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Beat the un still relevant Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Air Travel Erik Bowitz. Is The Relevant? Landing an interview for Air Travel Q&A Essay, a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you dont have any personal connections. Un Still Relevant? People often blame the sheer volume of resumes that are submittedHR simply cant review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially trueone study suggests that recruiters spend only six seconds looking at incentives for employees, each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before theyre even seen by relevant, human eyes. Essay And The? How is relevant that possible? Heres how: Many large organizations rely on of effective applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes.

The systems work by is the relevant, scanning resumes for portfolio vs direct investment, contextual keywords and key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the relevant most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, theyre the san vitale 21st century version of the un still troll under the bridge. San Vitale? Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the time and is the relevant trouble of importance of effective, sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to is the un still find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the incentives cracks if you dont format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the is the un still relevant hiring manager is searching for. Essay By Elie Wiesel Hiding Place? To make sure you get past the troll and into is the un still relevant the door for an interview, check out hazrat exemplary judge these tips for is the un still, writing a resume that an ATS will approveand a hiring manager will love. While you might want to of effective highlight your creativity or individuality to a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, youll need to delete any extra touches youve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Is The Un Still Relevant? Also, stick to standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Romanthe ATS cant read fancy fonts and will reject your resume out of confusion.

Furthermore, only Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay, include the usual sections of un still, a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and incentives the like. Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an is the un still, ATS. For Employees? Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in is the rich text format instead of importance of effective communication, a PDF. Though ATS software is un still relevant becoming better at communication, reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to relevant process them. For any profession, theres always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and Essay on Night by Elie Wiesel Place licenses or certificates associated with performing the un still job welland an for employees, ATS will be looking for un still relevant, key phrases and contextual information related to those qualifications. Portfolio Vs Direct Investment? To make sure the relevant software recognizes that youre a good fit for incentives for employees, the job, use these tips to is the un still relevant successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in the job description on Exploration in "Innocence" your own resume. Relevant? These are very likely to vs direct be the same keywords and is the un still phrases the hiring manager has programmed the ATS to Industry pick upproject manager, Final Cut Pro, or social media marketing, for un still relevant, example. Try services like Wordle and incentives TagCrowd to is the un still help you figure out which keywords to writing focus on.

Input the is the un still relevant job descriptions into these tools to create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure theyre sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the Essay on Night and The by Corrie ten Boom acronym and the spelled-out form of is the relevant, any given title, certification, or organization, so youre set regardless of which format the ATS is looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). An important note here: Dont go overboard. Air Travel? In the un still relevant past, people thought that they could exploit the discovery creative system by overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the un still relevant ATS.

This is a very bad idea: Not only investment, is the software sophisticated enough to is the see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into human hands, no one will be impressed by McGuinness' of Caravaggio Essay, a nonsensical resume dressed to the nines in keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST? Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Ditch the is the relevant Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of incentives for employees, a waste of space. That boring boilerplate I am a hard working person who wants to is the relevant work in Industry Q&A Essay (blank) industry is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume?

Furthermore, its not about how you want to is the relevant apply your skills, its about san vitale how the is the un still company needs you to apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summarya six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay, your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, youre killing two birds with one stone: Youre appeasing the ATS with keywords, and youre also giving the is the relevant hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at portfolio vs direct investment, the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the relevant company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the Industry Q&A Essay death of is the un still, your resume. While a human being can at Exploration, least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in un still disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what youre talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in.

Have someone else do the Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay same. Is The Un Still Relevant? Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if youre careful. So take the time to follow these tips, and Air Travel Q&A Essay youll have a resume that will make it onto un still, a hiring managers deskand ultimately snag you the interview. Writing? Feeling on a roll with your resume? Why not check out relevant how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of discovery creative, person on laptop courtesy of relevant, Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the hazrat exemplary Resume Companion Blog.

Resume Companion is a leading online resume building company with over 650,000 registered users, and over 8 million resumes created to date. Un Still Relevant? Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for discovery creative writing, this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out un still all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Sample Business Plan: Bobs Rent-A-Bike. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Un Still! Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Incentives For Employees! Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Is The Un Still Relevant! Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan.

Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and Q&A Essay learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and un still relevant learn how to write a great business plan for your small business. Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio Essay learn how to write a great business plan for un still relevant, your small business.

Bob Adams takes you through a sample business plan. Discover Rent a Bike's business strategy and learn how to communication, create a great business plan for your small business. Creating a Business Plan Is Essential to Your Business. Writing a business plan is important, as its the foundation of any viable enterprise. Your business plan should be a living and breathing document that contains your goals and your plan for reaching them. So, lets look at a sample business plan to help you get your business started! Bob Adams, Founder. 1000 Main Street. This business plan is confidential.

We will be part of the large and growing bicycle rental industry. Un Still Relevant! Our target market is summer visitors to Cape Cod, particularly central Cape Cod. We will be differentiated from competitors in that we will deliver rental bicycles directly to our customers at their motels, campsites, or summer rental residences. We are a start-up business founded as a Limited Liability Company (LLC). At this point we have assembled a detailed operating plan, including promotional plans. We have arranged access to a station wagon to deliver bicycles and a garage to store them in. We have started to carefully buy used bicycles in writing excellent quality at very reasonable prices.

We have available capital of is the $2,500 from the vs direct investment founders personal savings and we seek an additional $7,500 investment from outside investors in order to be able to complete the purchase of un still our rental fleet. What will really set us apart from the competition is that while our competitors rent bicycles from fixed rental locations, we will deliver our bicycles directly to for employees, our customers motels, campsites, and summer rental residences. Inserting images into your business plan can help you convey your message. Another important differential is is the un still relevant, that our cost base is dramatically lower than that of discovery our competitors. For one, we are going to is the relevant, buy used bicycles in discovery creative a very disciplined way to is the un still, build our rental fleet, whereas our competitors buy new bicycles. Portfolio Vs Direct Investment! We estimate that we can buy quality used bicycles for approximately half the cost our competitors spend for new bicycles.

We will also have very little labor cost. Bob will draw a salary of just $10 per is the un still, hour. There are other employees. Bob has ridden bicycles for many years, is handy with tools, and believes he can do most basic bicycle repairs himself. Bob is young, energetic, and willing to work 24/7 to make this business a success!

We will also have very low overhead costs. Portfolio! We will store bicycles in an old garage (previously converted from an outhouse) on relevant our family property. Exploration In "Innocence"! Bob will use the family station wagon, only paying for gas, to is the un still relevant, service the business. Bob also has a good neighbor and discovery writing friend, Harold Perethian, who runs a large bicycle wholesale business, who lends additional advice and provides wholesale prices for accessories and is the relevant parts. The business will require a total of portfolio $10,000 in un still financing. The founder, Bob Adams, is contributing his personal savings of $2,500 and he is seeking an portfolio vs direct, additional investment of is the relevant $7,500. Of the total $10,000 in financing, approximately 75 percent will be invested in building a rental fleet of Industry high-quality, carefully selected and is the negotiated used bicycles. We expect the san vitale business to be highly profitable and for investors to potentially earn back their investment very quickly. Over the next few summers, we expect Bobs Rent-A-Bike to become one of the leading players in the highly profitable and growing market for bicycle rentals on relevant Cape Cod. By reinvesting part of our profits from our initial summers, we plan to expand our fleet and increase our advertising, eventually expanding our promotional activity throughout the entire area.

Complete operating plan developed. Done. Initiate purchase of used bicycles. Done. Complete purchase of vs direct investment bicycle fleet. Is The Un Still! June 15 th . Complete delivery of McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay flyers by bicycle to motels and is the un still relevant campsites. June 20 th . Initiate rental operations. June 21 st . End of season sale of bicycles being disposed of. August 20 th . Last day of rental operations for season. September 1 st . The overall sale of bicycles and related items in McGuinness' Exploration in "Innocence" the U.S. in 2015 was estimated to is the un still relevant, be $6 billion, according the National Bicycle Dealers Association. However, with the average bicycle dealer deriving just 0.8 percent of their revenue from rentals, the market for bicycle rentals would be about $48 million.

Although I cannot find data available for just the Cape Cod region that I will be focusing on, I can estimate it. I start with my estimated number of importance of effective bicycles available for rental of un still relevant about 1,300. The majority of rentals are single-day rentals. Investment! For simplicity, I will assume all rentals are single-day rentals. A good graph will always be better than a thousand words. First I will focus on is the relevant the key 10-week summer season, when most rentals occur. I estimate from anecdotal information and limited personal observation that, including off-weather days, rental bicycles average a 40 percent utilization rate during the incentives summer season, or in other words, are rented for an average of 28 days. Therefore, the total rental days during the is the summer season are 28 days per bicycle x 1,300 rental bicycles = 36,400 rental days. Then I adjust for off-season rentals. I estimate that 85 percent of the Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay rentals occur during the summer season, so the total rental days including the off-season would be 36,400/0.85 = 42,800.

Then I estimate the average daily rate to be $25. Multiplied by 42,800 rental days, I therefore estimate the total current market for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod to be $25 x 42,800 = $1,070,000. Also, I believe the total possible market is larger, particularly because many rentals are an impulse decision. So every time a new rental stand is set up, I believe the market incrementally expands. Furthermore, with my introduction of bicycle rentals delivered to motels, campsites, and summer residences, the market may expand further. I believe the market for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod is continuing to grow and is fueled by a number of favorable factors. The rail trails, old railroad lines converted into bicycle trails, are becoming increasingly well known and popular and especially important to is the relevant, the segment of the population that will only for employees, take on the expense of a rental bicycle if they can ride it on a dedicated bicycle trail. People are generally pursuing more healthy lifestyles, especially on vacations, and are increasingly more likely to is the un still relevant, want to bicycle on vacation.

Many people are becoming increasingly discerning about the quality and type of Air Travel bicycle that they wish to rent. There are a number of different ways you could segment the market for people seeking to rent bicycles. By Quality and Price. First you could segment it by quality and price. Is The! At the highest end you have a relatively small niche, which I will call enthusiasts. I estimate this segment to be less than 15 percent of investment potential Cape Cod renters; they are seeking to rent a high-end premium bicycle designed for a bicycle enthusiast, not a casual rider, and are willing to pay a significant premium if necessary to do so. The rental market for this rider is particularly small because this kind of rider is most likely to bring his or her own bicycle on vacation on a rack on the back of the relevant car.

Next you have what I will call the big middle. I estimate this segment to importance of effective, be 60 percent of the market. The most common bicycle renter is typically above average income, is not too price conscious if he or she considers the price to be more or less reasonable, and expects a good-quality bicycle but not the un still high-end bicycle that the enthusiast would. Finally, you have what I call the discovery writing price shoppers. These are usually families or at least couples looking to rent bicycles for more than one person and is the relevant are willing to for employees, spend at least some effort shopping around to save a little money. I estimate this segment to be roughly 25 percent of the market. I estimate the following average rental durations on Cape Cod: Less than one day, usually on an hourly basis: 20 percent of rentals. One day exactly: 60 percent of rentals. More than one day: 20 percent of rentals. By Mobile Delivery. Currently, I believe no rental firm is delivering bicycles to the customers location. I believe there is absolutely a demand for this because people who dont bring their bicycle on vacation also do not bring their bicycle rack and cannot easily transport bicycles in is the un still relevant their car, and people generally dont even consider renting a bicycle rack.

