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MAUPASSANT (de), Guy, Le Papa de Simon. Edern, Juliette, Camille, Aurelien, Mathilde, Lilou, Oceane 30 Novembre 2016 M. Guy de Maupassant est l'auteur de cette nouvelle, il l'a écrite le 1 er décembre 1879. Emmett Till Casket In Color! Cette époque n'est pas particulière, il a aussi écrit Aux champs Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy. Medici Banking! Philippe ramasse le petit Simon en larmes au bord de l' étang, il le ramène chez sa mère. Till Casket In Color! Cela se passe chez Simon . Simon est un garçon qui va à l' école pour la première fois mais à la sortie ses camarades de classe le battent car il n' a pas de papa.

Il va alors à la rivière pour se noyer. Factors Determine Essay! Heureusement Philippe Remy le forgeron le ramène chez sa mère. Emmett! Ensuite Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son père et celui-ci accepte puis demande la mère du petit garçon en mariage. Global Warming! Les garçons de sa classe se méfient maintenant qu' ils ont appris la nouvelle. J' ai de la pitié pour le garçon qui est harcelé. Emmett Till In Color! J’ai compris ce texte et l’histoire me révolte. Escaping Destinies Essay! De la même manière, lorsque l' on till, perd un proche, on Euthanasia: Escaping Destinies, a plutôt besoin de quelqu'un qui nous aide à surmonter la douleur. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens et à tous les lecteurs, il veut nous dire d'arrêter le harcèlement contre ceux qui n'ont pas de père, l'auteur nous émeut en nous touchant et nous affecte. Till Casket In Color! Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir car il insiste à plusieurs reprises : démentir cette chose affreuse qu' il n' avait pas de papa. C’est Guy de Maupassant l’auteur de ce texte. She Walks! Je connais aussi une autre nouvelle de cet auteur : Aux Champs , écrit en 1882.

Cette nouvelle a été écrite en 1879. Till Casket! Une période de réforme politique, littéraire, philosophique, scientifique et économique. Euthanasia: Destinies! C’est aussi l’année de mort de Napoléon Bonaparte. Emmett Till In Color! Ce texte a bien été écrit en français à l’origine. That Determine! Ce texte est une nouvelle. Je pense à un petit garçon qui court dans les champs en été. Casket In Color! Je ne pense pas à des souvenirs, à des expériences personnelles.

Je ne pense pas à des livres, des tableaux, des photos, de la musique . Medici Banking! Le mot que je retiens est Simon , le prénom du petit garçon dans cette nouvelle. C’est Simon le personnage principal, il se défend au près de ses camarades qui l’insultent en disant qu’il n’a pas de papa. Emmett Till! Lui veut se noyer car ils se moquent de lui. Napoleon Bonaparte: Use Of Power Essay! Le petit Simon demande finalement au forgeron si il veut bien être son papa et celui-ci accepte. In Color! Alors, il dit fièrement à ses camarades que son papa est Philippe Remy, un forgeron du village. Le texte parle d’un petit garçon, Simon, élève de 8 ans allait pour la première fois à l’école. Euthanasia: Essay! Ses camarades étaient méchants avec lui car il n’avait pas de papa. Emmett! Un jour, il décida de se noyer dans une rivière car il en avait assez des insultes. Kawasan Pertanian! Mais heureusement, Philippe Remy, un forgeron, le vit à temps et le ramena chez sa maman. Casket! Ensuite le petit garçon demanda au forgeron s’il voulait bien être son papa, ce qu’il accepta. She Walks! A la fin de la nouvelle, le forgeron prit pour femme la maman de Simon, surnommée la Blanchotte.

J’ai bien aimé cette nouvelle, je l’ai trouvée intéressante. In Color! Je l’ai comprise facilement. Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use Of Power Essay! Je suis d’accord avec l’auteur qui dénonce ceux qui maltraitent Simon. Je suppose que l’auteur a écrit ce texte pour montrer qu’il ne faut pas se moquer des autres juste parce qu’ils sont différents de nous.Je suppose que ce texte est destiné aux lecteurs/public et aux enfants qui peuvent être moqueurs. Emmett Till Casket! Dans cette nouvelle, l’auteur sensibilise le lecteur. Medici Banking! Ses intentions sont faciles à percevoir. Till Casket In Color! Nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens du texte de cette nouvelle. Guy de Maupassant a écrit Le papa de Simon . Euthanasia: Essay! Il a aussi écrit Aux champs . Till In Color! Le texte a été écrit le 1 er décembre 1879, cette époque n’est pas particulière. Global Arguments! Ce texte est écrit en français, c’est une nouvelle. Je vois une image de plusieurs élèves qui sont en train de harceler un petit garçon, sans père. Emmett Till Casket! Je n’ai pas de souvenirs particuliers ni d’expériences particulières en rapport avec cela mais je pense à la musique papaoutai de Stromae.

Les mots que je retiens sont pas de papa . Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron. Napoleon Bonaparte: Use Of! Philippe récupère au bord de l’étang, Simon en pleurs. Till In Color! Il le ramène à sa mère. Determine Pre-Natal! Philippe devient alors le père de Simon. Emmett Till! Cela se passe chez Simon, à la fin de l’histoire. Le texte parle de Simon un jeune garçon faisant sa rentrée, dans une école primaire, il se fait harceler par ses camarades car il n’a pas eu de papa, alors le garçon se défend comme il peut. Medici Banking! Simon part se réfugier au bord d’un étang, il joue avec une grenouille ensuite un homme s’approche de lui, ils discutent ensemble puis l’homme se prénommant Philippe Rémy, le ramène chez lui. Emmett Till Casket In Color! Alors Simon demande à Philippe de devenir son papa. Euthanasia: Essay! Sur le coup, il ne répond rien puis après voyant que le jeune garçon est impatient, il dit oui.

Le lendemain Simon annonce à ses camarades qu’il a un papa mais ils lui répondent que si c’est son vrai papa il doit être marié à sa maman. Emmett Till Casket In Color! Alors Simon va voir Philippe pour lui demander. Global Warming! Philippe lui répond qu’il est à son travail et qu’il va discuter avec sa mère ce soir. Emmett! Le soir même, Philippe et Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, discutent puis s’embrassent. Euthanasia: Essay! Philippe lui demande de devenir sa femme. Emmett Till Casket! Il dit à Simon qu’il le protégera de tous harcèlements.

Donc le lendemain, Simon, heureux, va dire à ses camarades qu’il a un vrai père et a compter de ce jour là plus personne ne l’embête. J’éprouve des émotions de tristesse face à ce texte. She Walks In Beauty! J’ai compris le texte et je ne suis pas d’accord avec le harcèlement. Ce texte est destiné aux collégiens, l’auteur veut nous dire d’arrêter le harcèlement au collège. In Color! L’auteur décrit les scènes pour interpeller les lecteurs et les affecter. Medici Banking! Ses intentions ne sont pas faciles à percevoir mais nous ne pouvons pas hésiter sur le sens de son texte. Le papa de Simon a été écrit par Guy de MAUPASSANT le 1 er décembre 1879 publié d’abord dans la revue La Réforme politique et littéraire du 1 er décembre 1879 puis intégrée au recueil La Maison Tellier en 1881. J’ai étudié la biographie de Guy de MAUPASSANT : Il est né le 5 août 1850 près de Dieppe et meurt en le 6 juillet 1893.

Maupassant, écrivain naturaliste de référence, vécut son enfance en Normandie, seul avec son frère, sa mère et Gustave Flaubert, ami d'enfance de cette dernière. Till Casket! En effet, suite à de violentes disputes entre ses parents, le père quitta à jamais la maison. Euthanasia: Dreadful Destinies Essay! Le fameux auteur réaliste, prenant finalement la place du chef de famille, initia alors à sa vocation l'enfant qui bénéficiera, grâce aussi à sa rencontre quelques années plus tard avec Zola, d'un double héritage littéraire. Emmett In Color! Les habitants de Normandie, sa région d’origine, inspirent certaines de ses œuvres. Global Arguments! Soutenu et conseillé par Flaubert, dont il est le disciple, Maupassant rencontre les principaux écrivains du XIXe siècle, dont Émile Zola.

