13]. When taking the collective into consideration the model forms nine different communication patterns: Transmission occurs when information is produced by a centralized information service which also controls when information is distributed to the users. Dka Nursing! The flow of information runs in one direction only, from the centre to a number of autonomous users. All users are treated in the exact same manner when it comes to distribution, receiving the information simultaneously. The information can either be previously stored by the information service, or it may be offered #147;on the fly#148; at India: from the moment of Sophocles Inequality Roles Essay, distribution. Most media based on transmission are characterized by access to large amounts of India: Removal of Toluene, stored information. Only a tiny fragment of this information is distributed to users at the great debaters a given time, and always in ways that ensure that users are receiving the same information simultaneously.

Individual users in the transmission model have no other choice that to receive the India: from the Air Essay information provided at a given moment in time. Communication based on transmission may therefore be referred to as #147;one#150;way#148; or #147;one#150;to#150;many#148;, emphasizing that the communication channels have no possibilities for feedback. This information-pattern is typical in traditional broadcast media like radio and television. Transmission is the perspectives in sociology communication pattern with the strongest bias towards closeness. India: From The Air! Still, the content may be fully accessible, communicated by using open standards, and even possible to dka nursing diagnosis manipulate through interaction. The Air! Nevertheless, the pattern is heavily restricted, as long as the information centre exclusively chooses when to grant access to Roles users. India: The Air! However, the youth use of Removal of Toluene from, video recorders is an example of how new technology changes an existing communication pattern by giving users more choices to Essay control the distribution of information.

The most telling examples of transmission today are found in streaming media solutions on the Internet where the ability of users to record can be heavily restricted. Registration occurs when information is Removal from the Air Essay produced by dka nursing diagnosis, individual users, but a centralised service then takes control of the India: the Air Essay information by collecting and storing it. Users may provide information by request from the information centre, or the quotes debaters user may give information without any previous request. As long as the information is produced by users the division of power seems to India: Removal from the Air be reversed from #147;transmission#148; and #147;consultation#148; patterns. However, the information centre has exclusive control over what users are able to register by providing interfaces where information is produced. Offending Statistics! An example is the of Toluene from Essay use of polls where the owners of Web sites give their users opportunities to answer questions by selecting between predefined choices. It is also important to remember that the information centre in most cases collects information with a purpose, and does not facilitate openness in the sense of giving communicating parties equal opportunities.

In registration patterns the initial information producers are not able to control the information after it is registered by the information centre. The centre has exclusive control of storage and may use this control to re#150;arrange and re#150;mediate the information and definition of thanatopsis, use it in other communication patterns, or to facilitate such patterns. Bordewijk and van Kaam use (tele#150;)opinion polling, shopping systems, etc. India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! as examples of of thanatopsis, registration by request. Examples of India: Removal of Toluene from Essay, registration without request can be systems made for surveillance, logging of computer systems, etc. Definition! Services offering storage of photos where the users are given few possibilities may also be characterised as registration without request. The registration pattern can also be said to be present in relationships between the Removal from the Air Essay makers of software, that is publicly available, and users. Most users are not able to make their own software, or they are finding it more convenient to use software made by others. Definition! These users are limited to the possibilities build into software and illustrate that production of Removal from the Air Essay, digital media objects are often assembled by selecting from perspectives, ready#150;made functions, or from media material provided centrally. All authoring and editing software comes with a large number of these predefined functions, and additional functionality may be added by using #147;plug#150;ins#148; which makes third#150;party vendors able to incorporate new functions into India: of Toluene from the Air Essay, a program#146;s interface [14].

This selection among predefined functions is only registration when the new information is stored by a central service, but to an increasing degree this is happening with online services that provide the same functions as standalone programs. Google is the most obvious example of a successful commercial approach based on the principle that information is accessible, and, to an increasing degree, produced online (Google, 2005). Questions about selection are important when discussing openness and in sociology, control, and makes evident one of the limitations in the model: there is no pattern that covers situations where information that is controlled by a centre (the program manufacturer or the service provider) and used by individuals to make products that they are able to store and control. Selecting performed by individuals when producing and re#150;mediating information that is stored locally has to India: of Toluene from the Air Essay be understood as a combination of Emerson’s, several patterns. Commenting occurs when the collecting and storage of information is centralized, but some of the information is provided by a number of users. The central service controls the initial information, but individual users are able to provide additional information that may even contradict the original.

The commenting pattern also implies that the information provided by individual users is India: Removal Essay accessible by other users. Commenting can therefore be considered as more open than the Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” registration pattern because information is not hidden after it is stored by the central service. Where registration normally will be limited to selecting between pre#150;defined alternatives most instances of commenting make the Removal of Toluene individual producers able to formulate their opinions with their own words, perhaps even provide some additional media material by uploading or using hyperlinking. However, those providing information though the commenting pattern are not able to revise their texts after it is posted, similar to how information is controlled centrally in the registration pattern. Commenting appears in online discussion- oards, weblogs, and a number of other online media that makes it possible to display feedback in Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”, the same context as an original information element. Normally this pattern does not include response where additional information are controlled, or changed by an editor, unless the India: Removal of Toluene from the Air content is Emerson’s a violation of law or considered as spam. Pure commenting are unmoderated responses where the information provided by others is presented without delay in addition to the original information that initiated the response in India: Essay, the first place. Consultation occurs when information is produced and owned by a central information service, but where individuals are able to control which information they receive and definition, when this information is delivered.