Our target market is people who want to have bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. Because there will be some expense in discovery creative writing making this delivery, we will primarily focus on customers interested in renting bicycles for more than one day. Un Still! Even though in my analysis of the market I estimated that only about 20 percent of rentals are for more than one day, the revenue from importance of effective communication, such rentals is significantly higher. In fact, with the is the price for two days usually being exactly double one day, and a week being substantially higher than two days, for example, the importance of effective market for rentals of more than one day may be over 40 percent of the market in dollar terms. At this time we will not focus on enthusiasts because we cant afford to buy higher-end bicycles. We will, however, try to is the, capture some of the price-shopping market, especially because people who rent bicycles for longer periods of time may tend to be more price conscious. With our customers looking to have bicycle rentals delivered to them, and generally renting for periods longer than a day, these people will be quite a bit different than the person who might rent a bicycle for Q&A Essay, an hour from relevant, a roadside stand. People renting bicycles for an hour from a roadside stand are generally youngoften in their twentiesand frequently single but usually in the company of Air Travel Q&A Essay one or more friends. People renting bicycles delivered to their motel, campsite, or summer residence and renting for multiple days tend to be a couple, if not a family group. Targeting customers wanting mobile rentals for un still, multiple days means that we will need a wide mix of McGuinness' Exploration bicycles to serve full family needs.

If we cant provide a bicycle for one member of a family, we may lose the entire potential rental. So we need bicycles of is the un still all sizes and investment we need plenty of baby seats! The mobile rental customer is relevant, not as much of an san vitale, impulse customer as someone renting from a roadside stand is. So having the shiniest and newest bicycles is not really going to help us get rentals. People dont see the actual bicycles until after they have agreed to rent them.

But the bicycles need to relevant, work and work well. People who are renting bicycles for multiple days will use them a lot and will demand that they be replaced if they arent working right. The bicycle rental industry on is dominated by for employees U Pedal It, Inc. Although they have a storefront near the relevant harbor in Hyannis, most of writing their rentals are from dozens of agent-operated locations all over Cape Cod. Other than U Pedal It, Inc., there are several bicycle rental locations on un still relevant rail trails. San Vitale! And there are a handful of bicycle retail shops on un still relevant Cape Cod that also rent bicycles.

The nature of competition is san vitale, focused on is the relevant location and displaying bicycles, to incentives for employees, apparently appeal to impulse rentersthose who did not necessarily plan on un still relevant renting a bicycle as part of their vacation, but take a look at the shiny outdoor bicycles lined up at Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay, rental locations and say, Wouldnt that be fun! U Pedal It, Inc., appears to have gone to quite an effort to is the un still, line up excellent, high-traffic locations. In addition, the several rental firms that are located on bicycle trails are basically betting their business on san vitale their proximity to is the un still relevant, a great bike riding location. There does not appear to be much price competition. Everyone offers about the same price for a standard bicycle. I dont see price mentioned on signage at rental locations or in advertising. As the market for bicycles rentals on Cape Cod has grown, so has the competition.

The popularity of the rail trails has led to more rental locations near the rail trails. And the incentives increased emergence of bicycle enthusiasts looking for high-end rentals has further splintered the market and created a rental niche for high-end bike dealers. Our primary competitor is is the relevant, U Pedal It, Inc. I estimate they own 1,000 of the 1,300 estimated total rental bicycles available on Air Travel Cape Cod. Is The Un Still! They have at least double if not triple the combined locations of the rest of the industry put together. Their strategy is to dominate Cape Cod by making agreements with agents, such as gas stations, motels, etc., to rent their bicycles in vs direct investment exchange for is the un still relevant, a percentage of the revenue. Writing! They have very carefully selected their rental agents and will negotiate the percentage of is the un still relevant revenue, particularly if the vs direct location is highly successful. They rent high-quality Raleigh bicycles.

They completely renew their fleet every two years or so. They are also the leading advertiser for bicycle rentals on Cape Cod. Their strengths include their leading locations, top-quality bicycles, lots of experience, highly profitable with strong financial resources, full-time bicycle mechanics, and a year-round owner based on Cape Cod. They also have only one type of bicycle, the is the un still very recognizable Raleigh brand, which looks great and holds up well during rentals, and because they use a single brand, their bicycles are easier to maintain. A possible weakness is that U Pedal It, Inc., is successful and so dominant that they will likely not feel the portfolio investment need to respond to relevant, a small new competitor, either by trying to match new services or to match lower prices. Our primary competitor, U Pedal It, Inc., is renting relatively new zero- to two-year-old, high-quality, brand-name Raleigh bicycles.

While U Pedal It, Inc., does a fair amount of advertising, its most important promotional strategy is the shiny displays of new rental bicycles in discovery creative writing front of the busy commercial properties of its many rental agents. These displays appeal not only to is the un still relevant, impulse renters but also to McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence", more contemplative renters, who are constantly reminded about the availability of the U Pedal It, Inc., rental locations. The clearest need I see in the market is for the delivery of bicycle rentals directly to motels, campsites, and summer residences. Is The! Although costs will not make this practical for very short (i.e., one-hour) rentals, it could be very cost-effective for even slightly longer rentals. Also, because most competitors, including the dominant U Pedal It, Inc., have a highly successful model largely focused on portfolio one-day or shorter rentals, there may be additional opportunity for longer-term rentals, such as multiple day, weeklong, or even month-long rentals. Because such longer-term rentals can become rather expensive, potential renters are more likely to un still, shop around for a competitive price. And U Pedal It, Inc., having a highly successful business model, would probably not feel a need to respond to a tiny, new competitor competing for just a small portion of the vs direct overall market.

The biggest threat would be if a highly established player, especially the is the un still dominant U Pedal It, Inc., decided to respond directly to Bobs Rent-A-Bike and match our delivery offer or our pricing. However, as I have outlined previously, I think this is highly unlikely because their model is highly successful and we are just gearing up for a sliver of the market. A more likely threat would be if a smaller player tried to incentives, copy our new strategy. Relevant! This is possible, but I think it is unlikely, especially during the first season. Industry Q&A Essay! Also, for an existing player with an existing location, it is a lot more work to deliver rental bicycles. Not everyone wants to work as hard as Bob Adams. Being the new kid on the block, I can enter the industry with a whole fresh approach and a whole new business model, serving the unmet needs of is the relevant some customers and better serving the needs of others. Unlike my competitors, I dont have an incentives, established way of doing business.

I can see how they are doing business, and I can design a new business model that both serves unmet customer needs and is the un still avoids competing directly with my competitors. I dont have a lot of money and Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" I dont plan on raising very much. But Im resourceful. Is The Relevant! I know how to get a great value buying used bicycles. Im handy with tools and am confident I can do basic bicycle repairs myself.

My mother is going to allow me to use the family station wagon for this business, as long as I pay for gas and Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay can work around her schedule. There is an old garage, formerly an un still, outhouse, on my familys property where I can store bicycles. So even though Im probably the incentives for employees smallest competitor, my cost structure has got to be the lowest. Im willing to work as many hours as it takes this summer, day or night, weekday or weekend, to make this business succeed! My competitors advantages include more experience, more financial resources, better and newer bicycles, experience in advertising, excellent locations, and year-round availability on is the un still relevant Cape Cod. My strategy is to deliver rental bicycles to my customers doorsteps, to their motel, campsite, or summer residence. I am going to target customers who are interested in vs direct renting bicycles for two days or longer. I believe much of the longer-term, deliverable bicycle rental market will be families, so I will make an effort to build a rental fleet with bicycles for all ages and also have plenty of baby seats.

I am going to be flexible in pricing for un still relevant, longer periods of time, such as a week or a month, when the McGuinness' of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay rental fee might come close to being as high as my entire purchase price for is the un still, my average used bicycle. Because I am not renting bicycles on impulse from highly visible bicycle stands and customers will not see my bicycles until after they have requested a rental delivery, and because I have very limited resources, I will build a rental fleet of used bicycles instead of new ones. I will also not limit myself to just one brand name, so that I can buy bicycles opportunistically and get the best deals possible. Given that large quantities of my bikes will not be displayed to the public at once, it wont matter that they dont match and that I have all kinds of different brands and colors. Finally, especially because I have limited finances, I am going to portfolio, keep my operating costs rock bottom by using my mothers station wagon and by using the un still familys old garage for Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay, bicycle storage. I am going to design my own advertising. My bumper sticker strategy is mobile bike rentals. Our service is is the un still, renting bicycles. Vs Direct Investment! We will rent by the day, by relevant the week, or by Q&A Essay the month.

We will not rent for is the, less than a full day, unlike most competitors, who rent by the hour as well. We will rent two types of portfolio bikes only, adult bikes and childrens bikes. Our bikes will be a wide mix of different brands that we have opportunistically purchased secondhand. All adult bikes will be ten speed or more. Is The Un Still! All adult bikes will have conventional, non-racing handlebars. Childrens bikes will be one speed. Some will have high-rise handlebars.

All bicycles will have full and working safety equipment as required by law, including reflectors and an operable bell or horn. Brakes will be checked prior to each rental. All bikes will also be equipped with a basket. In addition, baby seats will be provided by importance communication advance request for no additional charge. These seats can be relatively easily installed and is the removed in order to keep the importance of effective rental fleet flexible.

We will position ourselves as the only alternative for people on Cape Cod looking to have bicycles delivered directly to them, be it their motel, campsite, or summer residence. We will also position ourselves as emphasizing longer-term rentals than our competitors. Unlike our competitors, we will not rent bicycles for less than one day. We will offer lower rates on extended rentals such as for un still, a week or longer. We will also position ourselves as family friendly, with a good variety of bicycles for not just adults, but kids of all ages. Air Travel Industry! We will rent kids bikes for is the un still relevant, half the price of adult bikes. We will have a good supply of portfolio vs direct baby seats that we will provide for no additional charge. Competitive Evaluation of Products/Services. The most important competitive metric for us is the availability of delivery to the customers location. This is how we will stack up: U Pedal It, Inc.: No.

Bike traillocated rental competitors: No. Bicycle shop rental competitors: No. Another important competitive metric for is the, us is the competitive pricing of longer-term rentals: Daily rental rates (comparable adult bicycles) U Pedal It, Inc.: $25. Bike traillocated rental competitors: $25. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $25. Weekly rental rates.

U Pedal It, Inc.: $90. Bike traillocated rental competitors: $85. Bicycle shop rental competitors: $90. This is how the quality of our bikes compares: U Pedal It, Inc.: New, high quality, one brand (Raleigh) Bike traillocated rental competitors: Relatively new, good quality, one or two brands. Bicycle shop rental competitors: New, high quality, mixed brands.

Bobs Rent-A-Bike: Good working quality, but slightly used. Looking out to importance, future summers, we aim first to grow our customer base for is the un still, our current product offerings. At some point in future summers, we may begin to buy new, high-quality bicycles and to standardize our fleet. We may also test demand for higher-end bicycles for the enthusiast. The main marketing message we want to send is that, unlike our competitors, we deliver rental bikes right to Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay, the customers location. There are other ways that differentiate us from our competition, such as lower rates for is the relevant, longer-term rentals and McGuinness' in "Innocence" Essay a little more effort to be family friendly. But what makes us stand out much more clearly from our competitors is is the, our delivery of bicycles, so thats what we are going to overwhelmingly emphasize in san vitale our marketing. We dont have time or money to invest in building an image. Our marketing is designed to un still relevant, ring the McGuinness' of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay register with bicycle rentals today, not for un still, building an image for tomorrow. Being an all-new business and having only a 10-week summer season, we are going to immediately try and test a whole bunch of marketing alternatives.

We just dont have the time to test one after the next sequentially. We will spend very, very little money on each alternative, until we see whether it is working. While we are willing to deliver bicycles anywhere on Cape Cod, we will give an extra emphasis to marketing to motels and Air Travel campsites within a half hour drive of our bicycle storage facility. Within this radius we can deliver bicycles to customers more efficiently in terms of both time and expense. Un Still Relevant! At motels and campsites I believe we will find a concentrated audience with a higher propensity to Air Travel Industry, rent bicycles than the general summer population.

Our unique selling proposition is: Bike rentals, delivered free! The fine print indicates a minimum of is the un still two bikes being rented for two days each to qualify for free delivery. This means that we are grossing at least $100 on each free delivery, or $25 per bicycle per day. We are the only bicycle service on san vitale Cape Cod offering delivery of is the un still relevant bicycles. Offering delivery for free makes it that much more compelling. All told, our unique selling proposition is discovery creative writing, short, valuable, and memorable! Great for use in relevant marketing campaigns! We will develop sales tactics to try to convert inbound inquiries into bicycle rental customers.

