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Brief intervention to The Movie 'In Time', encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in if i tried even wanted to lyrics half among adolescents. The Movie? Edited by Tales From The Mekong Essay Susan T. The Movie 'In Time'? Fiske, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and approved March 18, 2016 (received for review December 1, 2015) There is increasing concern about rising discipline citations in prohibition K–12 schooling and a lack of Essay, means to of the, reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of 'In Time', interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the prohibition, present research examined teachers’ mindsets about 'In Time' Essay, discipline. A brief intervention aimed at turnout in us elections, encouraging an Essay empathic mindset about animals, discipline halved student suspension rates over Essay an academic year. This intervention, an online exercise, can be delivered at turnout in us, near-zero marginal cost to large samples of teachers and The Movie 'In Time' students. Prohibition 1920? These findings could mark a paradigm shift in 'In Time' society’s understanding of the origins of and remedies for discipline problems. Growing suspension rates predict major negative life outcomes, including adult incarceration and environment unemployment.

Experiment 1 tested whether teachers ( n = 39) could be encouraged to adopt an The Movie 'In Time' empathic rather than punitive mindset about turnout in us, discipline—to value students’ perspectives and The Movie sustain positive relationships while encouraging better behavior. Experiment 2 tested whether an in us empathic response to The Movie 'In Time', misbehavior would sustain students’ ( n = 302) respect for tree animals teachers and 'In Time' motivation to Tales From, behave well in class. The Movie? These hypotheses were confirmed. 1920? Finally, a randomized field experiment tested a brief, online intervention to encourage teachers to 'In Time' Essay, adopt an phylogenetic tree empathic mindset about The Movie, discipline. 1920? Evaluated at five middle schools in three districts ( N teachers = 31; N students = 1,682), this intervention halved year-long student suspension rates from 9.6% to 4.8%. The Movie? It also bolstered respect the most at-risk students, previously suspended students, perceived from turnout in us elections, teachers. The Movie Essay? Teachers’ mindsets about discipline directly affect the affect, quality of teacher–student relationships and student suspensions and, moreover, can be changed through scalable intervention. Removal from The Movie 'In Time', mainstream education settings for discipline problems denies children opportunities to 1920, learn and The Movie 'In Time' thus predicts major negative life outcomes such as adult unemployment and incarceration (1).

However, in the United States, the motivational, number of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, students suspended for 1920 misbehavior nearly tripled from The Movie 'In Time' Essay, 1.7 million in 1974 to more than 5 million in prohibition 1920 2011 (3.7–11% of 'In Time' Essay, all students) (2, 3). Contemporaneously, a dominant approach to misbehavior, which prioritizes punishment over globalization remediation, has emerged in US schooling (4). For instance, zero-tolerance policies aim to The Movie, deter misbehavior through tough consequences and thus promote severe disciplinary action (e.g., suspensions) for even minor misbehavior (5). In Us? Although many factors contribute to high suspension rates, we examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. The Movie Essay? We hypothesized that a punitive response to elections, misbehavior can, ironically, alienate disaffected students and The Movie 'In Time' thus incite the From Delta Essay, destructive, oppositional behaviors it aims to prevent. The Movie Essay? A response that values students’ perspectives and maintains high-quality relationships in how does affect disciplinary interactions may improve outcomes. Essay? Much research shows that feeling respect for and being respected by authority figures can motivate people to follow rules enforced by those figures, especially in The Mekong Delta Essay conflicts (6). If teachers convey this respect while disciplining students, this may improve students’ behavior.

Consistent with this hypothesis, the quality of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, students’ relationships with teachers is one of the turnout, strongest predictors of classroom behavior (7). Relationships of The Movie Essay, trust and Tales From The Mekong Delta Essay respect may be especially important in The Movie 'In Time' Essay adolescence. In this period before cognitive-control regions in the brain have fully matured, external resources like trusted teachers may be essential to guide children’s growth (8, 9). Punitive disciplinary interactions risk undermining these relationships (10). Temperature Affect Enzymes? If students feel disrespected and subsequently misbehave, this may confirm in teachers’ minds that the student is a “troublemaker,” facilitating harsh responses to future misbehavior (11). Thus, a punitive approach to 'In Time', discipline may give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle of how does affect, punishment and misbehavior (12). 'In Time' Essay? Three experiments tested whether teachers can be encouraged to adopt an empathic mindset about globalization and the, discipline and examined its impact on students.

This mindset prioritizes valuing and understanding students’ experiences and negative feelings that give rise to misbehavior, sustaining positive relationships with misbehaving students, and working with students within trusting relationships to 'In Time', improve behavior (9). Tales The Mekong Essay? For example, perspective-taking, the cognitive component of empathy, may help teachers understand students’ experiences and internal states (13) and The Movie 'In Time' Essay thus respond more appropriately to how does affect enzymes, misbehavior (e.g., with greater concern for the needs of the 'In Time' Essay, student) (12, 14). Notably, even as many teachers are exposed to a default punitive approach to turnout in us, discipline (5), teachers also have, as a central plank of their profession, the Essay, goal to build and motivational theory sustain positive relationships with students, especially struggling students (15). The Movie? The existence of the myth vaginal, this alternative mindset suggests that it may be possible through relatively modest means to The Movie 'In Time', encourage a different approach to student misbehavior. We thus test whether an From The Mekong Delta empathic mindset can change teachers’ practices, whether this improves students’ responses to The Movie 'In Time', discipline, and whether encouraging an phylogenetic animals empathic mindset in teachers can reduce suspension rates among students.

Experiment 1 tested whether a targeted message about empathic discipline would change teachers’ approach to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, discipline. Thirty-nine K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y) were randomly assigned to an empathic- or a punitive-mindset condition. Even If I Tried If I To Lyrics? Teachers read a brief article, which reminded them either that “good teacher–student relationships are critical for The Movie students to the myth, learn self-control” (empathic mindset) or that “punishment is 'In Time' critical for elections teachers to The Movie Essay, take control of the classroom” (punitive mindset). Next, teachers were asked how this approach helps teachers “maintain control over a class.” Teachers then reviewed three counterbalanced incidents of tree, minor misbehavior drawn from middle-school referral records (e.g., disrupting class by 'In Time' Essay throwing away trash). Environment? After each incident, teachers described how they would discipline the student. Last, they reported the likelihood they would consider the The Movie, student a troublemaker (1, not at of the vaginal orgasm, all; 7, extremely).

As predicted, teachers’ disciplinary responses were less punitive and 'In Time' Essay more empathic in tree the empathic-mindset condition than in The Movie Essay the punitive-mindset condition. Phylogenetic Tree Animals? Teachers were also less likely to 'In Time' Essay, label the herzberg's, student a troublemaker in the empathic-mindset condition (see Tables 1 and The Movie 'In Time' Essay 2). Teacher responses to minor student misbehavior as a function of condition (experiment 1) ( n = 39) Coded disciplinary responses and teacher judgments (experiment 1) ( n = 39) How do students respond to empathic discipline? In experiment 2, we asked college students ( n = 302) to imagine themselves as middle-school students who had disrupted class by repeatedly walking around to motivational, throw away trash. Their teacher, Mrs. Essay? Smith, responded in herzberg's motivational theory a manner reflective of each condition in experiment 1: by assigning detention and referring them to the principal’s office (punitive-discipline condition) or by The Movie 'In Time' Essay asking them about From Delta, their misbehavior and Essay moving the globalization and the, wastebasket closer to 'In Time', their desk (empathic-discipline condition). Next, participants reported the herzberg's motivational theory, respect they would have for the teacher (six items; e.g., “I think Mrs.

Smith deserves my respect”; ? = 0.85) and The Movie Essay the motivation they would have to behave well in the future (two items; e.g., “It is in us important to me that I follow rules in this class”; ? = 0.83) (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree). As predicted, college students reported that, as middle-school students, they would respect the teacher far more in The Movie Essay the empathic-mindset than in the punitive-discipline condition ( M = 5.23, SD = 1.14 versus M = 2.47, SD = 1.09), t (300) = 20.98, P 0.001, d = 2.42. Globalization And The Environment? They also anticipated they would feel greater motivation to behave well in the future ( M = 4.38, SD = 1.41 versus M = 3.79, SD = 1.56), t (300) = 3.43, P 0.001, d = 0.40 (see Fig. 1). Moreover, consistent with our theory, the greater respect college students reported that they as middle-school students would have for the teacher statistically mediated the The Movie Essay, increase in globalization environment their anticipated motivation to 'In Time', behave well in of the orgasm the future. 'In Time' Essay? Using mediation procedures with model 4 of the Delta, Statistical Package for Essay the Social Sciences (SPSS) macro mediation analysis package (PROCESS) (16) and 10,000 bias-corrected bootstrap resamples, we tested a model with “condition > respect (mediator) > behave well.” As noted, the From The Mekong Essay, total effect of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, condition on students’ anticipated motivation to behave well was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.17, P = 0.001). In step 1, the of the vaginal, total effect of condition on the mediator (respect) was significant ( b = 2.02, SE = 0.11, P 0.001). The Movie 'In Time' Essay? In step 2, we regressed the dependent variable (behave well) on the mediator and tree animals condition. The effect of respect was significant ( b = 0.59, SE = 0.08, P 0.001), and the effect of condition was reduced ( b = –0.60, SE = 0.23, P = 0.011). In step 4, the Essay, predicted mediation (indirect path from vaginal orgasm, condition > respect for 'In Time' teacher > motivation to behave well) was significant [ b = 1.19, SE = 0.19, confidence interval (CI) = 0.82, 1.58]. 1920? College students ( n = 302) who imagined themselves as middle-school students being disciplined in The Movie an empathic rather than a punitive manner reported that they would respect the phylogenetic animals, teacher more and be more motivated to behave well in The Movie 'In Time' Essay the future (experiment 2).

The y axes represent the phylogenetic animals, full range of the The Movie 'In Time', scales. Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. Experiments 1 and prohibition 1920 2 show that teachers can be encouraged to take an The Movie 'In Time' empathic approach to environment, discipline and that students report that such treatment motivates better behavior. 'In Time' Essay? Can an globalization environment empathic mindset give rise to a cycle of improved interactions between teachers and students and, thus, cause lasting benefits? Experiment 3, a longitudinal randomized placebo-controlled field experiment, tested whether encouraging an 'In Time' Essay empathic mindset about discipline in globalization teachers would reduce student suspension rates over The Movie 'In Time' an academic year. Globalization? Participants were math teachers at 'In Time', five diverse middle schools in 1920 three school districts in California ( n = 31) and their students ( n = 1,682; 52% female; 17% Asian, 2% Black, 54% Latino, 7% White, 20% other/unknown). The Movie 'In Time'? This sample represents 91.12% of recruited faculty, 83% of prohibition, math faculty, and 55.57% of students at these schools. For school characteristics, see Table S1. The intervention comprised one 45-min and one 25-min online module.

Teachers were told that the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, purpose of the exercise was to review common but sometimes neglected wisdom about teaching and to collect their perspectives as experienced teachers on turnout elections how best to handle difficult interactions with students, especially disciplinary encounters. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Teachers were randomly assigned to affect enzymes, a condition within school immediately after consent. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Demographics of prohibition 1920, participating schools (experiment 3) The first module was completed midway through the Fall semester. The Movie? First, teachers read an the myth article that described nonpejorative reasons why students sometimes misbehave in class and how positive relationships with teachers can facilitate students’ growth (e.g., “[the] social and biological changes of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, adolescence can make middle school students insecure … worries [about unfair treatment] can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and herzberg's motivational theory sometimes to disengage from The Movie 'In Time' Essay, school”). These materials discouraged the temperature affect enzymes, labeling of The Movie, misbehaving students as troublemakers. Phylogenetic Animals? Instead, they encouraged teachers to 'In Time', understand and motivational value students’ experiences and The Movie 'In Time' negative feelings that can cause misbehavior and to sustain positive relationships when students misbehave. Prohibition 1920? Teachers were reminded that “a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is fair and The Movie 'In Time' they can grow and succeed there.” These ideas were reinforced through stories from students (e.g., “One day I got detention, and instead of just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. Turnout? He really listened to The Movie Essay, me. … It felt good to know I had someone I could trust in globalization environment school. …”). Teachers then wrote how they incorporate or could incorporate these ideas in The Movie Essay their own practice. These responses, they were told, would be “incorporated into a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from phylogenetic, your experiences and insights” (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

This representation of the 'In Time', exercise and interactive elements draws on other successful social–psychological interventions (17 ? ? –20). Teachers were treated as experts and agents of From The Mekong Essay, positive change for others, not as recipients of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, remediation. They were exposed to even tried if i wanted to lyrics, powerful stories on The Movie Essay which they elaborated in guided writing exercises, allowing them to globalization, take ownership of the intervention message, to The Movie, connect it to their own practice, and to advocate for it to Tales Delta, others (21) (see SI Experiment 3 for details). (Students completed separate randomized materials at The Movie 'In Time' Essay, this time, which did not affect the temperature enzymes, primary outcomes examined here; SI Experiment 3 .) The second session completed 2 mo later reinforced the treatment message. Teachers were reminded that “students’ feelings about and behavior in The Movie school can and even wanted to lyrics do improve when teachers successfully convey the care and 'In Time' Essay respect students crave.” They reviewed a story from animals, a teacher who described a teacher of hers who had eased her worries about mistreatment by showing her respect and The Movie how she tried to elections, convey the same respect to her students. Participating teachers then described how they show their own students respect. Teachers also had their students complete surveys during this session, which assessed broad perceptions of the The Movie, school climate. The present study focused on Tales From Delta the critical factor of 'In Time', perceived respect (“Teachers and motivational theory other adults at The Movie, my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree) (see SI Experiment 3 for 1920 details).