The consultation pattern always depends on information which is stored before the moment of distribution. In other words, this communication pattern is always asynchronous. Consultation offers some flexibility in favour of users, but it requires some specific activities on their behalf. The users have to request information by performing activities defined by the information centre. The label #147;interactivity#148; [15] is Removal of Toluene the Air Essay often used to characterise this process, ranging from clicking on specific hyperlinks to the users#146; movement and achievements in computer games. One can argue that these techniques represent a potential democratisation of the use of media by empowering users in new ways. However, interactivity is also used to describe systems that are no more than collections of information which can be accessed at a time which the user finds convenient. These systems thereby belong to the same pattern as newspapers and books. Discussing openness one can even argue that many so#150;called interactive systems are much less open than printed books: for example, cybertexts (Aarseth, 1997) are controlled by a computer, where users can do no more than select between pre#150;defined options since the overall structure is Sophocles hidden. Even if the functionality of a given program is available, most users will not be able to make qualified judgements about how information is presented. Communication based on consultation is often #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;one#148;, found in what Jensen calls #147;electronic memories#148; (Jensen, 1996).

Examples are FTP, World Wide Web, and a number of online services providing stored content. The consultation pattern also include various forms of printed media, CD#150;ROM, DVDs and India: Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay, videotapes. Dialogue occurs when individual users are able to participate actively in both the production and distribution of information. The information and Sophocles Inequality Essay, the time of information exchange are totally controlled by the users, and India: Removal of Toluene, the means of production and distribution are shared equally between them. Information in the dialogue pattern is perspectives in sociology normally not stored before it is communicated, but it may be stored by one or several users during the communication process. Removal From The Air! The flow of information runs in several directions and cannot be controlled by one user alone. When communication is mediated the dka nursing connections between users will often be provided by an information service centre. In these cases the centre represents a technical facility which typically serves several consumers, and the centre does not intervene in the production or in the time of distribution of information. Dialogue may be referred to as #147;one#150;to#150;one#148; or #147;many#150;to#150;many#148;. This pattern is India: Essay typical in definition of thanatopsis, oral traditions where those communicating have to meet physically, but the dialogue pattern also apply to of Toluene from mediated communication. The telephone system is a typical example: users decide who they want to call, when to make the call, and what the diagnosis conversation is going to be about, while the system operates like a #147;black box#148; routing the telephone calls between users without interfering with the information that users communicate.

Dialogues do not have to be synchronous and India: Removal from Essay, instantaneous. The dialogue pattern can include ordinary mail, fax, e#150;mail, etc. Similar patterns also occur on a number of different services on the Internet, from Usenet discussions, via a wide range of Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”, commenting functions to open chatrooms. Collaboration occurs when information is of Toluene from Essay produced by a number of individuals organised as a collective, and distribution is controlled at in sociology an individual level. A communication system facilitating collaboration allows users to use and revise content provided by India: from the Air Essay, others without any prior consent. The information in diagnosis, the collaboration pattern has to be stored before it will be accessible to other users, and this storage is India: Removal of Toluene from Essay normally done by diagnosis, a central service. Of Toluene From! This service may be taken down and users may lose content, but as long as the system is up and running all users are treated the same.

Wikis and, to some extent, the perspectives development of of Toluene from Essay, open source software exemplifies collective efforts where collaborative patterns occur. Note that a great deal of software that is sold under the umbrella #147;collaborative tools#148; does not necessarily facilitate a collaborative pattern. In a collaborative environment individuals do not have exclusive control over content they make available, every user has the same possibilities to make changes, add new or additional information, or even delete content provided by others. This does not cause any substantial problems in wikis where malicious behaviour or mistakes may be corrected easily, and only affect autonomous nodes without severe consequences in Sophocles Roles Essay, related nodes. Removal The Air! However, even though most users have the same privileges some users have access to additional functions. Quotes From! In a wiki this will be system operators and India: Removal from the Air, administrators at different levels who are able to make changes to software, carry out sanctions against misbehaving, etc. When collaborating on large software projects there are also differences in the status of users, because minor changes in one part of a program may cause unexpected failures in other parts. There has to be some centralised revision control with the implementation of in sociology, new code [16]. Since software is made for a relatively specific purpose there also has to be a consensus about the core functionality. Consequently software projects have to implement some kind of hierarchy where some users are given privileges that make them capable of making decisions that other contributors have to follow. In other words, neither a wiki, nor a software project can be organised following collaborative patterns only.

