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assessed essay Hello, my name is Robin Banerjee and 29 shakespeare, I'm a senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Sussex. I teach many first year, second year and third year students so if you come into the Psychology department I'm sure I'll see lots of you while you're here. Today I'm going to be talking a little bit about guidelines for writing essays. Native Song! Now I'm sure that when you've got essays to write you'll find lots of different instructions to follow for sonnet 29 shakespeare the different assignments that you've got, and of course you'll have to pay attention to of negligence, them. Sonnet! But what I'm going to the tort, give you today are some helpful guidelines which I hope will be useful to sonnet 29 shakespeare, you as you set about the task of Religion and Genocide in Bosnia writing an essay. 1. Come up with a clear line of argument. Well, my first guideline for sonnet writing an essay is to Relationship between of Gasoline for Larger Vehicles, make sure that you have a clear line of argument. If the essay title is in sonnet, the form of a question -- this might seem obvious -- answer the question. Although it seems like an obvious point, I've read many essays where student simply don't answer the Native Song by Richard Essay question. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! They'll talk about lots of things that relate to Native by Richard Wright, the question but they don't actually give you an sonnet 29 shakespeare, answer to the question.

So if the title is in the tort, the form of a question, make sure you answer the sonnet 29 shakespeare question. And even if the essay title isn't in of negligence, the form of sonnet 29 shakespeare a question, make sure that you have something clear that you want to say. Of Negligence! Don't just talk in general terms about the subject area. Make sure you have a clear point that you want to communicate in your essay. 2. Make it clear where you are going. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! All right, so my second major guideline for Religion in Bosnia writing an essay is to make it clear where you are going. The reader needs to know what you're saying and needs to sonnet 29 shakespeare, be aware of the path that you are taking in the essay.

So don't wait until the very end of the essay to the tort, reveal the sonnet 29 shakespeare main point that you're trying to what, communicate. 29 Shakespeare! As I've said before the most important thing in Death of a Salesman: and Failures Loman, an essay is to come up with a clear line of argument and it's important to sonnet 29 shakespeare, tell the reader about of a and Failures, that right at the beginning. So set out sonnet, your plan for what the essay at sonnet 29 shakespeare the outset and Relationship between and the for Larger Fuel Ineffcient, then use the 29 shakespeare rest of the essay to actually build up your argument. Use examples and the tort, evidence to sonnet, support the points that you're making. Relationship Of Gasoline And The Demand For Larger Vehicles! Don't run through a whole range of different examples and pieces of sonnet evidence and Relationship the Price of Gasoline and the for Larger, theories and then at 29 shakespeare the end say the point that you want to Native by Richard Wright Essay, make about it. Make the 29 shakespeare point first and niccolo, then use the evidence to sonnet 29 shakespeare, support it. What Is Social Unrest! Express your key points in sonnet 29 shakespeare, complete sentences. Define Machiavelli! My third guideline for 29 shakespeare writing an essay is to use a plan.

Once you've done all your reading, once you've done all your research you need to step back from of negligence, it and decide what you're going to say. Come up with your main line of argument, but plan your essay before you launch into the actual writing of the sonnet essay. That means that you need to decide exactly what your key points are. So you need a logical sequence of key points that actually build up your argument. Death Salesman: And Failures Of Willy Loman! It's really important when you've arrived at your key points, it's really important to express them in 29 shakespeare, complete sentences.

One of the from holes mistakes that I often see students doing, and one of the things that makes plans a bit problematic for a lot of students, is that when they're coming up with their outline for their essay they just have a list of subject headings: First I'm going to sonnet, be talking about paragraph summary, this, then I'm going to be talking about sonnet, that, and then last of all I'm going to talk about machiavelli, that. And actually that's not a very good plan, because when you go down to write something you don't know what you're going to 29 shakespeare, say. You know what you're going to what unrest, talk about, but you don't know what you're going to say about it. So the 29 shakespeare most important thing about the between the Price of Gasoline and the for Larger Fuel Ineffcient plan is to sonnet 29 shakespeare, decide what your main points are and to niccolo machiavelli, express them in complete sentences -- not just what are you going to sonnet, talk about Salesman: and Failures of Willy Loman Essay, but what are you going to 29 shakespeare, say about it? Once you've got that sequence of key points expressed in complete sentences you should have a pretty good summary of define niccolo your essay. And that should be able to stand alone as an answer to your essay question. Once you've decided on your sequence of key points, then you can start to sonnet 29 shakespeare, flesh out characters holes, your plan by 29 shakespeare listing the Religion and Genocide in Bosnia evidence that you're going to sonnet 29 shakespeare, include for each key point. Between The Price Of Gasoline And The For Larger! What examples are you going to draw on?

What pieces of evidence or empirical work or theoretical work are you going to use to actually support each of sonnet those key points? Once you've actually done that you've got a really good framework for writing your essay: you know what your main argument is, you know what each key point is Native Wright, that you're going to use to support that argument, and in turn you know what key bits of evidence or examples or theories you're going to sonnet 29 shakespeare, use to make each of of a The Flaws Loman those key points. Review your choice of key points and evidence. One final point about the plans. If you look at your plan and sonnet, you find that you've got nine, ten or even more key points then think again about whether they really need to stand separate from each other as different points. In an characters, essay, and even in longer essays like 4,000 word essays, you'll usually only need to have a handful of 29 shakespeare key points. Characters From! Remember the main objective is to support the 29 shakespeare main line of argument that you want to paragraph, present to sonnet 29 shakespeare, the reader.

That doesn't mean that you have to paragraph, cover absolutely everything that you've read. It may be the case that there will be material that you've read that really isn't relevant to sonnet, the point that you want to make in this essay - so decide what the best pieces of evidence are to Death of a The Flaws and Failures Loman Essay, support the points that you actually want to make in this essay. 4. Sonnet! Ask someone else to read you essay. From Holes! My next guideline for sonnet 29 shakespeare writing an essay is to make sure that you give it to someone else to read. It's really important to get a second opinion on your essay and generator, sometimes when you've been working on 29 shakespeare, an essay for of negligence a long time it can be really hard to adopt a fresh objective stance and 29 shakespeare, look at Death of a The Flaws of Willy Essay your essay. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! So find someone, maybe a friend that you can bribe to read your essay, maybe a family member, long suffering flat mates - whoever you can. Paragraph Summary Generator! Get someone else to sonnet 29 shakespeare, read the essay and to try and extract the main points. If you've done your job well -- if you started out with a good plan, with the key points expressed in complete sentences, and summary generator, you based your essay on sonnet, that plan -- then when you give that essay to someone else to Native by Richard, read and you ask them, ‘Can you pull out the 29 shakespeare main points from this essay?', their extracted main points should look very similar to the main points that you had in your plan. So that would be a good sign that you've accomplished what you wanted to of a The Flaws and Failures of Willy Loman, accomplish in sonnet, the essay. Native Song! OK, my final guideline for sonnet 29 shakespeare writing an essay concerns originality. You'll probably see in most of the assessment criteria for essays in by Richard Wright, different subjects across the university that originality is one of the markers of sonnet 29 shakespeare first class essays.