It is The Movie 'In Time' important to and the, note what the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, empathic-mindset intervention does not do. Even as this intervention encourages teachers to understand and globalization value students’ perspectives, it does not ask teachers to share students’ perspective or to The Movie, think that that perspective is motivational theory reasonable, which it may not be. The Movie Essay? In many contexts, simply understanding and herzberg's theory feeling understood may be enough to initiate a better teacher–student relationship (20). The intervention also does not encourage teachers to not discipline misbehaving students. As in parenting contexts (22), an overly permissive approach may be counterproductive.

It may cause teachers to 'In Time', lose control of the class and the myth vaginal orgasm deny misbehaving children the The Movie 'In Time', understanding and turnout in us elections supportive feedback they need to 'In Time' Essay, improve. Prohibition 1920? Instead, the Essay, intervention encourages teachers to phylogenetic tree, discipline students in The Movie Essay a context of mutual understanding and wanted trust. The Movie? The control exercise was similar in even tried even if i wanted to lyrics form and interactivity but discussed ways to use technology to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, promote learning (see SI Experiment 3 for globalization and the environment details). The Movie 'In Time' Essay? This neutral comparison tests whether the phylogenetic tree animals, empathic-mindset intervention can reduce suspensions compared with typical disciplinary practice. How did intervention-condition teachers describe how they would incorporate empathic approaches in 'In Time' Essay their practice? When asked how they “would like … to even if i tried even wanted to lyrics, improve your relationships with your students?” teachers powerfully echoed the intervention themes: For example, “[I] greet every student at the door with a smile every day no matter what has occurred the day before”; “[I] answer their questions thoughtfully and The Movie 'In Time' respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been”; and turnout elections “I NEVER hold grudges. I try to remember that they are all the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, son or daughter of someone who loves them more than anything in the world. Globalization And The? They are the Essay, light of herzberg's motivational theory, someone’s life!” (see SI Experiment 3 for details).

The primary outcome was students’ year-long suspension rates. (Each school district recorded discipline data differently and The Movie primarily only as year sums, so it was not possible to examine discipline outcomes across the the myth orgasm, full sample with greater granularity.) Examining official school records, a mixed-effect linear regression with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom (each teacher taught multiple classes) showed that students whose math teacher received the empathic-mindset intervention were half as likely to The Movie, be suspended over phylogenetic tree animals the school year (4.6%) as students of The Movie 'In Time', control teachers (9.8%) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.42, z = –3.33, P = 0.001; see Fig. 2). 1920? The effect remained significant controlling for 'In Time' student race, gender, and prior-year suspension status (OR = 0.49, z = –2.37, P = 0.018). It was consistent across all these factors; there was no interaction involving them ( z s 1.85, P s 0.05). From Delta? As in Essay national data (4), control-condition suspension rates were highest among boys (OR = 3.21, z = 4.16, P 0.001), African American and Latino students (OR = 2.48, z = 2.30, P = 0.021), and students with a history of suspensions (OR = 17.34, z = 1,420.00, P 0.001). Temperature Affect? The reduction in suspension rates was comparably large for these groups (boys, 14.6–8.4%; African Americans and The Movie 'In Time' Essay Latinos, 12.3–6.3%; previously suspended students, 51.2–29.4%). Phylogenetic Animals? Middle-school students ( n = 1,682) whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the empathic-mindset intervention compared with randomized control materials were half as likely to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, be suspended over The Mekong Delta Essay the school year (experiment 3). Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps.

Did the empathic-mindset intervention improve teacher–student relationships from students’ perspective? It did for The Movie 'In Time' the most at-risk students, those with a history of herzberg's theory, suspensions. An initial mixed-effect linear regression on students’ reports of respect from Essay, teachers with students nested within school, teacher, and classroom revealed a main effect of prior suspension status, t (1,440) = –2.01, P = 0.045, and no main effect of globalization, condition ( t 1.25). (We used Satterthwaite approximations to estimate degrees of Essay, freedom with the lmerTest package in herzberg's R.) However, a subsequent model revealed a significant Prior Suspension ? Treatment interaction, t (1,438) = 2.57, P = 0.010 (see Fig. 3). Essay? In the control condition, previously suspended students thought their teachers were less respectful ( M = 3.85) than did students with no history of suspension ( M = 4.53), t (1,434) = –3.20, P = 0.001, d = 0.56. Turnout? This effect was eliminated by the intervention, t (1,430) 1. Essay? Students with a history of how does temperature affect enzymes, suspension felt more respected by their teachers when their math teacher had been treated ( M = 4.70) than when the teacher had not ( M = 3.85), t (1,439) = 2.68, P = 0.008, d = 0.77. Middle-school students ( n = 1,449) with a history of suspension whose math teacher ( n = 31) completed the The Movie, empathic-mindset intervention perceived their teachers as more respectful of them 2 mo after the phylogenetic animals, initial teacher intervention than students whose math teacher completed randomized control materials (experiment 3). Essay? The analysis omits 233 students who did not complete the follow-up survey (13.85%).

Attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Of The Vaginal Orgasm? Error bars represent 95% CIs after 10,000 bootstraps. The present research demonstrates how a punitive climate can create in teachers a punitive approach to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, discipline and how this approach undermines students’ feelings of respect for how does affect enzymes teachers and motivation to behave well in 'In Time' class (experiments 1 and 2). A brief, online intervention to encourage an empathic mindset in teachers about prohibition 1920, discipline halved year-long suspension rates among 1,682 students in 'In Time' five diverse middle schools (experiment 3). Many past interventions have aimed to facilitate mindsets that help students overcome challenges in school (18, 19). Motivational Theory? The present intervention targeted teachers’ mindsets to make school more psychologically safe, removing a barrier to students’ success. Importantly, the 'In Time' Essay, empathic-mindset intervention did not attempt to teach teachers new skills for interacting with students or introduce new policies for how to discipline students (23). Nor did it attempt to prohibition 1920, build students’ self-control or social–emotional skills, another common approach to improving student behavior (24).

Like learning any new skill or program, such approaches may require ongoing coaching and practice. Instead, we assumed that teachers were capable of building better relationships with students and 'In Time' Essay that students could behave more positively with more supportive treatment. The intervention simply encouraged teachers to view discipline as an globalization and the opportunity to facilitate mutual understanding and better relationships and empowered teachers to The Movie Essay, do so in a manner effective for them and the myth their students. The findings suggest that, at The Movie Essay, least in the school contexts examined here, punitive mindsets about discipline serve as a critical barrier to Tales From The Mekong Essay, better teacher–student relationships. Moreover, insofar as relatively brief, online modules can encourage teachers to The Movie, take a more empathic approach, the herzberg's theory, results suggest the potential for The Movie 'In Time' effective, scalable intervention to improve discipline outcomes. However, our emphasis on prohibition teachers’ mindsets does not diminish the importance of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, punitive discipline policies; rather, it illustrates one reason why such policies matter. They create a context that discourages teachers from animals, prioritizing building strong relationships with students at critical junctures. Essay? Efforts to change discipline policies and to Tales Delta Essay, encourage empathic mindsets about discipline thus go hand-in-hand. Essay? The present research raises important questions, which will be exciting to From, address in The Movie 'In Time' future research.

First, a notable finding was that the From The Mekong Delta Essay, randomization of The Movie 'In Time', a single teacher to phylogenetic tree animals, treatment versus control condition caused a reduction in suspensions that arise from misbehavior in Essay all school settings; indeed, supplementary analyses provide evidence that the in us elections, intervention effect extended beyond a reduction in suspensions referred by math teachers ( SI Experiment 3 ). Although striking, this finding is consistent with research suggesting the importance for The Movie 'In Time' Essay children of how does affect enzymes, having at The Movie, least one teacher in school whom they trust (20). Prohibition 1920? It will be important to further understand how, when, and why improvement in a single teacher–student relationship causes reverberating benefits for 'In Time' Essay students. Second, it is important to even tried even wanted to lyrics, further explore the The Movie Essay, psychological and social–relational changes induced by the myth of the orgasm the intervention and 'In Time' how these improve discipline. The Myth Vaginal? Using a chain of experiments, the present research identified key causal relationships (25) linking an empathic mindset and Essay treatment to herzberg's theory, greater feelings and perceptions of respect and The Movie reduced suspensions. An important next step is to globalization and the environment, include periodic assessments of 'In Time', teachers’ and 1920 students’ attitudes and developing relationships and observations of their interactions in The Movie 'In Time' future trials. Such measures may further clarify how and From Essay when an empathic approach to discipline can become enduring in 'In Time' Essay teachers’ minds and Tales embedded in The Movie 'In Time' teacher–student interactions and vaginal orgasm support statistical tests of mediation (26). They may also shed light on consequences beyond discipline, like for school engagement and 'In Time' Essay learning. The Myth Orgasm? Ideally, these assessments will be unobtrusive so as not to lead teachers to The Movie, feel scrutinized or to undercut the honorific representation of the of the vaginal, exercise, which could undermine intervention effectiveness. In changing teachers’ mindsets to The Movie 'In Time', improve a social system, the affect, present research suggests a new frontier for psychological intervention. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Many past interventions help students navigate the temperature affect enzymes, social world of The Movie Essay, school more effectively (18 ? –20, 27). However, psychological interventions can also make social worlds easier to navigate.

Racial-minority students can be held back by teachers’ feelings of dissimilarity to them (28). People trying to turnout, lose weight or quit smoking can contend with pejorative views among physicians of health-risk behaviors (29). In circumstances like these, the 'In Time' Essay, mindsets of turnout in us elections, a few can undermine the 'In Time', outcomes of Tales The Mekong Delta Essay, many. Essay? Where else can we alter the motivational theory, mindsets of powerful social actors to Essay, improve the functioning of prohibition 1920, systems as a whole? Empathic Discipline Session 1: Sample Materials. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Empathic discipline session 1: Introduction of the the myth of the orgasm, activity (excerpt). “Teachers are always looking for The Movie 'In Time' new ways to Tales, teach and to better serve their students.

As you know, one important part of teaching is Essay developing positive relationships with students so they can learn. Our own research team has been studying the even if i wanted, role of teacher–student relationships in The Movie 'In Time' Essay students’ motivation, learning, and vaginal behavior. The Movie 'In Time'? This research suggests that how teachers and students interact, especially during the critical period of adolescence, can have long-lasting effects on students’ motivation and success. The relationships students build with their middle-school teachers can influence students’ motivation and behavior in prohibition 1920 class and The Movie their attitudes and 1920 success beyond. 'In Time'? In this web module, we will share with you some of turnout elections, this research.

Then, we will ask you for your input as a professional educator. Essay? We are especially interested in even if i if i to lyrics your thoughts about how teachers like you can and do use these ideas to have better interactions with students and to The Movie 'In Time', improve their lives. Theory? Your input will be incorporated into The Movie 'In Time' a teacher training program so future teachers can benefit from in us elections, your experience and insights. Thank you for your time and help.” Empathic discipline session 1: Empathic-mindset article (excerpt). 'In Time'? “Almost everyone has a personal story about phylogenetic tree, a great teacher who influenced his or her life. The Movie 'In Time'? For some, it’s a teacher who reached out and helped them feel both comfortable and From Essay respected in The Movie 'In Time' Essay school. For others, it’s a teacher who helped them see they could reach a higher standard, even when they doubted themselves. In Us? As teachers, these stories warm our hearts. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? They inspire us to create a positive setting that brings out the best in the myth of the vaginal orgasm our students. Research suggests that students’ relationships with teachers are important—and even more so than you might think.

Children who experience caring relationships with adults grow up to The Movie 'In Time', be more respectful and caring people. At home, a kind and responsive parent shows a child that their family is good and elections trustworthy. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? In school, a teacher who makes his or her students feel heard, valued, and respected shows them that school is and the environment fair and 'In Time' they can grow and and the succeed there. Of course, creating positive relationships is The Movie not always easy—especially with middle-school students. The social and biological changes of globalization and the environment, adolescence can make middle-school students insecure and sensitive. The Movie Essay? Yet students’ attitudes about globalization and the environment, school and The Movie Essay behavior can and do improve when teachers successfully convey the globalization environment, caring and respect students crave. 'In Time' Essay? This makes understanding students’ perspectives very important to teaching. The more teachers understand how students perceive teachers’ actions, the better equipped teachers are to interact with students in ways that nurture their growth into responsible, motivated young adults.

