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arts 1800 1900 essay [Slavery paintings and of Working Writer Essay sketches] One of the United States Involvement Conspiracy Essay most formative periods in Eyre Crowe's life was the six months he spent in America in Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay, 1852-1853, accompanying William Makepeace Thackeray on universal truth, his lecture tour of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore, Richmond, Charleston and of Working as a Essay Savannah. Roosevelt? The streets of the South, teeming with black slaves, were very different to anything so far encountered by Benefits of Working as a him, and the picturesque nature of the universal truth scenes, combined with his horror at the trading of human flesh, inspired Crowe to Writer sketch prodigiously and, later, to turn many of the States Involvement Conspiracy Essay subjects into as a Freelance Writer, finished oil paintings. He produced paintings and sketches based on his journey immediately on his return, and also made use of truth examples, his experiences to of Working Essay help illustrate the States Involvement in Organized growing crisis of the U.S. Of Working Writer Essay? Civil War in modern canadian, 1861. Title: A Slave Sale in Essay, Charleston, South Carolina (1854) Exhibited: Royal Scottish Academy, 1854. One of the first paintings to universal truth be finished after Crowe's return from America. The engraving shown below, 'from a sketch by Freelance Essay Eyre Crowe', is perhaps a version of the painting. The engraving was published in Reflections: Aspects, the Illustrated London News on 29 November 1856, accompanying an essay by Crowe, which he concluded with a call for greater public condemnation of slavery by Freelance Writer the British . The engraving is well known and United in Organized Conspiracy copies are held by of Working as a Freelance many galleries, print dealers and Negative the Minimum Legal Age in Essay museums. Sometimes the Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer copies are coloured. Two versions are held at the New York Public Library and Leadership Reflections: of Dysfunctional Essay appear on their digital gallery. Title: After the Sale: Slaves going South (1853) Exhibited: Suffolk Street Gallery, London, 1854.

Crowe was struck in Richmond, Virginia, by the scenes after the of Working as a Freelance slave sales, when slaves were 'marched under escort of their new owners across the town to the railway station, where they took places, and went South. They held scanty bundles of clothing, their only possession. These were the metaphors war scenes which in a very short number of Benefits as a Writer Essay, years made one realise the sources of the fiercest of civil wars' ( With Thackeray in metaphors war, America , p. 136). This painting was exhibited at of Working Freelance Writer, the Suffolk Street Gallery in about war, London in Benefits of Working Writer Essay, 1854, and was described by the critic in taft, the Art Journal in as a Freelance Writer Essay, June 1864 ('British Artists: their Style and Character - No. States Involvement In Organized Essay? LXXIII - Eyre Crowe', pp 206) as 'full of life and Benefits of Working Freelance Writer Essay bustle, but not of the kind that is pleasant to look upon'. Metaphors About War? It appears in of Working Freelance Essay, the journal American Heritage , Vol. XVIII, No.

3, 1967. Size: 46 x 36 inches. Current owner: private owner in Germany. Metaphors About? This painting is Freelance Writer Essay untitled but the presence of a black boy suggests that it was inspired by Crowe's travels in America. The title 'American Scene' was devised by cola sales Kathryn Summerwill in 2008 to describe the subject matter. The painting is signed 'Eyre Crowe 1855' on the reverse, and the framing was prepared by of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay Charles Roberson of 54 Long Acre, London. The painting was formerly in the possession of the von Marle family of Wesel, Germany.

It was acquired by the grandmother of the present owner in the mid-20th century. Universal? Title: Slave Auction at Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay, Richmond, Virginia (1856) Medium: pen and taft ink. This piece of Benefits of Working as a, artwork exists in Effects of Lowering the Minimum Legal Essay, a pen and Freelance Essay ink sketch, engraved and published in the Illustrated London News on sales, 27 September 1856. It accompanied an essay written by Crowe entitled 'Sketches in of Working Writer Essay, the Free and Slave States of America', which began with the modern statement that ' no pen, we think, can adequately delineate the choking sense of horror which overcomes one on Benefits of Working, first witnessing these degrading spectacles' . It is truth examples not known whether a full painting of this exact scene was ever produced, but a similar painting, Slaves Waiting for Sale: Richmond, Virginia , appeared at the British Academy exhibition in 1861 (see below). Title: Slaves Waiting for Benefits of Working as a Freelance, Sale - Richmond, Virginia (1861) Size: 20¾ x 31½ inches. Roosevelt Taft And Wilson? Exhibited: Royal Academy, 1861; 'Black Victorians' exhibition, Manchester and Birmingham, 2005-2006. Current owner: Heinz Collection, Washington D.C., U.S.A. (private) Inspired and outraged by a visit he made to Benefits Writer Essay slave auction rooms in Richmond, Crowe commemorated the subject first in Negative Effects of Lowering the Minimum Drinking America Essay, an engraved sketch which appeared in the Illustrated London News on 27 September 1856 ( Slave Auction at Benefits of Working as a Essay, Richmond, Virginia , see above), and States in Organized Conspiracy then by this oil painting which was exhibited at the British Academy in 1861.

The original sketch for of Working Freelance, Slaves Waiting for Sale , made on Negative Effects of Lowering Drinking Age in America Essay, 3 March 1853, was published by Crowe in With Thackeray in America . Original sketch, 3 March 1853, published in With Thackeray in America. Oil painting, exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1861. Heinz collection, Washington DC. Of Working As A Freelance Essay? Published in modern canadian inventions, Guy C. Elroy, Facing History: the as a Freelance Writer Black Image in war, American Art, 1710-1940. Benefits Writer? The appearance of the oil painting at the Royal Academy exhibition in May 1861 was marked by positive contemporary reviews.

The reviewer in the Athenaeum of 11 May 1861 considered that 'Mr. Eyre Crowe will advance his reputation considerably by No. 328, 'Slaves waiting for Sale, Virginia' [sic]. all [the figures are] remarkable for examples, character and expression'. The verdict of the Benefits Freelance Essay Times (13 May 1861) was that 'the stout, middle-aged negro to the right, looking eagerly, as if he scented a buyer in one of the loungers at the door, is bottom particularly good in expression. These are truths of negro life'. Of Working Freelance Writer Essay? The reaction of roosevelt taft and wilson, Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (August 1861), was slightly less favourable: 'Mr Crowe gives us another form of genre, capital in Freelance Writer Essay, its way. Slaves Waiting for roosevelt taft and wilson, Sale in Virginia, broad in marked character, awkward in attitude, truth pushed to of Working as a Writer the verge of the United Involvement in Organized Conspiracy Essay grotesque.' However, it was the Art Journal (New Series, Vol VII, 1861, p. 165) which gave greatest coverage to Benefits as a Writer Essay the painting: An artist, hitherto comparatively unknown, has produced one of the vs pepsi most important pictures in the exhibition, and certainly the most promising work of the Benefits of Working Freelance Writer season, from among those that can be looked on as the cola vs pepsi apparently coming men of English Art.

The subject of Mr. E. As A Essay? Crowe's picture, No. 328, is 'Slaves waiting for Sale, Richmond, Virginia', and a midsummer night's the appalling guilt of that accursed system was never more successfully depicted. [the expressions on the slaves' faces] are powerful examples of as a Freelance Writer Essay, a rare power in the Minimum Drinking Age in America, Art - that of as a, successfully and taft discriminately representing the inward actuality and outward expression of phases of mental thought and Benefits Freelance human passion. This success Mr. Crowe has undoubtedly achieved, and he has also achieved another, although of modern canadian, mere secondary importance - the Benefits of Working Freelance Writer power of representing with facility and coca cola fulness feelings which he comprehends with distinctness. This quality of clear-sightedness Mr. Freelance Writer? Crowe has displayed in an eminent degree. and bottom night's dream we leave this picture, with the confident expectation that the as a Freelance Essay artist, although hitherto all but unknown, is war able, if he will it, to make for himself a position in Writer, what Bacon called the Involvement in Organized Conspiracy Essay garden of great intellects. Looking back on the painting in of Working Essay, the Art Journal in roosevelt taft, June 1864 ('British Artists: their Style and Character - No.

LXXIII - Eyre Crowe', p.206), the of Working Freelance reviewer considered that 'however skilfully painted such pictures may be, the subjects do not commend themselves either to the eye or the mind. Roosevelt And Wilson? Neither the Benefits of Working as a Essay colour not the metaphors war features of the negro race can be associated with European notions of aesthetic beauty; and the system of slavery is Benefits of Working as a Essay too abhorrent to coca vs pepsi sales Englishmen to render a representation of it, especially in its most objectionable forms, acceptable'. Benefits? He was unaware whether the taft painting, or any others of the slave paintings produced by of Working Crowe, had been sold, but noted that he had since turned his paintbrush and his thoughts back to 'their wonted channels': scenes showing noted historical figures. Slaves waiting for universal truth examples, Sale is now held in the Heinz private collection in Washington D.C., United States, and as a has been cited in a number of recent books and exhibitions, among which are: Hills, Patricia. The Painters' America: Rural and Urban Life, 1810-1910 (Praeger Publishers in association with the Whitney Museum of American Art, 1974) Johns, Elizabeth. American Genre Painting: the modern Politics of Benefits as a, Everyday Life (Yale University Press, 1991) Lubin, David M. Inventions? Picturing a Nation: art and social change in 19th century America (Yale University Press, 1994) McElroy, Guy C., Facing History: the Black Image in American Art, 1710-1940 (Bedford Arts, Publishers, in Benefits as a Writer, association with the Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1990); and in a review of Leadership Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay, this exhibition by Robert Hughes in Benefits of Working Freelance Writer Essay, Time magazine, 29 Jan 1990, p.51 Marsh, Jan (ed.), Black Victorians: Black People in British Art, 1800-1900 (Lund Humphries, in association with Manchester Art Gallery, 2005) Title: A Barber's Shop at Richmond, Virginia (1861) Exhibited: British Institution, 1861.

This painting was exhibited at the British Institution in 1861, when it was valued at 35 guineas (£35 15s 0d) and coca sales was reproduced in Eyre Crowe's own book of Benefits of Working as a Essay, reminiscences of of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay, his American trip, With Thackeray in America , in of Working as a Freelance, 1893. An engraving of the painting also appeared as the roosevelt and wilson cover page of the Illustrated London News on Freelance, 9 March 1861. Title: Sketches published in the Illustrated London News (1861-1862) Medium: pen and ink, engraved. The first shots in taft, the U.S. Civil War were fired in April 1861, after a long period of of Working as a Writer Essay, growing tension. Universal Truth Examples? The previous year, South Carolina had seceded from the Benefits Freelance Union, and Abraham Lincoln was elected as President.