Il écrit des nouvelles, des romans, des récits de voyage, des contes fantastiques : Boule-de-suif (1880), La maison Tellier (1881), Mademoiselle Fifi (1882), Une vie (1883), Contes de la Bécasse (1883), Une vendetta (1883), La parure (1884), Toine (1885), Bel-Ami (1885), Le Petit Fût (1886), Le Horla (1887), Le rosier de Mme Husson (1887), Pierre et Jean (1888). Emmett In Color! Je connais les œuvres suivantes : Bel-ami , Pierre et Jean , et celles présentées dans la collection des nouvelles que vous nous avez envoyée sur le padlet Bonnes nouvelles à lire. Les romans de Maupassant comprennent des descriptions très réalistes. Euthanasia: Essay! Ses livres sont souvent pessimistes. Till! Il meurt à un peu moins de 43 ans des suites d'une syphilis. Le genre littéraire du Papa de Simon est la nouvelle réaliste. She Walks In Beauty! C’est un récit court et vivant qui a été écrit en français. L’histoire se déroule à la campagne et les personnages sont : des écoliers, le petit Simon, sa maman célibataire, la Blanchotte, et l’ouvrier Philippe.

Un jour, les enfants de l’école s’en prennent au petit Simon parce qu’il n’a pas de père. Casket In Color! Leur comportement n’est que le reflet de ce que pensent leurs mères : la Blanchotte s’est livrée à un homme sans être mariée, et c’est honteux. Napoleon Pragmatic Use Of Essay! Cette situation rend Simon très triste. Casket! Heureusement, il croise la route de Philippe, un homme bon qui choisit de ne pas s’arrêter au qu’en dira-t-on et sait analyser la situation avec son cœur en lui proposant d’être son papa. La phrase du texte qui m’a le plus marqué est : - Vous savez. Essay! Simon. Emmett Casket! eh bien, il n'a pas de papa. Destinies! Cette nouvelle présente un tableau du monde rural et de la mentalité de ces gens qui sont méprisants et cruels envers ceux qui sont différents d’eux. Till! Le vocabulaire utilisé est ordinaire ( exemple : garnement ) et le rythme du récit est marqué par des actions par la présence d’un dialogue et l’utilisation du passé simple même si l’imparfait est également utilisé pour la description. Les intentions de l’auteur sont faciles à percevoir. Il critique la société et met en valeur l'influence des rumeurs sur une personne et l'attitude au milieu d'un groupe.

Il désire nous faite réfléchir et traite ici des sujets tels que : l'éducation des parents, des rumeurs, les effets sur les enfants. Medici Banking! Il intervient afin de donner son avis au sujet de la façon dont les gamins accueillent quelqu'un de différent : il montre leur méchanceté et jusqu’où ils peuvent aller pour être cruels. Aussi, j’ai remarqué que dans sa biographie, l’auteur a perdu son père car il a divorcé. Casket! On peut penser qu’il a pu vivre la même histoire ou similaire à celle de Simon. Je suis d’accord avec les idées de l’auteur car moi aussi, je trouve injuste de se moquer en groupe de quelqu’un qui n’est pas comme les autres quelle que soit sa différence. Kawasan Di Malaysia! On ne méprise pas un enfant parce qu’il n’a pas de père.

J’éprouve de la colère envers les enfants qui se moquent et de la pitié pour Simon. Casket! Je serais prêt à l’accueillir dans mon groupe à l’école. Guy DE MAUPASSANT est l’auteur de la nouvelle le papa de Simon . Kawasan Pertanian! Il est aussi l’auteur de nombreuses autres œuvres comme : Boule de suif, Aux champs, la Ficelle, le Horla Ce texte a été écrit le 1 er Décembre 1879, lors de cette époque rien de particulier ne se passe. Till In Color! À l’origine cette nouvelle a été écrite en Français. Je vois l’image d’une ronde avec au milieu le petit Simon qui se fait harceler, qui subit les moqueries sans pouvoir s’échapper. Medici Banking! Je n’ai jamais vécu de moments pareil dans ma vie.

Je pense à la musique de Stromaé papaoutai où il raconte la perte de son père. Till Casket In Color! Je retiens une phrase en particulier Il restait là, planté au milieu d'eux, surpris et embarrassé, sans comprendre ce qu'on allait lui faire. Euthanasia: Destinies Essay! Les personnages principaux sont Simon et Philippe Remy le forgeron du village. Casket! Simon et Philippe font connaissance quand il le ramasse en pleurs au bord l’étang et au fil de l’histoire ils apprennent à se connaitre de jour en jour chez Philippe et il devient son papa. Résumé: Simon fait aujourd’hui sa première rentrée à l’école, à la fin de la journée tous ses camarades le regardent bizarrement car un grand leur a dit qu’il n’a pas de papa. Factors Determine Pre-Natal Health Essay! Simon commence à se faire harceler alors, pour se réfugier il court jusqu’à l’étang d’à côté pour pleurer mais il ne reste pas longtemps tranquille car un monsieur vint le déranger, c’est Philippe le forgeron du village. Emmett Till Casket In Color! Il lui demande pourquoi il pleut comme ça, Simon lui explique. That! Ensuite, ils se revoient tous les jours. Emmett In Color! Un jour le forgeron décide d’aller voir la mère de Simon pour la demander en mariage et Philippe devient le père de Simon.

Quand je lis ce texte que j’ai aimé, je ressens de la pitié pour le petit Simon. Pragmatic Use Of Power! J’ai très bien compris l’histoire et je ne suis pas du tout d’accord avec le harcèlement qu’il subit. Cette nouvelle est destinée aux collégiens comme aux lycéens car le harcèlement se passe plus souvent au collège et au lycée. Emmett Till Casket! L’auteur veut nous faire passer une morale concernant le harcèlement, comme quoi le harcèlement peut pousser certaines personnes à commettre l’irréparable. Kawasan! Ses intentions ne sont pas très faciles à percevoir mais on till casket in color, comprend très bien le texte. La nouvelle a été écrite par Guy de Maupassant. Factors That Determine Health Essay! Je connais une autre œuvre de l’auteur qui est Aux Champs . In Color! La nouvelle à été écrite le 1er décembre 1879. Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Essay! Cette époque n’a pas été particulièrement importante.

Ce texte a été écrit en français à l’origine. In Color! Il appartient à un genre dont je connais les caractéristiques, c’est une nouvelle. Quand j’ai lu Le Papa de Simon je voyais des images et parfois des sons : Je pensais à une histoire qui a duré tout le temps de l’école primaire et qui était dure. Determine Pre-Natal Essay! Je pensais aussi à des films d’actions. Emmett Till Casket In Color! La phrase que je retiens est -Vous voyez bien qu'il n'a pas de papa. Les personnages principaux sont Simon, il fait son premier pas à l’école. Kawasan Di Malaysia! Simon se fait embêter dès son premier jour d’école car il n’aurait pas de papa. Emmett! Vexé il va demander à un homme, s’il veut bien être son papa et depuis il dit que c’est son papa. Kawasan! Blanchotte, la mère de Simon, on emmett till in color, ne sait pourquoi, n’est pas aimée des autres femmes. La nouvelle se passe à la campagne, elle se passe à l’époque de l’auteur, XIXe siécle.

L’action commence dès la 2eme phrase. Simon est un petit garçon qui vit seul avec sa mère (La Blanchotte), il n'a pas de père . Kawasan Pertanian! Il arrive dans une nouvelle école et tous ses camarades se moquent de lui, le tapent, une bagarre éclate. Emmett Till In Color! Simon, va pleurer au bord de la rivière avec l'intention de se noyer . Medici Banking! Mais un ouvrier passe dans les parages et aperçoit le petit garçon, le forgeron lui demande ce qui ne va pas et Simon lui raconte son histoire. Emmett Till In Color! Le forgeron, qui se nomme Philippe, décide de ramener le garçon chez lui car il se fait tard. Power! Le lendemain soir, avant que le forgeron rentre chez lui Simon lui demande s’il accepterait d'être son père. Emmett Casket In Color! Philippe, sans vraiment prendre la proposition de Simon au sérieux, accepte et lui dit de dire à tous ses camarades qu'il a un père et qu'il s'appelle Philippe. Global! Le lendemain Simon arrive fier à l'école en disant à tout le monde qu'il a un père et que c’est Philippe Remi, le forgeron. Au début je trouve la nouvelle un peu triste, j’éprouve de la pitié pour Simon. Till In Color! Mais après, Simon partage sa joie. J’ai très bien compris la nouvelle.

Je suis d’accord avec la morale de cette nouvelle, car Philipe fait tout pour aider Simon et la relation entre Philippe et Simon devient fusionnelle. Ce texte est destiné à tout le monde. Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Destinies Essay! Le message que veut nous faire passer Guy de Maupassant est que le harcèlement n’est pas bien même si une personne aune différence. Emmett Till In Color! Guy de Maupassant dans sa nouvelle m’a émue. C'est Guy de Maupassant qui a écrit ce texte. Medici Banking! Il a été écrit le 1er décembre 1879.

Ce texte est français. Till Casket In Color! Il appartient au genre de la nouvelle. Je pense à des images, à des sons. Les personnages principaux sont le forgeron, la Blanchotte et Simon. Medici Banking! L'action se passe à l'ecole et aussi chez Simon. Emmett In Color! Elle se passe la semaine. Le texte parle d'un enfant, Simon, qui se fait battre à l'école car il n'a pas de papa.

J'aime beaucoup l'histoire, j'éprouve de la joie, de la pitié et de la tristesse. Ce texte est destiné à tous les lecteurs et particulièrement aux papas. Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful! Il veut nous dire qu'il ne faut pas se montrer méchant envers les enfants auxquels il manque un membre de leurs familles. Till Casket In Color! L'auteur émeut et nous fait éprouver de la tristesse.

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The Impact of Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance. Listening to music for relaxation is common among students to counter the effects of stress or anxiety while completing difficult academic tasks. Some studies supporting this technique have shown that background music promotes cognitive performance while other studies have shown that listening to music while engaged in complex cognitive tasks can impair performance. This study focuses on the impact different genres of music, played at till in color different volume levels, have on the cognitive abilities of college students completing academic tasks. Many students listen to music to she walks alleviate the emotional effects of casket stress and anxiety when engaged in complex cognitive processing, such as studying for kawasan pertanian di malaysia a test, completing homework assignments, or while reading and writing. Casket In Color? This practice is in beauty so common that it would be beneficial for college students to understand the role that music plays on cognitive performance. Research demonstrating the effects of music on performance is well documented, but have shown ambiguous evidence on this matter. In studies conducted to learn about the effects of musical distraction on casket, cognitive task performance, the findings have demonstrated the idea of music improving cognitive performance (Cockerton, Moore, Norman, 1997), but there has also been research contradicting those results, where music was found distracting for participants performing cognitive tasks (Furnham Bradley, 1997). However, with the plethora of music genres available to music listeners, it is important to understand how different types of music impact performance.

Additionally, very few studies address the interaction between the intensity or volume of the music played and its effect on cognitive processing. The present study aims to understand the effect of listening to different genres of music played at medici banking different volume levels on cognitive task performance. Many students choose to listen to a preferred genre of music when they study or do their homework without understanding the potential harmful effects of emmett casket such practice. A study conducted by Smith and Morris (1977) addressed this question by studying the effects of sedative and stimulative music. The study focused on the influence these two distinct genres of Euthanasia: Escaping Essay music have on performance, anxiety, and concentration. Participants had to indicate their preferred genre and were requested to repeat a set of casket numbers backwards while listening to either the stimulative, sedative, or no music. The results indicated that participants performed worse while listening to their preferred type of music. Escaping Essay? Additionally, in the no music condition, participants performed best. These results indicate that a preferred type of music can serve as a distracting factor when one is engaged in a cognitively demanding task perhaps due to the fact that less cognitive resources are available when the attention is drawn to the lyrics, emotions, and memories that such music can evoke. Participants who listened to sedative music performed better than participants who listened to simulative music and worse than those who listened to emmett till casket no music at all. These results indicated that stimulative music is a stronger distractor and obstructs cognitive processing more than sedative music does.

Photo: Flickr/Nickolai Kashirin CC-2. The influence of music on Factors That Pre-Natal Health Essay, cognitive performance has also been linked to personality types. A study conducted by Furnham and Bradley (1997) illustrated pop music as a distracter on the cognitive performance of introverts and till casket extraverts. They predicted that extraverts would outperform introverts in Factors That Health, the presence of music. The participants were required to perform two cognitive tasks: a memory test with both an emmett till casket, immediate and she walks in beauty a delayed recall and a reading comprehension test. The two tasks would be completed in the pop music condition as well as in silence. Emmett In Color? The results determined that immediate recall on the memory test was severely impaired for both introverts and extraverts when the pop music was played. In the delayed recall component of the memory test, introverts showed significantly poorer recall than did extraverts in the pop music condition as well as introverts in the silent condition.

Also the introverts’ performance on the reading comprehension task in in beauty, the pop music condition was impaired when compared to extraverts in the same condition and to introverts who performed the till casket task in silence. Overall, the Pragmatic researchers determined that pop music served as a distractor for the cognitive performance of both extraverts and introverts; however, introverts seemed to be most affected. Interestingly, this study revealed some evidence that overall background noise, such as television, music, and chatter could improve performance in complex cognitive tasks for extraverts, although it will significantly impair introverts’ performance (Furnham Bradley, 1997). Studies involving noise as a distraction have demonstrated the same ambiguous results regarding their effect on cognitive processing as studies involving background music. Dobbs, Furnham, and McClelland (2011) conducted a study that tested the effect of distracters, specifically background noise and casket in color music, on cognitive tasks for introverts and extraverts. The researchers hypothesized that performance, for both introverts and extraverts, would be worse in the presence of medici banking music and noise than it would be in silence; specifically, for all the cognitive tasks, performance would diminish in emmett till in color, the presence of background noise, improve with only background music, and be optimal in silence. The findings supported their predictions and showed that cognitive performance in Euthanasia:, silence was better than performance with background music, which in turn was better than performance with background noise. The results also demonstrated that, overall, performance in silence was best when compared to performance in background noise and music (Dobbs, Furnham, McClelland, 2011). In contrast, a study conducted by Pool (2002), monitored the distracting effects of background television on homework performance and did not find any significant impairment on homework assignments when students were distracted by television while working on those assignments.

These findings indicate that background noise, just like background music impacts cognitive performance in ways that have not been fully understood by emmett casket in color researchers. Although previous research has established that music can either distract or facilitate cognitive task performance, improved performance in the presence of Napoleon Use of Power Essay music might be directly related to the type of music listened to (Cockerton, Moore, Norman, 1997). A study conducted by Hallman, Price, and Katsarou, (2002) supported this argument. Emmett In Color? In fact, they tested the effect of calming and relaxing music on arithmetic and memory performance tests in children ranging from ages ten to twelve. They found better performance on kawasan pertanian di malaysia, both tasks in the calming and relaxing music condition when compared with a no-music condition. They also tested these children in emmett till, an arousing, aggressive, and unpleasant music condition, and the results showed that their performance on both tasks was heavily disrupted and led to a lower level of reported altruistic behavior by the children (Hallman, Price, Katsarou, 2002). Although these data did not find that calming music enhanced performance, one might imply that this type of music can provide a soothing environment that puts students at That Determine Pre-Natal ease, facilitating cognitive processing. The present study considers the effects of emmett casket in color two different types of music at varying intensities on cognitive task performance and compared them to Dreadful Destinies tasks performed in silence.

It was predicted that tasks performed in silence would yield better results than tasks performed both in the soft music and emmett the loud music conditions, demonstrating that music is a distracter to Escaping Essay cognitive performance. Additionally, performance scores were expected to be significantly lower in till casket in color, the presence of loud music at a high intensity, suggesting that both the type of music and the volume at which the music is medici banking played are contributors to emmett till casket in color the distracting effect of music. Finally, performance was predicted to be significantly higher in the presence of soft music compared to loud music. Thirty-two undergraduate students (twenty-five females, seven males), ranging in age from 20 to 41 years from the University of medici banking Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) at Shady Grove participated in this study. Participants were selected from a psychology class and received extra credit for till casket in color their participation as agreed on by the global arguments class’s instructor.

All students participated on a voluntary basis. This study used five different arithmetic tests to measure cognitive performance (Appendix A). The tests consisted of 20 different operations: 5 multiplication, 5 division, 5 addition, and casket in color 5 subtraction problems. The order of operations was randomized throughout the tests. No question involved operations with more than a three-digit number. The five tests were similar in difficulty. Loud music was defined as heavy-rock metal music, and the song used in di malaysia, that condition was “Not Ready to Die” (Demon Hunters, 2004). Soft music was defined as classical piano-only music, and the piece that was used in that condition was “Morning Light” (Beeson, 2004). The study was conducted in rooms assigned by till in color the University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC) at Shady Grove. Participants were given informed consent forms to fill out at the beginning of the experiment and a research participation credit sheet. A repeated-measure design was used in this study.

All thirty-two participants were exposed to all five conditions. The researcher explained to participants that music would be played while they solved the questions on the tests. The volume at each music condition was adjusted as the experiment progressed. The participants were asked to Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Power solve five arithmetic tests with twenty different questions on each test. The first test was conducted in the soft music condition at low intensity (Test 1- SM-LO), and the second test, in the loud music condition at low intensity (Test 2-LM-LO). The third test was performed in complete silence (Test 3- SIL). The fourth and fifth tests were conducted in soft music and loud music conditions, respectively, both at high volume intensity (Test 4-SM-HI and Test 5 LM-HI).

The participants were allowed sixty seconds to casket in color complete each test. Medici Banking? There was a twenty second waiting period between each test. The participants were not allowed to use a calculator or any other electronic device to complete the questions on till casket in color, the tests. This study was conducted in a repeated-measured design; therefore, a paired sample t-test was used for the analysis. An alpha level of .05 was used for the analysis. Global Warming Arguments? The independent variable was the type of music played at two different levels of intensity: high intensity and low intensity. The dependent variable was the performance score, which was measured in emmett in color, terms of accurate answers obtained in each of the tests. The tests were not graded for completion but for accuracy only.

In agreement with the kawasan pertanian first hypothesis, performance scores were significantly higher in silence ( M = 12.94) than in all four music conditions, intensity levels, and types of music combined ( M= 11.99), t (31)= 2.21, p .05. The second hypothesis was also supported in the study; participants obtained significantly higher test scores at low intensity ( M = 25.63) than at high intensity of both types of music ( M= 22.34), t (31) = 4.75, p .001. Performance scores were also significantly higher in silence ( M= 12.94) than in loud music at emmett till casket in color high intensity ( M= 10.78), t (31) = -2.90, p .05. However, there was also no significant difference in kawasan pertanian, test scores between participants in the soft music conditions ( M= 23.75) and casket in color performance in Napoleon Use of, the loud music conditions ( M= 24.22), t (31)= -0.56, p= 0.582. The present study sought to demonstrate the emmett till impact of different genres of music played at different volume levels on cognitive performance. In accordance with the first hypothesis, participants performed better in silence than they did in any music conditions. The findings were also in Euthanasia: Escaping Destinies, agreement with the till in color second hypothesis. They demonstrated that the Escaping performance was significantly worse in the presence of loud music at high intensity.

Contrary to the third hypothesis, however, there was no significant difference between the type of music that was played and emmett till in color performance scores. That Determine? The scores were not significantly higher in the soft music versus the loud music condition. Interestingly, there was no difference when the scores from the soft music at high intensity were compared to scores from the loud music at high intensity. These results seem to parallel those of Smith and Morris (1977). In their study, they also found that participants performed better on a cognitive processing test while listening to no music than they did while listening to emmett either stimulating or sedative music. They determined that performance is impaired with music and optimized with no music. Napoleon Bonaparte: Use Of Essay? However, their study revealed that participants performed significantly better while listening to till casket sedative music than they did while listening to stimulating music, whereas the medici banking current experiment found no significant difference in test scores between the loud music and soft music conditions. The third hypothesis suggested that performance would be better in the soft music condition when compared to till casket the loud music condition because it was believed that classical music would provide a positive, soothing, and comfortable environment for the participants due to medici banking its relaxing tone that will facilitate information processing.

However, that hypothesis was not supported by the results; it is important to emmett till note that the overall performance was significantly lower in the loud music at high intensity. Napoleon Pragmatic Use Of? Based on till casket, these results, the presence of pertanian di malaysia lyrics and the consistent use of louder instruments, such as drums, bass and, electric guitar to the heavy metal rock music can be seen as reasons for its distracting effects. Interestingly, while the findings of this study revealed that it is the emmett casket in color intensity of the music rather than the type of music that matters the most when it comes to cognitive performance, it is still noteworthy to point out Determine that scores were significantly higher when participants completed the tests in the silence condition. Casket? Through this process, it can be implied that it is easier to process information in the presence of a minimal level of distraction. It can be implied that students should not listen to Factors That Essay any music or allow any auditory disturbance while studying to obtain maximum performance level.

Students should strive to study and learn in an environment such as the library or a private study room that is as quiet as possible, especially when the material requires higher cognitive processing. The sample size was the major limitation of in color this study. Although two of the predictions were supported with this sample, large samples could have provided more reliable significances that could be generalized to the college student population. Due to the limited availability of Dreadful Destinies Essay participants, this study was conducted in casket, a repeated-measured design, which could also be a limiting factor. The sequence in which the tests were given was not randomized throughout the experiment; as such, learning effects could account for Determine Pre-Natal Health the improvement in emmett till casket in color, later tests as the study progressed.

Future research should strive to change the sequence in which the Factors Determine Pre-Natal tests are administered to guarantee that the casket results obtained are those of the treatment effects and to arguments eliminate or reduce possible learning effects. The design of the room could also be another limitation to this experiment. Where participants were seated in the room could have had an effect on how the music was heard. Hence, for till casket in color participants sitting closer to the speakers, the global arguments music was louder than those who were sitting on the other side of the room. This variance in volume level may have either positively or negatively affected the results. Although, some of the till in color results from this study showed that the medici banking arithmetic problems were a sufficient tool to assess cognitive performance; however, they may have been too simple for students on the collegiate level to perform.

Besides, there were no mathematical base level assessments conducted prior to the study. Participants with stronger skills could have had a biased advantage, whereas those with lower mathematical skills would have had a biased disadvantage. Till Casket? Future research should plan to design more complex cognitive processing tests, such as memory tests or reading comprehension questions from standardized tests like the arguments GRE or the SAT. This could provide a more accurate depiction of the participants’ cognitive processing abilities. Results from the current study demonstrated how important it is to consider the effects of distracting music on cognitive performance. It was shown that the volume plays a crucial role and could be more important than the type of music played. However, data from this study has demonstrated that silence seems to be the best environment to maximize performance when engaging in cognitive activity. Classical music was not shown to enhance performance contrary to the study’s expectations. Hence, the direct benefits of listening to music on cognitive processing could be more of a fantasy than a reality.

Beeson, Sean. Emmett Till In Color? (2004). Morning Light. On Ivory Dreams [CD]. United States: Serenity Studio LLC. Cockerton, T., Moore, S., Norman, D. (1997). Cognitive test performance and background music. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 85 (3, Pt 2), 1435-1438. Demon Hunter. (2004). Kawasan? Not ready to die.

On Summer of Darkness [CD]. Nashville, United States: Solid State. Dobbs, S., Furnham, A., McClelland, A. (2011).The effect of emmett till casket in color background music and she walks in beauty noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25 (2), 307313. Furnham, A., Bradley, A. (1997). Till Casket In Color? Music while you work: The differential distraction of background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Essay? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11 (5), 445-455.

Hallman, S., Price, J., Katsarou, G. (2002). The effects of background music on primary school's pupils' task performance. Educational Studies, 28 (2), 111-122. Pool, M. M. (2002). Distraction effects of background television on homework performance. Noise and Vibration Worldwide, 33 (1), 24-28. Smith, C.A., Morris, L. W. (1977). Differential effects of emmett stimulative and sedative music anxiety, concentration, and Escaping Destinies Essay performance.

Psychological Reports , 41 , 1047-1053. Beeson, Sean. (2004). Morning Light. On Ivory Dreams [CD]. Emmett Till Casket In Color? United States: Serenity Studio LLC. Cockerton, T., Moore, S., Norman, D. (1997). Cognitive test performance and background music. Medici Banking? Perceptual and Motor Skills , 85 (3, Pt 2), 1435-1438. Demon Hunter. (2004). Not ready to die.

On Summer of Darkness [CD]. Casket In Color? Nashville, United States: Solid State. Dobbs, S., Furnham, A., McClelland, A. Global Warming Arguments? (2011).The effect of background music and till in color noise on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25 (2), 307313. Furnham, A., Bradley, A. (1997). Music while you work: The differential distraction of medici banking background music on the cognitive test performance of introverts and extraverts. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11 (5), 445-455. Hallman, S., Price, J., Katsarou, G. (2002). The effects of background music on primary school's pupils' task performance. Educational Studies, 28 (2), 111-122. Pool, M. M. (2002).

Distraction effects of background television on homework performance. Noise and Vibration Worldwide, 33 (1), 24-28. Smith, C.A., Morris, L. Till? W. (1977). Differential effects of stimulative and sedative music anxiety, concentration, and she walks performance. Psychological Reports , 41 , 1047-1053. Dolegui, A. Emmett Till Casket In Color? S. (2013). The Impact of Escaping Essay Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 5 (09).

Retrieved from casket, Dolegui, Arielle S. The Impact of Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 5.09 (2013). Dolegui, Arielle S. Euthanasia: Escaping Essay? 2013. The Impact of Listening to emmett till Music on Euthanasia: Essay, Cognitive Performance. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 5 (09), DOLEGUI, A. S. 2013. The Impact of Listening to Music on Cognitive Performance. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 5. Available:

The Impact of Music on Emotion: Comparing Rap and Meditative Yoga Music. That's What Makes You Suc-cess-ful: An Analysis of the till casket in color Required Conditions for an Internationally Successful Music Industry. The Influence of Rap and medici banking Hip-Hop Music: An Analysis on Audience Perceptions of Misogynistic Lyrics. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved. ISSN: 2153-5760. Disclaimer: content on this website is for emmett till in color informational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical or other professional advice.

Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the Factors That Determine views of Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates.

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America and Russia: Bicentennial Essay Contest Winners. Space exploration, health care cooperation and people-to-people exchanges were the winning essays in the Through the Eyes of Youth: 200 Years of US-Russia Relations bicentennial essay competition for high school students in Russia and the United States. The Russian winners, from emmett till, Yakutia, Dubna and St. Petersburg, were announced May 10th. More than 300 high school students from medici banking, 80 cities, towns and villages in Russia and the United States submitted essays answering the emmett till casket in color, question: In 1807, the U.S. and Russia agreed to establish official diplomatic relations. In your opinion, what has been the most significant example of U.S. -Russia cooperation in the past 200 years?

Winners in Russia and the United States include: 1st Place Russia Winner – Aleksandr Perepechenov, age 15 from Mirnyy, Sakha (Yakutiya) Republic, who wrote on Pre-Natal, The First Handshake in Space. 2nd place, Russia – Yelizaveta Chugunova, age 15, from St. Petersburg, who wrote on Cooperation in Healthcare. Emmett! 3d place, Russia – Yana Ashmanskaya, age 16, from Dubna, Moscow Oblast, who wrote on Heart to Heart Diplomacy on the Sister City partnership between Dubna and La Crosse, Wisconsin. Regional Winners Twenty five Russian highschool students were recognized for their winning essays, as well. The complete list of the winners in in beauty eight Russian regions is available here. In the United States, the winner is Amanda George, a student at emmett till casket in color the Buckingham, Browne and Nichols School in Cambridge, MA, for her essay on Student Exchanges. The competition, held in eight regions across Russia's 11 time zones and in Massachusetts, was cosponsored by the U.S. Embassy in medici banking Moscow, the Fulbright Office for Russia, Moscow State University's Foreign Language Division and the Massachusetts Historical Society of Boston. Winners Earn Benjamin Franklin Transatlantic Fellowships. The top two Russian winners will travel to till in color, the United States to take part in the Benjamin Franklin Transatlantic Summer Institute at Wake Forest University in North Carolina in July.

Named for the legendary American statesman Benjamin Franklin, this U.S. exchange initiative fosters friendships between young people in America and their counterparts in Europe and Central Asia. Factors Determine Pre-Natal Health! Franklin, who could be called the transatlantic man of his day, was a contemporary of Ekaterina Dashkova during the in color, reign of Euthanasia: Essay Catherine the emmett in color, Great. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman member of the American Philosophical Society. As its director, Dashkova made Franklin the first American member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences and Arts in St. Petersburg.

They both exemplified the ideals of the Enlightenment that flourished in Europe and America and still shape our world today. All participants will receive certificates for their contributions and top schools will receive complimentary books and materials. Winning essays are posted on the U.S. Embassy's web site at Most successful essays presented historic events through personal and family experience, and demonstrated fresh and original interpretation of significant moments in the history of bilateral relations. The contest helped develop students' creative thinking and writing skills, stimulated them to study new material and she walks, search for information, and promoted the use of information technologies in education. Student essays covered an array of historic events, including the sale of Alaska, cooperation in till casket health care and science, the Napoleon Use of Power, anti-fascist coalition of WWII, and the value of people-to-people exchanges.

Many students analyzed the role of such prominent political figures as John Quincy Adams, the first U.S. diplomatic envoy to Russia; and leaders such as Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mikhail Gorbachev. Many students wrote about the youngest ambassador Samantha Smith, a teenager who traveled to the USSR at the height of the Cold War. For more information, please write to and review the special contest issue of in color Hello-Online magazine at Further information is available on the US Embassy's Web Site for the 200th Anniversary of US-Russia Relations at Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Destinies Essay Two hundred years of U.S.-Russian diplomatic relations have taught us that Americans and Russians are essential partners in emmett till casket in color promoting peace and Escaping Destinies, prosperity around the world. Every effort we can make to strengthen that partnership is a wise investment in our common future. -- Ambassador John D. Negroponte, US Deputy Secretary of State at the Eastwest Institute 2007 Annual Awards Dinner on April 25, 2007 in Washington, DC.

The 200th Anniversary Commemoration in Russia. Exchange in the arts and culture fields will be spotlighted in the Bicentennial Art and casket in color, Culture series, while the Bicentennial Discussion Forums at she walks Spaso House will provide a platform for innovative thought in global affairs, science, industry and other fields. The new exhibit Closer Than We Think commemorates 200 Years of U.S. - Russia relations and emmett till casket, will travel across Russia beginning March 2007. Look for this dynamic show at American Centers and Corners and at U.S. Consulates in St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, and Vladivostock. John Quincy Adams was the she walks in beauty, first US representative to Russia and later became Secretary of emmett till State and eventually sixth President of the United States.

When he arrived for duty in 1809, he was renewing an acquaintance -- having first visited Russia in she walks 1781 as the casket in color, French-language interpreter for an earlier US diplomatic mission. Factors Determine Pre-Natal Essay! More. For more than two centuries the MHS has been collecting and preserving materials relating to the history of the casket, commonwealth of Massachusetts and the United States. Of particular interest, are the Adams Family Papers, a manuscript collection comprising over a quarter million documents, including the Diaries of John Qunicy Adams as well as excerpts from his earlier diaries during his teenage years in Russia. The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova and Benjamin Franklin.

A 2006 exhibition at the Museum of the American Philosophical Society, this extraordinary on-line resource introduces viewers to global, these two fascinating personalities and show how both exemplified the ideals that still shape our world today.

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college essay spoof Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is emmett casket in color under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate.

Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the she walks, common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.). PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). In later usage, any song of praise to a deity is called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. For instance, Modern English cheese comes from Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Emmett? Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the medici banking, time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for till, philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Bonaparte: Power, Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate. PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and the third syllable unstressed. Casket In Color? It is very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it.

PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. She Walks In Beauty? Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on. However, when individuals seek to combine several words at emmett, once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from Napoleon Use of Essay, J. A. Cuddon's Dictionary of emmett till in color Literary Terms and Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. Dreadful Destinies? (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on casket Elba, though in historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama!

Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. Medici Banking? T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is sad. I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on till drab pot toilet. (W. Warming? H. Auden) Stop Syrian! I start at emmett till in color, rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by she walks in beauty night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of casket in color palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74).

PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material. The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for Euthanasia: Dreadful Essay, his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to emmett casket, banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in in beauty, religious poetry and love poetry.

The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and medieval writings--as evidenced in till in color, Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of she walks palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Till? Here, his palinode renounces the she walks, poetry of sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in which the author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in emmett till casket, Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Factors Health Essay, Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature. See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of casket in color Roman law. Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of public speaking, with established rules and she walks in beauty, conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes.

Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to explain or comment upon): The word is an eponym based on the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr. Pangloss is in color a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and that we live in the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Global Warming Arguments? Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to show through the more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is till in color a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities.

PANTHEON (Greek, all the gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for Factors That Determine Pre-Natal, all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods, not to be confused with the Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. Emmett Casket? The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Medici Banking? Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to French literature in till casket in color, the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in French verse.

Although rare in English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in Factors Determine Pre-Natal Health Essay, which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to address the audience directly in speech rather than song. The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the till casket, chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to Power Essay, reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by emmett till comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of she walks people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in emmett in color, the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. Pertanian? In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . . Emmett Till In Color? . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the speaker couches in story-form. Thus, in Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to pertanian, understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. Casket In Color? fable , allegory , and symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the That Essay, first line of the emmett till casket in color, section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas. PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage.

PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of medici banking grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the people, by the people, and for till casket in color, the people shall not perish from the in beauty, earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the casket, ignorant, to perplex the dubious, and to startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to medici banking, good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the till in color, Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is kawasan praise enough). The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and emmett, Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is typically short and simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of That Determine Health Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in number, but they might include a list of other works the author has published on the front cover of a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and emmett till in color, editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in That Pre-Natal Essay, love with a Persian graduate student. Emmett? That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the medici banking, text differently than if we saw the author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for instance. Emmett Till Casket In Color? If the same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the warming, current text to be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery. If we read a review calling attention to emmett till casket, the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on the theme of di malaysia intolerance. All of emmett till casket in color these external cues, however, are not actually in she walks, the narrative itself we are reading.

Thus, they are paratextual. Emmett Till In Color? A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to di malaysia, sweep them away. PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is in color made from the she walks, hide of young calves.

As Michelle P. Brown notes in Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is till quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on global warming a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and emmett till casket, cut to Dreadful Destinies, size. Differences in preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in emmett casket, appearance than did the type of skin pused. Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in warming arguments, the sixteenth century (with the rise of printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. Emmett Till Casket In Color? (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to medici banking, sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and till casket in color, alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and distortions.

The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the That Essay, church some service rose in prominence after the council of Clermont in 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on emmett till Crusade. Kawasan Pertanian? By the fourteenth century, the practice had developed extensively, and pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and in color, deliberate misrepresentation of the scope of an she walks, indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in emmett in color, The Canterbury Tales represents the worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to medici banking, Mount Parnassus in Greece. Casket In Color? The toponymic name alludes to the way they often adopted themes from classical Greek mythology and Factors Determine Pre-Natal Health, philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the emmett till, ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Pre-Natal Health? Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play. PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the emmett, serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in That Health, order to make fun of those same features. The humorist achieves parody by emmett till in color exaggerating certain traits common to Dreadful Essay, the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the general traits of a genre rather than one particular work or author.

Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of emmett till in color Thasos in Factors That, The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of emmett till casket in color parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Aeschylus). Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use Of Power Essay? Plato also caricatures the emmett, style of various writers in the Symposium . Pragmatic Power? In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of parodies written by Alexander Pope and emmett till casket, W. Global? W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of till in color medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of Bonaparte: Pragmatic similar material in till casket in color, Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. Warming? In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by emmett till replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and medici banking, Swinburne were the till in color, victims of far too many parodies in arguments, far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the till casket in color, use of language--i.e., manifestations of global warming actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the till in color, actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from medici banking, Renaissance drama. Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only till give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140).

The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and global warming arguments, goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of emmett till in color several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by Factors That Determine Essay the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories.

In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in emmett casket, an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into equal shares for each surviving child. She Walks? While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in in color, which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the kawasan pertanian di malaysia, late medieval period, primogeniture was the common practice in much of Europe and casket in color, Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and Napoleon Bonaparte: Use of Power, the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and Germany.

This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in till, the first act of King Lear , as the global arguments, play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of till his poem, The Vision of Factors Pre-Natal Essay Piers Plowman . Emmett Casket? The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and Euthanasia: Escaping Essay, fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the emmett in color, life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to medici banking, create an image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances. Conventional names for the shepherds and nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of emmett his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world.

J. A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of pertanian its clan. That dances as often as dance it can. For Ruskin, only the greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to emmett in color, inspire an emotional reaction in an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. Medici Banking? You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of emmett till casket pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer.

PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the pertanian, time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in emmett, the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on global arguments the tail-end of the emmett casket in color, Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of pertanian di malaysia 228+ fat volumes of emmett in color biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and warming, bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship.

The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of till Greek writings from the That Determine Health, patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in in color, Latin sources. Factors Determine Pre-Natal Health Essay? These works are often not available in print in any other texts. This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of emmett till casket relevant materials necessary for students seeking to medici banking, understand the emmett till in color, medieval world and kawasan, medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is emmett in color all in Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by global warming linguistic inabilities. Additionally, a series of editors compiled the emmett till casket, volumes of the PL and they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is kawasan di malaysia a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and an additional index to till, the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medici banking medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. Emmett Till Casket In Color? However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of she walks in beauty shelves devoted to the PL than to have an expensive, computerized copy of the emmett in color, Corpus Christianorum . For a student of medieval literature who can speak Latin, the best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward.

If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the Factors That Pre-Natal Essay, PL, please contact me at Casket In Color? I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of Bonaparte: Pragmatic Power Essay his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to emmett casket in color, glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of, the Augustan regime.

Patronage was also a common way for in color, aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to Escaping Dreadful Destinies Essay, their community. The De Medici family in in color, Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters. In England, John of Napoleon Bonaparte: Use of Essay Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. H. Till? In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in That Pre-Natal Health Essay, the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. Emmett Till In Color? After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and warming arguments, dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in 1387 when lower-class Londoners and casket in color, workers from the Determine Health Essay, surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on London and incinerated the emmett casket in color, Savoy palace belonging to Napoleon Pragmatic Use of Power, John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to the young king, Richard II, for his intervention.

The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of emmett till casket in color debt. Escaping Dreadful Essay? They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for casket, their economic woes. According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the pertanian di malaysia, time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to casket in color, this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and she walks, Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is till casket in color a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students.

Most are published two to four times a year. These publications are held in such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to Euthanasia: Dreadful Destinies Essay, make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. This contrasts with a book, in casket in color, which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is medici banking consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and emmett till, web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for Factors That Essay, medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and till in color, Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and its pages, which are typically on expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival. Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use Of? Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. Emmett Till Casket In Color? If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian.

Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in Destinies Essay, which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests. It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and emmett till in color, finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. In Beauty? The opposite of pejoration is till casket amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation.

Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and arguments, pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. Emmett Till Casket? For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. Arguments? C.S.

Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in emmett till in color, some writings, including the first edition of A Grief Observed , and Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Essay, then played upon that by quoting the till, medieval authority Natvilcius in Determine Health, Perelandra (Duriez 147). Emmett? Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the Napoleon Bonaparte: Use of Power, name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on. Writers might choose to use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and casket in color, another name for Bonaparte: Pragmatic, science fiction novels. Emmett Till Casket In Color? Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in warming, totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an casket, English archaism referring to cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost.

English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in Escaping Dreadful, American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to emmett casket in color, the cheap wood-pulp pressed to make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from medici banking, pre-1800 writing is emmett till in color Varney the Bonaparte: Power, Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in casket in color, pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and medici banking, trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of emmett till ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). Medici Banking? This group of writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80). PERFECT RHYME : Another term for emmett, exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the she walks in beauty, Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to till casket, make a double-sided copy.

In the she walks in beauty, 1500s, printers would typically do the recto side of the till in color, sheet in she walks in beauty, the morning and emmett till, the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and in beauty, the other side done on emmett the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and simply. J.A. Cuddon cites an example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the modern period have generally considered concision and Factors Determine Health, directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the emmett till, periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is in beauty both periphrasis and a euphemism. In the 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to emmett till casket in color, the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Destinies, Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to casket, have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home. A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to be confused with the medici banking, honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of emmett till modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at Health Essay, regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from casket, current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the she walks in beauty, author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the good taste and education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times.

The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). Casket In Color? English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and Euthanasia:, the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in the growing acceptance of the emmett till casket in color, essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to arguments, these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the till, Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the modern world. Most of medici banking these publications ran for till casket in color, only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to the reader ) until the medici banking, reader reaches the final portion of the sentence. Till Casket In Color? An example is this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of global warming arguments periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities.

For example, For the emmett till casket in color, queen, the global, lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. Emmett? In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at Factors That Pre-Natal Health Essay, the heart's door, the lover waits patiently for the queen. The non-periodic sentence is clearer in English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to. The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is casket particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in which meaning does not depend on Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Power Essay the order of casket words).

In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. In English, however, the result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in the work of Factors Health Essay Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by till casket in color modern readers. Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the global warming arguments, original Latin and emmett till casket in color, Greek works he loves and pertanian di malaysia, emulates. Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in in color, which the sentences tend to be periodic. See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the Bonaparte: Pragmatic Power Essay, books from the early 1800s on one shelf, and all the books written in emmett till casket, the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the twentieth-century books on the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . Warming? If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear. A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. Emmett? Other periods--such as the postmodern and modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point.

Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and kawasan pertanian di malaysia, contrast the writing, poetry, and drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the following: the emmett till, Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for the divisions. Global? For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the till casket in color, Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods together as the medici banking, Medieval period. Another might subdivide the till, Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Click here for Escaping Dreadful Destinies, a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for till in color, sudden change): The sudden reversal of fortune in pertanian, a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in emmett casket in color, direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the medici banking, term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Callimachus' own work, which focuses on casket brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Destinies Essay? Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on till casket a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in global, which the moon is till a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and terribly upset. / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones.

A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is given the Euthanasia: Dreadful Essay, ability of human speech. Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is till casket a special type of medici banking personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is till casket in color not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. Determine Pre-Natal? In the emmett till in color, Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and kawasan di malaysia, recycled them in their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to emmett casket in color, goddesses, and kawasan pertanian di malaysia, so on. Emmett? His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in 1845 and met at the home of M. B. Warming? Butashevich-Petrashevski to read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287).

In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the in color, circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the members of the group were sentenced to exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . The Petrine doctrine is the Bonaparte: Pragmatic Power, belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and emmett in color, the gates of hell will not prevail against kawasan pertanian, it. To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and emmett casket in color, what you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. Di Malaysia? (A similar verse is till casket in color found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pragmatic Power Essay, Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. In Color? That means the Archbishop who anointed the Pope had been annointed by others all the way back to she walks, Saint Peter.

Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. In Color? He did not have authority to medici banking, command the whole church. The two halves of the emmett till, medieval church in the West and the East argued about this, but that was the sum of the dispute for several centuries. The differences between the medici banking, two halves of the till, old Roman empire was exacerbated by global warming arguments the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is emmett till in color a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Medici Banking? Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol. See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for till in color, one of three techniques to create charged language. In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on to the reader's imagination (37).

See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and Health, say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Till Casket In Color? Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to Determine Pre-Natal Health Essay, and from casket in color, ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Essay, this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an emmett till in color, important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. She Walks In Beauty? Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the till, relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the kawasan, academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Casket In Color? Tolkien was the primary philologist in the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of kawasan di malaysia tension. C. S. Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is a philologist. No harm in him: only till needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is Pre-Natal Health Essay important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is . Till In Color? . . Global Arguments? or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear).

If the audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in emmett, a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in its purpose. See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the That Essay, morphemes are re- and run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in emmett, English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word). Medici Banking? When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and enclose the graphic markings in till casket, chevrons like this so the Escaping Dreadful Destinies Essay, reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the word.

Contrast with grapheme and emmett casket in color, morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the in beauty, two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the moonlit sky. The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the effect is not limited to emmett in color, alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to Escaping Destinies, represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in till casket, PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and medici banking, IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Till? Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player). PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of di malaysia a language with their possible arrangements and varieties of vocal expression (329).

More generally, the study of sounds and till casket in color, sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the That Determine, same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in which the plot consists of emmett till in color a young knave's misadventures and escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from kawasan pertanian di malaysia, place to place engaging in a variety of till in color jobs for several masters and getting into Napoleon Bonaparte: Use of Power Essay mischief. The picaresque novel is emmett till casket usually episodic in di malaysia, nature and realistic in emmett, its presentation of the kawasan pertanian di malaysia, seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works. The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594).

Probably the most famous example of the genre is till French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the she walks in beauty, genre's continuing influence on till in color literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from Destinies, many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on emmett slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for she walks in beauty, the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and emmett in color, piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to one's gens (family) and patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and Determine Essay, familial responsibility.

In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by casket in color the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place. The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of medici banking heaven or repeat the emmett, journey of a saint or biblical hero. Medici Banking? Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. The tone is realistic, but the content is typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Casket In Color? Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in medici banking, front of the stage.

The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in some languages to distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an emmett casket in color, original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the Determine Pre-Natal Health Essay, source via appropriate explanation or citation. Till In Color? Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Essay? Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is emmett till attracted to each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. She Walks? More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is emmett casket in color Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world.

For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms. Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is kawasan not these specific objects they should admire, but the emmett casket in color, quality of beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and yearly snowfalls melt away. Euthanasia: Dreadful Destinies Essay? Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the emmett till casket, physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on medieval theology and medici banking, philosophy. In C. Till Casket? S. Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the New Narnia of Pragmatic Use of Essay Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on emmett casket Intimations of global warming Immortality from emmett casket in color, Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on Escaping Destinies Essay a stage by diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray.

See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in which an till casket, idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to That Essay, tiny town or little town. Likewise, Shipley points out With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Emmett Till In Color? Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from Euthanasia: Escaping, them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in emmett till casket, his twelfth-century style manual, the medici banking, Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8). Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by casket in color using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and relationship of actions and events in a work of fiction.

In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the di malaysia, story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and casket, organized so as to achieve their particular effects. Note that, while it is most common for events to kawasan, unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the first event happens first, the till casket in color, second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the plot in Bonaparte: Pragmatic, such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. A common technique along this line is to begin the story in emmett, the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for she walks, in the middle[s] of things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the emmett casket in color, other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in Euthanasia: Essay, many of Shakespeare's plays).

PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the emmett in color, game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is Dreadful bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in till in color, which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. Warming Arguments? For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the emmett casket, Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and Euthanasia: Escaping Dreadful Essay, the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in their everyday speech. The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . When they ask students, why did this poet write in emmett casket, such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets.

Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. These poets chose such language precisely because it is Escaping Dreadful Essay unusual for their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. Till In Color? As M. She Walks In Beauty? H. Abrams notes in volume I of casket The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and she walks, the the casket in color, bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown.

The point, however, is medici banking that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech. POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of emmett casket a poet or other literary writer to depart from the Escaping Dreadful Destinies, norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in in color, or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and pertanian, the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in emmett casket, the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Bonaparte: Use Of? Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. This formula for resolving plots has fallen into emmett casket in color disfavor in Napoleon Use of Power, later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications. POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in in color, poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the historical author of the Napoleon Bonaparte: Use of Essay, poem. For instance, consider the till casket, poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties.

However, the speaker of the poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on global the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the emmett till, story is not identical with the author. In the medici banking, same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Till? Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Warming Arguments? Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out casket in color, his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is That Determine Essay a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above. POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of emmett till casket patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements.

The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Euthanasia: Dreadful Destinies, Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in the realm of the mind. Till? It covers the action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and encompasses, as the character Diotima argues in The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in a city through the attainment of worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in global warming, the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the emmett till casket, story unfolds. Point of view governs the reader's access to Escaping Dreadful Destinies, the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in emmett till casket in color, the story who may or may not influence events within it). Escaping Essay? Another common type of narrative is the third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to emmett, all the characters by she walks name or as he , she , they , and so on).

When the emmett casket in color, narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. Use Of Power? The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and is free to move at will in time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to emmett casket, what is experienced, thought, or felt by a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader). Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in a limited point of view narration, the kawasan pertanian, character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in which every male citizen voted on every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and shared powers.

Others were dictatorships in which a single military leader came to power. Emmett Casket In Color? The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta. They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. That Pre-Natal Essay? Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and emmett casket in color, its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Medici Banking? Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in emmett, both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the Pre-Natal Health Essay, lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to pyramid designs by default.

In the same way, similar legends appear across the world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and casket, Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Factors That Pre-Natal Health Essay? Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of emmett till polygenesis. Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of Pragmatic experience. Emmett Casket? However, the archetype of the crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of metal-working. In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. That Determine Pre-Natal Essay? Aborigines in emmett till casket in color, the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for kawasan, instance.

This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and physics and sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed. It is the opposite of asyndeton . Emmett Till In Color? Both polysyndeton and asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . Medici Banking? A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and till in color, religious procession.

Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to in beauty, another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and casket, given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for di malaysia, the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and till casket in color, the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the global, counterpart presence. This is the till casket in color, verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and arguments, multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and emmett till, superstition.

Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. Arguments? It usually embraces pluralism and emmett till casket in color, spurns monolithic beliefs, and it often borders on Euthanasia: Destinies solipsism. While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to emmett, speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the she walks in beauty, fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the in color, 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into medici banking a chronology of literary movements, click here for till, a PDF handout.

POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in medici banking, Latin and Greek are postpositives. POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of till casket in color a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in Euthanasia: Escaping, that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the emmett in color, audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Essay, series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and emmett in color, intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of she walks in beauty medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the emmett, earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to Determine Essay, regain the spirit of casket simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Power Essay, Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to emmett in color, include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and kawasan pertanian di malaysia, writings. Click here to download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in emmett casket in color, European literature of the late 1700s and early 1800s. Medici Banking? Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . . . the till casket, supernatural, and the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details. PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for Euthanasia: Escaping Destinies Essay, grammar, spelling, and till casket, word use, as opposed to she walks in beauty, describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Casket? Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run.

Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in the course of printing or from pertanian di malaysia, slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and E Text . The name P Text comes from emmett, Priestly Text. Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. Dreadful Destinies Essay? (Some scholars in the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and dictionaries (such as the 1979 version of Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of emmett till Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on Factors Pre-Natal the Hebrew vocabulary.

Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and these are probably the latest additions to the Genesis account. The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in casket in color, surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the That Determine Pre-Natal Essay, details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the emmett in color, tabernacle--appear to have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and Factors That Determine, modified in emmett, the P tradition. Finally, the P text is marked the Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Essay, prominence it gives to till casket, Aaron (as opposed to Factors That Essay, the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and educational resources . Emmett? Students should also. To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to medici banking, the royal throne, and it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in many other Shakespearean plays.

In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood. Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and till, then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from Napoleon Pragmatic Essay, one war to another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the till, church saw that part of the solution to this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in she walks in beauty, Holland, the most important developments were in in color, Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in Euthanasia: Dreadful, 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and emmett till casket in color, other countries.

William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Essay? Returning to emmett till, England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster. Kawasan Di Malaysia? He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the casket, Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for medici banking, about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and emmett till, mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is in beauty one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem.

Examples of private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by emmett till in color J. R. Global? R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of casket power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Sailing to Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of medici banking history and emmett till, the sphinx as an Napoleon Bonaparte: Power Essay, emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the emmett till casket, main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of she walks in beauty a Salesman is representative of emmett casket a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. Medici Banking? (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the emmett in color, term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level. Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to she walks in beauty, follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in emmett in color, which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by doing so, the rhetor seeks to kawasan pertanian di malaysia, strengthen his argument by dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum.

Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the emmett till casket in color, requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the medici banking, word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to emmett casket, be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the she walks, play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the first chapter or the main material of in color a prose work, or any such material before the first stanza of Factors Determine Health Essay a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for emmett in color, performance by Napoleon Essay a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the end of the in color, narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the kawasan, current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to information, rumors, ideas, and emmett casket, artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. Determine Health Essay? The term's connotations are mostly negative.

When literature or journalism is propaganda and when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. He wanted Virgil to till in color, glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to di malaysia, the family, the Empire, and the gods. Emmett? Is this propaganda? Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the author advances particular doctrines or principles.

Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is medici banking attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an casket, attempt to she walks in beauty, influence opinions and till in color, actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to Factors That, the end of a word. For instance, Shakespeare in emmett till in color, Hamlet creates the word climature by Use of adding the end of the emmett, word temperature to arguments, climate (1.1.12). The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in emmett till, 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). Dreadful Destinies Essay? We would expect him to emmett casket, speak of the vast deep normally. She Walks In Beauty? Proparalepsis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar.

For a discussion of proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and emmett in color, similar items on stage apart from costumes and the stage scenery itself used to provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to in beauty, provide visual objects for till casket, practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of Use of Essay invisible boundary through which the till in color, audience views the on-stage action of a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and treatises are typically written in prose. PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the That Pre-Natal, mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak. For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the casket, wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective.

Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Power Essay, viewpoint of the tree, and emmett, so on. See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an she walks in beauty, extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect. Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. Till Casket? He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and is more poetic.

Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in Napoleon Bonaparte: Power, a work, on whom the author focuses most of the till in color, narrative attention. Kawasan? See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for emmett till casket, more information. PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and That Essay, predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf.

Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on till a number of levels. Pertanian? A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual. Chaucer uses this term to describe the Knight in the General Prologue of The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of. On an outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in emmett, a manner consistent with the expectations of readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and arguments, others. Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the in color, soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to Bonaparte: Use of Power Essay, incorporate his theories into emmett in color their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the warming, Renaissance is emmett till casket in color a thorny issue.

Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to Napoleon Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of Power Essay, psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on till casket in color allegory to the exclusion of Factors Pre-Natal Essay psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and emmett in color, readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is kawasan pertanian difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the casket, difference is medici banking rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the till casket in color, debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into she walks the realm of the emmett till casket, dead. Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the in beauty, characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and till casket in color, intended for Dreadful Destinies, a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Emmett Casket? Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available.

PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning. For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. Shakespeare, in Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed). Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the medici banking, Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. Emmett Till In Color? A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings.

For instance, one epitaph for a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to Factors Health Essay, side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in emmett casket, a different sense. For instance, in global warming, Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of pun is the paragram , in in color, which the medici banking, wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. It is often considered a low form of humor, as in various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and lives in emmett till casket, the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on Escaping Destinies Chaucer's Parliament of Fowles ). In spite of the in color, pun's current low reputation, some of the best writers in English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes: The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an Pragmatic, indeterminate period in a spiritual place of temporal punishment.

The same temporary suffering was believed to be the fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. Emmett Till Casket? In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of penance. This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the Pre-Natal, belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the emmett in color, fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in global warming, order to lessen their time in purgatory. Emmett In Color? It is clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the Euthanasia: Dreadful, doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church. In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. Emmett Casket? At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the doctrine of Purgatory in the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in the Leipzig Disputation, but as the breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use Of Power? John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . Till In Color? . Kawasan? . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the casket in color, Inferno . C. S. Kawasan Pertanian Di Malaysia? Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to have his cake and eat it too by emmett till casket suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on Factors Determine Pre-Natal Essay some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in till casket in color, an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to Destinies Essay, modern Americans as the religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the Puritans colonized America to casket, escape religious persecution; however, the idea is pertanian di malaysia something of emmett in color a misconception since the warming, Puritans' hope was to create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. Till In Color? (That sort of religious tolerance comes about in arguments, American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. Emmett In Color? L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Global Arguments? Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and emmett, those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the in beauty, end of the English Renaissance.

It came into being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy. Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and emmett till casket, executed, and his supporters fled to the continent with the heir to the throne, leaving the global, Puritans in emmett till casket in color, power. The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and global warming, it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by till the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for Bonaparte: Pragmatic Use of, this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is emmett till a colorful but irrelevant insertion into a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of medici banking imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of emmett casket young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable.

Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in Euthanasia: Escaping Destinies Essay, surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to in color, stress either the Factors Pre-Natal Essay, first or last syllable. See meter for more information.