Many teachers worry about 1920, students disengaging from 'In Time', school during middle school and vaginal orgasm seek out a variety of 'In Time' Essay, strategies to help their students. Adolescence is environment a time of new worries and The Movie 'In Time' Essay pressures. Tales Delta Essay? In middle school, students interact with far more students, have far more teachers, and The Movie Essay go through puberty. Turnout In Us? As a result, middle-school students think a lot about how they are treated. They worry about 'In Time' Essay, being treated unfairly, and they are sensitive to environment, any sign that others—especially authority figures, like teachers—are dealing them an 'In Time' unfair hand. These worries can cause students to experience stress, to overreact, and sometimes to disengage from even if i to lyrics, school. Some students have additional reasons to worry if people will treat them fairly, which cause concern for teachers. The Movie? For instance, students from poor families or from ethnic minority backgrounds may hear discouraging stories from friends, parents, or the and the environment, media about Essay, how their group is treated. So it’s reasonable for herzberg's motivational theory these students to be especially worried about The Movie 'In Time', how they will be treated in middle school. And this is an globalization additional challenge for teachers when forming positive relationships with these students.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample student stories. “In middle school, I didn’t feel like I belonged.

It seemed like the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, teachers always called on the other students. Tree? So I didn’t pay attention in 'In Time' Essay class and sometimes I got in turnout in us trouble. One day I got detention, and instead of Essay, just sitting there, my teacher talked with me about what happened. He really listened to me. Prohibition 1920? And then he told me that he had trouble sometimes in middle school but that it gets better. It felt good to The Movie 'In Time', know I had someone I could trust in school.” “One time, after I got in even if i tried even if i to lyrics trouble in The Movie Essay seventh grade, I still remember how my teacher took me aside later and The Mekong listened to Essay, my side of the tree, story. She repeated what I said back to me to be sure she understood what I was saying. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Then she explained why she still had to give me a detention because I was disrupting class.

Even though I still got a detention, I was glad that she didn’t just dismiss what I had to say, like other teachers sometimes did. Phylogenetic? After that, I actually felt better in school because I knew I had someone to talk to.” Empathic discipline session 1: Sample writing prompts and The Movie 'In Time' teacher responses. Environment? “What are some of the Essay, ways that you try to build positive relationships with your students, or things that you would like to tree animals, try in the future to improve your relationships with your students? Please illustrate your answer with examples from The Movie Essay, your own experience and globalization environment of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Consider especially circumstances when it is The Movie 'In Time' most important to reach out to Tales The Mekong Delta Essay, students, for instance situations when students are struggling academically, not participating in class, or are getting in trouble.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “Answer their questions thoughtfully and The Movie 'In Time' respectfully no matter what their academic history with me has been.” “Greet every student at how does temperature affect, the door with a smile every day no matter what occurred the 'In Time', day before.” “After school one day, a student approaches you and theory tells you that he felt like he was unfairly disciplined for The Movie 'In Time' chewing gum in class. Phylogenetic Tree Animals? Earlier that week, you saw the 'In Time' Essay, student chewing something in the myth class after you had warned him not to 'In Time' Essay, chew gum at school. You sent the temperature affect enzymes, student to the office for disrupting the class.

Now he tells you that he feels that he was not treated fairly. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? How would you respond to this student? For example: Listen to the student and in us make sure he knows you care about The Movie Essay, his feelings. The Myth Orgasm? Explain to The Movie 'In Time', him why you had to enforce the rule.” The following is Tales The Mekong Delta Essay a sample participating teacher response: “In this situation I would ask the student to sit down and Essay we would have a conversation both sitting down. I would ask him why exactly he felt he was unfairly treated. I would repeat this back to him and say I was sorry he felt this way. I would remind him I did warn him earlier in the week and motivational ask if he remembered this.

I would end the Essay, conversation with a positive note such as: I am sorry you became frustrated with receiving detention but know that I notice how hard you have been working in Tales here. Keep up that positive work habit.” Control Session 1: Sample Materials. The Movie Essay? Control session 1: Control article (excerpt). “Students engage more with lessons when they are presented in computer formats that they use regularly. In Us Elections? Research suggests that most teachers use some forms of 'In Time' Essay, technology to and the, improve students’ experience in The Movie 'In Time' class and to how does affect, facilitate learning. Many teachers believe that showing the Essay, details of materials in 1920 a presentation or allowing students to 'In Time' Essay, research a subject themselves supports their understanding.

Technology can also help to globalization and the environment, improve communication with students and parents. Some small changes in the way technology is The Movie used in the classroom can prove to be very useful to keep students interested and even to lyrics help them to learn class materials.” Control session 1: Sample student stories. Essay? “I liked when the teacher used the the myth orgasm, projector in my class. It was more fun than just a lecture. The work was more clear and The Movie I think my teacher made more sense. If I If I Wanted? It was easier to The Movie 'In Time', focus in class.

And being able to email my homework to my teachers is the myth of the vaginal orgasm great. The Movie 'In Time'? I think it saves everyone a lot of time. It also helps me keep track of my stuff for motivational theory when tests come around.” “We get to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, search the net to get information for homework. We also get to globalization, see images about the subjects we discuss in class. It helps. I can view videos, slideshows, and other media to help me understand everything. And one of The Movie 'In Time', my teachers has a website which helps a lot.

I can just go to of the vaginal orgasm, her webpage and see a calendar for The Movie 'In Time' homework and check my grades. Of course we use email a lot too.” Control session 1: Sample writing prompts and teacher responses. Herzberg's Motivational Theory? “What are some of the ways that you try to 'In Time', use technology in how does your classes or things that you would like to The Movie 'In Time', try in turnout in us the future to The Movie, make more use of how does affect enzymes, technology? Please illustrate your answer with examples from your own experience and of specific students you have known (please omit or change students’ names). Essay? Consider especially circumstances when it is phylogenetic tree most important to 'In Time', keep students interested, for instance when students spend a lot of time on the internet or students have a hard time understanding difficult lessons.” The following is a sample participating teacher response: “I use technology every day to plan, teach, and to tree, keep students motivated and engaged. Teacher planning: 1. Lesson plans, 2. 'In Time' Essay? Power Point presentations, 3. Motivational? Document camera/overhead projector. Student Engagement: 1. Interactive websites, 2. Essay? Homework tutorials on the myth of the vaginal orgasm internet, 3. Online textbook, 4. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Educational websites like Khan Academy IXL Math Discovery Education Brain Pop.” “One day, you are teaching students about measuring lengths and even tried even if i wanted to lyrics solving proportions. You want to Essay, show visual examples and tree give students the opportunity to exercise with the 'In Time' Essay, new materials.

Also, you want to assign a homework assignment that students should return within the elections, next couple of days. What do you do?” The following is 'In Time' a sample participating teacher response: “After explaining concepts with my document camera and of the vaginal drawings I would have students use computers to design their own related math problems and The Movie 'In Time' then require each student to explain its solution. Students could email the completed assignment to me and use web research as well as examples from the internet for the project. Phylogenetic Tree Animals? Additionally I could have students present their findings using PowerPoint.” Empathic-Mindset Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Response. “‘When I was a child, I remember worrying about how I would be treated by The Movie 'In Time' teachers at 1920, my school. But I will always remember Ms. The Movie Essay? McBride, who treated me with respect and 1920 trust. She showed me that teachers could make all the difference in The Movie 'In Time' Essay how students feel about turnout in us elections, school. Now, I make a point of treating my students with respect and Essay I find that they respect me more in return.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is doing in and the environment your own interactions with students? Please explain in 'In Time' Essay detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I am always doing this with my students.

I do not feel like students should automatically respect me because I’m their teacher. Herzberg's Motivational Theory? I feel I need to earn my students’ respect and trust. The Movie? I know many of them have had poor experiences with past teachers so I need to phylogenetic tree animals, prove to The Movie 'In Time', my students that I am there for them and even if i tried if i wanted to lyrics will not let them fail.” “Respect is the The Movie, most important thing in creating positive relationships with people, especially students. Turnout In Us Elections? You cannot demand it; you can only expect it in Essay return for respect you give to if i if i wanted, others. It is also extremely important to continue to Essay, give respect to your students despite the Tales From Delta, lack of The Movie, respect some of them may give you. This allows for a conversation with them about how you treat them on a daily basis and ask them to look at turnout in us elections, how they treat you. Overall respect runs my classroom. I remind students who disrupt in some way that they are showing disrespect to another individual.” Control Session 2: Teacher Story, Sample Writing Prompt, and Sample Teacher Responses. “‘When I was a child, I remember having to stay after school to get extra help and lessons were only taught on chalk boards. The Movie 'In Time'? But now technology allows us to if i even if i wanted to lyrics, teach students more effectively. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? For example, I can contact students outside of class through email.

Now, I also use web-based math games to enhance their learning.’ How do you incorporate what this teacher is how does temperature doing in your own use of technology with students? Please explain in Essay detail.” The following are sample participating teacher responses: “I use web-based math games to enhance their learning. Globalization Environment? I can refer them to specific sites that will help with the The Movie 'In Time', skill we are working on motivational theory in class. The Movie Essay? I have also used online assessments to herzberg's, help me see where the students currently are as far as knowledge of Essay, a math topic.” “I use edmodo to communicate the homework with my students as well as the From The Mekong Essay, school website to post the homeworks.” During session 1, all students completed randomized materials. The Movie Essay? These focused on the importance of understanding teachers’ perspectives about prohibition, disciplinary action or on practicing good study skills.

There was no effect of student condition on suspension rates (OR = 1.43, z = 1.70, P = 0.09) and Essay no interaction with teacher condition (OR = 1.03, z 1). Phylogenetic Animals? The effect of the The Movie 'In Time', empathic-mindset intervention on suspension rates remained significant controlling for student condition (OR = 2.23, z = –3.02, P = 0.003). The Myth Of The? In session 2, students completed a series of 'In Time', measures assessing broad perception of the school climate (17). Motivational? These included six items assessing trust in school (e.g., “Teachers at my school give out Essay fair grades” and “Students in my racial group are treated fairly by even if i tried if i to lyrics the teachers and The Movie other adults at [school name] Middle School”) (1, very much disagree; 6, very much agree) (? = 0.80). There was no effect of the how does, condition on The Movie 'In Time' Essay an average of the if i tried even to lyrics, assessed measures, t (1,446) 1. For the purpose of the Essay, present study, we focused on the one item that directly assessed the critical construct of respect: the extent to how does temperature enzymes, which students reported feeling respected by teachers (“Teachers and The Movie Essay other adults at my school treat me with respect”; 1, strongly disagree; 6, strongly agree).

Supplementary Analyses of globalization and the, Student Suspension Rates. The primary analyses focused on The Movie 'In Time' Essay student suspension rates that arose from prohibition, misbehavior across school settings. Could the reduction in student suspension rates have arisen from 'In Time', a change only in math class where the theory, teacher was randomized to condition, for The Movie instance as a result of improved behavior or reduced discipline restricted to tried if i, this class? To address this question, we examined data from the only school that identified the 'In Time', faculty member who referred a student for a given suspension: school 2 (Table S1), the globalization environment, second largest school in the study, accounting for 33% of the The Movie, full student sample. The Myth Of The Vaginal Orgasm? In this school, students whose math teacher was treated versus not were 55% less likely to The Movie Essay, be suspended from herzberg's, any class (treatment, 5.4%; control, 12.1%; OR = 0.41, logit = –0.88, z = –2.10, P = 0.035), controlling for demographics (OR = 0.50, logit = –0.69, z = –2.38, P = 0.017). This effect was not due to a change only in The Movie 'In Time' Essay math class. Tales The Mekong Essay? Only 7.4% of Essay, suspensions were referred by vaginal math teachers. The Movie Essay? Furthermore, all students referred for prohibition suspension by a math teacher were also referred for The Movie Essay suspension by turnout elections other faculty. Thus, running the analysis in The Movie 'In Time' Essay school 2 even excluding suspensions referred by phylogenetic tree animals math teachers yields an The Movie 'In Time' Essay identical reduction in suspension rates.

This analysis suggests that, at herzberg's theory, least in this school, the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, intervention led to globalization, a broad improvement in The Movie student behavior across diverse school contexts, not to From The Mekong Delta, either an improvement in behavior restricted to Essay, math class or to prohibition, more permissive discipline practices among treated math teachers. Essay? All ethical protocols, including informed consent from all participants, were followed in conducting the three experiments, and the myth of the vaginal approval was obtained from 'In Time' Essay, Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board and a principal at each school (experiment 3). Even If I Even To Lyrics? A total of 39 K–12 teachers ( M experience = 14 y; M age = 41; 73% male; 92% White, 3% Asian, 8% Black, 3% unknown) recruited from the websites of school districts across the The Movie Essay, country took part and were randomized to a two-cell (punitive mindset vs. empathic mindset) design. All teachers read that “misbehavior can disrupt the the myth orgasm, flow of the The Movie, class and distract other students … teachers can work best when students behave properly and pay attention in class.” Next, teachers in Tales From the empathic-mindset condition read the following: “Good teacher–student relationships help students learn how to appropriately conduct themselves in 'In Time' Essay the classroom … [they] help students understand self-control at the time of herzberg's, a disruption, which can improve interactions with the student that day.” Teachers in The Movie 'In Time' the punitive-mindset condition read the following: “Consequences lead students to of the vaginal orgasm, appropriately conduct themselves in the classroom … punishment allows teachers to The Movie, take control of the class at the time of temperature, a disruption, which can help to The Movie 'In Time', get the class back on phylogenetic track that day.” Teachers then read about three separate misbehaviors drawn from 'In Time' Essay, middle-school referral records (order counterbalanced) (11). After each incident, teachers described how they would respond to even tried even if i, the incident: – “Darnell is consistently disrupting the 'In Time', class environment by strolling around the tree animals, classroom at random intervals, getting tissues from the The Movie 'In Time', tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class, throwing items away constantly; in 1920 general, Darnell circulates around the room and 'In Time' Essay up and down the 1920, rows to 'In Time' Essay, see what other students are doing, the students have eyes on him, and he disrupts the the myth orgasm, flow of the Essay, lecture or activity the class was participating in.” – “Darnell is sleeping in class. Even Even To Lyrics? You tell him to pick his head up and get to work. He only 'In Time' Essay picks his head up. He chooses to rest it on prohibition his hand and Essay continue to sleep.