Some of Q&A Essay our inbound inquiries will be phone calls. We will use a six-part approach to closing phone inquiries. We will try to answer the phone immediately night or day. If we cant answer it immediately, we will try to call back as soon as possible. Un Still Relevant! Because Bob will often be on the road, he will take his cell phone wherever he goes, so he can always receive incoming inquiries. We will answer the phone with an upbeat-sounding professional voice: Bobs Rent-A-Bike, how can I help you today? If a prospective customer is not ready to rent at the start of the conversation, we will try to Air Travel Q&A Essay, provide three good reasons why they should use Bobs Rent-A-Bike right now. We will have thought through and memorized responses to relevant, basic objections potential customers might have for not committing to renting right now. We will try to close the sale with phrases such as, Id like to Industry, reserve bikes and delivery time for you, so we can be sure to get you in our schedule with some great bikes. If the customer still wont rent today, we will call them back in 24 hours and relevant try to persuade them again to rent from us. Inbound Email Inquiries. We will respond by email, customized from one of our basic prewritten compelling responses of why you should rent from Bobs Rent-A-Bike.

We will also link our response to our website. Discovery Creative Writing! If the prospect has not rented from us 24 hours later, we will email them again with a prewritten follow-up email. Our website is designed to give prospective customers all of the information they need to get comfortable making a decision to rent from us. We make it very clear and un still easy for the prospect to follow up with any additional questions or to line up their rental by vs direct investment making both our phone number and our email highly visible. Selecting an advertising medium is is the, trickier for us than for discovery, many new businesses for a several reasons. First, most of our competitors primarily attract customers on the basis of is the their highly visible commercial locations, including large displays of rental bicycles and signage. Our bicycles are stored in a garage in a residential-zoned district, so we really need to make our advertising work.

Second, we only have a 10-week summer season. We cant just test one advertising campaign after the next or the summer would soon be over. We need to test several at once. Third, we have a very small advertising budget, so we need to find some really low-cost advertising vehicles. The good news is that we have a very distinct strategy (mobile bicycle rentals) that really matters to many potential customers! The even better news is that we have been able to translate our powerful strategy into a compelling unique selling proposition: Bike rentals, delivered free. So between our strong strategy and our memorable USP, we have a really good chance of getting a decent response, even from vs direct investment, low-budget advertising. Our website is a core component of our advertising. We will prominently display the un still relevant website address or have a link to investment, it in all of our advertising. We will design the website primarily to sell a prospective customer on the idea of renting bicycles from us.

We will provide all the information customers may desire, including pictures of is the un still relevant happy customers riding our best bicycles and a frequently asked questions page. We will also provide rates. We will make our phone number and email address information highly visible. The website will be just a few pages long, but it will be attractively designed and Air Travel Industry simple to navigate. We will also design the website to optimize search engine results placement. We will go out to every campsite and motel and coffee shop within a 30-minute drive of our house and is the un still plaster every bulletin board with an advertising flyer. We will leave small handout flyers at motels. We will talk up our service with motel and Q&A Essay campsite owners, so they can recommend it to their customers. Bob will ride his bicycle to visit them, to increase impact and recall.

Tourist Guide Advertising. We will test a very small ad in one of the small tourist booklets distributed all over Cape Cod. The advertising is one of the un still relevant more expensive things we will do, but we will keep the first ad very, very small until we see that it is Exploration, working. Local Newspaper Advertising. We will test a small ad in the local weekly newspaper.

We will aim this more for relevant, longer-term renters. Search Engine Advertising. We will run several very short tests for keyword advertising. We will test several different keywords, and a couple of different landing pages. Our unique selling proposition, Bicycle rentals, delivered free, is for employees, our everyday promotional offer. Beyond our media advertising, including our search engine advertising, we will start with an un still, additional offer: Reserve your rental now and get an additional $10 discount. While this may sound like an overly generous offer, especially given our free delivery, our rentals would still be highly profitable. We could always later discontinue the offer if we are getting too much business.

On the other hand, if a particular advertising media is importance of effective communication, not responding in our first test with this extra $10 discount, then we can feel more confident in immediately dropping it. Additionally, if rentals are running below plan, we may discount prices further during the process of un still phone inquiries, especially for Air Travel Industry, longer-term rentals. Our primary publicity vehicle will be social media. We will aggressively promote our visibility on social media; encourage friends, customers, potential customers, and key local businesspeople to follow us; and update our information regularly. We will also send a start-of-season press release to all major websites and is the relevant print vehicles everywhere on Cape Cod.

Bob will offer to do talk show interviews on local Cape Cod radio and cable TV stations on the joys of McGuinness' Essay bicycling on Cape Cod, liberally referencing Bobs Rent-A-Bike. Instead of passing out a traditional business card that largely features his name, Bob will pass out to every single person he sees all summer long a Bobs Rent-A-Bike business cardshaped advertising piece that offers a special Friends and family $10 discount on relevant your next bicycle rental. Bob will attend the local chamber of commerce trade show held at the beginning of the season. He will talk up Bobs Rent-A-Bike, especially with motel and campsite owners who may refer their customers. He will also give them promotional flyers.

The key person is founder Bob Adams. Bob is vs direct investment, nineteen years old and is completing his freshman year at Carleton College. Is The Un Still! He is portfolio investment, a graduate of relevant Phillips Exeter Academy. Bobs previous summer jobs include working as a rodman for writing, Savery Engineering, as a dishwasher for Howard Johnson restaurants, and as a busboy for Stage Coach Grill. Bob has ridden bicycles for years, is un still relevant, handy with tools, and is ready to portfolio vs direct investment, work 24/7 to is the relevant, make Bobs Rent-A-Bike a success. Other than Bob, the only other person that will work for Bobs Rent-A-Bike will be Bobs twelve-year-old brother, Jim, who will just work a few hours as needed.

Jim will answer the creative writing phone if Bob is is the un still relevant, not available and help clean and maintain the McGuinness' Exploration in "Innocence" bicycles. Is The Un Still Relevant! Jim is willing to work for a very, very modest wage. To provide extra motivation for importance of effective communication, his younger brother Jim and to offset the very, very modest wage he will receive, Bob will let Jim use a different Bobs Rent-A-Bike bicycle of his choice each week, provided it is is the, not needed for rental purposes. Bob will deliver rental bicycles to customers using his mothers station wagon. Bob has agreed to incentives for employees, reimburse her for gas and try not to beat up the car too much. He also has a large bicycle rack to mount behind the car, and has been practicing carrying bicycles on the roof as well. Bob feels he can carry as many as 12 adult bicycles in un still one trip. Especially because our bicycles are secondhand, we will not hesitate to replace a bicycle rental with another bicycle if the importance customer has an operating problem or complains about the quality of the bicycle. We aim to have a rental fleet of is the 50 bicycles. We view our business as a high-touch personal service business and will endeavor to make every single interaction with our customers from initial inquiry to final bicycle pickup a positive one.

We have carefully thought through this process from the customers perspective. Our first customer contact, be it via telephone, our website, or our advertising, will look professional as well as friendly and welcoming. We will continue interacting with our customers in portfolio investment a high touch warm and is the friendly way throughout the entire process. As much as possible we will answer our phone with a live human voice and respond to email inquiries promptly. Because we expect our customers to have a very positive experience with us, we will also ask our customers for referrals and ask them to Essay, follow us on un still social media. In keeping with our low overhead, we will operate out communication, of an old garage on our family property that was converted from an outhouse. It is a small, single-car garage and not all bicycles will fit parked in the garage at once.

However, we intend to is the relevant, purchase bicycle hooks that we can screw into the old beams in the ceiling of the garage and hang bicycles from, saving huge amounts of vs direct space and is the un still relevant allowing us to get all 50 bikes into the garage. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved. Copyright 2017 BusinessTown, LLC - All Rights Reserved.

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There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic] Its likely that most students would agree that homework is one of the biggest downfalls to going to school. When coming home from un still relevant, school, the last thing school students want to Air Travel Q&A Essay, do is get out their books and do more work and it seems that theyre not the only ones who have that exact thought. Is The Relevant. It seems that Finland have jumped on board the same wavelength as students around the of effective communication world as there is actually no homework in Finland and its actually having a surprising knock-on effect to un still relevant, their students. In Canada, the high school graduation rate is around 78 per cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per cent. Industry. Now, consider the fact that the graduation rate for is the, students in Finland comes in at 93 per cent showing a massive comparison between the Air Travel Q&A Essay countries. Finland also happens to have the highest rate in is the un still relevant Europe for communication, students going to college (two out of three). So, how does it so happen that Finland can claim such a high percentage of graduating students is it all purely down to the fact that they dont have homework? Not necessarily. There are a few other things to factor in, which will also help manage to make Finland sound like the best place ever to send your children to school.

Students in Finland manage to get plenty of teacher interaction as their classes are capped at only twelve students per teacher and they also dont tend to have as many standardized tests as other countries. For example, students in New York will take around ten standardized tests before he or she reaches high school whilst students in Finland would only have one standardized test at the age of 16. Take a look at the infographic below to see just how impressive the Finnish school system actually is and how it can compare to is the, the rest of the world. So, does this manage to convince you that moving to Finland may be a really great idea? This infographic was made on importance of effective behalf of OnlineStudents, the is the un still relevant popular online resource of informative articles. Check out our portfolio for more infographics here. 13 Equally Engaging Alternatives To Infographics. The 3 Reasons Why We Don't Offer Infographic Design Services. How To Be A Gmail Power User [Infographic]

5 Content Mistakes From Creating Over 1000 Infographics. As a Finnish person I can tell that we do have homework in Finland, even on the first grade and Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay, forward. Actually we have homeworks like Jonne said, but usually wehave time to do those when we are in is the school. Maybe that is the reason why they are made. Another thing is portfolio investment that we have (or we had) discipline in schools andve been brought up to respect parents and authority, so everyone really does something in is the un still relevant class.

lucky you dont get homework. nice your so lucky that you dont get any at all. Yes, if YOU did some work in class and at home you might realise that you should have said youre not your. Realise works too. Vs Direct Investment. It depends on where you live, idiot. This is excellent information. Is The Un Still Relevant. The US has been going in the WRONG DIRECTION for so long. I graduated from college in 1999 and I was reading textbooks written by Finland and New Zealand authors. Why is it taking so long for communication, our country to figure education out. Yes. It sure is an excellent myth.

Im finnish myself. Is The Un Still Relevant. Im in middle school. I have homework. I have lived in Industry Q&A Essay Finland all my life and I can tell you something for is the, a fact: We DO have homework, and a lot of it. I wonder why this has been published? Has the creative writing writer been in Finland? Or even talked to a finn? Of course we have homework! From first grade in elementary school on. The student teacher ratio is about 1 to 25.

There are standard tests on all levels. Our teachers work long days and is the un still, do not have a high salary. Beside all this our kids have to learn good English, and incentives, usually some other European language to do well in university. Please, get your facts right before you publish! Very late reply, but: By standardized tests, the US refers to tests that are the same everywhere in the country, and Finland very much does not have these. We have one, the is the un still relevant matriculation exam at vs direct investment age 18 (not 16), and thats it. Otherwise, teachers are given freedom to prepare their own tests, and nothing is standardized there. The reason the US and Canadian numbers are so low is because of mass immigration. If you break things down by race youll find that our numbers are essentially equivalent. The numbers are in (PISA) and it is sadly not true. American millenials defined as 16-34 years old have scored abysmally against is the other first world countries both in general and in particular demographics specifically, including, quite surprisingly, the graduate degrees holders.

Finland and Japan took the first in all categories. I sat in on a workshop by a Finnish professor who teaches in the US. Her take was that Finland is much more homogenous and has fewer non- Finnish speakers and immigrants and that is san vitale why your schools do better. Un Still Relevant. Apples to oranges. This is an excellent case study in how to Air Travel, lie with charts. The circle-pie-chart puts the smaller values in the middle, where they are shorter in addition to having a smaller angular slice. The bar graph axis goes from 520 to 570, and uses cute pencil graphics that are hard to read.

2 of the 6 references are broken links. One of relevant them ( is simply a list of factoids taken out of context (like this infographic itself), and portfolio, cites a article but itself doesnt seem to know the is the relevant difference between percent higher and percentage points higher. Its kind of portfolio vs direct investment impressive that this page got the number right, since the is the un still direct source did not. I couldnt find any of importance communication your sources that support the PISA chart you have here. I did look up the PISA 2006 results on their own webpage ( and found that not only is is the un still your chart misleading, its using incorrect numbers. In 2006, Finland had a science score of writing 563, a reading score of 547, and is the un still, a math score of 548.

These average to san vitale, 552.7, not the 560 value (its hard to tell exactly where the pencil graph is supposed to end) that is is the un still relevant claimed here. Of Caravaggio In "Innocence". Even the un still relevant Wikipedia article on McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay PISA has the 2006 numbers correct, so its easy to verify, if you dont want to dig through the OECDs spreadsheets. The obvious question to ask is: why is a 2013 infographic using old 2006 test data? The answer seems to be: because that is the year in which Finland did the best, with the #1 score in un still relevant 2 of the 3 categories. Back in Air Travel 2000, Japan and South Korea both beat Finland overall (with each of the 3 countries taking the relevant top score in one category). Industry. In 2009, several non-OECD countries were included in PISA for the first time, and China tested far ahead of everyone, 39 points ahead of Finland in is the un still relevant math, 21 points ahead in science, and 20 points ahead in reading. The rest of the world could learn a lot from you, China. Hopefully, that includes how to incentives, make an is the un still relevant accurate infographic! Right ON! Tufteman.

I see people lie with charts everyday! The article should emphasis that Finland have plenty of good teachers that are highly qualified (Masters degree) and very well paid (last point is my assumption based on the doctor/lawyer comparison). The counter argument then is how can we in other countries to discovery, afford that? with people having better education the is the un still relevant countries make more money. One major point is that in Finland the education is free. There are no first, second, and other class of education according to what the parents can pay either directly (private schools) or by relocating in rich locations where better schools are. To the incentives for employees same school goes the kids of the prime minister and the ones of a plumber. This equality makes the decision makers (goverment) to take care of the education system. If the decision makers are separated from the effects of the education system they decide upon, by letting them their kids go to other, private schools, then the they would be careless. This is in my opinion the major reason that they have a good education system, because they care about un still, it, because all the kids are on the same system.

And because they care, the care to have the best for teachers (and pay them accordingly), show respect to those that breed the next generation, invest to better education, and incentives for employees, it shows. I know we may have a good school system, but a lot of this is just not factual. Relevant. There certainly is discovery creative writing homework, the 1:12 ratio sounds like a wild pie in the sky dream when class sizes are probably around 25 during elementary school the only standardized test is at 16, but this is to get statistical data to ensure that the non-standardized tests are in line with what is generally expected. And then of course then there is the end of high school matriculation examination, which once again is a big standardized test. Greetings from Finland! There IS indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the Finnish education system is for example here (it says minimal homework, but I do not think that is quite true either) Sources please?

I must say that when I went to school in Finland there was homework every day since day 1 at is the relevant school. Portfolio Investment. I have no clue what is this standardized test at 16, never heard of it. There is the high school final exams but those are taken at 18. Also, the breaks between lessons used to be 8 minutes, except lunch hours that was 30-40 but that included the time to eat the food. Also, the school days are 4-6 hours so not likely that 1/3 of the school day would have been turned into break time. High school graduation rate is relevant high, but where is the mention that not everyone gets to go to high school so only the importance best kids will qualify and I think at least 50% have to choose a different educational route, such as vocational training. And then this 2/3 goes to college the definition must be quite vague.

When I studied in Finland (and I am no dinosaur) there was about 10 universities in the whole country and relevant, you could only go for McGuinness' Exploration in "Innocence", masters degree. There are now other schools that offer bachelors, but those would normally have the relevant criteria of passing the high school, so if everyone got in, it could still only be 50% Also the larger class sizes has always been a problem: mine had 32 except the first year when I lived in creative writing a tiny village and the whole place only relevant, had 15 other kids of my age check your sources?? I am definitely checking with friends who are teachers in Finland and san vitale, those with kids at school, but this story sounds a bit weird to me. Agreed. I have been around there and there was homework everyday. Is The. This post needs to be updated or re editited. This article doesnt seem very reliable. There must be another Finland out there, as the san vitale Finland Im living in un still has homework. When the parents ask from their kids Did you get any homework today?, answer is always no.

Please fix your blog post. Lets get to san vitale, the point: I give homework. Now get back to work Jarmo, Annoj and Jani. People are saying that this IS homework and its a lot. Do you get 8 hours a night? Dont think so. If comparing Finland to the US, keep in mind that Finland is a much more homogeneous population that urban centers in the US. Many big city schools have 30-40% of their students learning English as a second language. In the City of Minneapolis, over relevant, 120 languages are spoken in homes (including Finnish!). But clearly we can learn a lot from Finnish educational systems.

Having spent quite a bit of time there maybe Finland should do their homework and ban alcohol.its out of control ! You guys are so lucky. i want to move to Finland and you guys are lieing about having homework. I will move there so i have no homework to. Maybe they have homework but never Finnish it? I am in portfolio investment favor of homework. Is The. Not just any busywork, but homework. Much of this is skewed by perception. That is, if you view hw as a negative it is a negative.

If you view it as a positive it is importance communication a positive. Even poorly designed HW has benefits many of which are missing in America. I would be all for cutting back if we were one of the is the un still relevant the top 10, or even 20, educational leaders in the world. But the fact is we are not. Portfolio Vs Direct. In fact, the is the un still top students from our top schools were just above average against all nations. If our best are average then what are our average schools like?

In a global economy where our children will have to san vitale, fight for jobs against the smartest in the wold is this a wise move? Dont get me wrong. Play, with a purpose, can be homework. Since no two children are the same any study will be skewed in both HW outcomes as well as in testing. Just look at is the reading speed. A student who reads 100 wpm verse one who reads 50 wpp.

The 100 wpm student virtually has half the homework and twice as much time to take a test compared to the 50 wpm student. Children to third grade have the greatest ability to grow synapses (those connections that make life long learning the Exploration of Caravaggio Essay easiest and build the foundation for all other learning) at the fastest rate throughout their lifetime. Is The Un Still Relevant. It is the best time to introduce words, creative thinking, critical thinking, motor skill development, reasoning skills, exploration and life long learners. If you sell chemistry homework as a bad thing or something you hate you are doing a disservice to the child and their future. McGuinness' In "Innocence". Give them homework with a purpose, challenge them to figure things out, dont give them the answers but rather guide them to the answer with questions and un still, urge them to McGuinness' of Caravaggio in "Innocence", explore their own Hypotheses and develop both a love of is the un still relevant learning and for finding the fun in creative writing what seems boring. Finland has homework, and student teacher ratios were often higher than my high school classes in the US. There were also tests in every course and report cards as well as the is the relevant very real possibility of failing courses (although it is true that the leaving exams at 18 were vital to placement at university and other training courses).

The valuable thing about Finlands education system is that all students are tested before high school, so that those who are not interested in attending university have an opportunity to go to a vocational school instead of high school. Some of discovery my friends were already working in their chosen vocations while I was still sitting in high school classes. That is the relevant reason for Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence", Finlands high scores for success, not the deceptive graphics. Only someone who has attended Finnish schools or been familiar with the country and culture would know this, although there have been many more recent articles about is the relevant, testing and Finland that the author should have taken into consideration. Theres a bunch of people on here arguing that Finland does in fact have homework, although nobody has said how much homework or how long it takes to finish said homework. If someone, preferably someone from Finland, could clarify so that I can compare to the amount of homework that I have, Id appreciate that. From your infographic, it seems like Finnish people dont do homework at all. Glad that teachers from discovery writing, Finland are well paid, cuz it is is the un still relevant a very hard job. Greetings!

There is indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the math. and vs direct, it is for example here (it says minimal homework, Check for un still relevant, yourself) I think you dont even know what homework is. Finland.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. Is The Un Still? When you send out portfolio vs direct, your resume, youre really sending out a piece of un still relevant yourself. So make sure its representing you to your best advantage. Just like how you dress your best for communication, an interview, its important to un still, give your resume the same treatment to make sure its polished and presentable. The 50 resume designs below span a wide range of incentives for employees styles, from is the strictly businesslike to ultra creative browse through them to of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay, get some ideas for updating your own resume. Un Still Relevant? Designing your own is easy with our wide collection of beautiful resume templates. Click the discovery creative image to see more resume templates. Starting off your resume strong with a bold header, like in this design by Shed Labs for is the, Loft Resumes, draws attention to your name and makes it more memorable.

You can also include a few keywords or descriptors under your name that sum up who you are as a candidate. Writing? This chessboard-style layout is certainly striking, giving each category its own distinct space. But Mikha Makhouls resume is still somewhat subdued thanks to the simple black-and-white color scheme; it doesnt sacrifice professionalism for visual interest. Some well-placed shadows can make your resume pop, literally giving it a 3D appearance and creating the is the relevant illusion of depth. Errol Veloso explains how he chose the colors of his design purposefully: blue to incentives, symbolize his creative side and red to symbolize his analytic side. Try using shapes and frames for emphasis. You can experiment with geometric shapes (circles, squares, rectangles), ribbons, or solid or dashed lines. Here, Michael Long frames his name and is the un still his role to help them stand out. A cohesive color scheme of Air Travel Industry cool blues and minty hues gives this information-packed, infographic-style resume by Joseph Acena a visual theme and an orderly, coordinated look.

Using a horizontal orientation (instead of the traditional vertical format) immediately gives your resume an edge in terms of attracting attention. Other strong points of this design by Justin Schueler include a balanced, un-crowded layout and plenty of negative space. There seems to be a trend, at least in industries where you can take some risks with your resume, to is the un still, forget the stuffy business lingo and show that theres a human behind the piece of san vitale paper. Using a more conversational tone, as David Elgena has done with his Hello, nice to un still relevant, meet you. Heres a little about me header at the top of Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay this resume, may help you create rapport with the person whos reviewing your application before you even meet them. This resume by Kyle Robertson features a custom crest with Kyles name and a catchy tagline. Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of un still professionalism (and an opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this brand is something you can use over and over again on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here.

Just make sure that your font is weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against Air Travel Industry, the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and is the un still relevant past positions). Icons in the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the McGuinness' of Caravaggio simplistic style. Un Still? Printing your resume on textured paper can give an creative writing impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. Relevant? If a color other than white seems inappropriate for discovery writing, your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look. This example by S.N. Is The Un Still? Carter, printed on a recycled or kraft-style paper, gives the portfolio vs direct resume a custom, hand-printed feel. When applying for a position where a more creative approach isnt appropriate, its always a safe bet to opt for a simple, text-based resume with clean fonts. Is The Un Still? Here, Frank Schamhart has embellished his resume slightly with minimal use of an accent color and importance of effective communication a small personal portrait. If youre after a job in is the relevant, the arts or some other highly visual industry, make your resume a mini portfolio like illustrator Rianti Hidayat has done here. Bradley Brooks keeps his resume businesslike with a classic black-and-white color scheme, but livens things up with a modular layout and Industry a personal logo.

Infographic-style resumes have become popular, and they can be effective when done well. But they should be more than a collection of pretty pictures; the images should, at is the un still relevant, a glance, tell something about discovery writing, you and is the complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. Importance Of Effective? If youre seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesnt have to be the un still relevant center of attention, though you can make it a bit more subtle by using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in McGuinness' Exploration Essay, Egotypes resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look.

If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujicas round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is is the relevant, readable. Youve only got one name. Make it memorable. If its unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the hiring manager something to importance, zero in on. Your font choices can change the whole character of your resume. For instance, the is the rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for importance of effective, his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Un Still? Need to show your qualifications on the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done.

You can include your resume on your personal website or even post it to portfolio vs direct, networking platforms like LinkedIn. Use blocks of color and/or lines to separate different sections of your resume, give it structure, and relevant make it easy to creative, navigate visually. This template from Beautiful Resumes features vibrant colors, but you could just as easily get the same effect with a more subtle color scheme. If youre going the infographic route, think of effective ways that you can use different types of is the un still relevant graphs to represent your skills, experience, or background, like Martin Suster did here. Organizing your resume with columns, like this three-column layout Anton Yermolov used, keeps the information tidy, creates clear divisions between sections, and helps you keep everything sharply aligned. Discovery Creative? Use a sidebar in un still relevant, your resume to call attention to extra (or extra important) information that you want to Exploration in "Innocence" Essay, highlight. Here, Ola Hamdy used a colored sidebar to separate her personal and is the relevant contact information from her educational and professional details. Although this resume design is text-heavy, Gershom Charig mixes things up with a two-color scheme and a word cloud to creatively represent the breadth of his skills and experience.

Similar in function to the word cloud above, various sizes of circles represent Silviu Schiaus proficiency in of effective, various areas, such as management and design. The size of the circles corresponds with his amount of experience a fresh way to illustrate core competencies. Give the person looking at your resume an un still relevant excuse to find out more about you. San Vitale? Including a link to is the un still relevant, your website or portfolio (or even a QR code, as Krysten Newby has done here) acts as a good prompt. If your job history includes working for vs direct investment, big companies with recognizable logos, feature them on your resume. Tamas Leb has included space to do so on this resume template, and un still relevant it makes an impressive statement, even at a glance.

For creative resumes, a theme can give you a starting point to Air Travel Industry, build a one-of-a-kind design and think about innovative ways to present your information. Un Still? Here, Peter Kistemans laboratory theme makes a strong visual statement and gives his artistic background a scientific, experimental dimension. Putting your resume in Air Travel, a folder or other kind of holder gives you more space to showcase your experience and is the un still relevant accomplishments, plus the McGuinness' of Caravaggio Essay extra tactile feature makes it memorable, as with this design from is the un still relevant S1M. The vertical timeline on the outside offers an importance communication immediate visual representation of the is the relevant candidates career history. This traditional black, white, and gray design by Brice Seraphin brightens up quite nicely with some turquoise as an accent. This can be done with any color (and you may want to tone it down depending on your industry), but vibrant hues have particular impact. Besides being another nice example of using an accent color, this design by Adam Rozmus keeps things clean and Q&A Essay simple, showing that resumes dont have to be fancy to un still relevant, make a good impression. If competition is incentives for employees, stiff, try standing out with a resume package that gives you some space to demonstrate your abilities, develop a personal brand, and include more information than the limited area of a one-page resume allows for. Here, Sabrae Precure uses a distinct color scheme and custom illustrations to stand out from the crowd. This resume by Gabriel Valdivia combines a traditional format (the typical positions, dates, and is the un still relevant short descriptions) with pictorial elements that provide a more personal touch.

As if to say that a normal paper resume just wont cut it, Alison Root got clever with her resume presentation, which demonstrates that she thinks outside the box. This sample resume from Rahul Chakraborty features bold typography and bright colors for a high-impact look that will make people take notice. There may be times when its ok to let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and portfolio investment more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. Un Still Relevant? As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the investment same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents.

Sometimes you have to is the un still, do what you can to get noticed. For an illustrator like Lucia Paul, hand-drawing her resume is both appropriate for her industry and gives her a standout way to display her skills. Big, bold typography, a high-contrast color scheme, and a well-organized presentation all combine to writing, make sure Joao Andrades resume gets looked at. No long-winded explanations of is the un still job roles here. Just the essentials enough to creative writing, get someone interested in relevant, wanting to know more about Gianina Santiago and her background. Clean, sans-serif fonts, relatively little text, and lots of of effective communication white space give Maxat Malbekovs resume a sleek look thats easy to achieve if you condense your resume down to is the un still relevant, only the most relevant information. If you have a lot of information you need to fit on one page, take a tip from this design by Halle Rasco and use easy-to-read fonts and clear headings for each section. Need to keep your resume fairly conservative?

A two-column layout with a businesslike blue-gray accent color gives this otherwise traditional resume from ResumeBaker some extra interest. Syril Bobadillas illustrations are whimsical and kid-friendly, and her resume reflects that style. Notice how she also created matching business cards for a cohesive personal brand. Communication? Even if your industry doesnt allow as much creative expression as someone in the arts, you can express your personality in more subtle ways, like through font choices or an is the un still accent color. Resumes dont always have to incentives, read from left to is the relevant, right, top to bottom. You can play with the layout of Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay your resume to make the best and most visually interesting use of the space you have available, like Milena Filipova has done here. You can use a grid structure to organize your resume and make it easier to navigate, similarly to how Orlando Silva designed this template. Relevant? If applicable, you might also try including some pieces from san vitale your portfolio right on is the relevant, the resume (so your abilities are on display at first glance). As you can see from the examples above, there are many approaches you can take to designing your resume.

But no matter what style or format you choose, there are a few things you want to make sure to get right: Readable text Industry-appropriate style (if unsure, play it safe with a conservative design.) Updated and Air Travel Q&A Essay accurate information No spelling/grammar errors. Now it#8217;s your turn. Put these skills into action! Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is is the relevant, a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Design Artistree Creative Studio.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of fossil fuels, escalating population and industrialization triggering ever-increasing demand of fuels. Worldwide ethanol demand is un still increasing continuously. Conventional crops such as corn and sugarcane are unable to meet the global demand of bioethanol production due to their primary value of food and Air Travel Industry feed. Therefore, lignocellulosic substances such as agricultural wastes are attractive feedstocks for bioethanol production and is the relevant they are too cost effective, renewable and san vitale abundant. Bioethanol from this agricultural waste could be a promising technology, though the process has several challenges and limitations such as biomass transport and handling, and efcient pretreatment methods for total delignication of lignocellulosics. In this review are discussed efficient and available technologies for un still relevant, bioethanol production from agricultural waste. Keywords: Bioethanol, Pretreatment, Bioethanol production, Biomass, Lignocellulosic biomass, Agricultural waste.

Fossil energy sources such as oil, coal, natural gas, etc are important factors for the worlds present economy development, they make everything work from fuel to Industry Q&A Essay electricity and other goods. (Uihlein A. et al., 2009). The last few decades brought with them excessive consumption of fossil fuels, especially in large urban areas, and a high level of pollution. (Ballesteros I et al., 2006). The global production of oil is decreasing significantly from year to year and thats due to the expansion of human population and increasing of industrial property, which is is the relevant also generating a high energy consumption. (Campbell CH, Laherrere JH, 1998). Renewable sources , as wind, water, sun, biomass, geothermal heat might be the future, the alternative needed for the energy industry wheres the fuel production and the chemical industry may have as an alternative for the near future the Air Travel, biomass (Lynd LR, Wang MQ, 2003). The renewable biomass fuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, etc., derived from sugarcane, corn, switchgrass, algae, etc. can become the un still, perfect substitutes for all petroleum-based fuels. Each persons share of electricity and fuel used in making food and goods and their transport represint the energy consumption rate. A possible motor fuel on importance of effective organic farms in the short and medium terms is represented by relevant biogas. This alternative fuel can be produced by anaerobic digestion of organic material. When it is used as biofuel, the CO2 present in it is removed for increasing the energy content and Exploration of Caravaggio Essay it can be stored at high pressure. Biogas can be a substitute as fuel for boilers, propane and natural gas and in rural areas for electricity generation. Biogas energy usage expansion has continued across the European Union.

According to Eur ObservER, about 13. 4 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of biogas primary energy were produced during 2013, which is 1.2 Mtoe more than in is the un still, 2012 representing a 10.2% growth. However, the biogas sectors momentum was more sluggish than in 2012 (16.9% between 2011 and 2012, giving an additional 1.8 Mtoe) and it is expected to lose some of its impetus in 2014 in a number of countries whose sector expansion controlling policy changes will limit the future use of energy crops. 52.3 TWh (TeraWatt hour) of biogas electricity produced in for employees, 2013 in the European Union. The growth of biofuels consumption for use in transport in the European Union (EU-28) has dwindled in the past few years and finally dropped by about 1 million toe (6.8%) between 2012 and 2013 according to EurObservER, to a consumption level of 13.6 million toe. Nevertheless, sustainable biofuel consumption, certified and thus eligible for inclusion in European targets increased slightly by 1.1% to 11.8 Mtoe (EurObservER Database 2013). To meet carbon dioxide reduction targets specified in the Kyoto Protocol, countries across the globe have elaborated for relevant, future energy demands, state policies toward the increased and economic utilization of communication, biomass. This were considered as well to decrease reliance and dependence on the supply of fossil fuels. Biomass can be a huge source of transport fuels such as bioethanol and is commonly used to generate power and heat, especially through combustion.

In present ethanol is the most widely used liquid biofuel for is the relevant, motor vehicles (Demirbas A., 2005, Lewis SM, 1996). The importance of ethanol is increasing due to global warming and climate change. Bioethanol has been receiving widespread interest at the international, national and regional levels. The global market for bioethanol has entered a phase of rapid, transitional growth and many countries around the incentives for employees, world are shifting their focus toward renewable sources for is the relevant, power production because of depleting crude oil reserves. The trend is extending to transport fuel as well. Ethanol has potential as a valuable replacement of gasoline in vs direct investment, the transport fuel market. However, the cost of bioethanol production is more compared to fossil fuels.

Source: United States Energy Information Administration. Figure 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. Table 1. World Ethanol Fuel Production and Consumption by Year. year production consumption. 2000 297.37 283.15. 2001 317.26 261.85. 2002 362.96 303.34. 2003 454.31 355.49. 2004 501.94 437.80. 2005 578.03 494.44.

2006 701.94 623.52. 2007 910.48 797.22. 2008 1201.22 1092.45. 2009 1296.34 1252.60. 2010 1487.61 1376.94. 2011 1448.46 1349.63. Current ethanol production based on corn, starch and sugar substances may not be desirable due to their food and feed value. Un Still! Economy of the ethanol production process from grains is depen- dent on the market of its by-product e distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) e as animal food. For Employees! The market of DDGS may not expand like that of ethanol in the future (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Cost is an important factor for un still relevant, large scale expansion of bioethanol production. The green gold fuel from lignocellulosic wastes avoids the existing competi- tion of food versus fuel caused by grain based bioethanol production (Bjerre et al., 1996).

It has been estimated that 442 billion liters of bioethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass and that total crop residues and wasted crops can produce 491 billion liters of McGuinness' in "Innocence" Essay, bio- ethanol per is the relevant year, about 16 times higher than the actual world bioethanol production (Kim S., 2006). Lignocellulosic materials are renewable, low cost and are abundantly available. It includes crop resi- dues, grasses, sawdust, wood chips, etc. Extensive research has been carried out on ethanol production from lignocellulosics in the past two decades. Hence bioethanol production could be the route to san vitale the effective utilization of agricultural wastes. Rice straw, wheat straw, corn straw, and sugarcane bagasse are the major agricultural wastes in terms of quantity of is the, biomass available (Kim S., 2006). Current industrial processes for bioethanol production use sugarcane (Southern hemisphere) or cereal grain (Nothern Hemisphere) as feedstocks; but they have to compete directly with food sector (Wheals et al, 1999).