Because users in of Toluene from Essay, a collaborative environment are able to revise and re#150;use each other#146;s work they have to statistics make an agreement stating that copyright law shall not be applied to shared information. In software development there exist numerous such agreements and licences (Free Software Foundation, 2006) that potential contributors have to accept to be allowed to Removal from the Air participate in a project. When working with other kinds of content, like text, images, and quotes the great debaters, audio files, Creative Commons is the most widely used licensing regime, providing six different licences (Creative Commons, 2006) that make content creators able give others opportunities to collaborate using their content. The two communication patterns #151; collaboration and dialogue #151; are often closely connected: dialogue is necessary to from the Air foster many of the social processes which make collaboration possible. Discussions about the functionality in open source software are a good example, where many are involved, but the final decisions are made by relatively few, privileged members of the community. Collaboration differs from youth, commenting because new content can be produced by users revising each other#146;s work as well as adding new material. Syndication occurs when information is produced by an information centre, but individual users are able to take control over the information and re#150;use it for different purposes. Syndication is India: Removal well known from traditional media. Both television and Essay, newspapers pay for the right to India: the Air use information provided by news agencies and they often use this information quite extensively without substantial editorial changes, adding it to information they produce themselves. However, the latter is more like the communication pattern sharing, while a precise understanding of syndication does not involve any changes in quotes from, the information content by others than the the central service creating the content in the first place.

On the Internet syndication normally refers to the distribution of banner advertisements, and #147;feeds#148; from a site indicating new content (like the India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay latest posts from definition of thanatopsis, a weblog). India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! The degree of diagnosis, user control varies from full text feeds in XML, that other services may re#150;mediate in of Toluene from, multiple ways, to solutions where content may be included, but not changed. Dka Nursing! File sharing systems are another example of how the syndication pattern becomes facilitated on the Internet. File sharing systems distribute data, or parts of larger collections of data, to Removal Essay a number of users who then provide this data to others. Sharing occurs when content produced by individual users is distributed and re#150;used by of thanatopsis, a number of others. Removal From! The sharing pattern is Essay similar to India: of Toluene from syndication with one important difference: in the sharing pattern information initially is produced by individual users. Note that sharing is not necessarily a communication pattern that all the quotes actors approve, as long as information may be distributed through a sharing pattern without the original creator#146;s consent. The re#150;use and re#150;editing of information may be an aspect of sharing, but the sharing pattern differs from collaboration because there are only individual users who take part in the production and editing of information.

Creators of from Essay, weblogs often use the sharing pattern this way when they create new posts by using citations and links found at other sites. However, when looking at how information may change when shared between large numbers of blog creators the pattern changes and diagnosis, becomes more like collaboration. Some actors are always considered to be more authoritative, or more trustworthy that others, and when information are edited by these users others are likely to treat this information in of Toluene the Air Essay, ways which may have some of the characteristics of syndication. It is also possible to of thanatopsis argue that authority causes behaviour that resembles the transmission pattern (Shirky, 2003). There are numerous examples of how information is shared among online newspapers and blogs, where the India: of Toluene the Air exact same citations, phrases, and dka nursing, references are used on India: of Toluene from the Air Essay hundreds of sites. When the creator of a new post only makes a citation, without making any changes to Emerson’s Essay the initial information, the communication pattern that occurs is only distinguished from syndication by the fact that the original producer no longer has the ability to make changes to the cited content.

Transclusion (Nelson, 2000) of media material, typically used to #147;hot#150;link#148; images and Removal from the Air Essay, multimedia files or by youth offending statistics, displaying an external site within a frameset, are also examples of the communication pattern. These examples are made possible by the Web, and the Internet#146;s #147;openness#148; on Benkler#146;s logical layer, which makes content creators able to identify autonomous elements and address them directly. Emergence occurs when both production and distribution of information are collective processes. No centralised unit or individual user are able to fully control the creation or re#150;editing and distribution of information. Actually emergence is India: Removal from the Air characterised by youth, an explicit absence of from Essay, control and of thanatopsis, systems facilitating emergence are those which come closest to full #147;openness#148;. It is relatively easy to design communication systems where emergence is not likely to of Toluene from Essay occur; if information can only definition, be accessed, not re#150;used, emergence will never happen within a system. On the other hand is it almost impossible to design a system to explicitly facilitate emergence, simply because these processes always are unpredictable and occurs as a result of social processes.

These processes include contributors with different objectives and Removal of Toluene from, they seldom have a shared understanding about the results of their collective achievements. As individuals, each contributor may have well#150;defined reasons for from the great debaters what he is doing, but there are absolutely no guarantees that these ideas are shared by others. Emergent communication patterns can only be realised by a close interplay between the cultural use of technical solutions and the development of these solutions. The actors using and developing an emergent system will quite often be unaware of each other, but they will still rely upon India: Removal the Air Essay each other#146;s work and they may share a set of socially constituted #147;rules#148; influencing their behaviour. From this follows that a communication system that gives an emergent information pattern in one setting may not cause the same effects when some of the conditions change. An attempt to give a practical example of the emergent communication pattern can be seen in the figure above, an attempt to create the title of this paper in colourful letters. The letters are provided by individuals posting pictures to, a service hosting pictures and giving their users the perspectives in sociology option of tagging their images. India: Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Tagging is one approach to Inequality of Gender Roles Essay the ordering of information by unorganised efforts, often called folksonomy (Quintarelli, 2005). India: Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Some of those who upload pictures of an #147;O#148; choose to tag it with the Emerson’s Essay tags #147;oneletter#148; and #147;o#148;.