Readers of newspapers in Great Britain were interested in the worsening situation across the Atlantic, and in Conspiracy, February 1861, the Illustrated London News printed a series of engravings of scenes by Eyre Crowe depicting some of the of Working as a Essay localities now being talked of. The engravings were 'The Secession Movement - Entrance Hall to a midsummer night's dream an hotel at as a Freelance, Charleston, South Carolina', published on 2 February; 'Selling Sweet Potatoes in Charleston', showing female slaves engaged in universal truth examples, this activity, also published on 2 February; and a sketch of the principal church in Charleston, published on Benefits Freelance Writer, 16 February. The sketches were based on sketches made by Crowe during his visit to Charleston in 1853. Of Lowering The Minimum Drinking? The Secession Movement - Entrance Hall to an hotel at Charleston, South Carolina. Selling Sweet Potatoes in Charleston. Benefits Of Working Writer? The Principal Church in Charleston, South Carolina. On 26 July 1862, an about war, essay by Benefits Freelance Writer Crowe describing the town of Richmond, Virginia, together with a general sketch view of the area, also appeared in the Illustrated London News . Size: 31 x 21 inches (33 x 53.3 cm) Owner: Kennedy Galleries Inc., New York, U.S.A. (1967)

This painting, similar to about 'Slaves Waiting for Benefits of Working as a Freelance Essay, Sale' (1861), appeared in modern canadian, Kennedy Quarterly , V.7, No.1, in 1967. Benefits Of Working As A Essay? Its present whereabouts are not known by taft the author of this website. Copyright (c) 2005 Kathryn J. Benefits Of Working Freelance? Summerwill. All rights reserved.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for Benefits of Working as a Essay, understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in modern inventions, business and organizations. Table of contents. 1. Benefits As A Writer Essay? swot analysis. SWOT analysis method and examples, with free SWOT template. The SWOT analysis is an extremely useful tool for metaphors about war, understanding and decision-making for all sorts of situations in business and organizations. SWOT is an acronym for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats.

Information about the origins and inventors of SWOT analysis is below. The SWOT analysis headings provide a good framework for reviewing strategy, position and direction of a company or business proposition, or any other idea . Completing a SWOT analysis is very simple, and is a good subject for workshop sessions. Of Working Freelance? SWOT analysis also works well in brainstorming meetings. Use SWOT analysis for business planning, strategic planning, competitor evaluation, marketing, business and product development and research reports. You can also use SWOT analysis exercises for roosevelt taft and wilson, team building games.

Note that SWOT analysis is Benefits of Working Writer, often interpreted and used as a SWOT Analysis 2x2 Matrix, especially in business and marketing planning. In addition to this 2x2 matrix method, SWOT analysis is also a widely recognized method for gathering, structuring, presenting and reviewing extensive planning data within a larger business or project planning process. See also PEST analysis, which measures a business's market and potential according to external factors; Political, Economic, Social and Technological. It is modern, often helpful to complete a PEST analysis prior to a SWOT analysis. In other situations it may be more useful to complete a PEST analysis as part of, or after, a SWOT analysis.

See also Porter's Five Forces model, which is Writer Essay, used to analyse competitive position. Please note: If you use SWOT Analysis as a 2x2 matrix method , then technically Strengths and Leadership Weaknesses are internal factors (generally the case anyway), whereas Opportunities and Benefits Freelance Writer Essay Threats are external factors (this can be more difficult, since it requires you to ignore internal threats and opportunities). The SWOT 2x2 'internal/external' matrixmethod thus only considers external threats and opportunities. If you have difficulty opening the above doc file here are two other formats: A SWOT analysis measures a business unit, a proposition or idea; a PEST analysis measures a market. A SWOT analysis is a subjective assessment of data which is about war, organized by the SWOT format into a logical order that helps understanding, presentation, discussion and decision-making. The four dimensions are a useful extension of a basic two heading list of pro's and con's (free pro's and con's template here). SWOT analysis can be used for all sorts of decision-making, and the SWOT template enables proactive thinking, rather than relying on habitual or instinctive reactions. The SWOT analysis template is normally presented as a grid, comprising four sections, one for each of the SWOT headings: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. As A Writer? The free SWOT template below includes sample questions, whose answers are inserted into States in Organized the relevant section of the SWOT grid. The questions are examples, or discussion points, and of Working as a Freelance obviously can be altered depending on the subject of the SWOT analysis.

Note that many of the SWOT questions are also talking points for other headings - use them as you find most helpful, and make up your own to suit the issue being analysed. Modern Canadian? It is important to clearly identify the subject of a SWOT analysis, because a SWOT analysis is a perspective of as a Freelance Essay, one thing, be it a company, a product, a proposition, and war idea, a method, or option, etc. SWOT analysis is commonly presented and of Working Freelance developed into modern a 2x2 matrix, which is shown and explained within the of Working Essay SWOT analysis matrix section. swot analysis matrix - in business/marketing - internal v external factors. Modern SWOT analysis in business and marketing situations is normally structured so that a 2x2 matrix grid can be produced, according to two pairs of dimensions. Strengths and Weaknesses , are 'mapped' or 'graphed' against Opportunities and Threats . To enable this to happen cleanly and clearly, and modern from a logical point of view anyway when completing a SWOT analysis in most business and marketing situations, Strengths and Weaknesses are regarded distinctly as internal factors , whereas Opportunities and Threats are regarded distinctly as external factors . Here is the explanation in more detail: Strengths and Weaknesses.

swot matrix (2x2 matrix using internal/external categories) Here is a typical extension of the basic SWOT analysis grid into as a Writer Essay a useful 'action-based' 2x2 SWOT matrix. The SWOT analysis in this format acts as a quick decision-making tool, quite aside from the more detailed data that would typically be fed into business planning process for each of the SWOT factors. Here the 2x2 matrix model automatically suggests actions for Leadership Reflections: Aspects Leadership Essay, issues arising from the SWOT analysis, according to Freelance Writer, four different categories: obvious natural priorities. Likely to produce greatest ROI (Return On Investment) Likely to be quickest and easiest to implement. Probably justifying immediate action-planning or feasibility study.

Executive question: If we are not already looking at these areas and the Minimum Legal Drinking Essay prioritising them, then why not? Likely to produce good returns if capability and implementation are viable. Potentially more exciting and stimulating and rewarding than S/O due to change, challenge, surprise tactics, and benefits from addressing and of Working as a Essay achieving improvements. Executive questions: What's actually stopping us doing these things, provided they truly fit strategically and are realistic and substantial? Only basic awareness, planning, and implementation required to meet these challenges. Investment in these issues is generally safe and necessary. Executive question: Are we properly informed and organized to deal with these issues, and are we certain there are no hidden surprises? - and - Since we are strong here, can any of these threats be turned into opportunities? Assessment of roosevelt taft, risk crucial. Where risk is Writer, low then we must ignore these issues and not be distracted by them. Where risk is high we must assess capability gaps and plan to defend/avert in very specific controlled ways. Executive question: Have we accurately assessed the risks of roosevelt and wilson, these issues, and Benefits of Working as a Freelance where the risks are high do we have specific controlled reliable plans to avoid/avert/defend?

N.B. SWOT analysis is a very flexible tool. Metaphors War? Its use is not restricted to Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, business and marketing. Be mindful that when SWOT is used in situations outside of business and marketing, strict categorization of the SWOT dimensions (according to United States, 'internal' and 'external' factors) can be limiting, and so a more open interpretation of the Benefits as a model can be helpful in such circumstances, especially when assessing Opportunities and Threats. Also be mindful that if using the SWOT analysis model only as a 2x2 matrix, which assumes the categorization of internal and external factors (and notably limiting the assessment of roosevelt and wilson, threats and opportunities to of Working as a, external factors only), that it is very easy then to miss certain threats and canadian inventions opportunities that can exist (internally) within the company/organization. Some internal threats and opportunities can be substantial, for example, opportunities such as: energy-saving, process-improvement, training, advertising, or discontinuing loss-making products, or threats such as: desertion or key staff, the Benefits as a Essay loss of major contracts, to name just a couple of typically ever-present threats within large commercial corporations. Be mindful therefore that the 'simplified' SWOT 2x2 matrix 'internal/external' method is not a reliable tool alone for identifying all threats and opportunities within organizations, or indeed any other situation. You will note from the origins of SWOT analysis below that the methodology did not begin, and was not operated as the simple 2x2 'internal/external' matrix that we commonly see today. Particularly, the roosevelt and wilson original application of the model did not restrict threats and Benefits Writer opportunities to just external factors.

Instead, six key aspects of the business in question (namely: product, process, customer, distribution, finance, admin) were each assessed using the SWOT model. Each aspect was considered according to all four SWOT elements. United States Involvement In Organized Conspiracy? Thus today when we apply the SWOT model to Benefits of Working Freelance, an entire business, if we disregard internal threats and opportunities, so the analysis can exclude some potentially serious issues. swot analysis - different applications. SWOT analysis is United States in Organized Conspiracy, a powerful model for many different situations.

The SWOT tool is not just for of Working Freelance, business and Effects Legal Drinking America marketing. Here are some examples of what a SWOT analysis can be used to Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, assess: a company (its position in the market, commercial viability, etc) a method of canadian, sales distribution a product or brand a business idea a strategic option, such as entering a new market or launching a new product a opportunity to make an acquisition a potential partnership changing a supplier outsourcing a service, activity or resource project planning and project management an investment opportunity personal financial planning personal career development - direction, choice, change, etc. Freelance Writer Essay? education and dream qualifications planning and decision-making life-change - downshifting, relocation, relationships, perhaps even family planning. Whatever the Benefits Writer application, be sure to describe the subject (or purpose or question) for the SWOT analysis clearly so you remain focused on inventions the central issue. This is especially crucial when others are involved in the process. People contributing to the analysis and seeing the finished SWOT analysis must be able to understand properly the purpose of the SWOT assessment and Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay the implications arising. Here is a larger illustration of SWOT analysis. Note that this format is not presented or proposed as a 2x2 'internal/external' matrix; it's a more open demonstration of the sorts of issues and questions which can be addressed when using the Reflections: Essay SWOT format as part of business planning and decision-making. Subject of Writer Essay, SWOT analysis: (define the subject of the analysis here)

Advantages of proposition? Capabilities? Competitive advantages? USP's (unique selling points)? Resources, Assets, People? Experience, knowledge, data? Financial reserves, likely returns? Marketing - reach, distribution, awareness? Innovative aspects? Location and geographical? Price, value, quality?

Accreditations, qualifications, certifications? Processes, systems, IT, communications? Cultural, attitudinal, behavioural? Management cover, succession? Disadvantages of proposition?

Gaps in capabilities? Lack of canadian inventions, competitive strength? Reputation, presence and reach? Financials? Own known vulnerabilities? Timescales, deadlines and pressures? Cashflow, start-up cash-drain? Continuity, supply chain robustness?

Effects on core activities, distraction? Reliability of data, plan predictability? Morale, commitment, leadership? Accreditations, etc? Processes and systems, etc? Management cover, succession?

Market developments? Competitors' vulnerabilities? Industry or lifestyle trends? Technology development and Benefits Freelance Writer innovation? Global influences? New markets, vertical, horizontal? Niche target markets? Geographical, export, import? Market need for new USP's? Market response to tactics, e.g., surprise?

Major contracts, tenders? Business and product development? Information and research? Partnerships, agencies, distribution? Market volume demand trends? Seasonal, weather, fashion influences? Political effects? Legislative effects? Environmental effects?

IT developments? Competitor intentions - various? Market demand? New technologies, services, ideas? Vital contracts and partners? Obstacles faced? Insurmountable weaknesses? Employment market? Financial and credit pressures? Economy - home, abroad?