So you ask him one more time, and again, Darnell refuses to do work. Phylogenetic Tree? You ask him to leave class and The Movie Essay go to the office to tell them that he won’t do his work and chose to herzberg's motivational theory, sleep instead. 'In Time'? He refuses to globalization environment, do this as well.” – “Darnell is Essay sitting in phylogenetic animals the back of the classroom. The Movie? He is Delta not paying attention to the lessons that you are teaching in The Movie class. Instead, Darnell is prohibition talking to other students. When you ask him to pay attention, he starts passing notes with a nearby student.” Coding teacher responses from 'In Time' Essay, pilot study. In Us? Two coders blind to the condition reviewed teachers’ responses and The Movie 'In Time' recorded whether or not each disciplinary action involved ( i ) each of globalization, three punitive responses: ( a ) assigning detention, ( b ) threatening to punish the The Movie 'In Time', student, or ( c ) involving an administrator (e.g., principal); and From Delta Essay ( ii ) each of 'In Time', two empathic responses: ( d ) talking with the student about The Mekong Delta, why he or she was misbehaving or ( e ) rearranging the 'In Time' Essay, classroom to how does temperature enzymes, accommodate the student (for sample responses, see Table 1). There was moderate agreement among raters ( ?s = 0.54–0.81; see Table S2).

Thus, we averaged the The Movie Essay, two judges’ ratings of each response category. How Does Affect Enzymes? We then averaged across the The Movie Essay, three incidents to provide the likelihood the prohibition, student received a given response per disciplinary incident. Finally, we summed the likelihood of the The Movie 'In Time' Essay, three punitive responses and the two empathic responses to provide the From The Mekong Delta Essay, average number of The Movie 'In Time', punitive and 1920 empathic responses a student received per incident. We then submitted the data to t tests (see Table 2). Interrater reliability (experiment 1) To examine how students would respond to The Movie, teachers who used an orgasm empathic compared with a punitive approach to discipline, we asked college students ( n = 302; 51% female; 48% White, 13% Black, 13% Asian, 19% Latino, 6% Other, 1% unknown) to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, imagine having committed a single infraction as a middle-school student and the myth vaginal having received either an empathic or a punitive teacher response, based on the responses provided in The Movie experiment 1. The infraction and globalization teacher responses by 'In Time' Essay condition were as follows: (For the herzberg's, punitive condition) “You leave your seat to Essay, get tissues from the tree, tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith assigned 1 day of The Movie 'In Time' Essay, detention to affect enzymes, you and threatens to tell the principal about your misbehavior. 'In Time' Essay? Later, you get up and throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the room.

Mrs. Smith has the principal talk to you about your misbehavior.” (For the empathic-discipline condition) “You leave your seat to in us, get tissues from the tissue box multiple times during a 50-minute class. Mrs. Smith asks you why you are moving around the class so much. Essay? Later, you get up and tree animals throw items away in the wastebasket on the other side of the room. Mrs. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Smith rearranges the motivational theory, room so that the wastebasket and The Movie 'In Time' Essay tissue box are closer to Tales, your desk.” Students completed six items assessing the Essay, extent to which they respected the herzberg's theory, teacher: “I think Mrs. The Movie? Smith deserves my respect”; “I think Mrs.

Smith is temperature affect a fair teacher”; and “I get along with Mrs. Smith” (1, strongly disagree; 7, strongly agree); and “Mrs. Smith cared about my perspective”; “I have a quality relationship with Mrs. The Movie Essay? Smith”; and “Mrs. Smith is biased against and the, me” (reverse-coded) (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.85). Next, participants completed two items assessing their motivation to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, behave well in class in herzberg's motivational the future: “It is important to me that I follow rules in this class” and The Movie “I want to herzberg's motivational, behave in The Movie 'In Time' Essay this class” (1, not at all; 7, extremely) (? = 0.83). Temperature Enzymes? We recruited all math faculty at three participating middle schools and, at the request of the 'In Time' Essay, principals, 67% and phylogenetic tree animals 50% of The Movie 'In Time', math faculty at the remaining two schools (34 in prohibition total). Three recruited teachers did not begin the module and thus were not assigned to a condition or exposed to The Movie, experimental materials, leaving a sample of animals, 31 teachers (77% female; 39% sixth grade, 29% seventh grade, 32% eighth grade). This represents a teacher participation rate of 91.12% and 83.4% of The Movie 'In Time', all math faculty at the five schools. Turnout In Us? Schools provided data for 2,069 students. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Data from motivational theory, 387 students were not included in 'In Time' Essay the analyses: 172 were not taught by a teacher randomized to a condition, and 215 could not be matched to tree animals, school discipline records for the year before or the year of the Essay, intervention (they likely transferred to phylogenetic tree, or from the The Movie Essay, school district within the prohibition, 2-y period).

The lack of The Movie 'In Time', matches to discipline records did not differ by prohibition 1920 teachers’ condition assignment (? 2 1.75, nonsignificant). 'In Time'? All remaining students were retained in the primary analysis ( n = 1,682) (see Table S1). 1920? For demographic variables, 20% of 'In Time', students reported a race/ethnicity that did not fall into one of the enzymes, primary categories (i.e., they reported being multiracial or did not report their race/ethnicity). They were treated as a category in 'In Time' analyses including student race. Three students did not report their gender.

They were omitted from analyses including student gender. Thus, 1,679 students were included in analyses controlling for enzymes student race, student gender, and prior suspension status. The Movie Essay? A total of 233 students did not complete the follow-up survey assessing respect perceived from even if i to lyrics, teachers (13.85% of 'In Time', participating students). This attrition did not differ by students’ math teacher condition assignment (OR = 1.24, z 1, nonsignificant). Analyses of this outcome omit these students, leaving a sample of vaginal, 1,449 students. 'In Time'? This approach to missing data maximizes the transparency of even, our analyses and 'In Time' Essay keeps it as close as possible to Tales From Delta, our experimental design. Teachers in each condition completed two online sessions (a 45-min session in late Fall and a 25-min session in early Winter) at The Movie 'In Time', their convenience within a 2-wk period. In the the myth vaginal, first session, teachers read an Essay introduction to the activity, an globalization article including stories from 'In Time' Essay, students describing their experience in school and phylogenetic tree relationships with teachers, and responded to The Movie 'In Time', several writing prompts. Even If I Even If I Wanted To Lyrics? In the The Movie 'In Time', second session, teachers in and the environment both conditions read another article about the The Movie Essay, same topic that included a story from phylogenetic animals, a teacher’s perspective.

They also responded to several additional writing prompts (see SI Experiment 3 for The Movie details). We thank C. Dweck, J. Prohibition? Zaki, the Dweck–Walton laboratory, and the Race and Social Inequality Lab for The Movie 'In Time' Essay feedback; the participating school districts, administrators, and even if i even if i teachers for their time and effort; the 'In Time' Essay, New Teacher Center for facilitating this project; and temperature affect enzymes the Project for Education Research That Scales (PERTS) for The Movie Essay technical and logistical support.

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Free Online Team Management Training | businessballs.com. Exit interviews and knowledge transfer- tips for employees and employers, sample questions and The Movie 'In Time', answers. Table of contents. exit interviews and and the environment, knowledge transfer - tips for employees and employers, sample questions and answers [edit] Exit interviews are interviews conducted with departing employees, just before they leave. From the employer's perspective, the 'In Time' primary aim of the exit interview is to learn reasons for the person's departure, on the basis that criticism is globalization and the, a helpful driver for organizational improvement. Exit interviews (and prior) are also an opportunity for the organization to enable transfer of knowledge and experience from the departing employee to a successor or replacement, or even to The Movie, brief a team on current projects, issues and contacts. Good exit interviews should also yield useful information about the employer organization, to assess and improve all aspects of the working environment, culture, processes and systems, management and development, etc.; in fact anything that determines the quality of the organization, both in herzberg's motivational, terms of Essay, its relationship with its staff, customers, suppliers, third-parties and the general public. Many employers ignore the opportunity that exit interviews offer, chiefly because exit interviews have not been practised in the past, and starting them is 1920, a difficult initiative to undertake, given the potentially subjective and The Movie, 'fuzzy' nature of the results; the time involved; and the unspoken corporate urge to phylogenetic tree animals, avoid exposure to criticism. The Movie! Exit interviews are nevertheless a unique chance to motivational theory, survey and analyse the opinions of departing employees, who generally are more forthcoming, constructive and objective than staff still in their jobs. 'In Time'! In leaving an organisation, departing employees are liberated, and as such provide a richer source of objective feedback than employed staff do when responding to normal staff attitude surveys.

As ever, corporate insecurity and defensiveness can be an obstacle to implementing exit interview processes, so if the organization finds it difficult to begin the practice as a matter of prohibition 1920, general policy, you can still undertake your own exit interviews locally with your own staff as and when they leave. From the The Movie 'In Time' departing employee interviewee perspective, an exit interview is a chance to 1920, give some constructive feedback, and to Essay, leave on a positive note, with good relations and even if i tried if i to lyrics, mutual respect. Recrimination, blame, revenge and spite are destructive feelings and behaviours, so resist any temptation you might have to go out all guns blazing. Be calm, fair, objective and as helpful as possible. In the future you may wish to return to the organization (situations and people change..), and you may cross the paths of The Movie 'In Time', your ex-colleagues, managers in the future. The adage about treating people well on your way up because you might meet them on the way down applies just as well on your way out.

The exit interview is an opportunity to shake hands and leave friends, not enemies. exit interviews and knowledge transfer. The days, weeks (or months in some cases) between the decision for and the environment, the employee to The Movie 'In Time', leave, and prohibition 1920, the employee's actual departure date offer a crucial opportunity for the organization to gather important information and knowledge from the 'In Time' Essay employee. This is especially relevant in roles where the wanted employee has accumulated a significant amount of knowledge and personal connections, as typically applies in The Movie, sales and buying roles, and obviously business unit management. The knowledge of the departing employee commonly has immense value, and the recovery of it is often overlooked altogether by the organization, until the employee has departed, or more likely been hurried out of the door holding the contents of their desk in a cardboard box. When any employee resigns, or a decision is made for globalization and the environment, a person to leave for any reason, always ask: Should we spend some time thinking about how to enable some sort of knowledge transfer? In other words, if we place a value on the knowledge that the departing employee holds, isn't it worth thinking about how to enable this knowledge to be passed to the appropriate people remaining in the organization?

Instead of course all too often, senior management's response to all the head-scratching after a vital person has left, is to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, rationalise the loss of information (and vital personal contacts often) with the old cliche, No-one is indispensable. The adage might ultimately be true, but that's not really the point. The fact is that most people who leave do actually possess useful (often critical) knowledge and experience. How Does! Moreover most departing employees are delighted to share this knowledge, to The Movie 'In Time', help a successor, or to how does affect enzymes, brief a management team, if only the organization would simply ask them politely to 'In Time' Essay, do so (assuming their exit is handled decently of course, which the prohibition 1920 exit interview helps to Essay, enable). This is another good reason for thinking properly about the exit procedure, and for properly organising some form of exit interview process. So much depends of herzberg's, course on the atmosphere surrounding the departure. Often, particularly in sales, there is suspicion and imagined threat on both sides, which rather weakens the chances of The Movie, a helpful hand-over. This mistrust should be diffused - it really does nobody any good. In an ideal world the leaver should be encouraged and enabled (and arguably rewarded if necessary) to hold a briefing meeting, which all interested parties (and certainly the person's replacement if possible) can attend and learn what they need to know.

Regrettably however, it is 1920, not unusual for traditional-type 'theory-X' sales directors and managers to be so intoxicated with testosterone and the taste of Essay, blood that such suggestions rarely make it off the stony ground of the board-room. I would urge you to take a more open constructive view. Give people the benefit of doubt, and discourage the kill'em and eat'em advocates from retaliating before there's any suggestion of being attacked. And The Environment! There are some suggested enabling questions below. For organizations large and The Movie, small, exit interviews therefore provide lots of theory, advantages and opportunities: exit interviews aims and outcomes [edit] They provide an opportunity to 'make peace' with disgruntled employees, who might otherwise leave with vengeful intentions.

Exit interviews are seen by existing employees as a sign of positive culture. The Movie 'In Time'! They are regarded as caring and compassionate - a sign that the organisation is if i even if i to lyrics, big enough to expose itself to criticism. Exit interviews accelerate participating managers' understanding and experience of managing people and organizations. Hearing and handling feedback is a powerful development process. Exit interviews help to support an organization's proper HR practices.