When this paper was written 3,408 pictures were tagged this with #147;oneletter#148;. Flickr also provides an Removal the Air, application interface (API) available for non#150;commercial use by outside developers (Flickr, 2006), something that made it possible to write a script (Kastner, 2005) which I could use to make the title. Definition! The final result is possible because of the contribution from a number of India: Removal Essay, people, not connected to each other and Emerson’s, with no obvious intentions on collaborating. The communication patterns are limited by the two initial questions: #147;Who controls production?#148;, and Removal, #147;Who controls distribution?#148; These questions do not address the different actors' underlying motivation, in other words: which and definition, whose interests benefit from different patterns? Some initial answers to this question may be formulated by using what Michel de Certeau calls strategies and tactics, used in his analysing the nature and politics of cultural production within #147;the practice of India: the Air Essay, everyday life#148; [17]. Roles! Strategies are manifested through institutional means of control in what one can describe as more closed systems.

Among the of Toluene from Essay communication patterns presented #147;transmission#148;, #147;registration#148;, and #147;consultation#148; may be characterized as strategic/more closed communication patterns where the in sociology control is centralized. On the other hand, any economic, political, or technological system has to give their users some #147;space#148; for movement, qualities that connotes more openness . Only a completely totalitarian regime will be able to reserve these spaces for exclusive purposes and these limitations to India: of Toluene the application of youth offending, strategies allow individuals to develop tactics . Certeau describe tactics as individual techniques of knowing how to operate within the processes of a dominating system. Common examples of such techniques are informal communication, improvisations, unauthorized simplification of procedures, unintended usage, etc. #147;Sharing#148;, #147;collaboration#148;, and #147;emergence#148; #151; where users are in India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay, control #151; are more tactical and open patterns. When designing a communication system one will have to come up with solutions that fulfill multiple purposes. One will never be able to design solely on the basis of dka nursing diagnosis, either strategic or tactical needs. Experience from designing and testing a virtual learning environment in primary schools (Hoem, 2006) indicates that most users were satisfied when the India: Removal of Toluene from designers focused on facilitating communication patterns found in the middle of the model: #147;syndication#148;, #147;dialogue#148;, and #147;commenting#148;.

This is not surprising, as long as these communication patterns are where strategies and tactics are most likely to merge. In the case of Sophocles Roles, a communication system used in education this becomes a negotiated solution between the different needs of the administration, educators, and learners. Communication patterns provide a terminology that can be used to describe and discuss openness in relationships between users. However, research context always influences the deifinition of India: from the Air, terms and there are numerous definitions of openness. Emerson’s “Self-Reliance”! For example: degrees of openness can be discussed by looking at technical factors that cause interruptions between an information source and those who are going to receive information. Communication patterns may still provide a useful framework, but emergence would probably not be characterised as the most open pattern is this scenario. The question of #147;place#148; is one essential aspect of openness that has not been discussed in this article. I mentioned some problems of physical access in the introduction, and when introducing Benkler#146;s model, but our relationships to space are perhaps where the most significant changes will come in the next few years. Production and of Toluene from Essay, consumption of information was freed from some of the restrictions of space by writing, and from, brought to a state of #147;no sense of place#148; (Meyrowitz, 1985) by electronic media. Today the India: from the Air Essay importance of Emerson’s, place is reinforced by the ability to position mobile devices, making it possible to the Air Essay control access to information and objects on the basis of where the users are in physical space.

Connections between users and objects in physical space have to be coordinated with a number of other connections in virtual space, calling for a more complex understanding of the intersections between these spaces (Manovich, 2006), facilitated by communication systems. How we relate to different social situations becomes further complicated when users of networked communication systems have to make a number of significant decisions about information. Users will have to youth make continuous judgements about how they produce information, by where they are, who they communicate with, which devices they use, and Removal, so on. Sophocles Essay! Users indeed may want to opt for less open solutions, characterised as restricted with a bias towards closeness. The designers of future communication systems need to be strongly aware of how users benefit from different communication patterns in different situations. Jon Hoem gives lectures at the Department of Removal of Toluene the Air Essay, Art and Sophocles of Gender, Media studies (IKM) of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Removal the Air, Trondheim.

He works with the Bergen University College (HiB) and dka nursing diagnosis, is doing a PhD on how to use #147;personal publishing#148; as a tool for learning. His most recent book is entitled Informasjonsdesign for digitale medier . E#150;mail: Jon [dot] Hoem [at] hib [dot] no. 1. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006, p. 3. 2. Removal The Air! Commission of the definition European Communities (CEC), 2001, p. Removal From! 10. 3. UNPAN, 2004, pp.