Seasonality, weather effects? free SWOT analysis template worksheet version (doc file) This SWOT analysis example is based on an imaginary situation. The scenario is based on a business-to-business manufacturing company, who historically rely on distributors to take their products to the end user market. The opportunity, and metaphors about therefore the subject for the SWOT analysis, is for the manufacturer to Benefits of Working as a Freelance Essay, create a new company of a midsummer night's, its own to distribute its products direct to as a Writer Essay, certain end-user sectors, which are not being covered or developed by its normal distributors. Subject of SWOT analysis example: the creation of Reflections: of Dysfunctional Leadership, own distributor company to access new end-user sectors not currently being developed.

End-user sales control and direction. Right products, quality and reliability. Superior product performance vs competitors. Better product life and durability. Spare manufacturing capacity. Some staff have experience of end-user sector. Have customer lists.

Direct delivery capability. Product innovations ongoing. Can serve from existing sites. Products have required accreditations. Benefits As A Freelance Writer Essay? Processes and inventions IT should cope. Management is of Working, committed and confident. Customer lists not tested. Some gaps in range for certain sectors. We would be a small player. Effects Of Lowering The Minimum Drinking Age In America Essay? No direct marketing experience.

We cannot supply end-users abroad. Need more sales people. Limited budget. No pilot or trial done yet. Don't have a detailed plan yet. Delivery-staff need training.

Customer service staff need training. Processes and systems, etc Management cover insufficient. Could develop new products. Local competitors have poor products. Benefits Writer? Profit margins will be good. End-users respond to modern inventions, new ideas. Could extend to Benefits of Working as a, overseas.

New specialist applications. Can surprise competitors. Support core business economies. Could seek better supplier deals. Legislation could impact.

Environmental effects would favour larger competitors. Existing core business distribution risk. Negative Effects Of Lowering The Minimum Drinking Age In America Essay? Market demand very seasonal. Retention of key staff critical. Could distract from core business. Possible negative publicity.

Vulnerable to reactive attack by major competitors. See also the free PEST analysis template and method, which measures a business according to external factors; Political, Economic, Social and Technological. It is as a Freelance, often helpful to complete a PEST analysis prior to bottom a midsummer, competing a SWOT analysis. more on Freelance Essay the difference and relationship between PEST and SWOT. There is some overlap between PEST and modern canadian inventions SWOT. Similar factors appear in each. That said, PEST and SWOT are certainly two different perspectives: PEST tends to assess a market, including competitors, from the of Working as a Freelance Essay standpoint of Leadership Essay, a particular proposition or a business.

SWOT in business and marketing tends to be an assessment of a business or a proposition, whether it is Benefits, your own business or (less commonly) a competitor's business or proposition. Strategic planning is not a precise science - no tool is mandatory - it's a matter of pragmatic choice as to what helps best to identify and explain the metaphors war issues. PEST analysis may useful before SWOT analysis where it helps to identify SWOT factors. Alternatively PEST analysis may be incorporated within a SWOT analysis, to achieve the of Working Essay same effect. PEST becomes more useful and relevant the larger and more complex the business or proposition, but even for metaphors, a very small local businesses a PEST analysis can still throw up one or two very significant issues that might otherwise be missed.

The four quadrants in PEST vary in significance depending on the type of business, for example, social factors are more obviously relevant to consumer businesses or a B2B (business-to-business) organization close to the consumer-end of the of Working Writer supply chain, whereas political factors are more obviously relevant to a global munitions supplier or aerosol propellant manufacturer. All businesses benefit from a SWOT analysis, and all businesses benefit from completing a SWOT analysis of their main competitors, which interestingly can then provide useful points back into the economic aspects of the PEST analysis. swot analysis history - the origins of the SWOT analysis model. This remarkable piece of history as to the origins of SWOT analysis was provided by Albert S Humphrey, one of the founding fathers of what we know today as SWOT analysis. I am indebted to war, him for sharing this fascinating contribution. Albert Humphrey died on 31 October 2005. He was one of the good guys.

SWOT analysis came from the research conducted at Stanford Research Institute from 1960-1970. Benefits Of Working As A Freelance? The background to SWOT stemmed from the need to find out why corporate planning failed. The research was funded by the fortune 500 companies to find out what could be done about this failure. The Research Team were Marion Dosher, Dr Otis Benepe, Albert Humphrey, Robert Stewart, Birger Lie. It all began with the corporate planning trend, which seemed to appear first at Du Pont in 1949.

By 1960 every Fortune 500 company had a 'corporate planning manager' (or equivalent) and 'associations of long range corporate planners' had sprung up in both the USA and Leadership Aspects Essay the UK. However a unanimous opinion developed in all of these companies that corporate planning in the shape of Benefits as a Writer Essay, long range planning was not working, did not pay off, and was an expensive investment in futility. It was widely held that managing change and canadian setting realistic objectives which carry the of Working Freelance Writer Essay conviction of those responsible was difficult and often resulted in questionable compromises. The fact remained, despite the corporate and long range planners, that the one and roosevelt only missing link was how to get the management team agreed and committed to a comprehensive set of Writer, action programmes. To create this link, starting in 1960, Robert F Stewart at SRI in Menlo Park California lead a research team to metaphors about war, discover what was going wrong with corporate planning, and Benefits then to find some sort of solution, or to United States in Organized, create a system for enabling management teams agreed and committed to development work, which today we call 'managing change'. The research carried on from 1960 through 1969. 1100 companies and of Working Writer Essay organizations were interviewed and a 250-item questionnaire was designed and completed by over 5,000 executives. Seven key findings lead to the conclusion that in and wilson, corporations chief executive should be the chief planner and of Working as a Essay that his immediate functional directors should be the planning team. Dr Otis Benepe defined the 'Chain of about war, Logic' which became the Writer core of system designed to war, fix the Freelance Essay link for obtaining agreement and commitment.

We discovered that we could not change the modern canadian inventions values of the team nor set the objectives for the team so we started as the first step by asking the appraisal question, for example, what's good and bad about the operation. We began the Benefits of Working Freelance system by asking what is good and bad about the present and the future. What is good in Effects of Lowering Legal America, the present is Satisfactory, good in the future is an Opportunity; bad in the present is a Fault and Benefits Writer Essay bad in the future is a Threat. This was called the roosevelt SOFT analysis. When this was presented to Benefits Essay, Urick and inventions Orr* in 1964 at the Seminar in Long Range Planning at the Dolder Grand in of Working Essay, Zurich Switzerland they changed the Negative Effects of Lowering Legal Drinking Age in America F to a W and called it SWOT Analysis. SWOT was then promoted in Britain by Benefits of Working as a Freelance Urick and Orr as an exercise in and of Effects of Lowering the Minimum Age in America, itself. As such it has no benefit. What was necessary was the sorting of the issues into the programme planning categories of: Product (what are we selling?) Process (how are we selling it?) Customer (to whom are we selling it?) Distribution (how does it reach them?) Finance (what are the prices, costs and investments?) Administration (and how do we manage all this?) [*N.B. Benefits Of Working Writer Essay? Albert Humphrey's reference to 'Urick and Orr' is uncertain.

Does this instead really refer to the notable British management theorists/and for a time consultancy partners Lyndall Urwick and John Leslie Orr? I don't know. If you do please tell me.] The second step then becomes 'what shall the Negative Effects of Lowering the Minimum Age in team do' about the issues in each of these categories. The planning process was then designed through trial and error and resulted finally in Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay, a 17 step process beginning with SOFT/SWOT with each issue recorded separately on a single page called a planning issue. The first prototype was tested and published in 1966 based on Leadership Reflections: Leadership the work done at 'Erie Technological Corp' in as a Essay, Erie Pa. In 1970 the prototype was brought to the UK, under the sponsorship of W H Smith Sons plc, and completed by 1973. The operational programme was used to merge the CWS milling and baking operations with those of J W French Ltd. The process has been used successfully ever since. By 2004, now, this system has been fully developed, and proven to cope with today's problems of setting and agreeing realistic annual objectives without depending on outside consultants or expensive staff resources.

The key findings were never published because it was felt they were too controversial. This is roosevelt, what was found: 1) A business was divided into two parts. The base business plus the development business. This was re-discovered by Dr Peter Senge at MIT in 1998 and published in his book the Fifth Discipline (not '5th Dimension' as previously stated here - thanks J Hoffman for as a, this correction, 28 Jan 2011). The amount of development business which become operational is equal to or greater than that business on the books within a period of 5 to 7 years. This was a major surprise and urged the need for discovering a better method for planning and managing change. 2) Dr Hal Eyring published his findings on 'Distributive Justice' and States Involvement pointed out that all people measure what they get from their work and divide it by what they give to the work and this ratio is compared to Benefits of Working Writer, others.

If it is not equal then the person first re-perceives and secondly slows down if added demands are not met. (See for interest Adams Equity Theory and the Equity Theory Diagram pdf) 3) The introduction of a corporate planner upset the Leadership of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay sense of fair play at senior level, making the job of the corporate planner impossible. 4) The gap between what could be done by the organisation and what was actually done was about 35%. 5) The senior man will over-supervise the Benefits of Working as a Freelance area he comes from. Finance- Finance, Engineering-Engineering etc. 6) There are 3 factors which separate excellence from mediocrity: a. Overt attention to taft and wilson, purchasing. b. As A Freelance Essay? Short-term written down departmental plans for improvement.

c. Continued education of the Senior Executive. 7) Some form of night's, formal documentation is required to obtain approval for development work. In short we could not solve the problem by stopping planning. By sorting the SWOT issues into the 6 planning categories one can obtain a system which presents a practical way of assimilating the internal and external information about the business unit, delineating short and long term priorities, and allowing an easy way to of Working as a Freelance Essay, build the management team which can achieve the objectives of profit growth. This approach captures the Leadership Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership collective agreement and commitment of Freelance Writer Essay, those who will ultimately have to do the work of meeting or exceeding the taft objectives finally set. Benefits Freelance Writer? It permits the team leader to define and develop co-ordinated, goal-directed actions, which underpin the overall agreed objectives between levels of the business hierarchy. Albert S Humphrey. translating SWOT issues into actions under the roosevelt and wilson six categories.

Albert Humphrey advocated that the six categories: Product (what are we selling?) Process (how are we selling it?) Customer (to whom are we selling it?) Distribution (how does it reach them?) Finance (what are the prices, costs and investments?) Administration (and how do we manage all this?) provide a framework by which SWOT issues can be developed into actions and Benefits Freelance Essay managed using teams. This can be something of a 'leap', and so the stage warrants further explanation. Translating the SWOT issues into actions, are best sorted into (or if necessary broken down into) the six categories, because in the context of the way that business and organizations work, this makes them more quantifiable and night's dream measurable, responsible teams more accountable, and Benefits of Working Essay therefore the activities more manageable. The other pivotal part in the process is of course achieving the commitment from the team(s) involved, which is modern canadian, partly explained in the item summarising Humphrey's TAM® model and process. As far as identifying actions from SWOT issues is concerned, it all very much depends on your reasons and aims for using SWOT, and also your authority/ability to manage others, whom by implication of SWOT's breadth and depth, are likely to Benefits of Working Essay, be involved in the agreement and delivery of actions. Depending on Reflections: of Dysfunctional Essay pretext and situation, a SWOT analysis can produce issues which very readily translate into (one of the six) category actions, or a SWOT analysis can produce issues which overlay a number of Benefits of Working as a, categories. Or a mixture. Whatever, SWOT essentially tells you what is good and bad about a business or a particular proposition. If it's a business, and the aim is to improve it, then work on translating: strengths (maintain, build and leverage) , opportunities (prioritise and optimise) , weaknesses (remedy or exit) , into actions (each within one of the six categories) that can be agreed and owned by a team or number of teams.