Although these are the predominant feedstocks that are used today, projected fuel demands indicate that new alternative, low-priced feedstocks are needed to reduce ethanol production costs (Palmarola-Adrados et al, 2005). The largest potential feedstock for ethanol is lignocellulosic biomass, which includes materials such as agricultural residues (corn stover, crop straws, sugar cane bagasse), herbaceous crops (alfalfa, switchgrass), short rotation woody crops, forestry residues, waste paper and other wastes (municipal and industrial) (Kim and Dale, 2005). Bioethanol production from these feedstocks could be an attractive alternative for disposal of these residues (Wymam, 2001). Importantly, lignocellulosic feedstocks do not interfere with food security. Moreover, bioethanol is very important for both rural and urban areas in terms of energy security reason, environmental concern, employment opportunities, agricultural development, foreign exchange saving, socioeconomic issues etc. To avoid conflicts between food use and industrial use of crops, only wasted crops are assumed to be available for producing ethanol. Wasted crops are defined as crops lost during the year at all stages between the farm and households level during handling, storage and incentives for employees transport. The agriculture residue includes corn stover, crop straws and sugar cane bagasse. The full utilization of some crop residues may give rise to soil erosion and decrease soil organic matter. Therefore, a 60% ground cover by is the un still residues, instead of portfolio vs direct, 30%, is recommended due to uncertainties of local situation (Kim and Dale, 2004). Most wasted biomass comes from rice, corn, and is the un still wheat.

The US, Asia and the European Union are leading producers of agricultural by-products, such as straw from rice, corn and cereal crops. McGuinness' Of Caravaggio In "Innocence"! Surplus straw offers an ideal feedstock for the manufacture of cellulosic ethanol, presenting no competition to un still relevant the production of food or animal feed. Nor is any additional land use required to produce bioethanol based on these types of feedstock, as they are automatically created as a by-product during existing production of rice, maize and cereals. As a result, about 240 million tons of cereal straw are produced each year as an agricultural by-product in the EU alone. Only a small part of this is currently utilized.

Long term studies have shown that up to 60% could be taken of the field and are thus available for further uses. By processing this amount of straw, about 25% of the predicted EU demand for petrol could be replaced by cellulosic ethanol in 2020, solely out of surplus material. This means that cellulosic ethanol can play a key role along Europe??s path towards sustainable and climate-friendly road transport. Figure 2. Lignocellulosic feedstocks of McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio, different regions worldwide. In the US, corn stover is the main residue available for conversion into cellulosic ethanol, the second most important feedstock being cereal straw. The Billion Ton study released by the Department of Energy estimates the volumes of is the, corn stover and cereal straw available in a sustainable way at 190-290 million tons. In Brazil, where sugar cane has already been used to importance of effective produce bioethanol for many years, some 545 million tons of sugar cane are forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest, which will in turn give rise to approx. 73 million tons of bagasse. Even after deduction of the amounts used to generate energy in existing plants, around 11 million additional tons of cellulosic ethanol could be produced. This is is the un still equivalent to about 50% of Brazil??s current ethanol production (Clariant International Ltd, 1995 2012).

The most important processing challenge in the production of biofuel is pretreatment of the biomass. Lignocellulosic biomass is composed of three main constituents namely hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Pretreatment methods refer to the solubilization and san vitale separation of one or more of these components of is the un still relevant, biomass. It makes the remaining solid biomass more accessible to further chemical or biological treatment (Demirbas, 2005). The lignocellulosic complex is made up of a matrix of cellulose and McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay lignin bound by hemicellulose chains. The pretreatment is done to break the is the un still relevant, matrix in writing, order to relevant reduce the degree of crystallinity of the cellulose and increase the fraction of importance of effective communication, amorphous cellulose, the most suitable form for enzymatic attack. Pretreatment is undertaken to is the un still relevant bring about incentives for employees a change in the macroscopic and microscopic size and structure of biomass as well as submicroscopic structure and chemical composition. It makes the lignocellulosic biomass susceptible to quick hydrolysis with increased yields of monomeric sugars (Mosier et al, 2005). Goals of an effective pretreatment process are formation of sugars directly or subsequently by hydrolysis to avoid loss and/ or degradation of sugars formed to limit formation of inhibitory products to reduce energy demands and to is the minimize costs. McGuinness' Exploration In "Innocence" Essay! Physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological treatments are the un still relevant, four fundamental types of pretreatment techniques employed. Of Effective! In general a combination of these processes is relevant used in Air Travel Q&A Essay, the pretreatment step.

3.1. Physical pretreatment. Physical pretreatment can increase the accessible surface area and size of is the, pores, and incentives for employees decrease the crystallinity and degrees of polymerization of is the relevant, cellulose. Different types of incentives, physical processes such as milling (e.g. ball milling, two-roll milling, hammer milling, colloid milling, and vibro energy milling) and irradiation (e.g. by gamma rays, electron beam or microwaves) can be used to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis or biodegradability of lignocellulosic waste materials. Milling can be employed to alter the inherent ultrastructure of lignocelluloses and degree of is the, crystallinity, and consequently make it more amenable to cellulase (Mais et al, 2002). Milling and size reduction have been applied prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or even other pretreatment processes with dilute acid, steam or ammonia, on Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay several lignocellulosic waste materials, MSW and activated sludge (Muller et al, 2007). Among the milling processes, colloid mill, fibrillator and dissolver are suitable only for wet materials, e.g. wet paper from domestic waste separation or paper pulps, while the extruder, roller mill, cryogenic mill and hammer mill are usually used for dry materials. The ball mill can be used for either dry or wet materials. Grinding with hammer milling of waste paper is a favorable method (Walpot, 1986).

Milling can improve susceptibility to un still enzymatic hydrolysis by reducing the size of the materials, and for employees degree of crystallinity of lignocelluloses (Fan et al, 1980) , which improves enzymatic degradation of these materials toward ethanol or biogas. Without any pretreatment, corn stover with sizes of 5375 ??m was 1.5 times more productive than larger corn stover particles of 425710 ??m (Zeng et al 2007). Irradiation by e.g. Is The Un Still Relevant! gamma rays, electron beam and microwaves can improve enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses. The combination of the radiation and other methods such as acid treatment can further accelerate enzymatic hydrolysis (Kumakura and Kaetsu, 1984). Irradiation has enhanced enzymatic degradation of cellulose into glucose. However, pre-irradiation is more effective in air than in acid solution (Mamar and Hadjadj, 1990). 3.2. Physico-chemical pretreatment. Pretreatments that combine both chemical and physical processes are referred to as physico-chemical processes (Chandra et al, 2007).

3.2.1. Steam explosion (autohydrolysis) Among the physico-chemical processes, steaming with or without explosion (autohydrolysis) has received substantial attention in san vitale, pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. The pretreatment removes most of the un still, hemicellulose, thus improving the enzymatic digestion. In steam explosion, the pressure is suddenly reduced and makes the materials undergo an explosive decompression.

High pressure and consequently high temperature, typically between 160 and 260 ??C, for a few seconds (e.g. 30 s) to several minutes (e.g. 20 min), were used in steam explosion (Boussaid et al, 1999), (Varga et al, 2004), (Sun et al, 2004). The steam explosion process is well documented and was tested in lab-and pilot processes by several research groups and portfolio investment companies. Its energy cost is relatively moderate, and it satisfies all the un still, requirements of the pretreatment process. The process of steam explosion was demonstrated on a commercial scale at the Masonite plants. Increase in temperature up to a certain level can effectively release hemicellulosic sugars. However, the sugars loss steadily increases by further increasing the temperature, resulting in a decrease in importance communication, total sugar recovery (Ruiz et al, 2008).

Special care should be taken in selecting the steam explosion conditions in order to avoid excessive degradation of the physical and chemical properties of the is the un still, cellulose. In very harsh conditions, lower enzymatic digestibility of lignocelluloses may also be observed after steam explosion. For instance, generation of portfolio, condensation substances between the polymers in un still relevant, steam explosion of wheat straw may lead to a more recalcitrant residue (Sun et al, 2005). 3.2.2. Steam explosion with addition of SO2.

Steam pretreatment can be performed with addition of sulfur dioxide (SO2), while the aim of adding this chemical is to improve recovering both cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. The treatment can be carried out by 14% SO2 (w/w substrate) at McGuinness' of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay elevated temperatures, e.g. 160230 ??C, for a period of e.g. 10 min (Eklund et al, 1995). 3.2.3. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX)

AFEX is one of the alkaline physico-chemical pretreatment processes. Here the biomass is exposed to liquid ammonia at relatively high temperature (e.g. 90100 ??C) for a period of e.g. 30 min, followed by immediate reduction of pressure. The effective parameters in is the relevant, the AFEX process are ammonia loading, temperature, water loading, blowdown pressure, time, and number of treatments (Holtzapple et al, 1991). Air Travel Industry! The AFEX process produces only a pretreated solid material, while some other pretreatments such as steam explosion produce a slurry that can be separated in a solid and a liquid fractions (Mosier et al, 2005). The AFEX process can either modify or effectively reduce the lignin fraction of the lignocellulosic materials, while the hemicellulose and is the un still cellulose fractions may remain intact. At optimum conditions, AFEX can significantly improve the incentives for employees, enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum conditions for AFEX depend on the lignocellulosic materials.

For example, the optimum conditions in pretreatment of switch grass were reported to be about 100??C, ammonia loading of 1:1 kg of ammonia per relevant kg of dry matter, and 5 min retention time (Alizadeh et al, 2005). One of the major advantages of AFEX pretreatment is no formation of portfolio, some types of inhibitory by-products, which are produced during the is the un still relevant, other pretreatment methods, such as furans in dilute-acid and steam explosion pretreatment. However, part of phenolic fragments of lignin and other cell wall extractives may remain on the cellulosic surface. Therefore, washing with water might be necessary to Air Travel remove part of these inhibitory components, although increasing the amount of wastewater from the process (Chundawat et al, 2007. However, there are some disadvantages in using the AFEX process compared to some other processes. AFEX is more effective on un still the biomass that contains less lignin, and the AFEX pretreatment does not significantly solubilize hemicellulose compared to of Caravaggio Essay other pretreatment processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Furthermore, ammonia must be recycled after the pretreatment to reduce the cost and protect the environment (Eggeman and Elander, 2005), (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.2.4.

CO2 explosion. Supercritical carbon dioxide has been considered as an extraction solvent for un still, non-extractive purposes, due to several advantages such as availability at relatively low cost, non-toxicity, non-flammability, easy recovery after extraction, and environmental acceptability (Zheng and Tsao, 1996). Supercritical carbon dioxide displays gas-like mass transfer properties, besides a liquid-like solvating power (Zheng et al, 1995). It was shown that in the presence of discovery creative writing, water, supercritical CO2 can efficiently improve the enzymatic digestibility of aspen (hardwood) and southern yellow pine (softwood) (Kim and Hong, 2001). The delignification with carbon dioxide at high pressures can be improved by co-solvents such as ethanolwater or acetic acidwater, and can efficiently increase the lignin removal. Carbon dioxide molecules should be comparable in size to those of water and ammonia, and should be able to is the relevant penetrate small pores accessible to water and ammonia molecules. 3.2.5.

Liquid hot-water pretreatment. Cooking of Air Travel Industry, lignocellulosic materials in liquid hot water (LHW) is one of the un still relevant, hydrothermal pretreatment methods applied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials since several decades ago in e.g. pulp industries. Water under high pressure can penetrate into the biomass, hydrate cellulose, and remove hemicellulose and part of lignin. The major advantages are no addition of chemicals and no requirement of corrosion-resistant materials for hydrolysis reactors in this process. The feedstock size reduction is McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay a highly energy-demanding operation for the huge bulk of materials on a commercial scale; there could be no need for size reduction in LHW pretreatment. In addition, the process has a much lower need of chemicals for neutralization of the un still relevant, produced hydrolyzate, and Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay produces lower amounts of neutralization residues compared to many processes such as dilute-acid pretreatment. Hemicelluloses carbohydrates are dissolved as liquid-soluble oligosaccharides and can be separated from insoluble cellulosic and lignin fractions. LHW can enlarge the accessible and susceptible surface area of the cellulose and make it more accessible to hydrolytic enzymes (Zeng et al, 2007). Pretreatments with steam and is the un still relevant LHW are both hydrothermal pretreatments. Higher pentosan recovery and lower formation of inhibitory components are the main advantages of LHW pretreatment compared to steam explosion. For Employees! For instance, treating of is the un still, de-starched corn fiber with hot water at 160 ??C for Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay, 20 min dissolved 75% of the is the relevant, xylan (Dien et al, 2006).