18#150;19. 4. UNPAN, 2004, p. 70. 5. Powazek, 2002, pp. Definition Of Thanatopsis! 22#150;. 6. Removal Of Toluene From The Air Essay! Berman, 2004, p. Definition! 6. 7. Benkler, 2000, p. 562. 8. Lessig, 2001, p. 25. 9. Habermas, 1989, p. 176. 10. Benkler, 2000, p. India: From Essay! 568. 12.

Kelly, 1994, chap. 23. 14. Manovich, 2001, p. 124. 17. Certeau, 1984, p. xix. Espen J. Aarseth, 1997. #147;Introduction: Ergodic literature,#148; In: Espen J. Aarseth. Cybertext: Perspectives on ergodic literature . Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, and at, accessed 26 February 2006. Yochai Benkler, 2000. #147;From consumers to users: Shifting the deeper structures of regulation towards sustainable commons and user access,#148; Federal Communication Law Journal , volume 52, at, accessed 23 April 2006. Saul J. Sophocles Of Gender! Berman, 2004. #147;Media and entertainment 2010 Open on the inside, open on the outside: The open media company of the future,#148; IBM Institute for Business Value study , at, accessed 25 April 2006.

Jan L. Of Toluene Essay! Bordewijk and Ben van Kaam, 1986. #147;Towards a new classification of Tele#150;Information services,#148; Intermedia , volume 14, number 1, pp. 16#150;21. David Carney, 2001. #147;Los Angeles Times vs. Free Republic,#148; Tech Law Journal , at diagnosis, accessed 23 April 2006. Michel de Certeau, 1984. The practice of everyday life . Berkeley : University of California Press. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2006. #147;Interoperability for pan#150;European egovernment services,#148; at, accessed 25 April 2006. Commission of the India: of Toluene European Communities (CEC), 2002. #147;eEurope 2005: An information society for all.

An Action Plan presented in view of the Sevilla European Council, 21/22 June 2002,#148; qt, accessed 20 April 2006. Commission of the European Communities (CEC), 2001. #147;European governance: A white paper,#148; at, accessed 20 April 2006. Flickr, 2006. #147;Flickr API documentation,#148; at, accessed 24 April 2006. Free Software Foundation, 2006. #147;Various licenses and comments about them,#148; at, accessed 24 April 2006. Global Policy Forum, 1999. Sophocles Of Gender Roles Essay! #147;The United Nations and civil society: The role of NGOs,#148; at of Toluene, accessed 25 April 2006. Jürgen Habermas, 1989. From The Great! The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society . Of Toluene Essay! Translated by Thomas Burger with the assistance of Frederick Lawrence. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Jon Hoem, 2006. #147;Strategies and tactics in education: Influence on the design of eLogg #151; a virtual learning environment,#148; Digital kompetanse , volume 1, number 2, and at, accessed 14 July 2006. Jaap#150;Henk Hoepman and Bart Jacobs, 2006. #147;E#150;passports without the big picture,#148; at, accessed 20 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1998. #147;‘Interactivity’ Tracking a new concept in dka nursing, media and communication studies,#148; at, accessed 2 April 2006. Jens F. Jensen, 1996. India: Removal Of Toluene From! #147;A new typology of information services,#148; at, accessed 2 April 2006. Kevin Kelly, 1994. Out of quotes from the great debaters, control: The new biology of machines, social systems, and the economic world . Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, and at from the Air, accessed 24 April 2006. Lawrence Lessig, 2001. The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world . New York: Random House. Lev Manovich, 2006. Quotes Debaters! #147;The poetics of urban media surfaces,#148; First Monday Special issue number 4 #151; Urban Screens: Discovering the potential of outdoor screens for urban society, at, accessed 25 April 2006. Lev Manovich, 2001. The language of new media . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Paul Mayer, 1997. From The Air Essay! #147;Typologies for the analysis of computer media,#148; Convergence , volume 3, number 2, pp. 82#150;101. Joshua Meyrowitz, 1985. No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior . New York: Oxford University Press. Theodor Holm Nelson, 2000. #147;Xanalogical structure, needed now more than ever: Parallel documents, deep links to content, deep versioning and deep re#150;use,#148; at, accessed 24 April 2006. Derek M. Powazek, 2002. Perspectives In Sociology! Design for community: The art of connecting real people in virtual places . Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders. Emanuele Quintarelli, 2005. #147;Folksonomies: Power to the people,#148; paper presented at the ISKO Italy#150;UniMIB meeting, Milan (24 June), at, accessed 24 April 2006. Douglas Rushkoff, 2003. #147;Open source democracy: How online communication is changing offline politics,#148; at of Toluene the Air Essay, accessed 25 April 2006. Dag Svanæs, 1999. Quotes From! #147;Understanding interactivity: Steps to a phenomenology of human#150;computer interaction,#148; at dags/interactivity.pdf, accessed 28 April 2006.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Public Administration and Development Management, 2004. #147;UN global e#150;government readiness report 2004: Towards access for opportunity,#148; at, accessed 20 April 2006. U.S. Executive Office of the Removal of Toluene from President, 2003. #147;Implementing the President#146;s management agenda for e#150;government,#148; at, accessed 20 April 2006. John Walker, 2003. #147;The digital imprimatur: How big brother and big media can put the Internet genie back in the bottle,#148; at Emerson’s, accessed 24 April 2006.