If the SWOT analysis is being used to assess a proposition, then it could be that the analysis shows that the proposition is modern canadian inventions, too weak (especially if compared with other SWOT's for alternative propositions) to warrant further investment, in of Working as a Freelance Essay, which case further action planning, other than exit, is not required. If the proposition is clearly strong (presumably you will have indicated this using other methods as well), then proceed as for a business, and translate issues into category actions with suitable ownership by Negative Effects the Minimum Drinking Age in team(s). This is my understanding of Albert Humphrey's theory relating to developing SWOT issues into of Working as a Essay organizational change actions and accountabilities. (I'm pleased to say that Albert kindly confirmed that this is indeed correct.) There are other ways of applying SWOT of course, depending on your circumstances and aims, for instance if concentrating on a department rather than a whole business, then it could make sense to revise the six categories to a midsummer night's dream, reflect the functional parts of the department, or whatever will enable the issues to of Working as a Essay, be translatable into manageable, accountable and owned aims. Here is Leadership Reflections: of Dysfunctional Essay, a summary of Albert Humphrey's impressive TAM® (Team Action Management) model, developed and used to as a Essay, speed up the metaphors about war process of initiating and controlling organizational change.

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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian, and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing.

Possess a Master of Benefits as a Essay Library Science degree. OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and war, won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and Neutrogena to as a Writer Essay host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to and wilson determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and Benefits of Working, furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of books in a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and mailing out Leadership Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional, material.

Master of Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the public Bilingual – English and Korean. Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to be interviewed for her take on Benefits of Working as a what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in inventions Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out? Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to make themselves more attractive candidates. Freelance? We’ve written an ideal resume based on her suggestions.

We suggest that you follow along with these tips and and wilson, pay attention to Benefits as a the small details to help you get your foot in a midsummer dream the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on of Working Writer Essay this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. In this section, you should boil down the in Organized Conspiracy most essential aspects of of Working Freelance Writer your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and a midsummer, discuss what makes it strong. As A Freelance Writer Essay? In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to Negative of Lowering the Minimum fill a specific job role (Librarian I).

In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and volunteer experiences in the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer, strong candidate for United Involvement in Organized Conspiracy Essay, that particular job role. Pay particular attention to Benefits as a Essay the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to Leadership Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the as a Freelance Writer most valuable items to include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. Volunteering is easier than ever now — just use a website like this to get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to and wilson go through as much training, and that you have the drive and initiative to discover opportunities and Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay, take advantage of Negative Effects of Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Essay them, which are excellent qualities for as a Writer, a potential candidate to have. Negative Effects The Minimum Drinking? In the second sentence, the candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and of Working as a Essay, reference desk services, and Effects of Lowering Age in America Essay, has also helped with presentations and grant writing. Take a look at Benefits Writer Essay, that sentence here:

Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and United States Involvement in Organized, grant writing. Why is of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to canadian inventions hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in Benefits Writer all job roles at a library. If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of metaphors war your comfort zone and of Working as a Freelance Essay, learn new skills and and wilson, job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Library Science degree, which is Benefits of Working Writer Essay a prerequisite for the Librarian I job opening. With this information at roosevelt taft and wilson, the top of the resume, the of Working Freelance Essay candidate will have both made the resume extremely relevant to about war the job opening, and Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, captured the hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to Aspects Essay match the of Working as a Freelance Writer job description written by the library you intend to roosevelt apply to.

However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of job duties that you’ve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. We’ve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and you should do the same. “Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the Essay candidate has. This is the most basic form of quantification, but many forget to include the number of taft and wilson years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact.

…recent graduate looking to Benefits Freelance leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the a midsummer night's responsibilities you had to undertake. Of Working Freelance Writer Essay? It also shows that you pay attention to the details. Assisted with the checking in war and out of books in a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in your cap, and you should display it proudly on your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by the American Association for the Advancement of Freelance Writer Essay Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated. Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations.

Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the metaphors war minimum she expects to see on a librarian resume is the ability to of Working as a Essay use the United States Conspiracy Essay Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to Freelance have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to roosevelt taft and wilson hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the as a Writer Essay above are great ways to roosevelt and wilson make your resume stand out. But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for Benefits as a Writer, future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to see if you’re a good candidate to inventions interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to Benefits Freelance Writer Essay choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and work experiences), she will look for evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and metaphors war, training and teaching patron classes.

This could mean anything from Benefits of Working Freelance Writer rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into speak to your patrons, or giving a lecture on metaphors a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to be on Benefits as a your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and war, apply for grants to put on programs in of Working as a Freelance your library. As you saw earlier, the candidate in the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. Leadership Of Dysfunctional Essay? What about Professional Organizations and Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to Benefits of Working create a section on your resume that includes this information. However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the United States fees are too high. Of Working As A Writer? So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary.

We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the best of bottom night's dream luck on of Working Freelance Writer Essay your job search. Didn’t get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. And if you really liked the sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds?

The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. States Involvement In Organized Essay? See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to of Working Freelance download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman?

Do people still care whether they work for bottom a midsummer night's dream, a man or woman, or do most people simply look for Benefits of Working as a Essay, a nice job. 5 Ridiculous Excuses To Calling Out Of Work That Were Surprisingly Successful. Every office is bound to Reflections: Essay have that one person that abuses the call-out policy. These people go above and. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on of Working as a Freelance some of the world's leading online and offline publications including:

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A for and against of Working as a Writer, essay about the internet. Look at taft, the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Benefits Of Working As A Freelance Writer Essay? Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the United in Organized Essay text and do the other exercises. What's your opinion? Do you think the internet is bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and such. Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is not always good.

It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in the essay, the of Working Freelance young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional Essay, young people. I think it really should have a age limit. And also we must be strict about the rules of age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is of Working Essay very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. On the other hand a lot of States in Organized Conspiracy Essay people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram.

I also agree that learning on Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is taft possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online. I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on Benefits of Working Writer Essay, the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is it? in Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary. I love it! I think the internet is an amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in dream, the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of as a Freelance Essay internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime.

That means there is a lot of inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is Negative the Minimum Drinking Age in America Essay very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Many parents has banned the children not allowed to of Working Writer Essay, play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents. If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :)

In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. You have an access to Leadership, billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to speak with your friends even if they are on Benefits Essay, the other side of the world. Many people work using the Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities. Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about roosevelt taft, hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. Freelance Writer? It#039;s not really pleasant to bottom night's, know that somebody can easily find out all your secrets. As A Essay? To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web.

I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in looking it . everything when we use it excessively and dream, more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included. Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is Benefits Writer Essay a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in a midsummer night's dream, the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for Benefits of Working Essay, our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in roosevelt and wilson, mutimedia life. Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to Writer, know, and we should know what is good and modern, bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way.

I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. Benefits As A Writer Essay? i think internet is useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the taft and wilson week, a lot of Benefits as a Essay information, and a lot of Reflections: of Dysfunctional Leadership people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on Writer Essay, each family. Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position.

And that also depends on bottom dream, the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. Benefits Of Working? It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and United Essay, hours looking for Benefits as a, few informations? Internet is useful for Negative Effects the Minimum Age in, everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in whole world are with internet).

Yes, there are a good and as a Freelance Writer Essay, a bad sites on the Internet. We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. About? ) that shows us a different world. Benefits As A Freelance Writer Essay? We can learn a lot of things (English, French. ) and United States in Organized Conspiracy, a lot of other things. But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of of Working Freelance Essay dangerous people in the world. To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for bottom, young people, because there is Benefits of Working Freelance Writer many information in the internet.

In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and Leadership Leadership, I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. On the other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. Of Working As A Essay? If young people use the Internet for studying and relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created. In my own perspective, the Internet plays an roosevelt and wilson, important role in of Working Writer, the communicating barrier.

As you can see, people all around the world are using the United Essay Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the internet and of Working as a Freelance Essay, it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the and wilson internet, how are the countries going to develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not? The internet is the best connection between an of Working, individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Taft And Wilson? Internet is of Working as a Writer very usefull for us.

Internet is particularly useful for everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional Essay, it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and Benefits as a Writer Essay, doing research for my tasks. Roosevelt And Wilson? However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on the way people use the internet. How does this photo make you feel?

Can you write a caption for it? . Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay, see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. Negative Effects Of Lowering Drinking America Essay? © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. A registered charity: 209131 (England and Benefits as a Freelance Writer Essay, Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).

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essay on dsch op 7 The string quartets of Joseph Haydn afford a unique opportunity in Benefits of Working as a the annals of Western art – to trace the development of a major genre from bottom night's dream, birth to Benefits of Working Essay, maturity, and all within the output of a single artist. A corollary benefit is to outline the evolution of a leading composer's genius, since Haydn's quartets extend from his very first to Involvement Conspiracy Essay, his very last published works. Just what is a quartet? The standard dictionary definition is merely a work written in four separate vocal or instrumental parts. But the Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer string quartet, using an array of the Minimum Drinking Age in two violins, one viola and Writer Essay one cello, demands far more. Perhaps Goethe said it best: a stimulating conversation between four intelligent people. The challenges and opportunities that the form presented to Haydn are summed up by and wilson, Reginald Barrett-Ayres: The limitations imposed by four stringed instruments appealed so much to his sensitive mind that he often used the string quartet as a means of expressing his deepest and innermost thoughts. Benefits Of Working As A Freelance Writer Essay! To Henry Lang, Haydn poured into the medium his love of life, inexhaustible humor and impeccable craftsmanship and to Barrett-Ayres Haydn was master yet student, scholar yet romantic, the essence of stability yet an adventurer.

To Paul Griffiths, Haydn applied his abundant wit to Leadership Reflections: Essay, the process of discovery of the essence of the quartet as a celebration of the Benefits Writer arrival of Negative Effects of Lowering Drinking Age in America language, just as a child claims a command of language by indulging in wordplay. Griffiths likens the of Working Freelance Writer quartet to a living species and asserts that to bottom a midsummer night's dream, search for its origins is as vain as to search for the origins of Benefits of Working as a Freelance Essay man. Thus, it is hardly surprising that scholars trace the genesis of the quartet to Leadership Aspects Essay, many disparate roots. Griffiths notes that works for four voices extend back to of Working Freelance, Protin in the Minimum Legal Age in the late 12th century. Others cite a number of isolated examples of instrumental works specifying two violins, a viola and a cello by Gregori Allegri (1582 - 1662), Franz Xavier Richter (1709-89) and others, all of which predate Haydn. Barrett-Ayres finds Haydn's work – melding technique and feeling, form and Benefits as a Writer freedom, rules and imagination – to be a synthesis of the extremes of two immediate predecessors – Georg Matthies Monn (1717-50), a master of technique but austere and cold, and Frantisck Xavier Dussek (1731-99), amateurish but full of feeling. Most theorists trace the string quartet as having evolved from the Baroque trio sonata, which consisted of two melodic upper lines and a continuo of metaphors about varying instrumentation comprised of virtually any lower voices (most often a harpsichord, but also organs, cellos, lutes or bassoons) to provide the harmonic base. Aside from the general impulsion of progress, the impetus for this development has been traced to of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay, the use of larger venues (and even the outdoors) where the continuo (especially a delicate harpsichord) would be sonically lost, a desire for structurally intricate music to stimulate musicians' interest, and the emergence of the modern inventions viola as a viable instrument rising above its accustomed role as a mere adjunct to the cello and part of the continuo. Rosemary Hughes notes the esthetic logic of the result, as it parallels the constitution of the string section – divided violins, violas and cellos reinforced by double basses – that forms the foundation of the standard orchestra. Yet, she notes that until Haydn even music designated for four players was not cohesive, but rather tended to be showy and ornate. How many quartets did Haydn write?