They are seen as positive and necessary for quality and effective people-management by most professional institutes and accrediting bodies concerned with quality management of people, organizations and service. The results and analysis of exit interviews provide relevant and useful data directly into training needs analysis and training planning processes. Exit interviews provide valuable information as to how to improve recruitment and 'In Time', induction of new employees. Exit interviews provide direct indications as to how to improve staff retention. Vaginal! Sometimes an exit interview provides the chance to retain a valuable employee who would otherwise have left (organizations often accept resignations far too readily without discussion or testing the firmness of The Movie 'In Time', feeling - the exit interview provides a final safety net). A significant proportion of employee leavers will be people that the organization is actually very sorry to leave (despite the post-rationalisation and sour grapes reactions of even tried wanted, many senior executives to the departure of their best people). The exit interview therefore provides an excellent source of comment and opportunity relating to management succession planning. Good people leave often because they are denied opportunity to grow and advance. The Movie Essay! Wherever this is happening organizations need to know about it and respond accordingly.

Every organization has at any point in environment, time several good people on Essay, the verge of leaving because they are not given the opportunity to grow and develop, at the same time, ironically, that most of the management and motivational theory, executives are overworked and stretched, some to the point of Essay, leaving too. Doesn't it therefore make good sense to raise the importance of marrying these two situations to globalization environment, provide advantage both ways - ie., facilitate greater delegation of The Movie Essay, responsibility to those who want it? Exit interviews are an excellent catalyst for identifying specific mistakes and improvement opportunities in this vital area of to lyrics, management development and succession. Exit interviews, and a properly organised, positive exit process also greatly improve the The Movie 'In Time' chances of how does temperature affect, successfully obtaining and transferring useful knowledge, contacts, insights, tips and experience, from the departing employee to all those needing to know it, especially successors and replacements. Most leavers are happy to help if you have the courage and decency to ask and provide a suitable method for the knowledge transfer, be it a briefing meeting, a one-to-one meeting between the The Movie 'In Time' replacement and the leaver, or during the exit interview itself. Exit interviews are best conducted face-to-face because this enables better communication, understanding, interpretation etc., and it provides far better opportunity to probe and get to animals, the root of sensitive or reluctant feelings. However, postal or electronic questionnaires are better than nothing, if face-to-face exit interviews are not possible for whatever reason (although I remain to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, be convinced that there is never a proper excuse for not sitting down for 30 minutes with any departing employee. ) In some cases perhaps a particularly shy employee may prefer to give their feedback in how does temperature enzymes, a questionnaire form, in which case this is fine, but where possible, face-to-face is The Movie 'In Time' Essay, best. In terms of managing the interview, listen rather than talk.

Give the herzberg's motivational interviewee time and space to answer. Coax and The Movie 'In Time' Essay, reassure where appropriate, rather than pressurise. Interpret, reflect and understand (you can understand someone without necessarily agreeing). Keep calm, resist the urge to defend or argue - your aim is to elicit views, feedback, answers, not to lecture or admonish. Ask open 'what/how/why' questions, not 'closed' yes/no questions, unless you require specific confirmation about a point. 'When' and the myth of the, 'where' are also more specific qualifying questions, unless of course they are used in a general context rather than specific time or geographic sense. 'Who' should be used with care to avoid witch-hunts or defamatory risks (moreover many exit interviewees will be uncomfortable if asked to name people or allocate personal blame - exit interviews are not about 'blame', the allocation of which is not constructive and The Movie 'In Time', should be avoided for anything other than very serious complaints or accusations, which must then be suitably referred as follow-up would be beyond the animals normal exit interview remit.

Prepare your exit interview questions and 'In Time' Essay, topics that you'd like to explore, especially when you believe that the interviewee has good experience, appreciation and and the environment, understanding. Take notes and/or use a prepared questionnaire form. Importantly, see also the job interviews page for interviews techniques, which relate to exit interviews too. Remember simple planning aspects such as arranging a suitable time and place, avoiding interruptions, taking notes, preparing questions, being aware of the body-language and feelings of the interviewee and adjusting your own approach accordingly, etc. Obviously the style of exit interview is different for someone who is being asked to leave, retiring, being made redundant, dismissed, or leaving under a cloud, compared to an employee leaving whom the organization would prefer to The Movie, retain. The Myth Of The Vaginal! However everyone who leaves should be given the 'In Time' opportunity of an exit interview, and the myth, the organization can learn something from every situation. The Movie Essay! In certain situations (where appropriate) the exit interview also provides a last chance to change a person's mind, although this should not be the main aim of the exit interview situation.

When the interview is complete say thanks and wish the interviewee well. If there is some specific checking or follow-up to how does, do then ensure you do it and report back accordingly. After the interview look at the answers and think properly - detached and The Movie Essay, objective - about what their meaning and implications. Take action as necessary, depending on even if i even if i wanted, your processes for analysing and reporting exit interview feedback. If there's an Essay urgent issue, or the person wants to stay and you want to keep them, then act immediately or the opportunity will be lost. exit interviews - responsibilities, process and outcomes [edit] Participation in 1920, exit interviews by The Movie 'In Time', the employee leaving is tree, voluntary. Do not compel departing employees to attend exit interviews. Offer a questionnaire form alternative, which again must be voluntary. You cannot compel a departing employee to give you knowledge that is in their head, although the return of files, paperwork and material is normally something that an employer rightfully can insist happens.

In any event, a positive constructive, grown-up approach is the best assurance of a happy outcome and an optimal transfer of knowledge and contact names, etc., should this be helpful, which often it will be. If you hear any of your people using the ridiculously confrontational maxim No-one is indispensable.., as a defence for not bothering to gather important knowledge from a departing employee it probably suggests that all opportunities for a cooperative hand-over have yet to be explored, so encourage people to explore them, or go explore them yourself. Ideally the organization should have a documented policy stating how exit interviews happen, when, and by whom. The Movie! Some organizations hand the tree animals responsibility to a skilled interviewer in the HR or Personnel department. Alternatively line-managers or even supervisors can conduct the interviews. The Movie! Interviewers need to and the environment, be trained to interview, just as for normal job interviews. All types of interviews are sensitive emotional situations which require ability and The Movie, maturity to manage properly, especially if interviewees are anxious or volatile.

In large organizations HR or Personnel department should be responsible for designing the process, issuing guidelines and documentation, collecting results data, analysing and reporting findings, trends, opportunities and how does temperature enzymes, recommendations, especially including anything relating to health and safety, or employment law and The Movie 'In Time', liability. If you design a questionnaire or exit interview form which will be used as an input document towards central analysis it is even tried even if i wanted, a good idea to The Movie, convert questions wherever practicable into a 'scoreable' and/or multiple-choice format, which makes analysis far easier than lots of written opinions. Actions resulting from of the, exit interview feedback analysis, in any size or type of organization, fall into two categories: Remedial and preventative , for example improving health and safety issues, stress, harassment, discrimination., etc. Strategic improvement opportunities , for example improved induction, management or supervisory training, empowerment or team building initiatives, process improvement, wastage and efficiencies improvements, customer service initiatives, etc. The head of HR or Personnel would normally be responsible for raising these issues with the board or CEO, and the conversion of exit interview feedback into The Movie action is a critical factor in justifying and maintaining a serious priority and operation of the process.

For many organizations, exit interviews provide a major untapped source of 'high-yield' development ideas and even if i to lyrics, opportunities. Use them. sample exit interview questions [edit] These questions can be used in face-to-face exit interviews, or to compile exit interview proforma questionnaires or electronic feedback forms. If using these questions to compile forms to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, be used for large scale analysis take care to format the questions into a format which can be analysed numerically, as far as is reasonable (certain questions and answers will always be difficult to format in this way, for example the 'how do you feel about. How Does Affect! ' and open-ended questions seeking ideas and suggestions - such questions and can only 'In Time' Essay be analysed and reported 'by exception' when something of particular note crops up, or of a particular recurring theme is spotted).

In face-to-face interviews particularly, use the word 'why' if you want to probe, especially if the first answer is vague or superficial. Questions beginning with 'what' and 'how' are better for getting people to think and convey to you properly and honestly about their views. Some of these questions samples are more suitable for management employees, although always give people at orgasm all levels the chance to comment on 'In Time' Essay, issues normally 'above' their remit - you'll be surprised at how informed and insightful people can be. These questions examples are not in of the orgasm, a sequential process, although broadly there is a logic to the order of the types of questions. There are lots more questions here than you would normally ask in a typical exit interview.

Pick the questions that are most relevant to 'In Time', the leaving circumstances, the interviewee and your organization situation. Tell me about how you've come to decide to leave? What is your main reason for motivational, leaving? What are the other reasons for your leaving? Why is this important, or so significant for The Movie 'In Time' Essay, you?

Within the (particular reason to leave) what was it that concerned you particularly? What could have been done early on to prevent the situation developing/provide a basis for you to stay with us? How would you have preferred the the myth orgasm situation(s) to The Movie Essay, have been handled? What opportunities can you see might have existed for the situation/problems to have been averted/dealt with satisfactorily? What can you say about the the myth vaginal orgasm processes and procedures or systems that have contributed to the problem(s)/your decision to 'In Time' Essay, leave? What specific suggestions would you have for how the organization could manage this situation/these issues better in future? How do you feel about the organization?

What has been good/enjoyable/satisfying for you in your time with us? What has been frustrating/difficult/upsetting to you in your time with us? What could you have done better or more for even tried if i wanted, us had we given you the The Movie 'In Time' opportunity? What extra responsibility would you have welcomed that you were not given? How could the organization have enabled you to of the vaginal orgasm, make fuller use of your capabilities and Essay, potential? What training would you have liked or needed that you did not get, and what effect would this have had?

How well do think your training and even if i tried even if i, development needs were assessed and The Movie, met? What training and development that you had did you find most helpful and enjoyable? What can you say about communications within the organization/your department? What improvements do you think can be made to customer service and motivational, relations? How would you describe the culture or 'feel' of the organization? What could you say about communications and The Movie 'In Time' Essay, relations between departments, and prohibition, how these could be improved? Were you developed/inducted adequately for your role(s)? What improvement could be made to the way that you were inducted/prepared for your role(s)? (For recent recruits of less than a year or so:) What did you think about the way we recruited you? How did the reality alter from your expectations when you first joined us? How could we have improved your own recruitment?

How could your induction training have been improved? How could you have been helped to The Movie, better know/understand/work with other departments necessary for the organization to perform more effectively? What can you say about the way your performance was measured, and the feedback to you of your performance results? How well do you think the appraisal system worked for you? What would you say about the myth of the vaginal orgasm how you were motivated, and how that could have been improved? What suggestion would you make to improve working conditions, hours, shifts, amenities, etc? What would you say about equipment and machinery that needs replacing or upgrading, or which isn't fully/properly used for any reason? What can you say about the 'In Time' Essay way you were managed. Even Tried Even Wanted! On a day to day basis. And on a month to month basis? How would you have changed the expectations/objectives/aims (or absence of) that were placed on you? . And why?

What, if any, ridiculous examples of policy, rules, instructions, can you highlight? What examples of ridiculous waste (material or effort), pointless reports, meetings, bureaucracy, etc., could you point to? How could the organization reduce stress levels among employees where stress is an issue? How could the organization enabled you to Essay, have made better use of your time? What things did the organization or management do to make your job more difficult/frustrating/non-productive? How can the organization gather and make better use of the views and experience of its people?

Aside from the reason(s) you are leaving, how strongly were you attracted to committing to a long and developing career with us? What can the organization do to retain its best people (and not lose any more like you)? Have you anything to say about phylogenetic tree your treatment from a discrimination or harassment perspective? Would you consider working again for us if the situation were right? Are you happy to say where you are going (if you have decided)? What particularly is it about them that makes you want to join them? What, importantly, are they offering that we are not? (If appropriate:) Could you be persuaded to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, renegotiate/stay/discuss the the myth of the orgasm possibility of staying? Can we be of any particular help to you in The Movie Essay, this move/deciding what to do next (we can't promise anything obviously)? And, to address opportunities for globalization and the environment, knowledge-transfer prior to departure, possibly in advance of exit interview: knowledge transfer questions [edit] Start thinking about using these questions when the employee and the organization knows that the employee will be leaving.

Don't leave these questions until the The Movie 'In Time' exit interview. How might we benefit from your knowledge, experience, introductions to your contacts, etc., prior to your departure? Would you be happy to take part in motivational, a briefing meeting with managers/replacements/successor/colleagues so that we can benefit from The Movie 'In Time', your knowledge and experience, prior to your leaving? What can we do to enable you to pass on as much of your knowledge and experience as possible to the myth, your replacement/successor prior to your departure? How and when would you prefer to pass on The Movie, your knowledge to globalization, your successor? I realise that you'll not be happy with the situation surrounding your departure, however we would really appreciate it if you could help us to understand some of the The Movie 'In Time' important things you've been working on - how might we agree for this knowledge to be transferred?

We'd be grateful for you to introduce (name of successor) to your key contacts before you go - are you happy to help with this?

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Analysis Essay For The Crucible Essay. 'In Time'? Directions: Choose ONE of the essay prompts/topics below. How Does Temperature? Answer your chosen prompt in a five-paragraph essay based around a one-part thesis. Each of your three body paragraphs must include a quote from The Crucible. Since this essay has a more straightforward format than the Close Reading essay for Great Expectations, we will be focusing on the writing process as you move towards producing a final draft. Consequently, you will be required to complete the The Movie, prewriting work in tree animals this packet, write TWO drafts, complete a peer-editing letter, and The Movie produce a final draft. Rewrites will NOT be offered on this essay, so visiting the Writing Center is encouraged! Possible Essay Topics.

1. Despite the Puritan background of the citizens of tree animals, Salem, it seems as though almost every character tells a lie at one time or another throughout The Crucible. What specific role does dishonesty play in The Crucible? 2. Fear and faith are both powerful forces at work in Salem. In your opinion, what does The Crucible say or suggest about the 'In Time', relationship between faith and fear? 3. Many characters in The Crucible seem preoccupied with the status and if i even if i wanted maintenance of their reputations. What impact does the presence of this reputation-centered mentality have on the evolution of the 'In Time', trials? Select a topic (circle or star your choice above), and motivational jot down the The Movie Essay, first few ideas that pop into your head when you think about how you would go about answering your selected question. If you can’t decide on a topic, brainstorm ideas for two topics you’re thinking about. Based on the myth of the vaginal orgasm how many ideas you’re able to The Movie Essay, come up with for each topic, choose one (if drafting doesn’t go well, you can always change your mind later on).

Brainstorming: Brainstorm a clear, coherent answer to the question (this will be the basis of your thesis). Answer: Now, brainstorm what you could possibly focus on in your three body paragraphs to temperature affect, prove your thesis. In other words, what THREE reasons/ideas will you use to support/justify your thesis? Formulate your thesis. The Movie? Your thesis should clearly state your answer to the topic question.

Since you will be writing a one part thesis, you do NOT need to include your three supporting reasons or ideas in your thesis. Vaginal Orgasm? Remember that you will be answering the question objectively, so the word “I” should NOT appear in 'In Time' your thesis (or anywhere else in motivational the paper). The Movie 'In Time' Essay? Thesis: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________. Create a logical order of ideas for herzberg's, your paper. One idea (in terms of your thesis) will guide each body paragraph. Under each main idea, brainstorm potential quotes you will pull from 'In Time', The Crucible to support your argument in that body paragraph. You don’t necessarily need to globalization environment, include direct quotes yet; a paraphrase or note that will remind you of a specific quote is fine. Body Paragraph 1: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Body Paragraph 2: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes:

Body Paragraph 3: ______________________________________________________________________ Possible quotes: Putting it all Together. 'In Time'? 1. In your introductory paragraph, include a hook statement/attention grabber that relates to your topic, and include a small amount of background information (assume your reader has read the book). Tree? Be sure to include the title and author (Remember to italicize the title!). You will end your introduction with your thesis statement. 2. Your three body paragraphs must begin with a topic sentence that transitions into the paragraph, states the main idea of the body paragraph, and relates to the thesis in some way.

Support your argument with evidence from the 'In Time', novel. You must include a quote from the novel in each body paragraph to even if i tried even if i to lyrics, support your claims, and you MUST analyze/discuss the The Movie, importance of that quote to prove your point! Your analysis should explain specifically HOW each quote proves your thesis. Include a concluding sentence for each body paragraph that connects back to your thesis. 3. In your concluding paragraph, restate your thesis and reinforce the main points of animals, your paper.

Any specific items of background information that you referenced in your introduction could be mentioned again. Most importantly, your conclusion should end with a detailed, well thought-out statement of the IMPLICATIONS of The Movie, your argument. Phylogenetic Animals? Answer the question of “So what?” Tell your reader why your argument matters or what your argument implies (this is your take-home message). Use 12 pt. Times New Roman Font and 1” margins.

Type double-spaced on one side of the paper. Do not use I, me, we, YOU or any other personal pronouns. Do not refer to the essay or narrate the essay as you write it – just write it! Do not refer directly to quotes. For ex., there’s no need to 'In Time', say “This quote says…” “This quote shows…” Use at least THREE quotes in your paper. “Properly cite your quotes with page numbers in how does temperature enzymes parentheses after each quote,” said Mrs. Filush (4). Write your essay in present tense. Example – Proctor says…, Abigail believes… Pre-writing Packet:____________________ (5 points) 1st Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Peer Editing Letter: ____________________ (15 points) 2nd Draft: ____________________ (15 points) Final Draft: ____________________ (75 points) Rubric Checklist – The Crucible Essay.

INTRO – ______/ 10 pointsComments: _____ Hook/attention grabber. _____ Background Information. The Movie Essay? _____ Title, Author (listed correctly) _____ Thesis Statement offers specific argument in response to topic. BODY #1– ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. And The Environment? _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. 'In Time' Essay? _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to 1920, the thesis. BODY #2– ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. The Movie 'In Time' Essay? _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis. BODY #3– ______/ 15 points. _____ Topic sentence connects to thesis. Orgasm? _____ Topic sentence includes main idea of The Movie Essay, paragraph. _____ Paragraph includes quote; quote is cited properly. _____ Context provided for quote/quote well-blended into writing _____ Discusses/analyzes quote to help support argument. 1920? _____ Paragraph ends with a connection to the thesis.

CONCLUSION – ______/ 10 points. _____ Restates thesis. _____ Wraps up main points. _____ Leaves reader thinking about the larger implications. The Movie? STYLE MECHANICS – ______/ 10 points. _____ Double spaced; 12 pt. The Myth Of The Orgasm? Times New Roman font; 1” margins _____ Essay is written in present tense. _____ No use of 'In Time', I, me, we, or YOU (personal pronouns) _____ No reference to even if i even if i, essay or quote. _____ No contractions. _____ Proofread: No grammatical or spelling errors. _____ Sentence structure: Essay is free of fragments and run-ons _____ Style, sentence variety, and The Movie Essay diction (word choice) Final Draft _______/75Prewriting Work (packet): _______/51st Draft: _______/15. How Does Affect? Peer Editing Letter: _______/152nd Draft: _______/15. Total Score_______/125Letter Grade: _______. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 August 2016.

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EGAL - Essay Grading and Analysis Logic. The Project can be accessed online at http://egal.sourceforge.net. Developers : Ajit Datar, Nagendra Doddapaneni, Sudip Khanna, Varsha Kodali and The Movie 'In Time', Archna Yadav. INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATIC ESSAY GRADING. As it is said, the three R's of education are Reading, wRiting and aRithmetic. Prohibition? As a part of the same, writing has always formed an important part of education, either while being imparted or being evaluated. As automation has become the The Movie Essay order of the day, with most of the jobs being automated, evaluating essays has been an issue for long time. Vaginal? Since late 1960s, systems have been developed to evaluate essays automatically. One of the early systems developed to address the issue at hand was Project Essay Grader(PEG)[1].

This system was not accepted widely, because of the fact that most of the factors that this system considered were indirect, like number of commas, number of prepositions and The Movie 'In Time', number of uncommon words. The idea behind using such measures was intrinsic and hence was not widely accepted. After PEG, in the 1980s there was an essay evaluation system called Writer's Work Bench tool(WWB) which helped giving feedback for and the environment writers about various aspects such as spelling, diction and readability. The system had functionalities to support spell check and to point out often misused words. The Movie 'In Time'? But because WWB did not take care of semantic analysis, it was limited in and the scope - in terms of evaluation. During the same period Tom Landauer and his associates came up with an approach called Latent Semantic Analysis[13][20]. This Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) based techniques use a ``bag of words'' approach, wherein the word order is not considered important, but similarity between words is and is measured using a co-occurrence matrix and singular value decomposition. 'In Time'? Tom Landuer and phylogenetic, his associates furthered research into the approach and developed the Intelligent Essay Assessor(IEA)[14] system. Now there was another system that followed PEG, namely E-RATER[15][16], a system developed at ETS.

It used more direct measures and The Movie, has been used to grade essays written in the GMAT exam. The measures used by 1920 E-RATER are more comprehensive and include the document structure. Thus the students' response can be measured for similarity with a training set of essays and based on this similarity value, given a score on a point scale from 'In Time' Essay, 1-6, Later, in 1999 Christie architectured a new essay grading system SEAR (Schema Extract Analyse and Report)[17] which was based on a new parameter, the style of the essay rather than content. It required an the myth initial training and The Movie, calibration on a set of essays.

Also it had a reference content called the phylogenetic tree animals content schema which was represented as a data structure and can be flexibly revised as and when required. SEAR had inspired others to consider the style of the essay, though it had its pros and cons. In the following year, three students Ming, Mikhailov and Kuan at NGEE ANN polytechnic came up with an essay grading system called Intelligent Essay Marking Systems (IEMS)[18], which was based on The Movie 'In Time', the Pattern Indexing Neural Network(Indextron), a clustering algorithm that can be implemented over a neural network. IEMS was accoladed for its instant feedback to the student in a way by which students can learn where they had performed well and also the specifics of their mistakes. After three years of research and development, Mitchell, Russel, Broomhead, and Aldridge in 2002 came up with a software called Automark[19] intended for and the environment marking answers to open-ended questions. It is based on the NLP methods and incorporates methods for 'In Time' spell checking, semantic checking and support for 1920 punctuation checking. It looks for specific content in the free-text answers. Content is in the form of templates which indicate correct or incorrect answers. 'In Time'? Another step in the direction of automatic text assessment. In our system, there are four areas we are considering for the evaluation of an essay.

They are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measure, Identifying Statements of Fact and the myth of the orgasm, Checking statements of fact for their accuracy. Let us discuss each of these modules one after the other. To start off, there can be two types of gibberish sentences. Syntactic gibberish sentences and semantic gibberish sentences. A sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish if it is Essay, so ungrammatical that it does not make any sense. So a syntactically gibberish sentence is just not ungrammatical, it is so highly ungrammatical that the it is equivocal.

Let us consider the following sentence ``I go the market.'' It is ungrammatical, since the preposition ``to'' is herzberg's, missing in the sentence. Even though this sentence is ungrammatical, we can still understand whats is being said. Now consider the sentence ``At flying no market ran.'' This too is ungrammatical but it does not make any sense. The Movie 'In Time'? Hence, it is considered to phylogenetic tree animals, be syntactic gibberish. Now let us consider what semantic gibberish sentences are. A sentence like ``Colorless green ideas sleep furiously'' is considered semantically gibberish. Such sentences are grammatical but do not have any meaning. The more the number of gibberish sentences the less the student demonstrates command over written English, especially when writing in response to a prompt/topic.

Moving over to the next measure, we use an irrelevance measure to say if a sentence is relevant to the given topic or not. Given a topic/prompt for the essay, a sentence from the student's response is considered to be irrelevant if the sentence does not relate to The Movie Essay, the topic. Now to say automatically that a sentence does or does not relate to the topic, we compute the semantic similarity of the sentence with topic text. We use WordNet to find this similarity. This means that the student can use a completely different set of words to 1920, talk about the topic and The Movie 'In Time' Essay, still be considered relevant. Tree Animals? For example say the prompt asks the student to Essay, write about the ``Importance of and the environment class room teaching versus learning from home'' and the student writes ``Education is The Movie 'In Time' Essay, very important for one to succeed in phylogenetic animals life.'' This is considered to Essay, be relevant, because the words 'education', 'teaching' and 'learning' are semantically close to tree animals, each other. Now if the student responds by writing ``The sun is the biggest star in The Movie Essay the universe'', then the herzberg's theory sentence is irrelevant, because it does not talk about the The Movie 'In Time' Essay topic. The more the number of irrelevant sentences the animals less the student shows an understanding of the topic. The next measure is to identify statements of fact from a student's response to The Movie Essay, an essay topic. Herzberg's Motivational? A sentence is considered to be a fact against an opinion, if the following four properties hold good (i) Information presented Unique and One of a kind (ii) Information presented Concrete (iii) Information presented a Statement or Proposition and 'In Time', (iv) Information presented an association between more than one concept[2] So if the sentence contains such information, we can identify the statement to be a fact.

Now if on the other hand, one considers personal statements then they are not concrete and hence cannot be facts. Such personal statements would be opinions. Thus the statements of of the vaginal fact would be identified against statements of opinion. Also questions and imperative statements form a category apart from statements of fact. If a sentence contains comparative adjectives like 'smarter' or superlative adjectives like 'smartest', or if the The Movie sentence contains comparative adverbs like 'faster' or superlative adverbs like 'fastest' then the sentence is not a statement of fact, because such a sentence would not be concrete. Also, sentences about future are not a proposition, as there is an element of uncertainty related with future, and phylogenetic, hence such sentences cannot be statements of 'In Time' Essay fact. Let us consider an example. If the topic was the same as given in the previous section about teaching, and phylogenetic tree, if the student response was ``Learning from home started in 'In Time' Essay USA from 1965'' is considered to be a statement of fact, irrespective of whether the statement is relevant or not. How Does Enzymes? The statement contains information which is unique(1965), concrete ('something starting'), and has no words that can be interpreted in more than one way in Essay different contexts. Now if there was a sentence like ``Learning in class rooms is good'', it is not a statement of prohibition 1920 fact, but a statement of opinion, because what seems to be 'good' to one person, might not be the same for The Movie another.

Thus personal statements cannot be considered as statements of fact. Thus the more such facts are stated, the better we evaluate what the how does enzymes student envisions about the topic at hand, by relating the topic with concrete statements i.e. facts. The final measure to be used for evaluating essays is evaluating statements of fact for accuracy. Now that we have identified the statements of fact, we check to see if those facts are accurate and The Movie 'In Time', if they are, they contribute to a boost in if i tried even the score. Let us consider the topic from the last measure about learning. If the The Movie student writes ``Class room teaching started in 1965 in the USA'' and herzberg's, say in fact that it started in 2000. Then although the statement is a fact, it is not accurate. Thus inaccurate facts contribute inversely to the score, while accurate facts contribute positively to the score.

IMPLEMENTATION OF BASELINE APPROACH. The four measures implemented are Gibberish Detection, Irrelevance Measurement, Identifying statements of fact and checking for Accuracy of Statements of Fact. 'In Time' Essay? The best results would be when we run each of the modules in the above order, so that for each phase we get sentences that are more appropriate to check i.e. if a sentence is gibberish, then there is no point in checking to see if it is relevant or not, and if a sentence is irrelevant then there is motivational theory, no point in checking to see if it is a statement of fact or not. Let us look at the implementation of each of the four modules - The EGAL::Gibberish module implements Gibberish Detection. The method implemented is.

isGibberish() - This method determines if a given sentence is gibberish or not. It first checks to see if a sentence is semantic gibberish or not as follows - The module first strips off the stop words from the sentence. The remaining content-bearing words are stemmed using the stemmer provided along with Lingua::EN::Tagger. Stop words refer to a list of function words, that contribute to the grammar alone and not to the meaning of the 'In Time' sentence. If there are at least three content-bearing words in the sentence, then for all such words, using similarity metrics described later, we compute how similar each word is to every other word. Thus if we have N words in the sentence, we end up with a NxN matrix. And The? Then we compute the average of 'In Time' all the the myth of the orgasm entries in 'In Time' the matrix to determine the semantic coherence of the sentence, a value between 0 and 1. The compliment of enzymes this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the percentage gibberishness of the sentence. If the scaled score is above an empirically decided threshold of 90%, then the The Movie 'In Time' Essay sentence is flagged as semantic gibberish. Let us consider the sentence ``There is on the list fish and meat that are eating each other''. Herzberg's Motivational Theory? The only content-bearing words in this sentence are 'eating', 'meat' and 'list'.

The semantic similarities between these words are eating-meat - 0.1581 eating-list - 0 meat-list - 0. This gives us a value of 0.0527 for the semantic coherence of The Movie Essay this sentence. Percentage gibberishness is calculated as (1-0.0527)*100, i.e. Even Even If I? 95.73% which is above the threshold of 90% and hence we flag this sentence as semantic gibberish.The threshold we have used has been experimentally derived. After working on a list of sentences which were assessed by humans as gibberish/non-gibberish, the system was tuned to be consistent with the 'In Time' Essay aforementioned judgments, by setting the threshold accordingly. How Does Temperature? To compute the similarity between words, we used WordNet::Similarity::wup. The measure has been used for words found in WordNet. For those words not found in the knowledge base, a similarity value of 0 is used, which results in a reduction of semantic coherence and therefore an increase in gibberishness, which is complimentary to semantic coherence. We POS tagged the The Movie 'In Time' sentence using Lingua::EN::Tagger to the myth vaginal, identify the part of speech of every word in the sentence. While computing the similarity between sentences, we considered all the senses of a word, given the part of speech that was used in the sentence. Now as we know the part of speech of a word, we would be able to distinguish the The Movie Essay sense of the word ``I'' as used in the sentence ``I am going there.'', where ``I'' would be a pronoun and as in a sentence like ``The element I is found in the periodic table'', where ``I'' would be a noun, as in Iodine.

This would enable us to handle some of the surprising words found in WordNet, based on the part of speech of that word in the sentence. If the sentence is below the threshold (not semantic gibberish) then we check to see if it is syntactic gibberish. To determine if a sentence is of the vaginal orgasm, syntactic gibberish, we do the following - If the percentage of unknown words and The Movie, unused links (score) in the sentence is more than an empirical threshold then we say that this sentence is syntactic gibberish. If I Wanted To Lyrics? The threshold has been experimentally found to work best at a value of 50%. A syntactic gibberish sentence would have lot of unused links according to Lingua::LinkParser, a grammar parser used to parse sentences. Based on this, if the The Movie 'In Time' score is 0 then the sentence is grammatical. If it is a relatively small value it is ungrammatical but not gibberish and if it is high, then the sentence is considered to be syntactic gibberish. This method takes in a sentence from the students response for a topic as input and returns an array, with the zero index contains a 1 if the sentence is gibberish and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array contains the gibberish score associated with the sentence and at index 2, the array contains detailed trace of herzberg's motivational execution. The alpha version for The Movie 'In Time' Essay the module started with identifying only syntactically gibberish sentences.

To flag a sentence as syntactic gibberish, we considered an absolute value of the number of unknown words and unused links. If that value was greater than 3 then we termed the globalization and the sentence as gibberish. But this value of 3 remained as threshold be it a sentence of length 5 or length 25. For the beta version, the module was able to identify semantically gibberish sentences as described above. An improvement over beta version, has been achieved in the final version, with modification of the absolute threshold for The Movie syntactic gibberish sentences. The threshold has now been converted to a percentage of temperature affect unknown words/unused links. Thus if such words/links are 3 out of 5, then as this percentage is The Movie 'In Time', 60%, we flag the sentence as syntactic gibberish. If such words/links are 3 out of 25, then as this percentage is 12%, we do not flag this sentence as syntactic gibberish, even if there were 3 such words/links.

isIrrelevant() - This method takes in a sentence from the students' response as input. It then computes the globalization and the environment relevance of the sentence with the topic/prompt. We consider the The Movie Essay content-bearing words to contribute to the relevance of a sentence. Now we consider each of the content-bearing words from the input sentence and we compare each such word with every word in the topic. So for every word in the topic, we find the maximum similarity that such a word has with any word in 1920 the input sentence, using WordNet::Similarity::wup. The Movie? We then compute the average over all such maximum similarities for each word in the topic. The compliment of globalization environment this value scaled between 0 and 100 is the Essay percentage irrelevance of the sentence. If this score is globalization, above an empirically decided threshold then the sentence is considered to be irrelevant. After experimenting with sample responses for topics/prompts, we have decided on 'In Time' Essay, a threshold of 70%.

With such a threshold most of the herzberg's motivational theory sentences that a human assessor would evaluate as irrelevant are being detected as irrelevant. This method returns an array with its zero index returning a 2 if the sentence is irrelevant and a 0 otherwise. The array index 1 contains the irrelevant score between 0 and 100. 'In Time' Essay? The array index 2 contains the globalization and the environment detailed execution trace. The alpha version for the module started with comparing words from the student's response to words in the topic and ``gold standard essay''. This list of ``gold standard essays'' have been written by an expert in The Movie Essay the field, for every possible essay topic that the system would handle.

This word match also considered synonymous words by using Thesaurus.com, but the module was still looking for word match, which is not necessarily a semantic match. Thus for the beta version, the module found the semantic similarity between a sentence from student's essay and the topic, by using WordNet::Similarity::wup. Thus the how does temperature enzymes problem of maintaining ``Gold Standard Essay''s has also been eliminated. The performance of the module has been found to 'In Time' Essay, be satisfactory and hence has been retained for 1920 the final version. The EGAL::FactIdent module implements the Identification of Statements of Fact.

The methods implemented are. fill_stop_hash - this method fills a hash with value words that say that a sentence containing such words is an opinion, not a fact. fill_fact_hash - this method fills a hash with fact words that say that a sentence containing such words is a fact. which are called as a part of the The Movie 'In Time' Essay constructor. isFact - this method takes in a sentence from the students response for a topic/prompt. It first checks to see if the phylogenetic tree animals sentence contains a comparative adjective like 'smarter' or a superlative adjective like 'smartest' or a comparative adverb like 'higher' or a superlative adverb like 'highest'. If the sentence contains such a word, then it is identified not to be a statement of fact. Next it is checked to see if the sentence is in 'In Time' Essay any form of how does affect enzymes future tense. If it is, then the sentence is identified not to be a statement of fact. Then it is checked to see if the sentence is a question and if it is then it is not a statement, let alone a statement of fact. Then it is The Movie 'In Time' Essay, checked to see if this sentence contains value words or fact words.

If it contains such words, then the sentence is identified to be a statement of opinion or statement of tree fact respectively. Now, that if a sentence contains value words, it makes it a statement of opinion, was given by John Langan[6] in a discussion about distinguishing facts from opinions. Now we obtained a list of such value words from a project that worked on identifying such value words[7]. The list of value words and fact words have been put up on 'In Time', links [21] and [22] respectively. Also if the statement contains statistics then it is identified to be a statement of fact.

Finally as we identify statements of fact using elimination, all others sentences which do not qualify for any of the globalization and the other conditions would be treated as statements of fact. This module also returns an array with index zero returning a 4 if the sentence is a statement of fact and a 0 otherwise. At index 1, the array returns always returns a 0 as there is 'In Time' Essay, no concept of tried even if i to lyrics a score associated with identifying statements of 'In Time' fact and at index 2 the array returns a message indicating if the sentence is a statement of fact or not. If not, the reason as to why the sentence is the myth of the, not a statement of 'In Time' Essay fact is sent here. The alpha version for the module started with identifying value words in sentences. Such sentences with value words are identified to be statements of opinion.

If sentences contained fact words then the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. Also if a sentence contained statistics then again the sentence has been identified as statement of fact. For the and the environment beta version, we have identified sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs not to The Movie 'In Time', be statements of fact. Also sentences in future tense have been identified not to even if i even if i, be statements of fact. The module has been found to work satisfactorily and hence has been retained for final version. The EGAL::FactCheck module checks the 'In Time' statements of facts for accuracy. The method implemented is. check_fact() - This method takes in a sentence from the students response to a prompt/topic. A linkParser[4] tree for motivational the above sentence is built. Using regular expressions the subjects for all the verbs is identified.

A Google query is then constructed to search en.wikipedia.org [3] using the subjects and any proper nouns in 'In Time' the sentence. If there are no proper nouns, all noun phrases are used. The first Google result is taken and full text associated with this Wikipedia entry is motivational, retrieved. We then calculate the frequencies of all the n-grams in the sentence as observed in the full text. We have considered n-grams of at most length 3. and applied Witten-Bell smoothing to the obtained frequency list. A confidence measure is Essay, calculated for each sentence. The measure takes in some arguments that we shall now see. 'n' refers to the number of words in the n-gram. 'count' refers to the number of times the n-gram has occurred in tree the wikitext/sentence. 'N' refers to the maximum n-gram length considered which is in The Movie 'In Time' Essay our case is 3. Thus based on whether the count is affect, positive or negative, we add or subtract n*(log(count) + N) respectively to the 'measure'. The Movie 'In Time'? This is done for each of the n-grams in the sentence. Also if count is positive an accumulated score of n*(log(count) + N) is made to 'max' and to 'min' otherwise. Herzberg's Motivational Theory? We compute the final 'score' as score = (measure - min) * 100 / (max - min) This score represents the confidence, expressed as a percentage, with which we say that a particular statement of fact is accurate. The module started with the beta version for the project.

The module has been found to work satisfactorily, except for return status of facts. The verbosity of the return message has been enhanced to display more information in the log files. With this modification, the module was ready for the final version. Following is a list of tasks and group member who worked on the same - Gibberish Detection - Sudip Khanna and Ajit Datar. Irrelevance Measure - Sudip Khanna. Identifying Statements of Fact - Nagendra Doddapaneni.

Checking Accuracy of The Movie Essay Statements of Fact - Ajit Datar and even if i, Sudip Khanna. Web-Interface - Archana Yadav and 'In Time' Essay, Ajit Datar. Installation and and the, Administration - Ajit Datar. Documentation - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Essay, Varsha Kodali. Literary Review - Nagendra Doddapaneni and Varsha Kodali. Irrelevance Measure - EGAL::Relevance identifies sentences to be relevant based on similarity score calculated using WordNet::Similarity::wup. If the percentage irrelevance is More than a threshold then the sentence is considered to be irrelevant and relevant otherwise. Identifying Statements of Fact - EGAL::FactIdent identifies sentences to be statements of and the fact or not based on the occurrence of 'In Time' Essay fact words and even, stop words respectively.

If value words occur in a sentence from the student's response, then the 'In Time' sentence is considered to be an of the orgasm opinion, because value words are mostly used to express personal view. If fact words such as ``first'' occur in the student's response or a number occurs in the sentence which is The Movie, not gibberish and globalization and the environment, is relevant, then the sentence is considered to The Movie 'In Time', be a statement of fact. Also questions are not statements themselves and hence are not statements of fact. Even sentences with comparative/superlative adjectives/adverbs are not considered be statements of fact as they are not concrete. Also if the theory sentence is in 'In Time' Essay any form of future tense then again the sentence is not a statement of fact as it not a proposition. Checking Statement of Fact for tree animals Accuracy - EGAL::FactCheck determines the The Movie 'In Time' accuracy of the statements of facts. If I Even? As mentioned before this module first constructs a LinkParser tree for the sentence from the student response to a prompt and The Movie 'In Time' Essay, identifies the subject using regular expressions. Then a Google query is phylogenetic animals, constructed and fired to en.wikipedia.org using the subject and proper nouns/noun phrases. Using the 'In Time' first Google result, fulltext for this Wikipedia record is retrieved.

Now to check the accuracy of the statement, we develop a score based on the statistics obtained from considering all n-grams from the sentence and applying Witten-Bell smoothing to the frequency of prohibition such n-grams as observed in the wikitext. Presently n-grams of length upto 3 are being considered. Thus using this score, we can say that the given statement is a statement of 'In Time' Essay fact with score% confidence. The four modules that we have implemented, give us details of the percentage of gibberish sentences, irrelevant sentences and statements of fact, along with their accuracy. With this information in herzberg's theory hand, to develop a scoring mechanism consistent with as scored by a humam grader, would be difficult. Thus we came up with a measure with uses maximum information that can be derived from what statistics the modules offer. The scoring mechanism that we are using, is a two-phase scoring mechanism. 'In Time' Essay? During the initial phase, we consider two bins of sentences. A bin of good sentences which contain statements of fact and ordinary sentences. A bin of bad sentences which contain gibberish sentences and irrelevant sentences.

We compute the total percentage of sentences from the essay, that go into each of the two bins. For example, if the essay had 10% sentences which are gibberish, 20% sentences are irrelevant, 30% sentences are statements of fact and the remaining 40% sentences are ordinary sentences. Then the total percentage of sentences in the good bin is 70%, while the affect enzymes total percentage of sentences in the bad bin is 'In Time' Essay, 30%. Then if the good bin has higher percentage sentences than the bad bin, as is the case, then we consider the score of the essay to be either 3, 4, 5 or 6. The higher the percentage of sentences in the good bin, the higher would be the score. For the given example, a score of say 4 is assigned. Now, if there were higher percentage sentences in the bad bin, then a score of either 0, 1, 2 or 3 would be assigned. Thus the globalization environment initial phase scoring mechanism assigns an integral score to the essay. Now, the final phase scoring mechanism, considers all the Essay statements of tree animals fact. Essay? It computes the mean of the confidence levels associated with each of the statements of fact.

If the mean is phylogenetic tree, greater than 50, then the score assigned by the intial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by a fraction. If the 'In Time' mean is less than 50, then instead of a score boost, the score would be penalised. By how much, is if i even if i, dependent on the confidence level of facts. For example, there were two statements of fact in the essay. One was verified with 62% confidence level and the other was verified with 78% confidence level. Then the 'In Time' mean of the confidence levels would be (62+78)/2 which is 70%.

Now, since this value is prohibition 1920, greater than the threshold of 50%, the score of Essay 4, assigned by the initial phase scoring mechanism, is incremented by the final phase scoring mechanism. So say, a score boost of 0.6 is given. Herzberg's Theory? Then the final score would be the sum of the scores assigned by intial phase scoring mechanism and the boost given by the final phase scoring mechanism. So for the example that we considered, the final score would be 4.0 + 0.6 = 4.6 . Now this final value is rounded off to The Movie Essay, the nearest half number. The Myth Of The Vaginal Orgasm? So 4.6 is rounded off to 4.5 . In the final phase mechanism, the The Movie value for score boost has been identified to be following an exponential i.e. for a mean of 60%, the boost to be given is less, while for a mean of 95%, the boost to be given is much more. Thus an exponential function [((mean-50)*1.26)/50]^3 has been experimentally found to work well, for scoring the essays. As a part of evaluation, we have in place modules which check to see if a given sentence is gibberish, if not if its irrelevant and if not if its a statement of fact and phylogenetic tree animals, if it is Essay, then we check for its accuracy. Thus on running the system over the following input - The following are the sentences that have been successfully identified as gibberish by the EGAL::Gibberish module - Thus keeping the herzberg's scores, assigned by each of the modules ,in view and their identification of sentences, in 'In Time' Essay the respective categories, rightfully, the system has been able to achieve expected results. Following is a detailed run of the system, with details about some sample essays that the user has given for prohibition 1920 some prompts used in the system.

Details about what sentences in each of the Essay following essays have been identified as gibberish, irrelevant and statements of fact can be seen in the following text. The following is a response which was graded to globalization and the environment, be a 3 point essay. Our EGAL system graded the essay to a 3.49 score. This was for the prompt: The user response is : The next essay was evaluated to be a 4 pointer, and it was evaluated to The Movie 'In Time' Essay, be a 2.61. The essay topic was.

For a third essay, the EGAL system has graded the phylogenetic animals system to 'In Time', be a 4.0 pointer, where the essay was graded to be a 5.0 pointer. The topic of the essay was : The user response was : The fourth essay is phylogenetic tree animals, a combination of two 3-point essays written by our co-students for a prompt given commonly in class. The EGAL system graded this grouped essay to be a 3.62. The student response was. -------------------------------------------------- DETAILED DIAGNOSTICS OF THE ESSAY: -------------------------------------------------- Type of Sentences Identified Percentage Gibberish 17.39 Irrelevance 17.39 Facts 26.09 Ordinary 39.13 Percentage of Gibberish Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of The Movie 'In Time' Essay Irrelevant Sentences were: 17.39 Percentage of Fact Sentences were: 26.09 Percentage of Ordinary Sentences were: 39.13 No. of Gibberish Sentences were: 4 No. of vaginal orgasm Irrelvant Sentences were: 4 No. of Facts Sentences were: 6 No. of Ordinary Sentences were: 9 gibberish sentences were as follows Sentence Many students write essays for exam, some write good, some bad, some worst. Points 91.51% Semantic gibberish Sentence The compter cannot get this idea of The Movie 'In Time' good, bad, and worst. Points 63.64% Syntactic gibberish Sentence In this case the computer would just be too good to score and give good score to someone who cant even write a creative sentence nor can write grammatical correct sentece.

Points 92.21 Semantic gibberish Sentence Using computers makes work faster. Points 94.44% Semantic gibberish irrelevant sentences were as follows: Sentence Last but not least, computer scoring ethically is not good. Points 75.51% Sentence Automated essay scoring is used in the myth of the orgasm GMAT and GRE. Points 72.83% Sentence If a good computer is The Movie, used this difference can be reduced. Points 70.31% Sentence It just has some difference but not to a greater extent and such deviations can be ignored as even humans make mistakes. Points 75.00% fact sentences were as follows: Sentence It just tries to find information the ways it is supposed to and scores that way. Points 40.23% I can say this is a fact with 40.23 percent confidence Sentence It uses computers to phylogenetic animals, grade student essays. Points 0.00% I can say this is a fact with 0.00 percent confidence Sentence First of all, the difference between human graded essay and computer graded essay is not very significant. Points 22.31% I can say this is a fact with 22.31 percent confidence Sentence Both tend to be the same.

Points 14.48% I can say this is a fact with 14.48 percent confidence Sentence Even though each student has his own views the computer is intelligent enough to Essay, catch the motivational theory differences and 'In Time' Essay, grade accordingly. Herzberg's? Points 37.05% I can say this is a fact with 37.05 percent confidence Sentence Thus, the The Movie 'In Time' Essay computer does not grade an essay harshly than humans. Points 13.05% I can say this is a fact with 13.05 percent confidence ordinary sentences were as follows: Sentence Thts why automated essay scoring is unfair to students. Message This sentence is a statement of tree animals fact Nouns: ``thts'' Subjects: ``scoring '' Google query: ``scoring '' ``thts'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. 'In Time'? Sentence For examples, many student know that the computer checks the essays, therefore they learn how to motivational, ebat the machine rather then being creative to write their essays and learn something. Message This sentence is a statement of fact Nouns: ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' Subjects: ``''``examples '' Google query: ``''``examples '' ``checks'' ``ebat'' ``essays'' ``student'' ``computer'' ``machine'' ``examples'' ``something'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence Another point here we can see is that the computer learns from essays written by students, now if the The Movie 'In Time' Essay sample essays are not that creative then if someone writes creative essay it will just get confused and give some random score, if not then it will give the best possible score which is still not correct. Message This sentence has comparitive/superlative adverbs/adjectives Sentence So is it fair to environment, get garbage or grate score from machine?

Message This sentence is The Movie, a statement of fact Nouns: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' Subjects: Google query: ``score'' ``grate'' ``garbage'' ``machine'' site:en.wikipedia.org System cannot verify this using the existing knowledge source. Sentence To conclude I would say stop this computer scoring, it doesnt make sense when you write an essay thinking hard and someobody who is not real grades it for you and phylogenetic tree animals, gives you something that you dont confidence about. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It also reduces the The Movie 'In Time' work load on human graders. Message This sentence contains the value word work Sentence As a student writes an essay the computer can understand how the how does student writes and this will help it in grading. Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence Finally, I feel that the usage of automated essay scoring is good and should be followed by The Movie 'In Time' all including schools and universities.

Message This sentence is in future tense Sentence It will help students and teachers a lot. Message This sentence is in future tense. The fifth essay sample that we are looking at tree animals, is the topic/prompt given as the Essay response for a topic/prompt. The EGAL system has evaluated such a tricky response to a score of 1.96. The topic/prompt was. The response was entered to tree animals, be. This would usually trick a system, as the response seems to 'In Time', be pseudo-relevant. But here is the analysis of how EGAL handles the temperature affect same- Now for the sixth essay, we considered a 6 point esssay which was graded as 4.99 on our EGAL system. The essay topic was : The user response was: Now for the seventh essay, we considered the same 6-point essay for the trvious topic, and evaluated it for a different topic.

The EGAL system graded the essay to be a 2.99 score essay. The response was the same as the one for The Movie 'In Time' the last one. There are some systems that we would like to even if i wanted, acknowledge, since we used them as a part of our system. For Gibberish Detection, we used Link Grammar, a grammar parser[4]. This parser enables us to find unused links and unknown words in a sentence. With the help of this parser, we were able to identify syntactic gibberish. 'In Time' Essay? We have used WordNet::Similarity package, built on WordNet2.0[10] for finding the semantic similarity between two words. Tried Even Wanted? This is used in identifying semantic gibberish as well as relevance of a sentence to the topic. Essay? For identifying statements of fact, we used ideas from online resources [2], [6], [7] and [8]. Each of these references have helped us decide the basis on which to distinguish facts from opinions and also to identify the properties of a statement of fact.

To check for the accuracy of these statements of facts, we use the herzberg's motivational theory idea of 'In Time' Essay a fact repository from Static Knowledge Sources[9], which would be wikipedia.org[3] in our case. We access this online encyclopedia by constructing a Google query using Google API[11] and fire the query to retrieve wikitext for the first match found by Google in en.wikipedia.org. [1] Page, E.B. , 1994, New Computer grading of student prose, using modern concepts and software, Journal of Experimental Education. [5] Peter W. Foltz, Darrell Laham, Thomas K. Landauer, The Intelligent Essay Assessor: Applications to Educational Technology, http://imej.wfu.edu/articles/1999/2/04/index.asp. [7] Human Value Project, http://www.uia.org/values/vztab12.htm, Union of International Associations 1997 - 2004. [9] The Static Knowledge Sources: Ontology, Fact Repository and Lexicons, http://ilit.umbc.edu/Book/sks.htm. [10] WordNet 2.0, ``A lexical database for the English language'', http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/ [12] Valentini, Salvatore, Francesca Neri, and tree, Alessandro Cucchiarelli. 'In Time' Essay? 2003. How Does? An Overview of Current Research on Automated Essay Grading.

In JITE, Vol-2,2003. [13] Deerwester, S.C., Dumais, S.T., Landauer, T.K., Furnas, G.W., and The Movie 'In Time' Essay, Harshman R.A. Globalization And The Environment? , 1990, Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the The Movie American Society for Information Science. [14] Hearst, M., 2000, The debate on automated essay grading. IEEE Intelligent Systems. [15] Burstein, J., Kukich, K., Wolff, S., Chi, L., and Chodorow M., 1998, Enriching automated essay scoring using discourse marking.

Proceedings of the Workshop on Discourse Relations and Discourse Marking, Annual Meeting of the prohibition Association of Computational Linguistics, Montreal, Canada. [16] Burstein, J., Leacock, C., and Swartz, R. , 2001, Automated evaluation of essay and short answers. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. [17] Christie, J.R., 1999, Automated essay marking-for both style and The Movie Essay, content. Proceedings of the Third Annual Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

[18] Ming, P.Y., Mikhailov, A.A., and Kuan, T.L., 2000, Intelligent essay marking system. Learners Togeather, Feb 2000, NgccANN Polytechnic, Singapore http://ipdweb.np.edu.sg/lt/feb00/intelligent_essay_marking.pdf IEMS. [19] Mitchell, T., Russel, T., Broomhead, P., and Aldridge N.(2002) . Towards robust computerized marking of free-text responses. Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Assisted Assessment Conference, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.