Paper received 30 April 2006; accepted 17 May 2006. Openness in communication by Jon Hoem. First Monday , Volume 11, Number 7 3 July 2006 (Proceedings of the 2nd First Monday Conference, May 2006, Chicago)

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law school on resume Writing your law school personal statement is a daunting task. But at least you can quickly realize that you dont have to India: of Toluene the Air, boil your entire life down into two pages you can tell a single story that had a profound impact on you. The resume, on the other hand You have one page to tell me what youve done with your life. Go. A lot of people view the law school resume as superfluous. Diagnosis. While it doesnt carry the of Toluene, weight of other elements, it does represent a whole lot more.

Youll be showing the law school what type of in sociology, student you are, what you spent your time doing, and what accomplishments you can list. It sets the tone of the Air Essay, your life, and if it doesnt create a good impression, admissions officers will be going through your law school application with a sour taste in their mouths. So how can you make a great resume? Key #1 to a Great Law School Resume: Cut anything from quotes from debaters, high school. You were captain of your schools baseball team and drove a sweet Camaro. Good for you. India: Removal Of Toluene From. Now cut that stuff from your law school resume. If you have high school achievements on your law school resume, schools will think you peaked in high school (which is just sad). Of Thanatopsis. Theyll also view you as immature, since youre lending more weight to things than they should have. Unless its an India: of Toluene Olympic medal, its gone.

Key #2 to a Great Law School Resume: One page. Essay. Seriously. Ive edited hundreds of resume going to law schools. Two of them have warranted a second page. One person had spent a decade doing missionary work overseas. The other was a decorated military veteran. India: Of Toluene. If you arent either of these people, get it down to one page.

I dont need a description of your job as an administrative assistant. I dont need to offending statistics, know what programs you worked with when you were managing payroll. Let me know what you spent your time doing, and leave it at that. Key #3 to a Great Law School Resume: This is an academic resume. Whats this mean? Your academic achievements should be highlighted.

Education information up top, cut work achievements to of Toluene, fit in academic ones, and youth include relevant coursework/papers if you need to fill in some space. Key #4 to a Great Law School Resume: I dont care that youre good at India: of Toluene from MS Word. Throwing a section in the bottom letting me know that youre proficient in Word, Excel, or Powerpoint is Sophocles Inequality a waste of space. Including an Objective section is of Toluene from the Air Essay a waste of space. I assume youre proficient in Word at a level that law school work requires because youre submitting an essay written in Word. I know your objective in applying to law school to get into law school.

That being said, I almost always recommend including an Essay Interests section. India: Of Toluene From The Air. You never know whos going to definition of thanatopsis, share your love of crafting homemade butter churns and become a cheerleader for you during the process. Key #5 to a Great Law School Resume: Add depth to your other elements. A resume should create depth to the rest of your law school application package. Talk about your desire to go into public interest? I better see something on your resume to back this up. Want to use your degree to go into some type of corporate law? (*cough* sell-out *cough*) Make sure to highlight your internships and role in your schools business club. Whatever you talk about in India: from the Air Essay, your personal statement should be backed up in the resume. Check in next week for some law school resume formatting tips! Photo Credit: W Nicolai Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-SA 2.0) I did Running Start, a program that allows Juniors and Seniors in high School the opportunity to take college classes, and graduated High School with my AA.

Due to perspectives, this should I include information about my high school activities during those years? I am 33 years old and applying to law school. I will graduate with my Bachelor degree in India: Removal of Toluene from the Air, May, 2014, and work full-time. I have actually been pursuing my education since 2003, with 4 years off between 2006 and 2010, and have always worked full-time. My jobs during my periods of definition, education have been law-related (for example, Ive worked as a paralegal at a medium-sized law firm for the last 4 years), but those during my hiatus were in Human Resources. Should I include ALL of my work experience while attending school since 2003, or just the of Toluene, law-related jobs? Definitely focus on the law-related jobs, but feel free to include any others that required helpful skills necessary for law school. To add to offending, what Hank said: Most law schools will ask for India: Removal Essay your full work history through the dka nursing, LSACs online application.

So you can make your resume shorter and more focused, since theyll be able to of Toluene from, see your full work history anyway. I have previously qualified and worked as a lawyer in Ireland. Youth Offending Statistics. However in 2009 my son was diagnosed with autism. I have been out of the profession since then , being a stay at home parent and caring for his needs. I am now in a position to return to law.

I have since moved to the USA and am anxious to apply to law school. I am unsure though how to address the previous five years in my resume and/or statement. Congratulations on India: Removal the Air returning to the profession. Inequality. If youre anxious about the gap in your resume, my advice would be to consider the work youve done with your son as a strength. Use your personal statement or optional essay as an opportunity to be forthcoming about why you made that choice and Essay what perspective youve gained from offending, it, particularly if its influenced the way you view the Removal from the Air, law in some way. That pure fact alone, absent any additional context, indicates to me that youre a loving and responsible father, which is certainly not going to hurt your application.

As an older (and foreign) applicant, your resume is diagnosis already going to look much different than the undergrads who youre competing with, so dont sweat about it too much just state your life experience as honestly as possible. The fact is that you have a unique and India: Removal the Air compelling story, and that can certainly be advantageous in your applications. Take a look at these articles, which may be helpful in formulating your statement: Any advice would be appreciated.thank you. I just completed a mission trip called The World Race. We went to 11 countries in 11 months partnering with local ministries and organizations. In each country we did different work (visited orphanages, taught English, cleaned neighborhoods, spoke at churches, helped with childrens programs). How should I address this in my resume? Should I include it as part of my experience so that I can elaborate or add it to community work? If its part of my experience, how do I adequately describe it?

First of Sophocles Inequality Essay, all, sounds like a great program. Either way, its going to India: from the Air, look good on your application. As to dka nursing, specifics, if thats pretty much all youve been doing for the last 11 months, Id say its fair to include it in your work experience otherwise it will look like youve been twiddling your thumbs for Removal a year at diagnosis first glance. However, if it was something along the lines of one weekend per month for 11 months, it probably belongs in Removal of Toluene, your community service section, since describing at work might come off as disingenuous. Another variable to weigh is the strength of different facets on dka nursing your resume.

You want to look well-rounded, so if your resume is lacking on other forms of community involvement, it might behoove you to place it in India: Removal of Toluene from, that section either way. I have read from youth statistics, multiple sources that the best practice for law school resumes was to have around 2 pages to go more into detail about various honors organizations, work experience, etc. I originally had my resume at 1 page as you suggest but I recently went into more detail after hearing from Removal of Toluene the Air Essay, various counselors, law school websites suggested best practices, and online forums that a longer resume than a 1 page job application resume is preferred. Why is there such conflicting information on quotes the great this front? Thanks for of Toluene the Air Essay your help. Its unlikely that your resume is going to be the thing that makes or breaks your law school application either way. So dont stress about it TOO much. But the reason many people suggest trying to keep your resume to Inequality of Gender Essay, one page is because it forces you to edit yourself; law schools simply dont need to know that you were drum major in high school, or that you were the Chipotle Employee of the India: the Air, Month in June 2009. That kind of Inequality Roles, stuff is a waste of India: from the Air Essay, their time.

You want to present information that is productive and relevant. Of Gender Roles Essay. Most law school applicants dont have two pages worth of experience that fits those criteria. Of Toluene Essay. So we recommend you shoot for a one page resume for the same reason that you dont start your personal statment with the sentence I spent the perspectives, first two years of India: of Toluene from Essay, my life learning English. If you think you have more than one page of definition of thanatopsis, distinguishing accomplishments, by all means submit a two page resume. Our advice isnt so much as ONE PAGE AND ONLY ONE PAGE so much as it is be judicious.

I had to of Toluene the Air, put law school on hold for in sociology a couple years to take care of my grandmother who was diagnosed with cancer. I decided to take on a job as my grandmothers home health aide. I have put home health aide in my resume, however, Im worried law schools will not take that job as serious as others who graduate after college taking on careers. Also, the other jobs on my resume are not very serious, career driven jobs, such as being a server, sales associate, attendant, house staff, etc. Is there something I can put on my resume that will not make my resume look down on? My personal statement is already written.

It does not go into of Toluene Essay details about my job choices. First, thats a very noble thing that you did, and you should take pride in it. Dont try to diminish your choice in the great, any way. On the flip side, dont try to exaggerate your accomplishments thats a slippery slope that can get you into trouble down the line. Your work history is your work history, plain and simple. Theres no magic resume bullet. You have some options.

If the India: of Toluene, schools youre applying to accept optional essays, you could take that additional space to dka nursing diagnosis, go a little bit deeper into why you chose to of Toluene from Essay, take care of your grandmother and definition of thanatopsis what you gained out of India: from the Air Essay, it. Sophocles Inequality Roles Essay. Alternatively, you could revise your personal statement to focus on that choice. And finally, if youre extremely concerned about your work history, you can delay your applications to the next cycle to gain some more work/volunteer experience. But honestly, resumes are a small part of the admissions puzzle. If you nailed your LSAT and have a solid undergraduate GPA, a light resume wont hurt you much, if at all. I worked full time as an India: of Toluene assistant manager at Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” a convinence store for India: Removal of Toluene the Air all 4 years of youth offending statistics, college.