The general consensus seems to be 69, although older authorities tend to cite 83. The higher figure credited quartet arrangements of Benefits Writer a symphony and a sextet with two horns (Op. Leadership! 1, #s 3 and 5), the seven-movement Last Words of Benefits Essay Christ on the Cross and early works now thought to be spurious, while overlooking the so-called Op. Bottom! 0 that emerged relatively recently. Part of the confusion arose from Haydn himself, who included a set of six quartets published as his Opus 3 both in a reprint of his quartets in 1802 and in a catalog of his life work he prepared in Benefits Freelance Writer Essay 1805, although he had omitted them in an earlier listing of his output. Modern Canadian Inventions! They now are thought to have been written by Romanus Hoffstetter, a monk who deeply admired Haydn and wrote: everything that flows from Haydn's pen seems to me so beautiful and of Working as a Essay remains so deeply impressed in my memory that I cannot prevent myself now and again from imitating something as well as I can. (In the days before copyright, publishers often passed off amateur work as by famous compatriots.) Yet, some Haydn experts doubt that an modern canadian amateur, no matter how devoted, could have produced work of Benefits of Working Writer Essay such quality. Ironically, among the spurious works is the lovely serenade movement of Op. 3, # 5, perhaps Haydn's most popular piece of all, which, in all likelihood, he didn't actually write! (Were this a scholarly article – heaven forbid! – this would be an incidental footnote, but speaking of experts … well, I need to at this juncture. The following two sections may seem a pastiche of others' observations, but the fact is that in making my way through the roosevelt taft mass of Haydn's massive and Benefits Freelance Writer (to me) largely unfamiliar quartet output, I found my understanding vastly enhanced, far more than with more familiar music or more manageable chunks of the repertoire, by the guidance provided by several thoughtful analyses, and so it seems appropriate to summarize and pass them along for the benefit of United in Organized Conspiracy readers rather than derive my own, far less useful, thoughts.

The specific sources for these are given at the end of this article.) In keeping with their general faith in progress, earlier critics tended to Benefits as a Essay, dismiss all but the last of Haydn's quartets. Thus, in Leadership Reflections: Aspects Essay the 1908 edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and of Working Freelance Writer Musicians E. Heron-Allen wrote that the canadian inventions early quartets of Haydn seem to us sadly feeble in the present day; there is not enough flesh to cover the Benefits as a Freelance Writer skeleton; and the joints are terribly awkward. He asserted that only in the last 14 quartets, after his long life of incessant practice did Haydn begin to show in the lower parts some of the United Involvement in Organized Essay boldness which had been only Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, allowed to the 1st violin. Nowadays, though, all but a few of Haydn's genuine quartets are held in great esteem. Consistent with the publishing custom of the time, nearly all of roosevelt and wilson Haydn's quartets were released in sets of six, even though Haydn did not necessarily plan them as integral editions. Except for the unpublished Op. 0, his first ten authentic quartets (together with two arrangements) were issued as his Opus 1 and 2 . While their exact dates of creation are not certain, they are believed to have been written between 1752 and Benefits as a Freelance 1760, possibly in 1757 when a Baron von Frnberg asked Haydn to compose a work for Effects of Lowering the Minimum Drinking Age in America Essay four string players (including Haydn) for Benefits as a Freelance Writer a music-making party at his castle.

Significantly, the Essay compositions are labeled in his manuscripts as notturni and in his thematic catalog initially as cassatio and later as divertimenti a quarto . Indeed, they bear a strong resemblance to the orchestral nocturnes, cassations and divertimentos of the time and Haydn clearly did not think of them as forging a new genre. Several modern commentators note that structurally they resemble suites, with the five traditional movements (allegro, minuet, adagio, another minuet, presto finale), all in major keys (except minuet trios), melodies characteristic of Austrian folksongs, much two-part harmony (often by doubling the two violins and viola/cello parts), imitative filler phrases of Benefits of Working ascending and descending figures, and dominant violins whose occasional dialogues recall trio sonatas. Some have even posited that continuo parts should be inferred. 1792 Portrait by Hardy. Haydn's next set of quartets, published as his Op. 9 came in 1770. In the interim decade he had entered the service of the royal Esterhzy family and was installed in their castle, where he was expected to compose prolifically and produce appropriate music for their frequent entertainments. Haydn apparently recognized that his new set of quartets represented a quantum leap, as in his retirement he reportedly told his publisher Artaria to exclude all the predecessors from a planned collected set of his string quartet output.

Griffiths and Geiringer attribute this mainly to a new emphasis upon dialogue among instruments – ideas are not merely imitated or repeated but modified and bottom night's developed as they are passed from voice to voice, and sequencing and modulation evolve into elaboration, all of which were to become hallmarks of the maturity of the medium. Written as a genuine cycle, as would all of his further quartets, the individual pieces display variety within a fundamental style. Here, they feature a virtuostic first violin part, presumably written for Luigi Tomasini, an excellent violinist whom his deeply devoted patron had hired for the court orchestra, and interior 6-4 cadences suggest opportunities for Tomasini to improvise cadenzas. Despite the dominance of the violin, Barrett-Ayres notes that the primary difference from symphonies of the time was that the Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer symphonies' repeated sequencing and about war variety of timbres satisfied listener demands while boring the executants, whereas quartets strove to present intrinsic interest for of Working as a Essay the players. Put another way, David Francis Tovey states that the modern inventions self-sufficiency of each part marks the emergence of the quartet from the matrix of the as a Writer orchestra.

The result, as noted by Istvn Barna, was a radical shift in Effects purpose – these were consciously written to engage listeners' concentration, rather than serving as mere background for conversations of aristocratic company. From this point forward, all Haydn quartets would be shorn of the second dance movement, although in his next dozen (perhaps in keeping with their generally light tone, in which a rest seems appropriate to prepare for the vigorous finale) the Benefits Essay minuets would precede the adagios . In each of the next two years Haydn wrote six more quartets, published as his Opp. 17 and United States Involvement in Organized Essay 20 . Sun Quartets - title page. After this astounding outburst of discovery and excellence, Haydn wrote no further quartets for nine years. Hughes speculates that he may have succumbed to the demands of routine work for of Working Essay his Prince, or perhaps that his instinct demanded that he wait until he could reach a new plateau.

Known as the States Conspiracy Essay Russian Quartets, not because of Slavic influence over their content, but merely because they were first played at the home of the as a Freelance Russian Prince and future Czar, Haydn described his next Op. Negative Effects The Minimum Legal Age In America! 33 cycle as written in a completely new and special style, even though most scholars regard them more as a consolidation of his prior work than truly novel, Ludwig Finscher going so far as to regard the Freelance Writer tag as misleading and a mere marketing gimmick. Yet their quality is universally praised. Thus, Marion Scott notes that the first notes of the first subject generate the melodic dimensions of an entire work, likening it to a seed that strikes roots, stems, leaves and flowers that grow until the plant is a mass of Reflections: beauty. Geiringer, too, hails their thematic elaboration raised to the status of of Working as a Writer Essay a main stylistic feature, and about especially the as a Writer Essay dissecting and reassembling of fragments of the bottom night's dream subject which, Webster notes, is developed in all the parts within a primarily homophonic structure.

Lszl Somfai salutes their concentration and restlessness that leaps beyond Haydn's classical ideals to anticipate 20th century chamber music. Barrett-Ayres cites their luminous, translucent texture and Benefits of Working jubilant finales, which he attributes to the influence of Mozart's early quartets. Hughes credits them with effortless fluency, and Griffiths hears in them the first full pervasive flowering of Haydn's trademark wit, culminating in surprises such as the end of Op. 33 # 2 in broken phrases, 4½ bars of silence and a final whimper. Perhaps for the last reason, they became hugely popular, appealing alike to connoisseurs and United Conspiracy unsophisticated listeners, the demand generating dozens of transcriptions and four further editions in two years and stimulating others (including Mozart) to write quartets of their own. Somfai even credits the Op. 33 cycle with launching one of the Benefits of Working Freelance Writer Essay first known professional string quartets, which toured them (and other works) for eight months in private homes and public concerts in a number of cities, thus spreading Haydn's growing celebrity yet further. Haydn's Op. 33 quartets were highly influential, but perhaps their greatest impact was upon Mozart, who met Haydn in 1781 and performed with him. About War! (Talk about superstar concerts!) As Geiringer notes, their personalities and temperaments were diametric opposites: Mozart, who developed and wrote quickly, was young, moody, a flamboyant solo performer and a disorganized spendthrift, while Haydn, 24 years older, was deliberate, calm, steadfast, private, precise and of Working as a Freelance thrifty. Yet, they loved each other's work, Haydn famously proclaiming on a number of occasions that Mozart was the greatest composer of all, and Mozart reciprocating by asserting that it was only from Haydn that he learned to write quartets. (Indeed, scholars believe that Mozart may have been stimulated to write a set of six earlier quartets, K. 168-173, in response to Haydn's Opp. United In Organized Conspiracy! 9 and 17.) The young admirer then embarked on his own first set of mature quartets, and after two years of highly uncharacteristic struggle produced six (K.

387, 421, 428, 458, 464 and 465) which he felt worthy of being dedicated to Haydn. Griffiths notes that while Haydn's were carried forward by development, Mozart strove for balance and resolution, and of course they were suffused with his ineffable formal perfection and as a Freelance Writer grace. Somfai notes with some irony that the Negative Effects of Lowering Legal Drinking Age in Essay huge impact of the Op. 33 set and Benefits as a Freelance Writer its many imitations upped the ante for bottom night's dream Haydn's next quartets, which continued to consolidate his achievements in the genre. Thus, after another lengthy gap, during which he continued to pour out of Working Writer Essay, symphonies and a curious single quartet (Op.

42), his next six quartets ( Op. 50 – 1787) focused on further unification by basing entire movements upon the components of a single theme, rather than contrasting ideas, and generally exploiting the roosevelt and wilson resulting motifs to as a Freelance Essay, expand the Negative Effects of Lowering the Minimum Legal Age in America development sections of sonata form movements. The next dozen, published as Opp. Of Working Freelance Writer Essay! 54 and 55 (three each, 1788) and night's Op. 64 (six, 1790) are regarded as retrenchments in which the first violin resumes dominant brilliance, in part to gratify Johann Tost, a former Esterhzy violinist who had become a wealthy merchant and who commissioned them. Incidentally, Op. 64 includes the thoroughly delightful Lark Quartet, which was the most popular of Benefits as a Writer Haydn's early quartets and thus played a crucial role in modern inventions apprising concert-goers and record buyers of the vast world that preceded the of Working Freelance Writer widely-acknowledged final masterpieces. Haydn's next quartets, published in two sets of three as Opp. 71 and 74 , reflect a drastic change in the composer's life.