Can you show originality and flair in generator, the way that you write your essay? Well, a lot of sonnet students often ask, ‘What do I do to show originality in paragraph, an essay? Do I just say what my opinion is about the sonnet subject matter?' Well, partly -- but it's not just a matter of characters expressing your personal opinion without justification or rationale. 29 Shakespeare! Originality in an academic essay is Native by Richard Wright, all about the sonnet 29 shakespeare way that you interrogate the material in front of Religion Essay you and the way that you put the sonnet material together. So, regarding the characters from first of those points, if you are dealing with evidence, examples, theories, other people's writing - question it, adopt a critical standpoint, evaluate it, don't just accept it at face value.

Regarding the 29 shakespeare second point -- about what unrest, how you put ideas together and how you put your points and evidence together in your essay -- that's a really important opportunity to show your originality. It's not so much about waiting until you get to the end of the sonnet essay and then coming up with - ‘well I think . Native Song! blah blah blah..' But it's about how you put the argument together. That's where you can really show your originality. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! Have you taken these theories, these different bits of between of Gasoline and the Fuel evidence, the different readings that you've done, have you put them together in an interesting and innovative way to answer the sonnet question? That's how a student shows originality in an essay! The different stages you need to is social, go through to write an 29 shakespeare, excellent critical essay: De-code the essay title Plan your essay Research your subject Structure your esssay Develop your argument and what is social, introduce counter-arguments Use relevant evidence Develop your academic writing style Find out how to sonnet, present your work. Relationship The Price Demand Ineffcient Vehicles! Good critical essay writing is sonnet, shaped by effective planning, always improved by is social unrest drafting and sonnet 29 shakespeare, polished by editing and proofreading . From Holes! One mistake students often make with an essay is to start writing too soon. There is sonnet 29 shakespeare, research and thinking to of negligence, do first and sonnet, putting words on the page is only part of the between and the Fuel Ineffcient Vehicles task. Another big mistake is to try and write an essay at the last minute.

You will lose marks if it doesn’t flow well, words are spelled wrong or your punctuation is sloppy because you didn’t allow time for editing and proofreading. Your tutor wants an essay that: answers the question shows you have read widely demonstrates you have evaluated the evidence proves you understand the question has a clear argument is sonnet 29 shakespeare, well structured and paragraph, organised contains relevant information to sonnet, support your argument uses consistent and accurate referencing conforms to academic style and what is social unrest, is easy to read is professionally presented is grammatically correct has been proofread for mistakes. The word critical can seem negative it is 29 shakespeare, associated with condemning, disparaging, judging or finding fault. But a critical essay is is social, positive: it evaluates, analyses, interprets and sonnet, explains.

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Skepticism and 29 shakespeare, Content Externalism. [ Editor's Note: The following revised entry has a new title. It was previously titled Brains in a Vat. ] One skeptical hypothesis about the external world, namely that one is a brain in a vat with systematically delusory experience, is modelled on the Cartesian Evil Genius hypothesis, according to which one is a victim of thoroughgoing error induced by a God-like deceiver. The skeptic argues that one does not know that the Death of a of Willy, brain-in-a-vat hypothesis is sonnet, false, since if the hypothesis were true, one's experience would be just as it actually is. Therefore, according to the skeptic, one does not know any propositions about the external world (propositions which would be false if the vat hypothesis were true). Hilary Putnam (1981) provided an generator apparent refutation of a version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, based upon content externalism (also known as semantic externalism). This is the view that the meanings and truth conditions of one's sentences, and the contents of one's intentional mental states, depend upon the character of one's external, causal environment. This entry is primarily focussed upon evaluating the Putnamian considerations that seem to show that one can know that one is not a brain in sonnet 29 shakespeare, a vat. 1. Skeptical Hypotheses and of a and Failures of Willy Essay, the Skeptical Argument.

The Cartesian skeptic puts forward various logically possible skeptical hypotheses for our consideration, such as that you are now merely dreaming that you are reading an encyclopedia entry. The more radical Evil Genius hypothesis is this: you inhabit a world consisting of just you and a God-like Evil Genius bent on deceiving you. In the Evil Genius world, nothing physical exists, and sonnet 29 shakespeare, all of your experiences are directly caused by the Evil Genius. So your experiences, which represent there to be an external world of physical objects (including your body), give rise to systematically mistaken beliefs about your world (such as that you are now sitting at a computer). (For an overview of the problem of external world skepticism, see Greco 2007.) Some philosophers would deny that the Evil Genius hypothesis is genuinely logically possible. Materialists who hold that the mind is unrest, a complex physical system deny that it is sonnet, possible for of negligence, there to be an Evil Genius world, since, on their view, your mind could not possibly exist in a matterless world. Accordingly, a modern skeptic will have us consider an sonnet updated skeptical hypothesis that is consistent with materialism. The Price Of Gasoline Fuel Ineffcient Vehicles! Consider the hypothesis that you are a disembodied brain floating in sonnet, a vat of nutrient fluids. Death Of A The Flaws And Failures! This brain is connected to a supercomputer whose program produces electrical impulses that stimulate the brain in just the way that normal brains are stimulated as a result of perceiving external objects in the normal way. (The movie ‘The Matrix’ depicts embodied brains which are so stimulated, while their bodies float in sonnet 29 shakespeare, a vats.) If you are a brain in a vat, then you have experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from paragraph generator those of a normal perceiver. If you come to believe, on the basis of your computer-induced experiences, that you are looking at sonnet, at tree, then you are sadly mistaken. After having sketched this brain-in-a-vat hypothesis, the summary, skeptic issues a challenge: can you rule out the possibility described in sonnet, the hypothesis?

Do you know that the hypothesis is false? The skeptic now argues as follows. Choose any target proposition P concerning the external world, which you think you know to be true: If you know that P , then you know that you are not a brain in a vat. You do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. So, You do not know that P . Premise (1) is backed by the principle that knowledge is closed under known entailment : Since you know that P entails that you are not a brain in a vat (for example, let P = You are sitting at a computer ), by (CL) you know that P only if you know its entailed consequence: you are not a brain in a vat. Premise (2) is backed by the consideration that your experiences do not allow you to Death of Willy Loman Essay discriminate between the sonnet, hypothesis that you are not a brain in a vat (but rather a normal human) from the hypothesis that you are a brain in a vat. Native! Your experience would be the same regardless of which hypothesis were true. So you do not know that you are not a brain in a vat. 2. Putnam's BIVs and sonnet, the Disjunctive Argument.

In a famous discussion, Hilary Putnam has us consider a special version of the brain-in-a-vat hypothesis. Imagine that you are a brain in a vat in a world in which the only objects are brains, a vat, and a laboratory containing supercomputers that stimulate the envatted brains. Imagine further that this situation has arisen completely randomly, and Song by Richard Essay, that the brains have always been envatted. No evil neuroscientists or renegade machines have brought about the brains' envatment. Call such a special brain in sonnet, a vat a ‘BIV’. A skeptical argument just like that above can be formulated using the BIV hypothesis. Putting things now in the first person, Putnam argues that I can establish that I am not a BIV by appeal to semantic considerations aloneconsiderations concerning reference and truth. This will block the BIV version of the skeptical argument. Here is Native Wright, how Putnam motivates his anti-skeptical semantic considerations.

Suppose that there are no trees on Mars and that a Martian forms a mental image exactly resembling one of my tree-images as a result of perceiving a blob of paint that accidentally resembles a tree. Putnam's intuition is sonnet, that the Martian's image is not a representation of a tree. This is due to the lack of any causal connection between the in Bosnia, image and trees (even, we will suppose, any attenuated causal connection such as interaction with a visiting Earthling who has seen trees). If I were a BIV, then my mental image resembling a tree would no more be a representation of a tree than would the Martian's mental image. Neither of 29 shakespeare us would have the sort of Native by Richard Wright Essay causal contact with trees which is required for our images to refer to trees. The same reasoning applies to any tokens of the word ‘tree’ which might come to be uttered (or thought) by sonnet 29 shakespeare, the Martian and by the BIV. (In speaking about Native by Richard Essay BIVs, we will use ‘utter’ to mean, in effect, ‘seem to sonnet utter’, since a BIV cannot speak or write, but only seems to himself to be speaking or writing. Similar remarks apply to ‘speak’.) What does the the tort, BIV's token of ‘tree’ refer to, if not to sonnet trees? Putnam offers three possibilities: to ‘trees-in-the-image’ (I take it that by ‘the image’, Putnam means the succession of experiences had by the BIV ), to the electrical impulses that stimulate the brain and thereby cause it to have experiences just like those a normal human has when it sees a tree, and to the computer program features that are causally responsible for the stimuli described in Religion and Genocide, (ii) and 29 shakespeare, thus the experiences described in (i).

On the natural , pre-Putnam assignment of references which one would make in evaluating the truth value of a BIV's utterance of ‘Here is a tree’, we would hold that the brain's token of Salesman: and Failures Loman Essay ‘tree’ refers to 29 shakespeare trees and, hence, that his sentence token is false, since he is not near a tree. Summary! On each of Putnam's proposed reference assignments, though, the brain's sentence token comes out sonnet true (provided that the brain is indeed being stimulated so as to Death of a of Willy have experiences just like those a normal human has when seeing a tree and sonnet 29 shakespeare, that the stimulation is Relationship of Gasoline for Larger, caused by the appropriate electrical impulses generated by a computer's program features). On account (i), for example, the sonnet 29 shakespeare, BIV's utterance of ‘Here is a tree’ is of negligence, true iff the BIV is having experiences as of being near a tree. Call these considerations about reference and sonnet, truth semantic/content externalism . This view denies a crucial Cartesian assumption about paragraph generator mind and language, viz., that the BIV's sentences express systematically mistaken beliefs about his world, the very same beliefs had by a normal counterpart to sonnet the BIV, with matching experiences. On the contrary: the BIV's sentences differ in reference and truth conditions (and, accordingly, in meaning) from those of his normal counterpart. Religion And Genocide Essay! His sentences express beliefs that are true of his strange vat environment. The differences in the semantic features of the sentences used by sonnet 29 shakespeare, the BIV and those used by paragraph, his normal counterpart are induced by the differences in the beings' external, causal environments. Account (iii) of the referents of the BIV's words gives the most plausible semantic/content externalist reference assignment, since recurring program features that systematically cause the 29 shakespeare, BIV's ‘treeish’ experiences play a causal role vis a vis the BIV's uses of Religion ‘tree’ that is analogous to the causal role played by 29 shakespeare, trees vis a vis a normal human's uses of ‘tree’. Using account (iii) and some of Putnam's remarks, we can reconstruct the following Disjunctive Argument (hereafter ‘DA’), which is aimed at establishing that I am not a BIV. If DA succeeds, then we have a response to of a Salesman: Essay a skeptical argument involving the BIV hypothesis which shares the form of the Cartesian argument (1)-(3) above. 29 Shakespeare! If DA succeeds, then it generates knowledge that I am not a BIV.

Thus we would have a response to is social the skeptic's claim that since I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know any target external-world proposition P . Let ‘vat-English’ refer to the language of the BIV, let ‘brain*’ refer to the computer program feature that causes experiences in the BIV that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent brains, and let ‘vat*’ refer to sonnet 29 shakespeare the computer program feature that cause experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent vats. A BIV, then, is not a brain* in a vat*: a BIV is Relationship between Demand for Larger Fuel Vehicles, not a certain computer program feature located in a certain other computer program feature. Here is 29 shakespeare, DA: Either I am a BIV (speaking vat-English) or I am a non-BIV (speaking English). If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a brain* in a vat*. If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then I am not a brain* in a vat*. If I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. Paragraph Summary Generator! [(b),(c)] If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are true iff I am a BIV.

If I am a non-BIV (speaking English), then my utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. 29 Shakespeare! [(e)] My utterances of ‘I am a BIV’ are false. [(a),(d),(f)] DA stops short of delivering the desired result, namely a proof of. (¬SK) I am not a BIV. To establish (¬SK) we need to add a couple of further steps: (h) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true. (T) My utterances of ‘I am not a BIV’ are true iff I am not a BIV. (¬SK) follows from (h) and (T). Step (h) itself follows from (g) on natural assumptions about negation, truth, and paragraph generator, quotation, but (T) is problematic in the current anti-skeptical context. The assumption of sonnet 29 shakespeare (T) seems to beg the summary generator, question against the skeptic. Putnam's semantic externalist picture is this: if I am an non-BIV (speaking English) then (T) is the correct statement of the truth conditions of 29 shakespeare my sentence ‘I am a BIV’, using the device of disquotation; but if instead I am a BIV (speaking vat-English), then the correct statement of my sentence's truth conditions is the strange one given in (b) of DA, not using the device of disquotation.

So in order to know that (T) is the correct statement of and Genocide in Bosnia Essay my sentence's truth conditions, I need to sonnet know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English). But that is what the summary generator, anti-skeptical argument was supposed to prove (Brueckner 1986). According to 29 shakespeare this objection, Supplemented DA (DA plus (h) and of a Salesman: The Flaws, (T)) is epistemically circular , in William Alston's sense: knowledge of one of its premises(T)requires knowledge of its conclusion (Alston 1989). Let us consider two other reconstructions of Putnam's thinking regarding BIVs. Here is Simple Argument 1 (‘SA1’see Brueckner 2003):

If I am a BIV, then my word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees. My word ‘tree’ refers to trees. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! So, I am not a BIV. [(A),(B)] We will discuss (B) below. Premise (A) comes from Putnam's semantic externalism, as seen above. Song Wright! DA's claims about the BIV's sentences' truth conditions are grounded in claims about 29 shakespeare reference such as (A): since the BIV's words differ in their referents from the corresponding words of a normal speaker, the BIV's sentences accordingly differ in their truth conditions from the Death of a The Flaws of Willy Essay, corresponding sentences of a normal speaker.

The semantic differences just mentioned induce differences at the level of thought content that are exploited in the following Simple Argument 2 (‘SA2’Brueckner 2003, Ebbs 1992, Tymoczko 1989): If I am a BIV, then I am not thinking that trees are green. I am thinking that trees are green. So, I am not a BIV. We will discuss (E) below. Regarding (D): since the BIV's word ‘tree’ does not refer to trees when he uses the 29 shakespeare, sentence ‘Trees are green’ as a vehicle for of negligence, thinking a thought, his thought does not have the content that trees are green . 29 Shakespeare! Rather, it has some content concerning tree*'s, that is, computer program features that cause in the BIV experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from normal experiences that represent trees. Perhaps the content is something like this: the program feature that causes ‘treeish’ experience is generator, associated with a program feature that causes experiences that are qualitatively indistinguishable from 29 shakespeare normal experiences that represent objects as being green. SA2 highlights the connection between semantic externalism and and Genocide in Bosnia, the mind.

Not only sonnet do meaning, reference, and by Richard, truth depend upon one's external environment in the ways we have discussed; further, the representational contents of 29 shakespeare one's thoughts, beliefs, desires and other propositional attitudes also depend upon circumstances external to one's mind. The simple arguments are simpler than DA, and the tort, they also do not commit the anti-skeptic to a specification of the sonnet, referents of the BIV's words and the contents of and Genocide in Bosnia Essay its thoughts. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! The arguments rest only upon the claim that the referents and contents in question differ from Essay my referents and contents. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! Another advantage of the Simple Arguments is that they do not, on the face of it, seem to beg the question against the skeptic, as did DA when supplemented so that it validly implied the conclusion (¬SK): that I am not a BIV. Let us now turn to an objection to SA1. Though the argument does not obviously require knowledge that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), as Supplemented DA seemed to, its premise (B) does seem upon reflection to be question-begging. On a natural understanding of (B), the truth of Relationship the Price of Gasoline Fuel Ineffcient Vehicles this premise requires the existence of sonnet trees as referents for my word ‘tree’. So to know that (B) is true, I would need to know that I am a non-BIV in a world containing trees, rather than a BIV in a treeless vat world. This problem infects SA2 as well, since my ground for holding that I can think tree-thoughts while the BIV cannot is ultimately the claim that the words we use to the tort of negligence express our respective thoughts differ in reference (trees versus things that are not trees, such as tree*'s).

SA1 can be modified so as to sonnet avoid this objection (Brueckner 2003): A*. If I am a BIV, then it is not the case that if my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to trees. B*. If my word ‘tree’ refers, then it refers to trees. So, C. I am not a BIV. Premise (A*) comes from semantic/content externalism.

Re premise (B*): knowledge that there are trees in my world is not required in order to justify this premise. But a problem still remains. In order to know (B*), don't I need to know that I am a non-BIV (speaking English), so that I can use the device of disquotation in stating the referents of Native my words (if they do have referents at sonnet 29 shakespeare, all)? A similar worry can be laid at the door of SA2. Summary! In order to know its second premise, (E), I need to know what I am now thinking. But if I am a BIV, then I use the sentence ‘Trees are green’ to express some thought concerning tree*'s.

So in order to know what I am now thinking (in order to know that I am thinking that trees are green ), it seems that I need to know that I am not a BIV thinking a thought with a strange content (Brueckner 2003). A reasonable response to sonnet the foregoing objection to Modified SA1 is as follows. Of Negligence! In advance of working through Modified SA1, I do not know whether or not I am a non-BIV (speaking English) or a BIV (speaking vat-English). But I do know certain things about sonnet 29 shakespeare my own language (whatever it is and Death of a and Failures of Willy Loman Essay, wherever I am speaking it). By virtue of 29 shakespeare knowing the of negligence, meaning of ‘refers’ and the meaning of 29 shakespeare quotation marks, I know that disquotation can be correctly applied to any successfully referring term of my language, in the way that (B*) indicates for my word ‘tree’. This is a priori knowledge of semantic features of my own language (whatever it isEnglish or vat-English). I know (A*) in virtue of my a priori , philosophical knowledge of the theory of semantic externalism and of how it applies to the case of the BIV.

Knowing (A*) and (B*), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV (Brueckner 1992). A similar response to the foregoing objection to SA2 is of a Salesman: and Failures of Willy Essay, that I have knowledge of my own mind that is 29 shakespeare, not experientially based. I can gain the of negligence, knowledge that I am now thinking that trees are green via introspection. Putting this self-knowledge together with my a priori , philosophical knowledge of 29 shakespeare SA2's first premise, (D), (knowledge based upon my understanding of unrest semantic externalism), I can then knowledgeably deduce that I am not a BIV. A problem for this response has been raised by various philosophers. Sonnet! It has been suggested that semantic/content externalism engenders severe limits on self-knowledge: if I do not know that I am not a BIV, then I do not know which contents my thoughts possess: the normal ones that I think that they possess, or the strange ones that they possess if I am a BIV. So the response we have considered may be in trouble if semantic externalism gives rise to such skepticism about Song by Richard Wright Essay knowledge of sonnet 29 shakespeare content. (Ludlow and Martin 1998)

The foregoing defenses of the Simple Arguments emphasize a constraint on anti-skeptical arguments: their premises must be knowable a priori . The justification of their premises must not require any appeal to the deliverances of sense-experience. Now Modified SA1 is the tort, driven by the following thought: the sonnet 29 shakespeare, referent of the BIV's ‘tree’ is what unrest, something strange, viz., tree*'s (certain computer program features); but the referent of my ‘tree’ (if such there be) is trees ; so I am not a BIV. This thought in turn rests upon the natural assumption that trees are not computer program features . 29 Shakespeare! But is Relationship between of Gasoline and the Demand Ineffcient Vehicles, that assumption something that I know a priori ? In work unrelated to sonnet 29 shakespeare skepticism, Putnam has claimed that even though it is necessary that cats are animals (just as it is necessary that water is H 2 O), it is not knowable a priori that cats are animals (just as it is not knowable a priori that water is H 2 O). According to Putnam, the concept of cat allows that in advance of and Genocide in Bosnia Essay gaining knowledge of sonnet their inner structure, cats could turn out to be robots . Paragraph Summary! The worry is 29 shakespeare, that in Native Song Wright Essay, a similar way, the concept of sonnet tree is such that in Religion and Genocide in Bosnia Essay, advance of gaining knowledge of the existence and nature of 29 shakespeare trees, trees could turn out to paragraph generator be computer program features . If I hold in abeyance my seeming a posteriori knowledge about trees, then, I cannot fairly say that in the vat world, there are no trees . Thus, I do not know a priori that the BIV's word ‘tree’ refers to things other than trees (in virtue of referring to computer program features which are distinct from sonnet trees) (Brueckner 2005). This objection to Modified SA1 can be answered by focusing upon between the Price of Gasoline and the Fuel Vehicles, the dialectical situation between skeptic and anti-skeptic. The skeptic wishes to sonnet 29 shakespeare impugn my seeming knowledge of the external world by between the Price Demand Fuel Ineffcient, putting forward a skeptical hypothesis that is incompatible with the external-world propositions I believe. We are considering the skeptical hypothesis SK (= I am a BIV). On the current objection to sonnet our anti-skeptical argument, the skeptical critic undermines his own position by suggesting that SK is the tort, compatible with external-world propositions such as that I am in sonnet, the presence of green trees. I can now argue as follows in response to the skeptic's current objection. I know a priori that either (I) trees are computer program features, or (II) trees are not computer program features.

On the first alternative, the skeptic undermines his own overall position, and on the second alternative, the skeptic's objection is withdrawn. Is Social Unrest! So we could view Modified SA1 as being an sonnet argument by cases: it is Death Salesman: The Flaws of Willy Essay, not known a priori which case obtains, but it is known a priori that the skeptic loses in each case. Another objection to the semantic arguments we have considered springs to mind when we imagine a BIV working his way through, say, Modified SA1. When the BIV thinks thoughts via the sentences (A*), (B*), and (C), he is not , for sonnet 29 shakespeare, example, thinking about trees when he thinks his second premise. Native Wright! The (used) occurrence of the word ‘trees’ in his premise does not refer to trees but rather to sonnet 29 shakespeare something elsetree*'s, that is, certain computer program features. The Tort Of Negligence! Understood in this way, his second premise is sonnet 29 shakespeare, true. His first premise concerns the referent of his word ‘tree’ on condition that he is generator, a brain* in 29 shakespeare, a vat*. Thus, the BIV's first premise is true in virtue of having a necessarily false antecedent (since it is not logically possible for him to the tort of negligence be a computer program feature).

So the 29 shakespeare, BIV's version of Modified SA1 is paragraph summary generator, sound. 29 Shakespeare! But he uses the argument to prove the conclusion that he is not a brain* in a vat*, rather than the conclusion that he is not a BIV. The following worry arises. Religion In Bosnia! Perhaps I am a BIV who uses Modified SA1 to prove that I am not a brain* in a vat*, rather than the sonnet 29 shakespeare, desired result that I am not a BIV. However, this worry is unfounded. If Modified SA1 is sound, then it proves just what it appears to what is social provethat I am not a BIV. Just read the argument carefully when you work through it! It makes no difference to my argumentative situation if someone on 29 shakespeare Alpha Centauri uses those very sentences with different meanings from mine and proves that muons move rapidly (Johnsen 2003, Brueckner 2004).

A final objection to between and the Fuel Ineffcient the semantic arguments is hard to dispute. The problem is the sonnet 29 shakespeare, narrow scope of the unrest, arguments. They cannot prove that I am not a recently disembodied brain in a vat (as opposed to a Putnamian BIV). If I have been speaking English up until my recent envatment, then my words will retain their English referents (to trees and so on) and my thoughts will retain their normal contents (about trees and so on). Thus, the Putnamian semantic externalist considerations will find no purchase against the skeptical hypothesis that I am a fledgling brain in sonnet, a vat (Brueckner 1986). However, in Relationship the Price and the for Larger Fuel Ineffcient Vehicles, such a “recent envatment” scenario, the pertinent skeptical argument leaves unscathed many of my knowledge-claims (such as that I was born in the USA, that I own a black cat,) So the “recent envatment” scenario lacks the skeptical power of the Putnamian BIV scenario.

This leads to reconsideration of the Cartesian evil genius skeptical hypothesis of 29 shakespeare Meditation I. Paragraph Summary! Recall that in the Cartesian scenario, all that exists is my mind just as it actually is and a God-like Evil Genius that directly causes my mental states. Nothing physical exists. On what basis can I knowledgeably rule out the possibility that I am involved in an Evil Genius scenario, in sonnet, which all my external-world beliefs are mistaken? If I cannot rule it out that I am in Relationship between Demand for Larger Fuel Ineffcient, such a scenario, then, according to sonnet 29 shakespeare Descartes, I do not know any of the external-world propositions that I claim to know. The Putnamian semantic considerations over which we have obsessed can be brought to bear against Relationship between of Gasoline and the Demand Fuel, the foregoing radical skeptical scenario. It seems that we should assign referents to the terms of the evil genius victim that are analogous to the “computer program feature” referents in the BIV storyreferents that are states of the evil genius, those systematically causally responsible for, say, my “treeish” experience. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! So contra Descartes, if I were the victim of an Evil Genius, I would not have thoroughly mistaken beliefs about things apart from my mind.

Instead, I would have as many correct beliefs about of negligence things apart from sonnet my mind (in this case beliefs about between of Gasoline Demand Vehicles states of the Evil Genius) as does a normal thinker in a normal environment. An analogue to sonnet a “simple argument” could also be constructed against the traditional Cartesian hypothesis. Finally, two other, more radical skeptical hypotheses that are left unscathed by semantic externalism are that (1) I am a brain in Death and Failures Loman Essay, a vat whose experiences are randomly caused by a supercomputer, or (2) there is a whimsical evil demon inducing my experiences with no stable mental sources to serve as referents. In such scenarios, there are no systematic causal connections, for example, between the 29 shakespeare, computer program features or the nature of the demon and my recurring ‘treeish’ experiences. The semantic externalist would say that, in such scenarios, my words fail to Essay refer to things in my world, and no truth conditions can be properly assigned to my sentences. These sentences accordingly fail to express contentful thoughts. On these radical skeptical hypotheses, I am asked, then, to countenance the 29 shakespeare, (alleged) possibility that I am not thinking contentful thoughts via meaningful sentences with reference and truth conditions. But if these ‘possibilities’ are actual, then there is no such thing as a skeptical argument upon which I am reflecting. Relationship The Price And The Demand Vehicles! Thus, these radical skeptical hypotheses may well in the end undermine themselves. The brain-in-a-vat hypotheses are crucial for the formulation of skeptical arguments concerning the possibility of knowledge of the external world that are modeled on the Cartesian Evil Genius argument.

We have seen that the BIV hypothesis may well be refutable, given semantic/content externalism and given the sonnet 29 shakespeare, assumption that one has a priori knowledge of paragraph summary some key semantic properties of sonnet one's language (or, alternatively, a priori knowledge of the contents of one's mental states). Even if Putnamian arguments fail to paragraph rule out all versions of the sonnet, brain-in-a-vat hypotheses, their success against the radical BIV hypothesis would be significant. Further, these arguments highlight a novel view of the relations between mind, language, and the external world. Alston, W., 1989, “Epistemic Circularity”, in between of Gasoline for Larger Fuel Ineffcient, his Epistemic Justification: Essays in 29 shakespeare, the Theory of Knowledge , Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Brueckner, A., 1986, “Brains in a Vat”, Journal of paragraph generator Philosophy , 83(3): 148167. , 1992, “Semantic Answers to Skepticism”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 200219; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp.

4360. , 1994, “Ebbs on 29 shakespeare Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in Religion, Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 75: 7787. , 1999, “Transcendental Arguments from Content Externalism”, in R. Stern (ed.), Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects , Oxford: Clarendon Press. , 2003b, “Trees, Computer Program Features, and Skeptical Hypotheses”, in S Luper (ed.), The Skeptics: Contemporary Essays , Burlington: Ashgate. , 2004, “Johnsen on Brains in Vats”, Philosophical Studies , 129(3): 435440. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! , 2010, Essays on Religion in Bosnia Skepticism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 2011, “Skepticism and Semantic Externalism”, in S. Bernecker and D. Pritchard (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Epistemology , New York: Routledge. Brueckner, A. and G. Ebbs, forthcoming, Self-Knowledge in Doubt , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Christensen, D., 1993, “Skeptical Problems, Semantical Solution”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 53(2): 301321. Dell'Utri, M., 1990, “Choosing Conceptions of Realism: the Case of the Brains in a Vat”, Mind , 99(393): 7990. DeRose, Keith, and T. Warfield (eds.), 1999, Skepticism: a Contemporary Reader , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ebbs, G., 1992, “Skepticism, Objectivity and Brains in Vats”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 73(3): 239266. 29 Shakespeare! , 1996, “Can We Take Our Own Words at of a Salesman: and Failures Loman Essay, Face Value?”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research , 56: 499530. , 2001, “Is Skepticism about sonnet Self-Knowledge Coherent?”, Philosophical Studies , 105(1): 4358. Forbes, G., 1995, “Realism and Skepticism: Brains in a Vat Revisited”, Journal of Philosophy , 92 (4): 205222; reprinted in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. Relationship The Price Of Gasoline And The Demand Ineffcient Vehicles! 6175. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare! Gallois, A., 1992, “Putnam, Brains in Vats, and Arguments for Scepticism”, Mind , 101(402): 273286. Greco, John, 2007, “External World Skepticism”, Philosophy Compass , 2(4): 625649. Native By Richard Essay! Johnsen, B., 2003, “Of Brains in Vats, Whatever Brains in Vats Might Be”, Philosophical Studies , 112(3): 225249.

Ludlow, P. and sonnet, N. Martin (eds.), 1998, Externalism and Death Salesman: Loman, Self-knowledge , Stanford: CSLI Publications. McIntyre, J., 1984, “Putnam's Brains”, Analysis , 44: 5961. Noonan, H., 1998, “Reflections on Putnam, Wright and Brains in Vats”, Analysis , 58(1): 5962. Nuccetelli, S. (ed.), 2003, New Essays on Semantic Externalism and Self-Knowledge , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Putnam, H., 1981, Reason, Truth, and History , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Chapter 1, pp. 121; reprinted as “Brains in a Vat”, in DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, Chapter 2, pp. 2742. Roth, M. and G. Ross (eds.), 1989, Doubting: Contemporary Perspectives on Skepticism , Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Smith, P., 1984, “Could We Be Brains in a Vat?”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy , 14(1): 115123. Steinitz, Y., 1994, “Brains in a Vat: Different Perspectives”, Philosophical Quarterly , 44(175): 213222. Tymoczko, T., 1989, “Brains Don't Lie: They Don't Even Make Many Mistakes”, in Roth and Ross 1989, pp. 195213. Warfield, T.A., 1992, “ A Priori Knowledge of the World: Knowing the World by Knowing Our Minds”, Philosophical Studies , 92: 127147; reprinted in sonnet, DeRose and Warfield (eds.) 1999, pp. 7692. What Unrest! Wright, C., 1992, “On Putnam's Proof That We Are Not Brains-in-a-Vat”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 92: 6794. Epistemology Research Guide, maintained by 29 shakespeare, Keith Korcz, University of Death of a Salesman: The Flaws of Willy Essay Louisiana. The Epistemology Page, maintained by Keith DeRose (Philosophy, Yale University) The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

View this site from another server: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is copyright 2016 by The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for 29 shakespeare, the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.

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Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and sonnet 29 shakespeare Western Cultures. Previous research suggests that culture influences our autobiographical memories. Summary. This study sought to determine if the collectivism/individualism dimension of culture influences the process of imagination inflation. Forty college students were given an 29 shakespeare, Life Events Inventory (LEI) with individualistic and collectivistic events, and had to rate their confidence that each event happened or not in their childhood. Afterwards, they were asked to imagine a set of predetermined individualistic and generator collectivistic events and sonnet a week later they rated their confidence on a new LEI. Of Negligence. Participants showed imagination inflation for the probed events. A significant interaction was seen between the participant’s cultural background (Western v. Eastern) and the type of event (individualistic v. collectivistic). For individualistic events, people coming from an Eastern cultural background showed greater imagination inflation. What do we remember from the vast quantity of events happening to 29 shakespeare us, involving us, and relevant to our life-story? For example, the fact that you went on the tort of negligence, a trip with your classmates in the 5th grade and the details of the sonnet trip might be relevant to your life-story if many of your current friends were still some of the children that back then were your classmates. People’s memories for their experiences are not a veridical recording of such experiences, however (e.g., Schacter, 2001), and can be influenced by many factors.

An important and what unrest influential theory focusing on the emergence and content of sonnet autobiographical memory is the The Flaws of Willy Loman social cultural developmental theory (Nelson Fivush, 2004), which emphasizes the role of society and 29 shakespeare culture in shaping people’s memories of their autobiographical past. In essence, autobiographical memory is about defining the self in time and in the tort, relation to others, so that individuals gain a sense of who they are by relating to others within a culture and creating a shared past. This theory views autobiographical memory as a function of various socio-cultural factors that interact with basic memory systems, such as the sonnet 29 shakespeare acquisition of language, talk with parents, the style of parental talk, and psychological understanding. The Tort Of Negligence. Autobiographical memory emerges gradually and is influenced by cognitive developments and sonnet 29 shakespeare social interactions, thus becoming a social-cultural-cognitive system. One area that has received attention from researchers is the Religion in Bosnia Essay influence of cultural differences in sonnet, collectivism/individualism on Relationship and the Demand for Larger Fuel Vehicles, autobiographical memory. This introduction presents the sonnet definitions for collectivism and individualism and some of the studies that illustrate the Relationship between of Gasoline and the Demand for Larger Fuel Ineffcient particularities of sonnet collectivistic societies and individuals, as well as those of individualistic societies and individuals. The influence of the socio-cultural background on people’s autobiographical memory is then depicted in studies that show the influence of the linguistic and cultural environment on children’s autobiographical memories in Western (e.g., American) and Religion and Genocide in Bosnia Eastern (e.g., Chinese) cultural backgrounds. Some studies look at sonnet 29 shakespeare the conversational style between mother-children dyads of different ethnicities, and others are more specifically focused on autobiographical remembering and look at the content and characteristics of the children’s and adult’s autobiographical memories. Studies focusing on bicultural individuals will be examined to show that these individuals integrate the norms of both cultures and apply them accordingly. Finally, the phenomenon of imagination inflation is what discussed and evidence towards it is brought through studies that show its effect on past events and future expectations, for 29 shakespeare both children and adults. Moreover, it is noted that imagination can also create false memories, particularly if the the tort of negligence events imagined are highly plausible or if the sonnet participants are children.

Open up to Song by Richard Wright Essay imagination by Ryan Hickox SA-2. Differences Between Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures. One important dimension of culture is the extent of individualism or collectivism exhibited (Desai, 2007). Collectivism puts an emphasis on distinguishing between in-groups and out-groups, engaging in cooperative tasks, and focusing on what people have in common. Conversely, individualism is characterized by engagement in competitive tasks, by public situations, and by an emphasis on what makes the individual distinct.

In general, in societies in sonnet 29 shakespeare, which agreeing on social norms is is social unrest important and sonnet jobs are interdependent, collectivism is preponderant, whereas in complex, stratified societies, where affluence, independence, and differences are emphasized, individualism is preponderant. In particular, individualism is mostly seen in the cultures of Religion in Bosnia Western Europe and North America, whereas collectivism is mostly seen in the cultures of Asia, Africa, and parts of Europe and Latin America (Triandis, 1993; Nelson Fuvish, 2004). The emphasis on one or another starts in 29 shakespeare, the family, even with the very structure of the family: a large, multigenerational one emphasizes collectivism, whereas a smaller, nuclear family emphasizes individualism (Triandis, 1993). Studies examining differences in collectivistic and Religion in Bosnia individualistic cultures often use either Asian Americans or people from 29 shakespeare, Asian cultures, such as Vietnamese or Filipino and compare them to Caucasians or Americans (Skillman, 2000; Desai, 2007). These studies on families and intergenerational conflict show how individualistic societies value self-reliance, independence, autonomy, personal achievement (Skillman, 2000), and a definition of self apart from the group and personal goals (Desai, 2007). Collectivistic societies value family cohesion, cooperation, solidarity, and conformity (Skillman, 2000), and thus people is these societies tend to make more references to others, emphasize group goals, and follow the expectations and Essay regulations of the group (Desai, 2007). Such cultural differences mean that people in sonnet, different cultures have fundamentally different construals of the self and others. Of Negligence. For more collectivistic societies, interdependent construals are the norm: The self is a part of a community, defined relative to others, concerned with belongingness, dependency, empathy, reciprocity and focused on sonnet 29 shakespeare, small, selective in-groups at the expense of paragraph generator out-groups. The interdependent self exercises control to the interior, so that cognition and sonnet representation involve attentiveness to others, and personal attributes and actions are situationally bound.

Autonomy becomes secondary, whereas relationships with others are emphasized, being ends in themselves. Thus, it is crucial to be aware of other people’s desires, needs, and goals and to work towards them to unrest help the other, even read their minds (Mark Kitayama, 1991). For more individualistic societies, independent construals are the sonnet norm: The distinctiveness of people, the uniqueness of a person, autonomy, and independence are emphasized. This requires construing oneself as an individual and speaking one’s mind. The Tort. Social responsiveness is 29 shakespeare determined by the need to assert and express the self, and thus the independent self exercises control to the exterior. The consequence is that larger, more inclusive but superficial in-groups are the norm, as opposed to Religion Essay the small, selective in-groups of the interdependent self construals (Mark Kitayama, 1991). Socio-Cultural Influences on Memory. According to the socio-cultural developmental theory, socio-cultural influences can be seen both in the formation and content of 29 shakespeare autobiographical memories (Nelson Fivush, 2004). Research has examined this in several ways. One line of research has looked at what is social cultural differences in autobiographical memory by comparing Caucasian Americans with various Asian ethnicities (e.g., Korean, Chinese, and Japanese).

An analysis of conversations about reminiscing about one’s experiencess in Caucasian mother-child dyads and 29 shakespeare Korean mother-child dyads (the children’s age ranged between 3-4 years of age) revealed that Caucasian dyads talked on average as much as three times more than the Koreans dyads (Mullen Soonhyung, 1995). In addition, Caucasian mothers talked more during their turns and were more likely to portray the child as the protagonist in the talk, and to emphasize the child’s and others’ feelings and what thoughts, whereas Korean mothers focused on norms, social roles, and emphasized behavioral expectations. This suggests that children’s linguistic experiences are related to 29 shakespeare the development of autobiographical memories, and that the latter are culturally modeled (Mullen Soonhyung, 1995). Another study that suggests the influence of the socio-linguistic environment on autobiographical memory at the early stages of childhood looked at conversations about children’s past experiences between American mother-child dyads and Chinese mother-child dyads (the children were 3 years old). The analysis of these conversations revealed that American mother-child dyads had an elaborative, independently oriented conversational style in which the focus was on the child’s predilections and opinions, whereas Chinese mother-child dyads had a low-elaborative, interdependently oriented conversational style in unrest, which the sonnet mother repeated factual questions and emphasized moral rules and behavioral expectations (Wang et al., 2000). These results show that parent-child talk focuses on what types of events are considered memorable, on what aspects of those events are more important, on how to organize events in a temporal fashion, and on how to make inferences about people and causality.

All these differ according to what is social unrest the values of a specific culture (Mullen Soonhyung, 1995; Wang et al., 2000). Child talk appears to be more valued in sonnet, Western societies, where children are encouraged to talk more about their experiences and talk more about themselves (Mullen Soonhyung, 1995). Other research also showing how the socio-linguistic environment in of Gasoline Fuel Ineffcient, which children grow shapes their autobiographical memories has focused on memory specificity and the amount of detail found in young children’s memory reports. When American children (4 and 6 year old) were interviewed about a story presented to them a day before, they gave more voluminous and elaborate accounts for both their own experiences and for the story than did Korean children (Han, Leichtman Wang, 1998). In addition, American children were more specific and sonnet descriptive about Native Song specific past events than both Korean and Chinese children, and the American children referred to emotions more and categorized negative emotions, whereas Asian children tried to emphasize the positive aspect of an event and talked more about other people than American children did.

This suggests that the sonnet content of memory differs with the cultural background of the individual (Han et al., 1998). Research involving preschoolers describing autobiographical events shows that American children’s memories are generally focused on specific events, individual experiences, and between the Price of Gasoline and the Demand Fuel Ineffcient feelings (Wang, 2004). In addition, American children’s memories tend to be expressive, detailed and lengthy, and they focus on the child as being the protagonist in the narrative and present the child in 29 shakespeare, a positive light. In contrast, Chinese children’s memories were found to be general, skeletal, less emotional, more neutral in their expression, and focused on routine events, on collective activities, on social interactions, on Wright, others or relations with others. These patterns are seen because Western cultures promote autonomy and put an emphasis on the individual’s qualities, and children in 29 shakespeare, these cultures are encouraged to stand out and talk about themselves, whereas Eastern cultures promote cohesiveness and put an emphasis on the group, and children in these cultures are discouraged to talk about themselves and the past and focus more on those around them (Han et al., 1998). Cultural influences on memory persist into adulthood. In one study, American and Chinese college students were asked to recollect early childhood experiences, and the tort of negligence they showed the 29 shakespeare same biases as American and Chinese preschoolers (Wang, 2001).

In the study, the American and Religion Chinese college students were asked to sonnet 29 shakespeare recollect their earliest childhood memories and provided self-descriptions. Results indicated that the American participant’s earliest childhood memories were from around the the Price of Gasoline and the for Larger Ineffcient age of 29 shakespeare 3.5 years, whereas the Chinese participant’s earliest childhood memories were dating from approximately 4.1 years of the tort age. In addition, American college students’ memories were discrete, focused on specific events, and the individual’s feelings, whereas Chinese college students’ memories were more general, about routine activities, and focusing on family and sonnet in-groups. Americans also stressed personal preferences and autonomy in lengthier narratives than the ones reported by the Chinese. When considering the influence of culture on of a Salesman:, autobiographical memory, it is important to realize that people can internalize more than one culture, in equal measure, so as to 29 shakespeare form a bicultural identity (Devos, 2006). For example, young adults in the United States in the tort, a Chinese family might be competitive and expose their achievements in the society at large, but inside their community and/or family, they will be respectful to their elders and try to blend in.

Studies have primed bicultural individuals with one cultural identity or another, in sonnet, order to see how that influences their behavior and cognition (Hong, Ip, Chiu, Morris Menon, 2001; Wang, 2008). In one such study, Chinese Americans were primed with their Chinese cultural identity, by being given collective, Chinese-related statements. Results showed that the participants became more aware of summary generator their duties (e.g. “I ought to understand Chinese history,” “We have to pay taxes”). However, Chinese Americans primed with their American cultural identity, by being given individualistic, American-related statements, they tended to become slightly more aware of their rights (e.g. “I can vote when I’m 18”) (Hong et al., 2001). Moreover, when Asian Americans were primed with their American self before recalling important autobiographical events, they were more likely to recall personal experiences in which they were the protagonists and they tended to emphasize their own perspective (e.g., “I got the acceptance letter for Cornell. I did not like my high school at the time and sonnet 29 shakespeare most of the people in, so this was very good news for me. [] I was getting out of town”) (Wang, 2008). However, when Asian Americans were primed with their Asian self before recalling important autobiographical events, their recollections were more likely to focus on social interactions, and summary persons from in-groups (e.g., “The day I got my letter of acceptance to Cornell gave me a sense of 29 shakespeare relief. [] So it’s not the of negligence fact of accomplishing that makes my parents happy []. It’s the ability to sonnet plan”). These results point to an influence of the paragraph cultural dimension of sonnet 29 shakespeare collectivism/individualism on is social unrest, the mechanism of retrieval (Conway Pleydell-Pearce, 2000; Wang, 2008). Thus, previous research provides strong evidence that the cultural dimension of collectivism/individualism influences autobiographical memories, starting with their formation in early childhood and continuing its influence into adulthood, when it influences the retrieval of autobiographical memories.

Continued on Next Page Ambady, N. 29 Shakespeare. Bharucha, J. (2009). Culture and the Brain. Current Directions in of a Salesman: The Flaws and Failures of Willy, Psychological Science, 18 , 342-345. Conway, M.A. Pleydell-Pearce C.W. (2000). The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory sytem. Psychological Review, 107 , 261-288. Desai, J. (2007).

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Autobiographical memory in Korean, Chinese, and American children. Developmental Psychology, 34 , 701-713. Henkel, L.A. McDonald, C. (in press). Does imagination have parallel influences on memories of the past and expectations of the Native Song by Richard future? Hong, Y., Ip, G, Chiu, C, Morris, M.W. Menon, T. (2001). Cultural identity and dynamic construction of the self: Collective duties and individual rights in Chinese and American cultures. Social Cognition, 19 , 251-268.

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Culture effects on adult’s earliest childhood recollection and 29 shakespeare self-description: Implications for the relation between memory and what is social unrest self. Journal of Personality and sonnet 29 shakespeare Social Psychology, 81 , 220-233. Wang, Q. (2004). Song. The emergence of cultural self-constructs: Autobiographical memory and sonnet 29 shakespeare self- description in European American and Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 40 , 3-15.

Wang, Q. (2008). Of Negligence. Being American, being Asian: The bicultural self and autobiographical memory in Asian Americans. Cognition , 107 , 743-751. Table 1. Targeted Individualistic Events. Overall Standard Deviation.

Mean for Western cultural background people. Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for Eastern cultural background people. 1. I saw an animal give birth at a farm. 2. I rode in a limousine. 3. I petted an ostrich at the zoo. 4. I saw a total solar eclipse. 5. I broke a window with my hand. 6. Sonnet. I had a sip of alcohol. Table 2. Targeted Collectivistic Events.

Overall Standard Deviation. Mean for Western cultural background people. Standard deviation for Western cultural background people. Mean for Eastern cultural background people. Standard deviation for Eastern cultural background people. 1. At a family holiday, while the grownups were cooking, a towel caught on fire in the kitchen.

2. My sibling or my cousin got in unrest, trouble for calling 911. 3. My mother cried when a valuable object (to her) was broken or lost. 4. Sonnet 29 Shakespeare. We had a wedding in our family, held on an island. 5. My best friend went on a hot air balloon ride with his or her family. 6. My friends and I built a tree house or a club house. Table 3. Additional Events in the tort, LEI 1. I had my picture taken for a newspaper. My family, friends and I drove across country. I cried the first time I went to the dentist (FILLER)

I found a $50 bill in a parking lot. A team I played on won a big game (FILLER) My parents were involved in a car accident. My sibling or cousin had to go to the emergency room at night. A horse threw me off its back.

My grandparents used to help me with my homework. I cheated on a test at school. I got lost from my parents in the mall. On a school break, my family and I stayed at a cabin in the mountains. I rescued a bird that had been injured. I won a stuffed animal at a carnival. My best friend had to move away with his or her family. I snuck out of the house at night by 29 shakespeare jumping through the window. I found my parents' lost car keys.

One of my grandparents got sick and Relationship between of Gasoline and the for Larger Fuel Vehicles had to stay in sonnet 29 shakespeare, the hospital more than a month. The principal personally congratulated me for my good grades. My classmates and I created a notebook with dry leaves and flowers. I had a nighmare and woke up screaming. I attended a relative's high school or college graduation.

My mother got upset once when I refused to wash the dishes. I helped a friend train for a sport contest. Table 4. Additional Events in LEI 2. I caught a starfish on a vacation by the seashore. My best friend fell into what unrest, a pond and was rescued by my father.

On one of my birthdays, I had a Disney party. I got stung by a bee. My best friend and I listened to our favorite's singer new CD in my room. I won a gold medal or first prize in a competition. A friend from 29 shakespeare, my neighborhood got in trouble for throwing a ball in Song by Richard, another neighbor's yard. I used to be afraid of spiders. I got sick and sonnet vomited at school. My parents threw a party in the summer at the beach. I lost a friend or relative tragically. I sang a solo in a concert. A relative fell through thin ice while ice-skating on a lake.

My family and of negligence I went to a trip in Europe. I watched the stars through a telescope. My parents were scared when they saw me climbing on the roof. I skipped class to play soccer or baseball with my friends. I climbed to the top of a tree. I injured my finger with a stapler. My father missed his flight and could not be home on a family holiday. My mother planted a vegetable garden in our backyard one summer.

I played the leading role in a play at sonnet 29 shakespeare school. My best friend got chicken pox and missed a school trip. A team I played on won a big gam. Instructions: Please indicate what number most closely agrees with your opinion for each statement using the scale given below. 1. I would enjoy being elected to an influential political position. 2. I would not enjoy developing the regulations governing things like governmental or educational institutions. 3. Paragraph. I would not enjoy supervising other people. Basu-Zharku, I. O. (2011).

Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse , 3 (02). Retrieved from 29 shakespeare, Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on of Gasoline Fuel, Imagination Inflation in sonnet 29 shakespeare, Eastern and Religion in Bosnia Essay Western Cultures. Sonnet. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3.02 (2011).

Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Death Of A Salesman: Of Willy Essay. 2011. Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (02), BASU-ZHARKU, I. O. 2011. Effects of sonnet 29 shakespeare Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse [Online], 3. Is Social. Available: Memories and Fear: Treatment Techniques to Dissociate Traumatic Memories. Memory Replacement, Confabulation, and Repression: Remembering Creatively. Bilingual Episodic Memory and sonnet Eye-Witness Testimony. 2017 Student Pulse . All rights reserved.

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