This didnt allow much time for any other law related internships or voluneer work. Removal Of Toluene From Essay. After college I joined the Army for 4 years. Statistics. Now as im preparing for law school, I have the feeling of from the Air, not being able to put together a strong or relevant resume. Any suggestions? So I am actually an Active Duty Military member and I was wondering if I should put some of the military awards Ive gotten one the resume (like Leadership awards, meritorious promotions, medals, etc.) or is this type of information better left off the Law School Resume? Thanks for Sophocles Roles any help. Yes, you absolutely should.

Ive been out of college for 5 years, mostly working for of Toluene Essay and volunteering for nonprofits relevant to the work I want to do as a lawyer. However, during those 5 years I also held outdoor educational, waitressing and administrative jobs to pay the bills while I volunteered. Do I need to account for every job Ive held since college? If I dont include them, will admissions officers look askance at the gaps in work history? My current job is excellent and what I want to focus on in the Essay, resume, but I dont want to omit things I should be including. Its probably a good idea to India: Removal of Toluene from Essay, include at least some of those other jobs, both to in sociology, give depth to India: the Air, the resume and to answer any questions about how youve been spending your time. That said, as Matt mentioned in definition, the post, you dont need to India: Removal from the Air, provide a description for those types of offending, jobs unless theres something worth noting. Also, if youve had a lot of those side jobs, Id suggest picking just the jobs that you had for the longest period of time.

Youre right that the volunteer experience that is more relevant to India: Removal from Essay, law school should be emphasized you could even do relevant experience and other work experience sections. So, the tl;dr is youth offending that it would be good to mention those other jobs as space permits, but definitely not at the expense of highlighting the India: of Toluene from, more directly applicable volunteer experience. I worked both a full-time job as a bartender and quotes from a part-time job as a kitchen worker in a sorority house for the last 3 years of undergrad. Removal Of Toluene From Essay. Some people have been telling me to quotes from, leave it off of my law school resume because they arent real jobs. But I feel like it shows that I at least have some time management skills. Any thoughts? Id say include it not only does it show that you have time management skills, but it also serves to Removal the Air Essay, make your GPA (whatever it may be) look even more impressive. Hello, I am a junior in Rutgers University majoring in global business management and diagnosis i am applying to top 25 law schools in the U.S. Of Toluene Essay. My gpa is 3.83 and definition of thanatopsis my last is 173/180. I am on deans list for India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay all 3 years and quotes debaters a member of Removal of Toluene from the Air Essay, 2 honor societys. However I have had only quotes from 2 internship experiences over Removal of Toluene the Air Essay, the summer and 1 extrenship.

Is that enough? My goal is Emerson’s “Self-Reliance” Essay Columbia Law school. In high school I was an Eagle Scout and I also was a regional officer for a youth group which regularly had me plan all the logistics and schedule for the Air Essay weekend long and week long events for Sophocles of Gender Essay 50-400 attendees and give public speeches. I was flying all over the country for this, and it was a huge time commitment, that really taught me to work on of Toluene from a team, how events are run and dka nursing gave me a lot of India: Removal of Toluene the Air Essay, speaking time. Should I include these two things on my resume? They seem pretty big. I have them after my two internships and my senior thesis. Also, where is the best place to perspectives in sociology, address interests and how should relevant course work be highlighted? Hi Chase. I think its great to put both of those things on your resume unless it pushes it over a page. Admissions officers read literally thousands of resumes, and you want to keep yours punchy and not too dense.

I think you can choose to list interests or not. From Essay. If an interest is dka nursing not relevant to law school or the practice of of Toluene from the Air Essay, law, then it should probably end up on the cutting room floor. And, really, the interests important to from, law school ought to get some kind of mention in your personal statement. Again, with relevant coursework, if theres room in your resume, its fine there, toward the bottom. Otherwise, I dont think its terribly important. So I feel like Im in a unique position in that my decision to apply to law school is a total career change.

I studied journalism and worked as a reporter for Removal the Air Essay four years before making the leap this summer, quitting the paper and taking a job as a paralegal. Diagnosis. Naturally, my resume will be all my newspaper jobs and internships in college at media companies except my new job and a recent start with the local ACLU chapter. How can my resume be strong despite the severe lack of law-related jobs/organizations/internships? Law schools operate on the assumption that theyre taking people who dont know anything about law and making lawyers out of of Toluene from, them. So, while they certainly like to see legal experience when you have some, a whole bunch of youth offending statistics, time in a law office doesnt necessarily mean a lot more to them than experience elsewhere. Instead, what they want to know is from the Air Essay that youll be a good student with a strong work ethic. So, if your resume reflects that, it might be considerably stronger than someone who had a law office job for six months. One last thing, it might be good to mention in your personal statement how your work in journalism relates to your ideas about definition of thanatopsis, law school and practicing law. If youve been a journalist and now work for the ACLU, it seems like youd be a good First Amendment scholar, which might look better than a stint as a legal assistant.

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