After his three decades of devoted service to the Esterhzys his music-loving patron died, and the heir summarily dismissed the court musicians and relieved Haydn of his duties. Perhaps not enthused with the prospect of ending his life as a servant, Haydn turned down offers of new court appointments and instead accepted an opportune offer by Johann Peter Salomon, a German violinist turned English impresario, to come to London, where he was feted as artistic royalty. Dream! Written in 1795-6 upon his return to Vienna, the new sets of quartets were intended for a second London visit and reflect the freedom and Freelance Writer Essay cosmopolitan influences the former provincial servant had never known before. Of equal importance, they were aimed for public performance in vast concert halls before eager crowds rather than in bottom a midsummer night's the more intimate confines of a royal castle before invited dignitaries. This is immediately apparent from their opening notes – like his London symphonies, they begin with expectant hushed passages or bold introductory gestures, as if to briefly quiet a restive audience before settling down to business.

Other elements to appeal to popular audiences noted by Benefits as a Freelance Writer, Webster include their more original themes, bolder contrasts and distant keys. Reflections: Aspects Of Dysfunctional Essay! But beyond specific ingredients, Barrett-Ayres considers their overall texture and instrumentation to reflect an orchestral quality, their character to herald a battle between Haydn's classical roots and emerging romantic tendencies and, perhaps most important, a shift of perspective from Benefits, a primarily intimate performers' medium to canadian inventions, one oriented toward ticket-buying listeners in Freelance Writer a public venue. The radical reorientation paved the way to Haydn's final set of quartets, universally hailed as his masterpieces. Commentators generally concur that Haydn's next and final set is the greatest among his many quartet masterworks – the harvest (Bennett-Ayres), excelsior (Geiringer) and songs of experience in which Haydn's creative life reaches its fulfillment (Hughes). Written in 1796 or 1797 (the autographs are lost and Leadership of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay the chronology is somewhat speculative), they were commissioned by Benefits Freelance, Count Joseph Erddy who specified exclusive use for three years. When published in Effects of Lowering Legal Age in Essay 1799 and dedicated to Benefits Freelance Writer, him (thus their occasional reference as the Erddy Quartets), they first appeared in Vienna in two sets of three as Opp. 75 and and wilson 76, and then took their final form together in London as Op. 76. Back from England, financially independent and liberated from servility and prior routine, Haydn was at last free to write as he wished and poured himself into the new quartets (as well as his most ambitious and Benefits Freelance Writer ultimately most popular work of all, the Reflections: of Dysfunctional Essay Creation oratorio). The result was an intensification of his prior achievements with added weight and character. Benefits Of Working As A Freelance Writer Essay! The respected author and Negative of Lowering Drinking America Essay music historian Charles Burney hailed them as full of Benefits of Working as a Freelance invention, fire, good taste and new effects and proclaimed that he had never received more pleasure from instrumental music.

Each of the six quartets displays this fine balance between consolidation of the tradition Haydn already had created and Negative Effects of Lowering Legal Age in America Essay his irrepressible drive toward yet further innovation, and boasts sufficient riches to warrant individual consideration. The first quartet of the series, in G major. The opening of the first Op. 76 quartet (cello part) The second Op. 76 quartet, in as a Freelance Writer Essay d minor, is known as the Quinten (Fifths) for its distinctive opening motif of falling tonic and canadian dominant open fifths which generate the entire work (and, perhaps not coincidentally, The fifths motif of the Quinten Quartet. The third quartet, in C major, is called the Emperor. The Emperor hymn of the third quartet. The fourth quartet, in B-flat major, is the Benefits of Working Freelance Sunrise,

The sunrise theme of the fourth quartet. In the last two Op. 76 quartets Haydn turns to United Conspiracy Essay, structural exploration and an ample dose of as a Essay mischievous humor. The opening movement of the fifth, in D major, departs from the sonata form of the first four to what Robin Golding can only describe as unorthodox variations, as it really seems to defy conventional formal analysis and thwarts expectations, even while suggesting an intensely human struggle. Thus, its elegant, dignified dance theme in triple time devolves into d minor, fragments, repeats the first phrase in furious scalar runs, tries to reassert itself, but then breaks away and takes off at a faster clip propelled by sixteenth notes that never release their grip. Taft! Finally, the opening phrase keeps repeating itself until it gives up into Benefits of Working Writer a concluding cadence. The ensuing largo in the remote key of F# major provides another glance ahead to Beethoven with tender phrasing, soft dynamics and Leadership Aspects of Dysfunctional searching modulations.

Haydn aptly labels it Cantabile e mesto – singing and sad. Geiringer attributes its tone quality of ethereal beauty in part to the key, which precludes the use of open strings by of Working as a Freelance Essay, any of the players. The minuet, too, contains unorthodox touches – each time it settles into metaphors about its expected consistent triple time, syncopated duple figures disrupt the pace, and its trio, with constant activity never rising above a whisper, hints at deep secrets. The presto finale begins where it seemingly should end – with three insistent tonic cadences – and then gallops off in unbounded joy broken only by occasional grand pauses, its frantic pace, sustained length and jagged phrasing as challenging for Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay the players to maintain as for listeners to marvel at. As with the fifth, the final Op. 76 quartet, The theme of the sixth quartet trio. Although the six Op. Leadership Aspects Leadership! 76 quartets were Haydn's last complete set, he wrote two more masterworks, Op. 77, and of Working as a Writer Essay then tried to write another two in 1803 at the then extreme old age of 71 but was able to complete only the taft two inner movements, an adagio and minuet.

Haydn's calling card. But despite all the scholarship, influence and devotion his quartets have attracted, perhaps Haydn had had his last say in an 1802 letter, cited by Geiringer, that he had written to admirers in Benefits of Working Bergen, Germany, who had put together an amateur performance of his Seasons oratorio and who had conveyed their gratitude for his art: Often, … when my powers both of roosevelt taft and wilson body and mind were failing and as a Writer I felt it a hard matter to persevere … a secret feeling within me whispered, There are but few contented and happy men here below; everywhere grief and care prevail; perhaps your labors may one day be the source from which the weary and worn … may derive a few moments' rest and canadian refreshment. Writer Essay! What a powerful motive for pressing onward! No better key has ever been given to unlock the constant wonder, fascination and sheer joy of Haydn's life-affirming quartets. If any tangible measure of Haydn's success in revitalizing the weary and worn with a few moments' rest and modern inventions refreshment be needed, surely it lies in as a Freelance the generally superb quality of recordings of his quartets. It's hard to go far wrong among them, perhaps because the very nature of the works inspires an extraordinary degree of enthusiasm, love and devotion among a wide swath of a midsummer night's players. At the outset, we should note that few performers of the Haydn quartets bother mentioning whether they use period instruments, and with good reason – it hardly matters, since even modern ensembles prize the fabulous string instruments made in Italy by Stradivari, Guarneri del Gesu, Amati and Essay others generations before Haydn and aspire to play the surviving originals, as their gorgeous tone has never been matched, despite all the progress and Effects of Lowering Drinking Essay improvements in instrument construction since then.

Even modern craftsmen attempt to of Working as a Freelance Essay, emulate them but have yet to uncover all their secrets. Yet while the instruments themselves haven't been altered since well before Haydn's time, techniques of night's dream playing them have changed considerably, as have stylistic approaches to older music. Among the fundamental issues to be determined by modern performers are tempos (in the days before metronome markings, scores merely specified abstract terms such as allegro, andante , etc.), whether to Benefits Freelance Writer Essay, observe all repeats (and, if so, the degree to which they should be varied), ornamentation, dynamics and bottom dream accents (most of which were omitted from scores, since performers were assumed to have the taste and training to know how and when to apply them), and which of the available editions to use (as many of the autographs have been lost, and Haydn's intent can be hard to glean beneath the gloss (and errors) added by generations of editors). While scholars may have been aware of the scope and Benefits Writer excellence of Haydn's achievements, in the public mind during most of the pre-LP era he had written a dozen or so great symphonies, two oratorios and not much else of value, and so it is hardly surprising that recordings of bottom night's dream his quartets were few and far between. Isolated movements occasionally were used as filler to sets of other, presumably more important, quartets that required odd numbers of 78 rpm sides.

The first ensemble to as a Freelance Writer, devote serious attention to Haydn was the roosevelt and wilson Hungarian Lner Quartet (comprising Jen Lner, Joszef Smilovits, Sndor Roth and Imre Hartmann), which recorded acoustical versions of Benefits as a Freelance Writer Essay Op. 76 # 5 and the spurious Op. 3 # 5 (probably for its famous serenade). Electrical remakes of about war both were joined by Benefits of Working Essay, Op 64 # 5 (the Lark) and and wilson Op. 76 # 3 (the Emperor), plus the andante of Op. Of Working Freelance Essay! 76 # 2. All were on Columbia 78s, and now Rockport CDs. Tully Potter describes their sound as soupy due to their extremely wide vibrato and he adds that their ensemble could be sloppy yet redeemed by a natural flair and warmth. Fascinating comparisons lie in the lighter, brilliant precision of a 1926 recording of Op. 76 # 1 by the Lner's compatriots, the Budapest Quartet, and the grace, rhythmic snap and considerably less portamento and vibrato in a 1928 set of the Lark by Reflections: of Dysfunctional, the Franco-Belgian Flonzaley Quartet, both of which sound comparatively modern. While the comparison suggests that the as a Writer Lner may have sounded dated even at the time, their records (which, according to Gramophone , reportedly sold especially well in England and Japan) exemplify the somewhat indulgent romantic view of Papa Haydn. The sea change came in 1932 when the Belgian Pro Arte Quartet (Alphonse Onnou, Laurent Halleux, Germain Prevost, Robert Maas) launched a series of HMV sets of 78s, each with nearly an hour's worth of music on seven records containing three or four Haydn quartets (now available in Negative Effects of Lowering Legal the original configurations on Pristine Audio or combined into two Testament four-CD sets).

As an indication of Haydn's lack of renown at the time and the consequent presumed financial risk, the project was undertaken by a Haydn Quartet Society, which sputtered after the fifth release in Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay 1935, but by 1938 had issued eight volumes with 27 quartets (plus two of Hoffstetter's), but included only two of Op. 76 (the Emperor in 1934 and Negative Drinking Age in Essay the Sunrise in 1938). In a 1937 review welcoming Volume 6, Gramophone offered its highest praise, citing the perfection of ensemble and continuous beauty of tone and of Working as a finish. Notably, in light of Haydn's letter noted above, which assumed renewed significance on the eve of World War II, the review alluded to the sanity of Haydn's music. It spells unbelievable peace to be able to leave this mad world, if only for a while, and metaphors about recover in these inspired pages – the work of a man who had faith – a sense of proportion, a sense of certainty that all will be well, however dark the present outlook be. Heard today, the Pro Arte records amply reflect that view – a fine balance between level-headed focus and of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay incisive commitment, with just enough grace and a hint of night's playfulness to rise above the mundane, and some deeply heartfelt phrasing (especially in the Emperor andante ) – both a glance back at the romantic style of their predecessors and a salute to Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay, the devotion that the Negative Effects Essay composer lavished on his work, while at the same time forcefully advocating the worth of these pieces for listeners of the future. Dozens of recordings of individual Haydn quartets were cut throughout the pre-stereo era. While the Benefits of Working as a Writer Essay vast majority of Negative Effects Legal Drinking America these are no longer available, record catalogs of the time list 78 sets by the Calvert, Capet, International, Poltronier, Prisca, Rich Queling, Roth and Wendling Quartets and LPs by the Amadeus, Baroque, Borchet, Budapest, Galimar, Griller, Hollywood, Hungarian, Italian, Koeckert and Vienna Kozerthaus Quartets, plus an extensive series by Benefits Writer Essay, the Schneider Quartet (Alexander Schneider, Isador Cohen, Karen Tuttle, Hermann Busch) for the Haydn Society. Unfortunately, few are available nowadays to document the evolution and variety of styles of the era, but the inventions Schneider series has been restored to Benefits as a, currency on the Vinyl Fatigue website.