At higher temperatures, e.g. 220 ??C, LHW can dissolve hemicelluloses completely and remove lignin partially within 2 min with no chemicals used (Sreenath et al, 1998). Xylan removal via percolation reactor, or by base addition (adjusting the pH) during the process, has been suggested to reduce the Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay, formation of inhibitors such as furfural and is the un still relevant degradation of xylose(Laser et al, 2002) . The pH, processing temperature, and time should be controlled in order to optimize the enzymatic digestibility by LHW pretreatment. An optimized condition for LHW pretreatment of corn stover was reported to be 190 ??C for 15 min, in which 90% of the discovery writing, cellulose conversion was observed by subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis . LHW pretreatment at 160 ??C and a pH above 4.0 can dissolve 50% of the fibers from corn fibers in 20 min (Mosier, 2005). 3.2.6. Microwave oven and electron beam irradiation pretreatment. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in a microwave oven is also a feasible method which uses the high heating efciency of a microwave oven and it is also easy to operate (Bjerre et al, 1996). Microwave treatment utilizes thermal and non-thermal effects generated by microwaves in un still relevant, aqueous environments.

In the san vitale, thermal method, internal heat is generated in the biomass by microwave radiation, resulting from the is the un still, vibrations of the polar bonds in the biomass and the surrounding aqueous medium. Thus a hot spot is created within the inhomogeneous material. This unique heating feature results in an explosion effect among the particles and improves the disrup- tion of recalcitrant structures of lignocellulose (Hu and Wen, 2008). Incentives For Employees! Thermal pretreatment provides an acidic environment for autohydrolysis by releasing acetic acid from the lignocellulosic materials. In the non-thermal method, i.e., the electron beam irradiation method, polar bonds vibrate, as they are aligned with a continu- ously changing magnetic eld and un still relevant the disruption and shock to the polar bonds accelerates chemical, biological and physical processes (Sridar, 1998).

High energy radiation results in portfolio vs direct, more changes in cellulosic biomass including increase of specic surface area, decrease of un still, degree of polymerization and crystallinity of cellulose, hydrolysis of hemicellulose and partial depolymerization of lignin. 3.3. Chemical pretreatment. 3.3.1. Alkaline hydrolysis. Alkaline pretreatment refers to san vitale the application of alkaline solutions such as NaOH, Ca(OH)2 (lime) or ammonia to relevant remove lignin and a part of the hemicellulose, and of effective communication efficiently increase the is the relevant, accessibility of enzyme to the cellulose. The alkaline pretreatment can result in a sharp increase in saccharification, with manifold yields. Pretreatment can be performed at low temperatures but with a relatively long time and high concentration of the base.

For instance, when soybean straw was soaked in ammonia liquor (10%) for 24 h at room temperature, the incentives for employees, hemicellulose and lignin decreased by 41.45% and 30.16% respectively (Xu et al, 2007). However, alkaline pretreatment was shown to be more effective on agricultural residues than on wood materials. 3.3.2. Alkaline peroxide. Alkaline peroxide is an effective method for pretreatment of relevant, biomass. In this method, the lignocelluloses are soaked in pH-adjusted water (e.g. to pH 1112 using NaOH) containing H2O2 at Air Travel Industry Q&A Essay room temperatures for a period of time (e.g. Is The Un Still Relevant! 624 h). The process can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis by delignification. 3.3.3.

Organosolv process. Organosolv can be used to provide treated cellulose suitable for enzymatic hydrolysis, using an organic or aqueous organic solvent to remove or decompose the network of lignin and possibly a part of the hemicellulose (Curreli et al, 1997). In this process, lignocellulose is mixed with organic liquid and water and heated to dissolve the lignin and part of the vs direct investment, hemicellulose, leaving reactive cellulose in the solid phase. In addition, a catalyst may be added either to reduce the is the, operating temperature or to enhance the delignification process (Chum et al, 1985) . Lignin in the biomass can be extracted from the solvent for e.g. generation of electricity, process heat, lignin-based adhesives and Air Travel Q&A Essay other products, due to its high purity and un still relevant low molecular weight (Pan et al, 2005). In organosolv pretreatment of san vitale, lignocellulosic materials, a large number of organic or aqueous-organic solvents at temperatures of is the un still relevant, 150200 ??C can be used with or without addition of catalysts such as oxalic, salicylic, and acetylsalicylic acid. Incentives! Furthermore, the solvent may accompany acetic acid released from acetyl groups developed by hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. A variety of organic solvents such as alcohols, esters, ketones, glycols, organic acids, phenols, and un still relevant ethers have been used.

However, the price of solvent and san vitale simplicity in recovery of relevant, solvent should also be considered. The applied solvents should be separated by e.g. evaporation and condensation, and recycled to reduce the operational costs of the McGuinness' in "Innocence", process. Removal of solvents from the un still relevant, pretreated cellulose is usually necessary because the solvents might be inhibitors to san vitale the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation or digestion of hydrolyzate (Sun and Cheng, 2002). 3.3.4. Wet oxidation. Wet oxidation has been applied as pretreatment for both ethanol and biogas production. In this process, the materials are treated with water and is the un still air or oxygen at temperatures above 120??C (e.g. 148200??C) for a period of e.g. Vs Direct Investment! 30 min (Palonen et al, 2004).

The temperature, followed by reaction time and oxygen pressure, are the most important parameters in wet oxidation (Schmidt and Thomsen, 1998). The process is exothermic, and therefore it becomes self-supporting with respect to heat while the reaction is initiated. Wet oxidation of the hemicellulose faction is a balance between solubilization and degradation. This process is an effective method in separat ing the cellulosic fraction from lignin and hemicellulose. Oxygen participates in the degradation reactions and allows operation at comparatively reduced temperatures by enhancing generation of organic acids.

However, the control of reactor temperature is critical because of the fast rates of reaction and heat generation. The main reactions in wet oxidation pretreatment are the formation of acids from hydrolytic processes, as well as oxidative reactions. All three fractions of lignocellulosic materials are affected in this process. The hemicelluloses are extensively cleaved to monomeric sugars; the lignins undergo both cleavage and oxidation; and cellulose is partly degraded. The cellulose becomes highly susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis (Schultz et al, 1984).

Similar to many other delignification methods, the lignin produced by un still relevant wet oxidation cannot be used as a fuel, since a major part of the lignin undergoes both cleavage and oxidation. Incentives For Employees! This phenomenon considerably reduces the un still, income from Industry Q&A Essay this by-product at industrial scale for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials (Galbe and un still Zacchi, 2002) . Wet oxidation can also be performed by oxidation agents such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Studies showed that the pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide greatly enhanced the susceptibility of cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis. Portfolio Vs Direct Investment! About 50% of the lignin and most hemicellulose were solubilized by is the un still treating the biomass with 2% H2O2 at 30??C within 8 h, giving 95% efficiency of glucose production from cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. 3.3.5. Ozonolysis pretreatment. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials can be performed by treatment with ozone, referred to as ozonolysis pretreatment.

This method can effectively degrade lignin and part of hemicellulose. The pretreatment is usually carried out at room temperature, and does not lead to inhibitory compounds (Vidal, 1988). However, ozonolysis might be expensive since a large amount of ozone is required (Sun and Chang, 2002). The main parameters in ozonolysis pretreatment are moisture content of the sample, particle size, and ozone concentration in the gas flow. Among these parameters, an essential factor is the percentage of san vitale, water in the feed, and it has the most significant effect on the solubilization. The optimum water content was found to be around 30%, corresponding to the saturation point of the fibers. Relevant! This is an attractive pretreatment method since it does not leave acidic, basic, or toxic residues in the treated material (Neely, 1984). 3.3.6. Acid hydrolysis pretreatment. Treatment of discovery creative, lignocellulosic materials with acid at a high temperature can efficiently improve the enzymatic hydrolysis.

Sulfuric acid is the most applied acid, while other acids such as HCl and nitric acid were also reported (Taherzadeh, 2007) . The acid pretreatment can operate either under a high temperature and low acid concentration (dilute-acid pretreatment) or under a low temperature and high acid concentration (concentrated-acid pretreatment). The lower operating temperature in concentrated-acid pretreatment (e.g. Un Still! 40 ??C) is a clear advantage compared to dilute-acid processes. However, high acid concentration (e.g. 3070%) in the concentrated-acid process makes it extremely corrosive and dangerous. Therefore, this process requires either specialized non-metallic constructions or expensive alloys. The acid recovery, which is necessary in the concentrated-acid process for of effective, economical reasons, is an energy-demanding process. On the other hand, the neutralization process produces large amounts of gypsum.

The high investment and maintenance costs also reduce the commercial interest in this process as a commercial option (Sun et al, 2004). Dilute-acid hydrolysis is probably the most commonly applied method among the chemical pretreatment methods. It can be used either as a pretreatment of lignocellulose for enzymatic hydrolysis, or as the actual method of hydrolyzing to fermentable sugars. Different types of reactors such as batch, percolation, plug flow, countercurrent, and shrinking-bed reactors, for either pretreatment or hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by the dilute-acid processes, have been applied. The major drawback of some pretreatment methods, particularly at low pH is the formation of different types of inhibitors such as carboxylic acids, furans and phenolic compounds (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). These chemicals may not affect the enzymatic hydrolyses, but they usually inhibit the microbial growth and un still relevant fermentation, which results in less yield and productivity of ethanol or biogas. Therefore, the pretreatments at low pH should be selected properly in order to avoid or at least reduce the formation of these inhibitors. 3.4. Biological pretreatment. Microorganisms can also be used to treat the lignocelluloses and discovery enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. The applied microorganisms usually degrade lignin and is the hemicellulose but very little part of cellulose, since cellulose is more resistance than the other parts of lignocelluloses to the biological attack.

Several fungi, e.g. brown-, white- and incentives soft-rot fungi, have been used for un still relevant, this purpose. White-rot fungi are among the most effective microorganisms for biological pretreatment of lignocelluloses (Sun and Cheng, 2002). Biological treatments with microorganisms or enzymes are also investigated to improve digestion in biogas production. The biological pretreatment might be used not only for lignin removal, but also for san vitale, biological removal of specific components such as antimicrobial substances (Srilatha et al, 1995). Un Still Relevant! Solid-state fermentation of orange peels by fungal strains of Sporotrichum, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillum enhanced the availability of feed constituents and reduced the level of the antimicrobial substances. In a similar work, cultivation of white-rot fungi was used to detoxify olive mill wastewater and improve its digestion. Low energy requirement, no chemical requirement, and mild environmental conditions are the main advantages of biological pretreatment. However, the in "Innocence" Essay, treatment rate is very low in most biological pretreatment processes (Sun and Cheng, 2002) Table 2. Summary of some bio-delignication processes. Substrate Microorganism for lignin degradation Time of pretreatment % of substrate converted to reducing sugars.

Sugarcane bagasse Pleurotus ostreatus. Phanerochaete sordida; Pycnoporus cinnabarinus 115. Phlebia sp. MG-60 (A marine fungus) 5 weeks. 92% delignication; total reducing sugar. yield 11.26 0.73 mg/g. 71% delignication; total reducing sugar. yield 11.56 0.51 mg/g. 73.6% delignication; Total Reducing sugar.

41% lignin degraded. 4. Enzymatic hydrolysis. Saccharication is the critical step for is the un still relevant, bioethanol production where complex carbohydrates are converted to simple monomers. Compared to acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis requires less energy and incentives for employees mild environment conditions (Ferreira et al, 2009)). The optimum conditions for is the un still, cellulase have been reported as temperature of 40-50 C and pH 4-5 (Neves et al, 2007). Assay conditions for xylanase have also been reported to san vitale be 50 C temperature and is the un still relevant pH 4-5 (Park et al, 2002). Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis is advantageous because of importance of effective communication, its low toxicity, low utility cost and low corrosion compared to acid or alkaline hydrolysis (Taherzadeh and Karimi, 2007). Is The Un Still! Moreover, no inhibitory by-product is formed in enzymatic hydrolysis (Ferreira et al, 2009).

However, enzymatic hydrolysis is carried out by cellulase enzymes that are highly substrate specic (Banerjee et al, 2010). Importance! Here cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes cleave the relevant, bonds of cellulose and hemicellulose respectively. Industry Q&A Essay! Cellulose contains glucan and hemicellulose contains different sugar units such as mannan, xylan, glucan, galactan and arabinan. Cellulase enzymes involve endo and exoglucanase and b-glucosidases. Endoglucanase (endo 1,4-D glucanhydrolase or E.C. attacks the low crystallinity regions of the cellulose ber, exoglucanase (1,4-b-D glucan cellobiohydrolase or E.C. removes the cellobiase units from the free chain ends and nally cellobiose units are hydrolysed to glucose by b-glucosidase (E.C. Hemicellulolytic enzymes are more complex and are a mixture of at un still relevant least eight enzymes such as endo-1,4-b-D-xylanases, exo-1,4-b-D xylocur- onidases, a-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-b-D mannanases, b-mannosidases, acetyl xylan esterases, a-glucoronidases and a-galactosidases (Jorgensen et al, 2003). Cellulose is hydrolysed to glucose whereas hemicellulose gives rise to several pentoses and hexoses. Several species of Clostridium, Cellulomonas, Thermonospora, Bacillus, Bac- teriodes, Ruminococcus, Erwinia, Acetovibrio, Microbispora, Strepto- myces are able to produce cellulase enzyme.

Many fungi such as Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Phanerochaete, Humicola, Schizophillum sp. also have been reported for cellulase production. Of Effective! Among the various cellulolytic microbial strains Trichoderma is one of the most well studied cellulase and hemicellulase producing fungal strains (Xu et al, 1998). Trichoderma is able to produce at least two cellobiohydrolases and is the relevant ve endoglucanases and incentives for employees three endoxylanases. However, Trichoderma lacks b-glucosidase activity that plays an is the, efcient role in polymer conversion. On the other hand, Aspergillus is a very efcient b-glucosidase producer. Trichoderma cellulase supplemented with extra b-glucosidase has been studied several times. Combina- tion of Trichoderma reesei ZU-02 cellulase and cellobiase from vs direct investment Aspergillus niger ZU-07 improved the hydrolysis yield to un still 81.2% with cellobiase activity enhanced to 10 CBU/g substrate (Chen et al, 2008). Various factors inuence yields of monomer sugars from ligno- cellulose. Temperature, pH and mixing rate are the main factors of enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material (Olsson et al, 1996).

Other factors that affect yield are substrate concentration, cellulase enzyme loading, and surfactant addition. High substrate concentration may lead to portfolio investment substrate inhibition. Cellulase contributes to the major cost of the lignocellulosic ethanol technology. Therefore, an efcient pretreatment is to be selected to decrease cellulose crystallinity and to remove lignin to the maximum extent, so that hydrolysis time as well as cellulase loading will be minimized. Surfactants modify the cellulose surface by adsorbing lignin onto surfactant and thus the surfactant prevents the enzyme from unproductive binding with lignin and lowers enzyme loading (Eriksson et al, 2002). The saccharied biomass is relevant used for fermentation by several microorganisms.

But the industrial utilization of san vitale, lignocelluloses for bioethanol production is relevant hindered by the lack of ideal microor- ganisms which can efciently ferment both pentose and hexose sugars (Talebnia et al, 2010). For a commercially viable ethanol production method, an ideal microorganism should have broad substrate utilization, high ethanol yield and productivity, should have the ability to withstand high concentrations of ethanol and high temperature, should be tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolysate and have cellulolytic activity. Genetically modied or engineered microor- ganisms are thus used to achieve complete utilization of the sugars in the hydrolysate and better production benets. The processes usually employed in the fermentation of ligno- cellulosic hydrolysate are simultaneous saccharication and incentives fermentation (SSF) and separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Conventionally or traditionally the SHF process has been employed but SSF is un still superior for ethanol production since it can improve ethanol yields by removing end product inhibition and eliminate the need for separate reactors.

It is also cost effective but difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation poses some limitations (Neves et al, 2007) . The higher ethanol yield coefcient from SSF would be partially due to more conver- sion of xylose to xylitol under the SSF conditions (Buaban et al, 2010). A compar- ative study between the discovery creative writing, two processes (SHF and SSF) is is the presented in Table 3. Table 3. Comparison between the two main fermentation techniques. Fermentation process Features and advantages Limitations. and fermentation Low costs. Higher ethanol yields due to removal of end product inhibition of creative writing, saccharication step. Reduces the un still relevant, number of Air Travel Q&A Essay, reactors required Each step can be processed at its optimal operating conditions. Separate steps minimize interaction between the steps Difference in optimum temperature conditions of enzyme for hydrolysis and fermentation.

End product inhibition minimizes the un still, yield of ethanol. Chance of contamination due to of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay long period process. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation. Studies have shown that SSF is a better alternative to SHF. Is The Relevant! The slow xylose consumption during fermentation in SHF may be due to the presence of toxic compounds which inhibit the growth and fermentation activity of the microorganism. Air Travel Industry! The drawback of SSF can be removed by using thermo-tolerant micro- organisms like Kluyveromyces marxianus which has been developed to withstand the higher temperatures needed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Apart from SSF or SHF, the available alternatives are consoli- dated bioprocessing (CBP) and simultaneous saccharication and co-fermentation (SSCF) (Cardona et al, 2009). In CBP, cellulase production, biomass hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation are all together carried out in relevant, a single reactor . The process is also known as direct microbial conversion (DMC). Mono- or co-culture of microorganisms is generally used to ferment cellulose directly to ethanol.

Application of CBP requires no capital investment for purchasing enzyme or its production. Bacteria such as Clostridium thermocellum and some fungi including Neurospora crassa, Fusarium oxysporum and Paecilomyces sp have shown this type of activity. Air Travel Industry! However, CBP is not an efcient process because of poor ethanol yields and long fermentation periods (3-12 days) (Szczodrak and Fiedurek, 1996). Is The Un Still Relevant! In SSCF the co-fermenting microorganisms need to McGuinness' Exploration of Caravaggio in "Innocence" Essay be compatible in terms of operating pH and temperature . A combination of Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was reported as suitable for the SSCF process (Neves et al, 2007). Sequential fermentation with two different microor- ganisms in different time periods of the is the un still relevant, fermentation process for better utilization of McGuinness' of Caravaggio in "Innocence", sugar has also been employed using S. cerevisiae in the rst phase for hexose utilization and C. shehatae in the second phase for pentose utilization but ethanol yields achieved are not high (Sanchez and Cardona, 2008). Some native or wild type microorganisms used in is the un still relevant, the fermen- tation are S. Communication! cerevisiae, Escherichia coli, Zymomonas mobilis, Pachy- solen tannophilus, C. shehatae, Pichia stipitis, Candida brassicae, Mucor indicus etc. Among all the best known yeast and bacteria employed in is the relevant, ethanol production from hexoses are S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis respectively . But S. cerevisiae cannot utilize the main C-5 sugar e xylose e of the hydrolysate . Native organisms such as Pichia and Candida species can be used in san vitale, place of S. Is The Relevant! cerevisiae and they can utilize xylose but their ethanol production rate is at least vefold lower than that observed with S. cerevisiae . Different microorganisms have shown different yields of ethanol depending on their mono- mer utilization (Table 4).

Table 4 Ethanol yields from various substrates by incentives for employees various microorganisms. Substrate Fermenting microbe Yield of ethanol Feature of the un still, employed microorganism. Can ferment both glucose and xylose. Utilizes xylose and Industry Q&A Essay glucose present. Adapted at increased concentration.

Co-ferment glucose and is the relevant xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose rst and then. xylose from the mixture. Sugar cane bagasse. Rice straw Pichia stipitis BCC15191. Recombinant Escherichia coli KO11. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124.

Pichia stipitis A. Candida shehatae NCL-3501. Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 0.29 0.02 g ethanol/g available fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) after 24 h. 31.50 g of ethanol/L in 48 h equivalent to a theoretical maximum yield of Air Travel Q&A Essay, 91.5% 0.35 gp/gs Calculated as nal ethanol. 0.41 gp/gs concentration divided by total sugar in the fermentation medium. 0.45 g/g and 0.5 g/g of sugar utilized produced from autohydrolysate by un still relevant free and immobilized cells in 48 h. 0.37 g/g and 0.47 g/g of sugar utilized produced from acid hydrolysate by free and immobilized cells in portfolio vs direct, 48 h. Maximum ethanol production achieved 4 g/L.

Maximum ethanol production achieved 6 g/L (78% of theoretical maximum) Can ferment both glucose and is the xylose. Utilizes xylose and glucose present in hydrolysates. Adapted at increased concentration of hydrolysate. Co-ferment glucose and xylose and. utilizes ethanol in absence of sugar. Ferment only glucose. Ferment glucose rst and then xylose from the mixture. Genetic engineering has been employed to develop the various aspects of fermentation from higher yield to better and wide substrate utilization to increased recovery rates. A number of genetically modied microorganisms such as P. stipitis BCC15191 (Buaban et al, 2010) , P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124, recombinant E. Creative Writing! coli KO11, C. shehatae NCL-3501 S. cerevisiae ATCC 26603 have been developed.

Strict anaerobic hemophilic bacteria such as Clostridium sp. and Thermoanaerobacter sp. have been proposed to explore the benets of fermentation at elevated temperatures. Some other thermo-tolerant microorganisms developed are K. Is The Un Still Relevant! marxianus, Candida lusitanieae and Z. mobilis (Bjerre et al, 1996). Lignocellulosic biomass has been projected to incentives be one of the main resources for is the un still relevant, economically attractive bioethanol production. Though theoretical ethanol yields from sugar and starch (g ethanol/ g substrate) are higher than from lignocellulose, these conventional sources are insufcient for for employees, worldwide bioethanol production. Is The Un Still Relevant! In that aspect agricultural wastes are renewable, less costly and abundantly available in nature.

Agricultural wastes do not demand separate land, water, and energy requirements. They do not have food value as well. For economically feasible bioethanol production, several hindrances are to importance of effective communication be overcome. These refer to the four major aspects which are feedstock, conversion technology, hydrolysis process, and un still fermentation conguration. With regard to feedstock major obstacles are cost, supply, harvesting, and handling. As regards conversion technology the hindrances are biomass pro- cessing, proper and cost effective pretreatment technology to liberate cellulose and hemicellulose from portfolio investment their complex with lignin. Un Still Relevant! In respect of the Air Travel Q&A Essay, hydrolysis process the challenge is to achieve an efcient process for is the un still, depolymerization of cellulose and hemi- cellulose to produce fermentable monomers with high concentra- tion. In this aspect enzymatic hydrolysis may be the most potent alternative process for saccharication of complex polymer. Several efforts have been made to McGuinness' Essay reduce the cost of un still relevant, cellulase enzyme to discovery creative optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

Finally, in case of fermentation conguration, the challenges involved are xylose and glucose co-fermentation, and the use of recombinant microbial strains. In conclusion it may be said that to solve the technology bottlenecks of the conversion process, novel science and un still efcient technology are to be applied, so that bioethanol production from agricultural wastes may be successfully developed and optimized in discovery, the near future. 1. Is The Un Still Relevant! Buffiere P, Loisel D, Bernet N, Delgenes JP. Towards new indicators for the prediction of solid waste anaerobic digestion properties. Water Sci. Technol. 2006;53:233241.

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Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2005;16(5):577-83. 89. Le Journal des ??nergies Renouvelables, 2013. 90. Copyright ?? Clariant International Ltd, Muttenz Switzerland, 1995 2012. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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