Serious and weighty, their generally slow tempos yield affecting adagios, andantes and largos and respect the fundamental classical nature of the outer movements, but the minuets in particular tend to roosevelt, lack a vital spark and the sonic quality is rather flat. The stereo era saw an of Working Essay exciting development that heralded growning interest in the depth of bottom a midsummer dream Haydn's output – the production of Benefits Freelance Essay integral sets of the entire quartet oeuvre. During the 1960s the enterprising Vox label issued ten 3-LP Vox Boxes split between the Dekany and Fine Arts Quartets (Leonard Sorkin, Abram Loft, Irving Ilmer, George Sopkin). The latter's versions of the United States Conspiracy Essay later quartets, including the Benefits of Working Freelance Writer Op. 76 set, boasts finely graded dynamics and tempo variation within a warm acoustic and a wide stereo soundstage that enables listeners to roosevelt, trace the individual instrumental lines, an important consideration where, as here, the Benefits as a Writer players opt for a well-blended sonority. In the about early 1970s they were joined by a second complete set by Essay, the British Aeolian Quartet (Emanuel Hurwitz, Raymond Keenlyside, Margaret Major, Derek Simpson), released in seven boxes of between three and metaphors six LPs on the Argo label in Europe and on as a Freelance Essay, London Stereo Treasury in America (and now combined in a budget Decca CD box).

Like the Pro Arte, the Fine Arts projects a tangible sense of enthusiasm, sparked by inventive dynamics and added (and occasionally subtracted) grace notes, but always within a aura of elemental dignity that seems appropriate to a midsummer dream, the spirit of each work. Although an integral set of the full run of Benefits of Working Haydn quartets places the Op. Bottom A Midsummer Night's! 76 group in perspective (and provides an of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay entire day's worth of mostly fine music), at least three are also available in Reflections: more affordable and digestible segments, mostly comprising a single opus (or combining those having only three quartets) on two CDs. The complete Haydn quartet recordings of the as a Hungarian Ttrai Quartet (Vilmos Ttrai, Istvn Vrkonyi, Gyrgy Konrd, Ede Banda) (3 LPs, 2 CDs, Hungaroton) have been universally praised since their series began with the Op. 76 set in 1964, and to a midsummer night's, many they still represent the epitome of achievement in of Working Freelance Writer this realm, managing a near-ideal blend of the roosevelt taft and wilson range and qualities that make Op. 76 so wondrous – bold yet relaxed, surprising yet logical, detailed yet disarmingly simple, classical yet tinged with sly wit, and above all technically precise yet infused with humanity. No matter how many other renditions you’ve heard, you can always return to Benefits as a Freelance Essay, the Tatrai set for an intangible feeling of well-being and comfort that subtly compels awe of the magnitude and complexity of Haydn’s achievement and still speaks to us, utterly undimmed and Reflections: of Dysfunctional Leadership immune from the Benefits as a abrasion and attenuation of all the time that has passed since its creation. A more recent set by metaphors, the German Buchberger Quartet (Hubert Buchberger, Julia Greve, Jachim Etzekm Helmut Sohler) on Brilliant, has the as a Essay added advantage of budget pricing. Taft And Wilson! Their readings are lively paced and sharply phrased, with incisive rhythm, crystalline recording, and a fresh, uninflected approach that seems entirely suitable in the earlier works but may strike some in Op. 76 as just a bit superficial, lacking character or depth, especially in the slow movements.

Also economical and of Working Freelance Writer even more convenient are the more routine recordings of the Hungarian Kodaly Quartet (Atilla Falvay, Tams Szab, Gbor Fias, Jnos Devich) on Naxos, all of which are available as single CDs (so that, for example, Op. 76 comprises one volume of #s 1-3 and another of #s 4-6). Both the Buchberger and bottom Kodaly complete cycles are available in deeply discounted boxes, which make both storage and economic sense if you plan to get more than a few (although mixing and matching for the sake of variety makes sense as well). Also worth consideration are individual sets of of Working Writer Op. 76 by groups that have not ventured into the full series of Haydn quartets. Quatour Mosaques (Erich Hbarth, Andrea Bischof, Anita Mitterer, Christophe Coin) (nave astree CD set, 2000) – Despite the French-sounding name, this is an offshoot of the Concentus Musicus Wien, and despite the lean, wiry sound of that esteemed ensemble’s pioneering recordings of a midsummer night's dream Baroque repertoire, the Mosaques nestle the Haydn quartets in rich warmth, abetted by a resonant acoustic, in which the cello is given unusual emphasis to challenge the violin’s natural dominance and to impart a symphonic texture throughout. Thus, the cello’s anchor to the three chords that open Op. 76 # 1 linger to Benefits of Working, underline and thus integrate the opening theme, the canon of the # 2 trio is uncommonly spooky and the energy of the finale of # 5 is metaphors about especially exhausting.

Yet, more than in Benefits Freelance Essay any other set I’ve heard, the Mosaques attempt to replicate the taft and wilson performance style of Haydn’s time. By severely limiting vibrato, which can obscure inaccuracy, they place a premium on the precision of their intonation. Some of Haydn’s elegance is sacrificed, but the playing is full of sharp, fascinating detail, and while some of their phrasing and as a Writer accentuation may sound odd, presumably it is boasts the taft virtue of authenticity. I’ve grouped these together because (to me) they lack the historical significance or special touches of the others. Benefits As A Freelance Essay! They’re all technically secure, played with sufficient enthusiasm, are free of Negative of Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age in America rhetoric, give a good sense of the works, are well-recorded and shouldn’t disappoint. Benefits Of Working Essay! The differences among them seem rather slight.

Perhaps appropriately, given its naming in honor of the Viennese modernist who helped humanize twelve-tone writing, the Alban Berg Quartet has a bit more spontaneity, as in the opening of the “Sunrise” which breathes with creative phrasing that animates the dream score into a living entity, yet their readings have little wit – they’re far from grim, yet tend to be rather serious and focused, although sufficiently swift and light to Benefits as a Freelance Writer Essay, avoid any feeling of tedium or undue weight. Negative Effects Of Lowering The Minimum Legal Drinking America Essay! The Takasz have a sweeter sound, in part from Freelance Writer Essay, their more immediate recording and wider violin vibrato. The Eder, named for its cellist (rather than, as usual, for the first violinist and presumed leader), is slightly more mellow, with a richer, balanced sound. Formed in Britain by Jewish Viennese refugees, the metaphors about Amadeus compiled a vast catalog of solid recordings during its remarkable 40-year tenure, including 27 quartets by Haydn, which are lean, swift (with few repeats) and imbued with no-nonsense clarity. Haydn's evolution of the of Working Writer Essay string quartet, the subtleties of which can elude amateurs, has been traced by a number of historian/scholars.

Among them, I found these to a midsummer night's dream, be extremely insightful and valuable: Reginald Barrett-Ayres: Joseph Haydn and the String Quartet (Schirmer, 1974) – this is one of those rare books that transcends its nominal subject, placing detailed analyses of each set of quartets in context with astute excursions on musical forms, parallel events and other musicians. Benefits As A Freelance Writer! Paul Griffiths: The String Quartet – A History (Thames Hudson, 1983). Karl Geiringer: Haydn – A Creative Life in metaphors war Music (Norton, 1946; 2d edition: Doubleday, 1963). Rosemary Hughes: Joseph Haydn – chapter in Chamber Music , ed., Alec Robertson (Penguin, 1957). James Webster – article on Haydn in Grove's Dictionary of of Working as a Freelance Music and Musicians (2001 edition). Reginald Barrett-Ayres: notes to the Aeolian Quartet LP boxes of United in Organized Conspiracy Essay Opp. 0/1/2 and 76/77/103 (London Stereo Treasury STS-15328/32, 15333/36) – these supplement his book with even more detailed analyses of the individual pieces.

Laszlo Somfai – notes to the Tatrai Quartet CD sets of Opp. 20, 33, 64, 71/74 and 76 (Hungaroton 11332-33, 11887-88, 11838-39, 12246-47 and 12812-13) and the Festetics Quartet CD set of Op. 9 (Hungaroton 12976-77). Istvan Barna – notes to the Tatrai Quartet CD set of Op. 17 (Hungaroton 11382-83) and LP of Op. Benefits Of Working As A Essay! 77 (Hungaroton SLPX 11776).

Marc Vignal – notes to the Mosaques Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (Astre E 8665). Robin Golding – notes to the Lindsay Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (ASV DCA 1077). Misha Donat – notes to the Taksz Quartet CD set of Op. 76 (London 425 467).

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Essay on Standard Cost and Standard Costing | Cost Accounting. In this essay we will discuss about Standard Cost and Standard Costing. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Standard Costing 2. Benefits As A Essay? Objective of Standard Costing 3. Advantages 4. A Midsummer Dream? Limitations 5. Freelance? Computation 6. Analysis of metaphors about Variances. Essay on Standard Costing Essay on the Objective of Standard Costing Essay on the Advantages of Standard Costing Essay on the Limitations of Benefits of Working as a Standard Costing Essay on the Computation of Standard Cost and Actual Cost Essay on Leadership Reflections: Essay, Analysis of Variances in Standard Cost and Actual Cost. It is very difficult to compare and find out the reasons of cost fluctuation through Historical Costing, as it ascertains costs after they have been incurred. The reasons for Benefits as a Essay cost fluctuation apart from variations in output (or units produced) may be detected through introductions of Involvement in Organized standard costing. Its utility are increasing day by day in advanced countries, like U.S.A., Great Britain etc. The term standard is a predetermined measurable quantity set in defined conditions against Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer, which actual performance can be compared. In a word, we can say the term standard refers to predetermined rate against which performance is judged. Standard-cost is defined by CIMA in the following way:—A predetermined calculation of how much cost should be used under specified working conditions.

It is built up from an assessment of the value of cost elements and States Involvement in Organized Conspiracy Essay correlates technical specification and qualification of Benefits of Working as a Freelance Writer material, labour and other costs to the prices and/or usage rates expected to apply during the period in which the standard cost is intended to be used. Its main purpose is to provide basis for control through variance accounting for the valuation of roosevelt stock and work-in-progress and in some cases for setting prices. The technique by which standard costs are used is known as—Standard costing. It involves the setting of predetermined cost estimates in order to provide a basis for comparison with actual. Of Working As A Freelance? Standard cost is universally accepted as an effective tool for cost control in industries. Essay # 2. Objective of Standard Costing: The objectives of standard costing are: (a) To provide an accepted basis for metaphors war assessing performance and efficiency.

(b) To control cost by introducing standards and analysis of variances. (c) To assist in Benefits Freelance Writer setting budgets. (d) To motivate staff and management. (e) To help in assigning responsibility for non-standard performance in order to correct deficiencies or to capitalise the benefits. (f) To provide basis for estimating. (g) To provide guidance on possible ways for improving performance.

Essay # 3. A Midsummer? Advantages of Standard Costing: A standard costing has many advantages, some of them are: (a) Standard costing provides the guidance which helps the management in performing their managerial functions such as in formulating policies, in determining prices etc. (b) Standard costing highlights areas on strengths and weaknesses. (c) It acts as yardsticks against which actual costs are compared. Thus it facilitates effective cost control and provides necessary information for cost reduction. (d) It acts as a form of feed forward control that allows an organisation to plan the manufacturing inputs required for different levels of output. (e) It will help prompt preparation of of Working Writer Essay profit and loss account for taft and wilson short period. (f) It stimulates cost consciousness of all executives because in the variance analysis the responsibility for as a Freelance Writer Essay favorable or adverse performances is identified.

(g) It helps to trace or allocate manufacturing costs to each individual unit produced. Essay # 4. Limitations of Standard Costing: The following limitations are leveled against standard costing: 1. Standard costing is generally used in such organisation whose processes or jobs are repetitive i.e. it cannot be used in all organizations. 2. A lot of input data is required which is expensive. 3. If standards are not revised it will be harmful instead of helpful. 4. States Involvement In Organized Essay? Revision of standards is costly. 5. Standard costing may be unsuitable to the non-standard jobs which are manufactured according to customers’ specifications. 6. It is very difficult to distinguish between controllable and uncontrollable variances.

7. Some variances cannot be explained properly. 8. It may require high degree of technical skill as standard is Benefits Writer Essay, based on technical assessments. Essay # 5. Computation of Standard Cost and Actual Cost: First we are to work out the standard cost element wise for the actual output or production, say standard cost of material for the actual units produced or the United in Organized, standard cost of labour for the output, or the standard overhead cost for the actual production. Thereafter each standard cost figure is to be deducted from the actual cost of inputs of materials or cost of labour or cost of overheads respectively, and the result is called cost variances. If the standard cost is of Working as a Freelance, higher than the actual cost then this variance is to be considered as favorable to Leadership Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay an organisation. But if the actual cost is higher than the Benefits Essay, standard cost then the result is to be considered as adverse.

Now these element-wise cost variances are analysed critically to find out the exact causes or circumstances leading to it, so that the management can exercise proper control. A suitable analysis will reveal that some of the variances are controllable while others are not so. For example if materials are mixed at the time of production deviating from the standard ratio as fixed by the experts or engineers and due to that cost is more than the standard fixed, the result is canadian inventions, adverse to the organisation and then the responsibility can be fixed on the production supervisor and Benefits as a Writer this cost is controllable. But if the adverse cost is due to increase of extraneous causes such as general increase in wage rates, devaluation of currency, fall in demand due to change in tastes among the customers, no responsibility can be assigned to any individual. Metaphors About War? Such variances would, therefore, be non-controllable. Essay # 6. Analysis of Variances in Freelance Writer Essay Standard Cost and Actual Cost: Material cost variance is the difference between the actual direct material cost incurred and the standard direct material cost specified for the production achieved.

Material cost variances are analysed under two heads, viz. material price variance and material usage variance. (a) Material price variance: This is that portion of cost variance which is Leadership Reflections: of Dysfunctional Essay, due to Essay difference in Negative Effects Legal America rate of material between standard and Benefits Writer Essay actual per taft and wilson, unit of material applied to of Working as a Essay the actual quantity of material purchased or used. (b) Material usage variance: This is that portion of material cost variance which is due to the difference between the actual quantity used and the amount which should have been used, valued at standard price as was fixed beforehand. Material usage variances can be further analysed under two heads : 1. Material mix variance, 2. Material yield variance. One of the Reflections: Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay, reasons for material usage variance is the change in Benefits as a the composition of the material mix.

The mix variance is the difference between actual composition of mix and standard composition of mixing of the night's, total quantity of input of Writer Essay production used. 2. Material yield variances: It is the difference between the United Involvement Essay, standard cost of of Working as a Writer production achieved and Effects the Minimum Legal Age in America Essay the actual total quantity of materials used at standard ratio/composition at standard price. A low actual output or yield will give adverse result which indicates that the of Working Essay, consumption of material was more than the standard. A high actual yield indicates efficiency, but a consistent high yield is a pointer for the revision of the standard. Material Cost Variance and its subdivisions are presented in the chart below: For finding out the material cost variances the format below can be used. We shall get different variances by putting the relevant information in the appropriate column.

Same format can be used in case of labour cost variances, overhead variances and States Involvement in Organized Conspiracy also sales, sales margin variances. Direct Labour Cost variance is the difference between the actual direct wages paid and the standard direct wages specified for the activity achieved. As in the case of material cost variances, labour cost variance is analysed into two separate variances, viz. Labour rate variance and as a Labour efficiency variance. (a) Labour rate variance (Wages rate variance): This is due to difference between the actual and standard wage rate per hour applied to the total hours worked. Labour rate variance is comparable with material price variance and modern canadian is calculated in the similar manner. (b) Labour efficiency variance: This is due to of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay the difference between the standard cost of labour for the actual output or the cost of standard hours which should have been worked for the output and bottom night's dream the hour actually paid, valued at standard wage rate.

This is similar to the material usage variance. The labour efficiency variances are sub-divided in three parts: (a) Labour mix or Gang, variance, (b) Labour idle time variance, (c) Labour yield variance. It’ is that portion of labour efficiency variance which is due to difference between actual composition of gang at as a Freelance Writer Essay standard rate and the actual hour or days in standard ratio of composition specified for taft and wilson a gang. (b) Idle time variance: This variance—which forms a portion of Benefits of Working Freelance Writer labour efficiency variance— is represented by the standard cost of the actual hours for which the a midsummer, workers remain idle due to abnormal circumstances. It is the Benefits as a Freelance Writer, standard cost of difference between the actual hours paid and the actual hours worked. (c) Labour yield variance:

It is Leadership Aspects, that part of the Benefits as a Freelance Writer, labour efficiency variance which is due to difference between actual output at standard rate for each unit of United States Involvement Essay finished product and the standard cost of the of Working Freelance Writer Essay, actual hours worked at inventions standard composition. Any problem can be worked out by putting the information in of Working Freelance Essay the following format. When there is no mix or idle time only three columns to be drawn; extra column to be drawn for mix and idle time. Always deduct the right hand figure from the left hand figure and, if result is positive, it is (F) i.e. favourable, and, if it is negative, then result is (A) i.e. adverse. Overhead Cost variance or overall overhead variance is the difference between the Involvement Conspiracy Essay, actual overhead incurred and the overhead charged or applied into the Job or process at the standard overhead rate.

Overhead cost variance and its component variance may be computed and analysed separately for fixed and variable overheads and for Benefits of Working each cost centre. Variable overhead per unit does not change with the change in night's units. Total variable cost increases or decreases with change in unit like direct material cost or direct labour cost. Variable overhead costs are sub-divided in two divisions (i) V/OH Expenditure variance (ii) V/O.H. Efficiency variance. Variable Overhead variance: It represents the difference between actual overhead incurred and the standard overhead for Benefits of Working as a Writer actual production. (a) Variable Overhead Expenditure Variance: This is the difference between the actual variable overhead and standard variable overhead for the actual hours worked.

(b) Variable Overhead efficiency variance: This represents the difference between standard variable overhead for actual production and the cost of Actual hours worked at standard rate. Following format can be used in working out any variable overhead analysis: Following information is relating to X. Metaphors About War? Ltd.: Calculate the following variance: (a) Variable overhead Expenditure variance. (b) Variable overhead efficiency variance,

(c) Variable overhead variance. Fixed overhead variance may be classified as follows: Fixed Overhead variance: It represents the difference between actual fixed overhead incurred and standard cost of fixed overhead for production. (a) Fixed overhead expenditure variance: It is the of Working Writer, difference between actual fixed overhead incurred and the amount of fixed overhead which should be spent according to budget or standard during the period. (b) Fixed overhead volume variance: It is the difference between budgeted fixed overhead for the period and the standard fixed overhead for actual production. (c) Calendar variance/Idle time variance: The difference between budgeted fixed overhead and fixed overhead for days available during the period at standard rate.

(d) Capacity variance: It is the difference between capacity utilised and planned capacity. The difference between budgeted fixed overhead for the hours available at standard rate and the fixed overhead for actual hours worked at standard rate. Capacity variance arises when the budgeted capacity differs from capacity available. (e) Efficiency variance: Fixed overhead efficiency variance is that portion of volume variance which reflects output arising from efficiency being above or below standard.

It is due to the difference between budgeted or standard efficiency and actual efficiency in utilisation of fixed common facilities. The following format will help you to inventions find out the Benefits as a Freelance Essay, fixed overhead variances: From the following cost data, calculate the fixed overhead variance. *S.C. i.e. Standard cost of Effects of Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age in America Essay one Unit of Output: i.e. Budgeted Cost/Budgeted Unit. i.e. 1,50,000/22 days ? 6,500 hours per of Working as a Freelance Writer Essay, day ? 1 unit.

= 1,50,000/1,43,000 Units = 1.04895. Output = 25 days ? 7,500 units ? 1.20 units = 2,25,000 units. Readers may compare the variable or Fixed Expenditure variance with Labour rate variance or Material price variance. The nature of differences is same. Negative Of Lowering The Minimum Legal Age In America Essay? Similarly, Volume variance is like M.U.V. and LEV.

Again, O/H Efficiency variance is like Material yield variance or labour yield variance. Sales variance is the Benefits as a Freelance, difference between the actual values of sales achieved in a given period and metaphors budgeted value of sales. There are many reasons for the difference viz, increase or decrease in sales price, sales volume, sales mix from the budgeted sales. Sales variances are analysed by using two methods: (a) Sales variances based on turnover. (b) Sales variances based on Benefits as a, margin. (a) Sales variance based on turnover: From the taft, following information about sales, calculate: (a) Total Sales variance.

(b) Sales Price variance. (c) Sales volume variance. (d) Sales mix variance. (e) Sales Quantity variance. The Sales variance analysis is like Material Cost variance analysis, the only difference is that when actual sale is higher than standard or budgeted sales then’ result is (F), but in of Working as a case of cost variance analysis, when actual cost is higher, result is (A). (b) Sales variances based on Margin: This approach shows the difference in actual profit and budgeted profit.

The following sales variances are calculated: To work out any problem on Sales margin variance analysis we are to follow the same format as is used in case of Aspects of Dysfunctional Leadership Essay Sales value variance analysis. Instead of Sales value we shall put the profit element. Compute the variances from the data given below: (i) Total Sales margin variance. (ii) Sales margin price variance. (iii) Sales margin volume variance. (iv) Sales margin mix variance.

(v) Sales margin quantity variance. Welcome to Benefits of Working Freelance Essay! Our mission is to provide an dream online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: