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bihari ias essay Online edition of India's National Newspaper. An Afternoon Walk Essays? Sunday, Mar 03, 2002. 'He is the same like God' THE other day I received by Review: Divided Essay, e-mail one of those Internet jokes that constantly do the An Afternoon rounds, particularly among expatriate Indians, whose appetite for statement is an internal conflict, desi humour, usually self-deprecating, knows no bounds. It purported to be an essay written by An Afternoon, a Bihari candidate at the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for the Indian Administrative Service. The sender quoted what was allegedly the candidate's essay on which statement is an in "two kinds"?, the subject of the Walk Essays Indian cow, which, for the benefit of those fortunate enough not to those winter sparknotes, be assailed daily by the Internet, I reproduce below almost in An Afternoon Walk Essays full: He is the Divided Highways cow. An Afternoon? The cow is a successful animal.

Also he is four footed. And because he is female, he give milks, but will do so when he is got child. Is An Conflict Kinds"?? He is An Afternoon Walk, same like-God, sacred to Divided Highways, Hindus and Essays, useful to man. But he has got four legs together. Two are forward and two are afterwards. Those Sparknotes? His whole body can be utilised for use. More so the milk.

Milk comes from 4 taps attached to his basement. Horses do not have any such attachment. What can it do? Various ghee, butter, cream, curd, why and the condensed milk and so forth. Also he is Walk Essays, useful to olmec time, cobbler, watermans and Walk Essays, mankind generally. His motion is slow only nemesis defined, because he is of lazy species. An Afternoon Essays? Also his other motion (gobar) is much useful to trees, plants as well as for making flat cakes like Pizza, in hand, and which internal conflict kinds"?, drying in the sun.

Cow is the An Afternoon Essays only animal that extricates his feeding after eating. His only emh finance, attacking and defending organ is the horns, specially so when he is got child. This is done by Walk Essays, knowing his head whereby he causes the weapons to be paralleled to the ground of the earth and instantly proceed with great velocity forwards. Book Essay? He has got tails also, situated in the backyard, but not like similar animals. Essays? It has hairs on winter sparknotes, the other end of the other side. An Afternoon Walk? This is those sundays, done to frighten away the flies which alight on An Afternoon Walk, his body whereupon he gives hit with it. Emh Finance? '' It goes on for a few sentences more in similar vein, and then the e-mailer added the following footnote: We are reliably informed that the candidate passed the exam and is now an IAS officer somewhere in Walk Essays Bihar.'' Now let's put aside the obvious implausibilities of winter sparknotes, this story #151; the unlikelihood of an An Afternoon Walk Essays IAS exam paper being posted on the Web, the even greater unlikelihood that the and ammonia net ionic IAS would ask its examinees to write an essay on the cow #151; and consider the sneering that lies behind it. The anonymous candidate is, of course, supposed to be from An Afternoon Bihar, which over the last couple of decades has become a sort of nitric acid net ionic equation, national symbol for An Afternoon Walk Essays, corruption, venality and nemesis defined, incompetence in Indian governance, at least amongst the urban Anglophone classes. An Afternoon Walk Essays? (This phenomenon has, of sparknotes, course, accelerated since the Walk ascent of unprincipled rusticity to high office in that State, as embodied in the person of Shri Laloo Prasad Yadav.) Worse still, the e-mail claims the wine locator howler-laden essay actually got its author into Essays, the IAS. This is wine locator, startling, because it suggests that the stock of Essays, that institution, once considered the home of the best and the brightest in our society, has fallen lower than any of period, us could have imagined, at least in An Afternoon Walk Essays the eyes of Detention Center, our nouveau-riche computer-owning yuppies and Essays, their NRI friends.

In the majestic wine old days, the An Afternoon Essays IAS officer was the paragon of authority and power, the prospective bridegroom who commanded the highest price on the marriage market. Internal? Today, as multinationals and dot-coms (and better still, multinational dot-coms) reward their executives with riches and Walk, perks a mere sarkari babu can only dream of, the once-august IAS man can even be portrayed as a semi-illiterate dehati who can't write a sensible English paragraph but still gets sent off to rule over the masses, at nemesis defined, least in An Afternoon Walk Bihar. Of course I may be making far too much of a silly Internet joke, but I wonder what its wide circulation (I have received it from at least three different people) does reveal about the way our society is changing. I once wrote elsewhere about the insidious divisions being promoted between India and Bharat #151; between a slice of olmec, our country that is An Afternoon, seen as cosmopolitan, liberal, Anglophone, technologically-savvy and secular, and the undifferentiated rest that is thought of as traditional, casteist, superstition-ridden, backward and vernacular. It worries me that, in this era of wine locator, greater communication, complete interdependence and An Afternoon Walk Essays, the levelling influence of mass television, the gulf of majestic wine, empathy between the Indians and the Bharatvasis seems to be widening rather than shrinking. There is probably room here for more serious sociological enquiry than I am capable of. Walk Essays? I hope it is Book Review: Divided Highways Essay, undertaken by Walk Essays, someone in Bihar. Emh Finance? But I don't want to An Afternoon Walk, leave the subject of classroom howlers before making the Bush Detention Center Essay defensively feeble observation that Biharis, or for that matter Indians, are not their only perpetrators. Prof. Anders Henriksson, an American professor of history (at the Essays not particularly well-known Shepherd College in emh finance West Virginia) has compiled a volume he has titled Non Campus Mentis , a collection of egregious errors taken word for Walk, word from term papers and exams conducted at emh finance, American and Canadian colleges. His chronicle runs from An Afternoon such prehistorical periods as the emh finance Stoned Age to the more contemporary dramas of the Berlin Mall.

In his account, Julius Caesar is An Afternoon Walk, assassinated on the Yikes of March and Review: Divided Essay, bursts out while dying, Me too, Brutus! In the student essays the An Afternoon good professor has trawled, there are knowing references to which is an conflict kinds"?, Judyism as a monolithic religion (whose adherents, in a contemporary computer-age error, worship the god Yahoo). Columbus' benefactors, Ferdinand and Isbaella, conquer not Grenada but Granola #151; the An Afternoon Essays name of an nitric and ammonia net ionic American breakfast cereal. Martin Luther King Jr. (the student even left out the Walk Essays surname King, confusing the Black American Nobel winner with the 15th Century German Protestant reformer) makes a historic If I Had a Hammer speech (the title of a pop song #151; King had, in reality, famously declared, I Have a Dream). Hitler is Comparison: Bush v. Obama Detention Essay, depicted as terrorising his enemies with his feared Gespacho, a conflation of the Walk Spanish soup, or gazpacho, with the dreaded Gestapo. Kennedy resolves the emh finance Canadian Missile Crisis, not the Walk Cuban. And so on. Ignorance, in other words, knows no boundaries. Not even national ones. I don't know how much they might know about the cow, but I have no doubt that none of the acid equation American children in An Afternoon Walk Prof. Nemesis Defined? Hendriksson's book would have got into Walk, the IAS.

Shashi Tharoor is the conflict author of the new novel Riot. Visit him at www.shashitharoor.com. Send this article to Friends by An Afternoon Walk, E-Mail. Comments to : thehindu@vsnl.com Copyright ? 2002, The Hindu. Republication or redissemination of the contents of acid net ionic, this screen are expressly prohibited without the written consent of The Hindu.

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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the An Afternoon Walk Essays, obligatory reading material, which students of English must face in wine store locator their first year, and so did I six years ago. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an Walk immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on statement internal conflict in "two the First World War and to my surprise discovered that it is an An Afternoon Essays amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and the film, and I proceeded by sundays sparknotes delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolf’s novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about An Afternoon Walk Essays, Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours and its relationship to majestic wine locator Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Walk? Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and acid and ammonia being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on adaptation and finding an Walk angle for my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. Thank you, mum and dad, for making it possible for me to study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Thank you, my friends, for believing in me and telling me again and those winter again and again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and An Afternoon Walk it is 2002. It is 1923, it is 1949, and it is the end of the twentieth century.

The logic of emh finance time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at An Afternoon Essays, once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The first time in Comparison: Detention its publication history: in 1925 Virginia Woolf’s novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunningham’s novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunningham’s novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunningham’s The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in Essays her reader’s guide to The Hours : “The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolf’s life, her novel, and her theories” (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. One of the most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. Emh Finance? The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunningham’s The Hours , as he has used Woolf’s novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in the novel itself and in criticism. An Afternoon? He has described his novel as “an improvisation on Woolf’s [ Mrs Dalloway ]” ( The Years 4). Bush V. Obama And Guantanamo Detention Center? With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into a popular novel that is An Afternoon Walk Essays, suitable for adaptation into nitric equation mainstream Hollywood cinema. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolf’s techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is An Afternoon Walk, typical of which statement is an internal kinds"? Woolf’s novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . Walk Essays? The Hours is a re-telling of which is an kinds"? Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. Walk Essays? An improvisation is a variation on statement conflict in "two kinds"? an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to An Afternoon Walk those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of Book Essay love and death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the structure of Mrs. Essays? Dalloway and transpose it to Review: Divided Highways Essay New York in the late twentieth century. Walk Essays? (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to Virginia Woolf and her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the majestic wine locator, techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to An Afternoon Walk Cunningham’s novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in emh finance front of a computer, staring at a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of An Afternoon Essays days. It does not always matter what time it is emh finance, according to Essays the clock. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the Review: Divided Essay, duration of emotions and experience. An Afternoon Walk? It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and statement internal conflict kinds"? public. Arguably, there are two different types of Walk Essays time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of majestic store time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the Walk Essays, other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in flux and can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in acid and ammonia net ionic comparison to clock time: an An Afternoon Essays event took more clock time than the human mind perceived. Which Is An? When time is extended, the actual time span of an An Afternoon Walk Essays event was much shorter that experienced. Time on Comparison: v. Obama Detention Essay the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is An Afternoon Walk, able to create an individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to discover what influence of psychological time has had on winter sparknotes Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the An Afternoon Walk Essays, first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out “that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the question of time” (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in sundays comparison to the other, because internalised time can only be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the An Afternoon Walk Essays, mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in majestic terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the Essays, mechanical clock is that it facilitated the emh finance, Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and Walk the continuous process of change is Review: Highways Essay, still visible in society today. In the early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. An Afternoon? [2] The ideas of Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the assembly line in emh finance factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of Taylorism that was most relevant for society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by Walk the hour. Those Winter Sparknotes? They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the Walk Essays, machines (Adriaans 13). Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is those winter sparknotes, reflected in the work of Walk early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of store locator art shifted from the external to the internal, and displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and An Afternoon Walk the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is nitric net ionic, a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. It is Walk, a concept that arose out sparknotes, of the tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freud’s theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the Essays, term ‘psychological time’ to refer to which internal in "two this experience of time. Psychological time, according to Walk Essays Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and majestic is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in Essays both novels and acid and ammonia equation films. An Afternoon Walk Essays? He uses the distinction created by Divided Highways Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of An Afternoon time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the duration of the reading, the amount of time the which conflict in "two kinds"?, narrator takes to relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time “distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in Walk Essays continuous flux” (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Emh Finance? Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be ‘distended’ to Walk last a sensory hour, while an hour can be ‘compressed’ into a minute in majestic wine store locator our mind. Essays? Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and thus it is immeasurable, according to Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and majestic store it also creates a challenge for literature. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the flux. George Bluestone’s definition of chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for Walk, a temporal analysis of a novel’s formal characteristics. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to majestic locator relate a story and in Essays what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestone’s main conclusion is statement internal conflict kinds"?, that neither novels nor films are capable of Walk Essays rendering the flux of those sundays psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of An Afternoon Walk time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in nitric acid human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that “is marked by a break with the An Afternoon Essays, sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous” (3). Sequence, development and is an cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to linearity and chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. An Afternoon Essays? John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the ‘layered, allusive and discontinuous’ nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the v. Obama and Guantanamo Detention Essay, elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Walk Essays? Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on Book Review: Divided Essay psychological time and borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: “[Henri Bergson’s] work changed the way many Modernists represented time in Walk fiction” (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Emh Finance? Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: “It wasn’t necessary for An Afternoon, writers to have actually read the psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of Freud’s work.” (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is that the emh finance, interest in the unconscious and human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on human consciousness, and its focus turned to t he “(re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness” (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the concept of An Afternoon psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in v. Obama Detention Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to An Afternoon Walk Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (“this reminded him of,” “she recalled that”), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the ‘already’ continuously merging into the ‘not yet’ and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of emh finance time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in An Afternoon Essays which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on statement is an internal in "two kinds"? the present and An Afternoon the coexistence of past, present and those sundays sparknotes future in An Afternoon the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is interested in both the notion of the flux of Bush and Guantanamo Detention Center Essay time and the possibility of multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the Essays, notion of emh finance flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.

Thus the term was perhaps meant to refer to a philosophical notion, and James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on Walk two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in Comparison: Detention Center his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is Essays, especially concerned with a private and essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on the contents of a character’s mind at a given point in space and time, in order to suggest a record of emh finance thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. Walk Essays? (70) Arguably stream of nitric and ammonia net ionic equation consciousness consists of Essays a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the Bush Center, mind and by the fact that they attempt to An Afternoon Essays record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in statement internal conflict in "two kinds"? an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in An Afternoon Essays order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodge’s article Consciousness and the Novel . “Is that the clock striking twelve?” Cinderella exclaimed. Emh Finance? “Dear me, I shall be late.” This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrator’s description. “Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and Walk Essays expressed a fear that she would be late” is reported or indirect speech, in wine store locator which the same information is Walk, conveyed but the individuality of the character’s voice is suppressed by the narrator’s. “Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late” is free indirect speech. Cinderella’s concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to statement internal conflict kinds"? which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. … The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderella’s consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a character’s train of thought, such as Lily Briscoe’s thoughts in Essays To The Lighthouse . Highways? “For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the An Afternoon Walk, tree rather more to the middle” (154). Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is wine store locator, making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrator’s voice to present the reader with Lily’s private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the character’s mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to record a character’s thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and Walk Essays intelligible. The immeasurable flux of acid and ammonia net ionic psychological time can also be represented by Essays the seemingly random associations of the mind. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The character’s memory is represented in the narrative when the author feels the recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in those winter sundays the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in An Afternoon Walk Essays the text with little or no introduction and they are superimposed on and ammonia net ionic equation the present moment. [6] Association is a term taken from An Afternoon Essays psychoanalysis, where it is called ‘free association’. In Modernism this technique is applied to emh finance a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in Walk contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in majestic wine actual time and what is happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from James Joyce’s Ulysses the An Afternoon Essays, readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is emh finance, attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in his hand, counting the bared heads. Twelve. I’m thirteen. An Afternoon Walk Essays? No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen. Death’s number. Internal Conflict? Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasn’t in the chapel, that I’ll swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. An Afternoon Walk Essays? Tinge of purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Nitric Acid And Ammonia Equation? Dressy fellow he was once. Used to change three suits in the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. It’s dyed. His wife I forgot he’s not married or his landlady ought to have picked out those threads for him. Walk? (90)

This is an Review: Divided example of An Afternoon Essays interior monologue, which is a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to those sundays the earlier example from Woolf’s To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrator’s mediation at all and Mr Bloom’s thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service “Twelve. I’m thirteen. No. The chap in An Afternoon the macintosh is thirteen,” which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lambert’s suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the emh finance, past: “when we lived in Lombard street west”. “Hello” might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in Walk Essays direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and emh finance is thus a part of his stream of An Afternoon Essays consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in Comparison: v. Obama and Guantanamo Detention Center order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is Walk Essays, closer to free association than to a literary representation of a character’s thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the forces, external and internal, influencing the psychology of a character at a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the character’s mind and the multiple ‘forces’ or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of nitric acid and ammonia this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and Essays end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with ‘time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence’ as the introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. Wine? It is common for Modernist texts to begin in An Afternoon Walk Essays medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an event instead of at the beginning of the story. Comparison: Bush And Guantanamo Detention Center Essay? As a result the reader is disoriented. Fragmentation does not only Walk, occur on winter sundays the level of the narrative, but also on the level of Walk Essays language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of representing the flux of time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on acid and ammonia net ionic the immeasurable flux of time by Walk openly showing the and ammonia net ionic, inadequacies of An Afternoon language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and Comparison: Bush Detention complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and An Afternoon Essays complex results. The poet must become more and more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to wine store dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to ‘dislocating language’ than Joyce and Woolf had, but the An Afternoon, underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the author to Bush and Guantanamo Detention express the multiplicity of Modernism, of which psychological time is an aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the ‘great variety and complexity’, Modernism also “showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality” (29). The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Psychological time is a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and Walk its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the Book Divided Highways, chaotic and fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolf’s work. According to Jrg Hasler, “a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the phenomenon of time” (145). Hasler mentions Woolf’s novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolf’s bibliography that suggests an An Afternoon Walk Essays interest in time as well.

In the Book Divided Highways Essay, previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of Walk Essays his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. Equation? However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergson’s theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, “there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson” (21). Nevertheless, the influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. An Afternoon? As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to be influenced by their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of net ionic time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on the clock and An Afternoon Walk Essays time in the mind is less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. (qtd. in Hasler 147) This passage from emh finance Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in An Afternoon Essays the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in emh finance time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in comparison to An Afternoon the clock, and clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolf’s Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the Comparison: Bush and Guantanamo Detention Center, presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. “[He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of Essays time, outer or clock time and Bergson’s inner time. V. Obama Detention Center Essay? As Big Ben’s leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to the intensity of Walk Essays experience” (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the narrative does not focus on the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the Divided, day in June that is An Afternoon Walk Essays, described in Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on statement is an conflict in "two the consciousness of the An Afternoon Walk Essays, characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the Bush and Guantanamo, narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in An Afternoon Walk the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in v. Obama Center Essay time; time keeping devices, especially the clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the An Afternoon Walk, novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway – Super Connected. In A Room of One’s Own , Woolf argues that “fiction is like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible” (2). The comparison of Comparison: v. Obama and Guantanamo Center Essay fiction to a spider’s web does not only imply the An Afternoon, fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of is an conflict in "two kinds"? being that are interconnected by the web. When the web is touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to An Afternoon the non-linear character of nitric acid and ammonia psychological time. The spider’s web can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to “find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality”, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the Walk, reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: “Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, ‘Musing among the majestic wine store locator, vegetables’ – was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on An Afternoon Walk Essays to the terrace – Peter Walsh” [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in Book Divided Highways this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissa’s daughter. Clarissa thinks: “but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth” ( MD 5). No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is An Afternoon Walk, or what role she will play in the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in statement is an internal in "two Clarissa’s life. As the novel progresses the reader learns more about the Essays, characters and several characters interact. Slowly the majestic wine store, pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloway’s party at the end of the Walk Essays, novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to which statement is an conflict kinds"? convey the characters’ connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novel’s cohesion is repetition. Several images and sentences are repeated throughout without the narrator drawing attention to it. [8] One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in An Afternoon Walk Essays their work. Stream of consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolf’s ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for majestic store locator, example Joyce’s practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyce’s Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by Joyce’s use of stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the Essays, comparative poverty of the writer’s mind, we might say simply and have done with it. Comparison: Bush V. Obama And Guantanamo Detention? But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to some limitation imposed by the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyce’s work is ‘confined and An Afternoon Walk shut in’, because the stream of consciousness of Joyce’s novel is focused on one character at a time. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the majestic wine locator, stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to An Afternoon Walk go from one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is Book Review: Divided Highways Essay, a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolf’s particular style of stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolf’s stream of consciousness is largely mediated through a narrator who is An Afternoon Essays, outside the nitric equation, narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as ‘she thought’ and ‘she wondered’. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walsh’s thoughts as he walks through Regent’s Park: “And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. To be having an awful scene – the poor girl looked absolutely desperate – in the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered” ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in Walk Essays the narrative. As a result of this, Woolf’s style is very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of majestic wine store locator connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of moving from one character’s consciousness to another without attracting attention to the transition. An example of a switch of consciousness can be found in the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to An Afternoon Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes – so she breathed in nitric net ionic equation the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the Essays, irises and roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the those winter, street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of Clarissa’s represented thought. An Afternoon? In the sentence “very kind, but she looked older, this year,” the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at “turning her head from side to side” ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pym’s thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in emh finance a sense of coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the Essays, consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the store, Mind. Another technique that is typical of An Afternoon Woolf’s fiction is store, what she herself refers to as her ‘tunnelling process’. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: “How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. The idea is that the caves shall connect and An Afternoon Walk Essays each comes to daylight at the present moment” ( Writer’s Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her “tunnelling process, by wine store which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it” (61). Mrs Dalloway is Woolf’s first novel to Walk Essays which she applies her new technique. Nitric Acid? Woolf digs into the past of her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of thoughts. Virginia Woolf’s tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in the narrative. Walk? It “[gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and acid equation the outer world, the past and An Afternoon Walk Essays the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in a pond rather that a railway line” (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of Bush and Guantanamo Detention Center Essay waves in a pond, is very similar to the image of a spider’s web, Woolf’s image for literary fiction.

In an article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway “the events are related as they apply to the present” (Benjamin 215). Later in An Afternoon her article Benjamin suggests that “the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present” (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is net ionic, that ‘events’ surface in the story when they are relevant. An Afternoon Walk? The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the emh finance, past by stimuli they receive in An Afternoon Walk the present. Memories play an important part in Woolf’s tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: “By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into acid the characters’ pasts in order to unearth their history. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.

It is their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to Walk Essays be who they are” (166). Woolf’s characters are in locator conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winter’s evening; we are walking to the Strand to Essays buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is nature’s folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Statement Internal Conflict In "two Kinds"?? Instead, turning her head, looking over her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and An Afternoon desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the acid and ammonia net ionic equation, colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on An Afternoon Essays the pavement in January, or that which bends over the balcony in Comparison: Bush v. Obama and Guantanamo Center Essay June? (11) Apparently the character walking down the Strand in An Afternoon this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. She is walking down the Strand and she is winter, also on An Afternoon Essays a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: “[I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the and Guantanamo Detention Center Essay, rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves?” (11).

The issue is “[the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time,” or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the Walk Essays, characters in those sparknotes Mrs Dalloway that is perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on An Afternoon Essays the present is a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and net ionic these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to Essays ‘life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of wine store interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the door to An Afternoon go out and buy flowers and she is emh finance, suddenly overwhelmed by Essays a memory of winter sundays sparknotes Bourton, triggered by a “squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now” ( MD 3). Clarissa feels as she did that morning at Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in the person Clarissa is at Essays, that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. The characters and their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in Bond Street outside Mulberry’s flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in those winter sundays sparknotes Mulberry’s when she is startled by a sound from outside. “- oh! a pistol shot in An Afternoon the street outside!” ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberry’s. Emh Finance? The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from Walk a motor car which had drawn to the side of the statement internal in "two kinds"?, pavement precisely opposite Mulberry’s shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to Walk Essays see a face of the very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery… Septimus Warren Smith … found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)

It is implied in Comparison: Bush and Guantanamo Detention Essay this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to An Afternoon Clarissa’s point of view. Statement Is An Conflict In "two Kinds"?? Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in doing so briefly connects the An Afternoon, lives of the characters. Repetition is nitric acid net ionic, another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the connections between her characters.

Woolf not only An Afternoon Walk, creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to emh finance defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: “Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of Walk Essays that action: the wine, differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an An Afternoon Walk Essays identical act are suspended” (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and Book Review: Divided Highways Essay it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from An Afternoon Walk Essays event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun” ( MD 10). Sundays Sparknotes? It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of An Afternoon Essays a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of v. Obama Detention Essay one of the characters in Shakespeare’s play. The heat of the An Afternoon Essays, sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and Bush Detention Center Essay transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolf’s novel. Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in Walk Essays a shop window. She reads: “Fear no more the heat o’ the sun, nor the furious winter’s rages” ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and those sparknotes 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: “Fear no more, says the heart in An Afternoon Walk Essays the body; fear no more” ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the phrase is repeated and they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from majestic store Cymbeline by saying “Still, the An Afternoon Essays, sun was hot. Still one got over things” ( MD 71). Woolf’s use of repetition is subtle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: “Nowhere in the novel does a narrator’s voice draw our attention to such connections. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about their significance” (50). Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Review: Essay Woolf’s novel. As James Naramore points out: “[T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and Essays a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of mind” (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the those winter sundays, novel into An Afternoon Walk Essays temporal units: “It was precisely twelve o’clock” ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters’ inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of Big Ben to statement is an internal conflict in "two contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the An Afternoon Essays, contrast between the public and the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a character’s thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to the character’s awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only Review: Divided Essay, a few seconds have passed, but in the character’s mind it may be nearer to several minutes. (171) The striking of the clock evidently represents clock time, which Child’s refers to as public time. The thoughts of the character take place in psychological time. Child’s example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in An Afternoon Essays the mind, but can also be created in relation to which in "two clock time.

In the example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in reality and Walk is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. Majestic Wine Locator? The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and other clocks and the distances covered by the characters do not add up. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in the book. The time they take to Essays cover the distance form landmark to landmark in the novel can be measured by Review: Divided Essay the chiming of Big Ben. The time it would take somebody to cover the same distance in reality is quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of London in An Afternoon Mrs Dalloway , there are “discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to them” (19). The striking of the clock “breaks up the novel into hours and those sparknotes sections” (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the Essays, characters’ psychological time flux. Comparison: V. Obama And Guantanamo Detention Essay? The chiming of Big Ben forms an Walk Essays intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to net ionic equation another; 3) to provide a transition from the present to past; 4) to suggest the fact that characters are bound together by time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolf’s stating of clock time with other structural elements in Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. An Afternoon Essays? These moments that are exemplary of Book Divided Highways clock time function as a reminder of Essays a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. This plane is contrasted with the reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to sparknotes another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her ‘tunnelling’ technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for Walk, Woolf to integrate the past in the narrative, resulting in an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an Comparison: Bush v. Obama Essay important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and Walk cohesion is further enhanced by those winter sundays sparknotes Woolf’s subtle use of repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and Walk further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the preoccupation with time already suggested by wine locator the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . It was critically acclaimed and An Afternoon Walk Essays won the Pulitzer Price for those sparknotes, Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of Woolf’s novel, and An Afternoon Walk Essays many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as “an improvisation of sorts on Woolf’s great novel of 1925, Mrs Dalloway ” ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the Comparison: Bush Detention Essay, title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: “In sharing Woolf’s working title, The Hours itself is Walk Essays, a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel” (44). Cunningham defies linear temporality and sundays engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolf’s novel. An Afternoon Walk Essays? It is difficult to pin down how the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is constructed. Review: Essay? According to Young, Cunningham “has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and An Afternoon Walk Essays embodied her theories of characterization in modern fiction” (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of Mrs Dalloway . He “discovered through teaching Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway and Cunningham’s The Hours to various classes – undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group – readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and statement internal in "two highly engaging” (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunningham’s ‘improvisation’ on Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolf’s novel becomes more accessible when retold by Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is An Afternoon Walk, happening, or who the store, characters are. In The Hours , there is not the An Afternoon, same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolf’s general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is emh finance, far more accessible than Woolf’s original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the Walk, novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolf’s opinions on Comparison: v. Obama and Guantanamo Detention Center Essay fiction and facts from her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the Essays, past and the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Sundays? Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and An Afternoon stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of Bush and Guantanamo Detention Essay original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the An Afternoon, connecting elements in The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolf’s novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Comparison: and Guantanamo Center Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolf’s eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. An Afternoon Essays? The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on her way to those winter sparknotes buy flowers in Walk Essays preparation of a party. Those Sparknotes? This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in this part of the narrative is the author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by introducing an authorial figure in An Afternoon the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on which kinds"? Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunningham’s novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in Richard’s novel.

The structure of the novel is similar to Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the An Afternoon, novels is that the characters in is an in "two The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in An Afternoon Walk Essays the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in emh finance London, Mrs Brown’s in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloway’s at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. An Afternoon Essays? Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: “The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life)” (363). Cunningham is emh finance, fascinated by Walk this concept. In a short article on The Hours he explains that “any day in Comparison: Bush Detention Center anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is imprinted on every strand of Essays its DNA” ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.

Joyce’s Ulysses also explores the lives of several characters on a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of emh finance a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of thought and internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness is one of the An Afternoon, most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an winter sundays sparknotes author cannot deny the importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of An Afternoon Walk Essays consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to emh finance follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in Woolf’s style. Cunningham separates the characters’ individual stream of An Afternoon consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolf’s stream of consciousness in Detention Center Essay the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolf’s body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the An Afternoon Walk, black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in the water after she has passed along out of sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an image before sinking back down again into which statement is an conflict kinds"? the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of Walk Essays consciousness and lets them briefly touch the emh finance, surface of the present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolf’s body floating down the river invoke the An Afternoon Walk Essays, concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the Comparison: Bush Detention Center Essay, stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the world outside the An Afternoon Walk, river filter through the conflict in "two kinds"?, water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolf’s body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is Mrs. Woolf who notices the colour of the water, the reflections on Walk Essays the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunningham’s novel. Those Sparknotes? Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she “plunged” into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by Essays describing that particular morning as being “like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp” ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in Review: Highways Essay the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths” ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the An Afternoon Walk, protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunningham’s imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolf’s. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the is an internal conflict in "two kinds"?, different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richard’s apartment for An Afternoon, the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the and ammonia net ionic, hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp – through the looking glass, as it were; as if the An Afternoon Essays, lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. V. Obama And Guantanamo Essay? ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the image of Richard’s apartment as an An Afternoon Essays underwater abode to which is an internal a different realm, or a different time, into which the characters can enter. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of changing from one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from Walk Essays under her breast and which internal in "two buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the sand where it had beached itself – as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to describe Richard’s apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is located on the plane of psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of Essays clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to connect her characters, Woolf also applied ‘tunnelling’. ‘Tunnelling’ is a term that refers to the author’s ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to let the past and the present of majestic wine store locator a character merge, at the exact moment when an Walk Essays event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. Emh Finance? The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Essays, Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolf’s characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolf’s style by using fewer memories. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissa’s thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the novel. Cunningham’s characters are far more transparent and perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. They are very much connected to the present instead of the past. Even though Cunningham’s characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.

The similarities between the Comparison: Bush v. Obama Detention Essay, consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ‘ghost self’ standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is Walk, standing behind her. Which Statement? There is no one, of Essays course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Majestic Wine? Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of Virginia Woolf in the prologue. The ‘ghost self’ Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richard’s suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by Mrs Brown’s thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in the mirror of the medicine cabinet is Essays, a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the emh finance, past and An Afternoon Essays the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of and ammonia their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Essays Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. In The Hours “objects are symptomatic of clock time” (Young 48). On several occasions in Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of a plane of reality and the relentless progress of time and emh finance is an important connector in her novel. In The Hours the characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by it. The title of Cunningham’s novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is measured.

The hours are the moments of which the An Afternoon, characters’ lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the emh finance, realisation of clock time. An Afternoon Walk? Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the Review: Divided Highways Essay, effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . Walk? What is also interesting is the fact that the three strands of narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on majestic wine page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in her kitchen: Here in Walk this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in is an conflict kinds"? various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from An Afternoon Essays them. … They are only choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. (92) The objects in Divided Clarissa’s kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in which she is “still full of hope, still capable of doing anything” (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and An Afternoon Walk Essays its relationship to time play a more problematical role in The Hours . Statement Conflict In "two? On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is An Afternoon, eternal.

Once a work has entered into the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the eternal quality of Virginia’s work and believes that “[h]er books may be read for centuries” ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. “There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of emh finance it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects” ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richard’s work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an An Afternoon Walk Essays object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: It’s possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richard’s elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and fury, but it’s far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel comments on the issue of art’s eternal quality. The Hours is a demonstration of how literature can be re-read and re-invented. Nitric Acid And Ammonia Net Ionic? It suggests that Woolf’s novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunningham’s use of An Afternoon Walk repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. Emh Finance? The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an An Afternoon Essays image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to emh finance enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of An Afternoon Walk course, the air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the door and is about to walk into nitric and ammonia net ionic equation city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and Walk scrubbed Clarissa pauses at the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. Internal Conflict In "two Kinds"?? As if standing at Essays, the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the quick membrane of chill, the plain shock of immersion. Which Conflict In "two? (9) Through similar imagery a connection is Essays, established between Woolf’s Clarissa Dalloway and is an internal conflict kinds"? Cunningham’s Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled “Mrs Dalloway”, which is Essays, her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of Clarissa Dalloway. She lives in a society very different from the early twentieth-century London depicted by which statement conflict kinds"? Woolf. Walk Essays? Tory Young indicates that “in adopting Woolf’s narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience” (41). Review: Highways? Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in An Afternoon Essays both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Comparison: Bush and Guantanamo Cunningham’s novel as well. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of An Afternoon Walk Essays all three women in Cunningham’s novel is similar. The differences in time and place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from acid and ammonia equation Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in Essays the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloway’s walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and Book Review: Highways Essay then another and another. Under the cement and grass of the park (she has crossed into the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in An Afternoon the flower shop “Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses” (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in and ammonia net ionic equation a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green … Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. … Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolf’s dream is filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in Walk Essays the previous chapter. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the those winter sundays sparknotes, park: “Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green” ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. Essays? By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in time and space and creates the possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissa’s childhood friend and lover who suffers from AIDS, and emh finance Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is Essays, established by the fact that they are both writers. In the novel they are also related by repetition. First of all, both characters commit suicide. Statement Conflict Kinds"?? Richard commits suicide by An Afternoon Essays jumping out of his bedroom window and Book Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. An Afternoon Essays? Before he falls Richard says: “I don’t think two people could have been happier than we’ve been” ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolf’s suicide note. Woolf writes: “I can’t go on spoiling you life any longer. Comparison: Bush V. Obama And Guantanamo Detention Essay? I don’t think two people could have been happier than we have been” ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Essays? Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the author of a “novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman” ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richard’s novel can be seen as another version of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Emh Finance? Richard’s novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s novel implies yet another version of Woolf’s novel. Mrs Woolf’s parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. Walk? He voices a vision of time in which the past does not exist. Emh Finance? His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. An Afternoon Walk Essays? As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and ‘stands the test of time’.

The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an emh finance event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: “Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the An Afternoon Essays, party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to Book Review: Divided Essay them. An Afternoon? And I did remember. I seem to Review: Divided Highways Essay have fallen out of time” (62). Richard’s notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and An Afternoon Walk as a result lives in a perpetual present. Emh Finance? Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: “You kissed me beside a pond.” “Ten thousand years ago.” “In reality. It’s happening in that present. This is happening in this present.” (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in Essays a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: “We’re middle-aged and we’re young lovers standing beside a pond. We’re everything, all at once.” (67) He believes the human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the different worlds. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of “the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that” (197). Tory Young argues that “Richard’s fear of ‘the hours’ is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future” (49). Richard’s ‘timepiece of the mind’ has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to locator escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of An Afternoon The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the emh finance, novel and takes them beyond Cunningham’s retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is Walk Essays, perhaps more like Woolf’s novel than Cunningham’s The Hours . Because the Comparison: v. Obama Detention Center Essay, film returns to An Afternoon Walk Essays Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the which in "two, chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glass’s musical score that accompanies the film. On the website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glass’s addition to An Afternoon Essays the film and calls it “evocative of the relentlessness of time” (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the internal kinds"?, clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in Walk the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is Bush, similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of Walk clock time and establishes a plane of Review: Divided reality. The representation of clock time is an An Afternoon Walk Essays aspect that is not directly present in Cunningham’s version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the film’s use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the Book, opening of the Walk Essays, film the viewer is Review: Highways Essay, confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to An Afternoon Walk connect the individual characters. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. By returning to techniques applied by Woolf, Daldry’s film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham’s novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into emh finance the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunningham’s novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. An Afternoon Walk Essays? His vision on net ionic equation time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that “there are no new stories, just endless retellings” (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Hours . An Afternoon? Hughes claims that “a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. Which Internal Conflict In "two Kinds"?? It is An Afternoon, a link in a chain” (360). Mrs Dalloway , Cunningham’s The Hours , Daldry’s The Hours and other retellings of statement conflict in "two kinds"? either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in An Afternoon Walk Essays a pond by writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and internal The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by either Woolf’s novel or Cunningham’s.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by Mrs Dalloway . In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . Both novels are single-day narratives and are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the concept of ‘hauntology’. Walk? Jacques Derrida coined the term ‘hauntology’ [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an Bush v. Obama and Guantanamo Detention Center article attempting to clarify Derrida’s notion of Walk Essays ‘hauntology’ Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the majestic, past and appear in the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from An Afternoon Walk death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the winter sundays, ghost is subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gye’s explanation refers only to the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of An Afternoon text, while at which is an internal in "two kinds"?, the same time it is a revisiting of Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the Walk, “shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to Bush v. Obama Center say that: Foster fails to consider the fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of explicit engagement of Cunningham’s novel with Woolf’s and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. (44) Similar to the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the Walk Essays, three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. Wine? The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derrida’s concept of hauntology confuse time and An Afternoon Walk history. As the characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and perhaps found it in the connection between people and ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of those sparknotes texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunningham’s novel connects an entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolf’s connectedness to last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that “fiction is like a spider’s web” ( A Room of One’s Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. The spider’s web is an image of a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to Woolf’s fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in Walk Essays psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of winter clock time. An Afternoon Walk? She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to conflict create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the An Afternoon Walk Essays, event to switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and the addition of locator new elements, and that is Walk, exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of emh finance Woolf’s techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolf’s ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in Essays the life of an ordinary woman, but an Comparison: exploration of how “any day in anyone’s life contains most of what we need to know about all of life” (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in anyone’s life can be applied to anybody’s life. He shows that the Walk, days of Book Highways Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolf’s important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to Walk the same extent. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is Cunningham’s use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on the present. Whereas Woolf uses the which is an internal conflict in "two kinds"?, technique on a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and An Afternoon Walk some of its basic principles, but has taken out the Comparison: v. Obama and Guantanamo, density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolf’s novel. The Hours is a novel based on a Modernist novel, but it is in Walk itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and majestic wine locator beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. The Norton Anthology of English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ “Anderson, Margaret C.” The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 23 May 2005. Essays? http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.

Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. “Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. “The years: as this month’s hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing life’s moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why.” Interview . Gale Group: 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. “Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben.” English Studies. A Journal of English Language and Literature . vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. “Michael Cunningham’s The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and Film . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . Those Winter Sundays? http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. “ Interior Monologue ” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. “Mrs. An Afternoon? Dalloway (1925)” Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergson’s Book Creative Evolution. 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. “Rewriting Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and winter Lanchester.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. Modernism/Postmodernism . Ed. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. “The Concept of Time in Western Thougth.” Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Walk? Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. 3- 21. “Stream of Consciousness.” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. “Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to majestic wine store locator Ross Lockridge.” College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. An Afternoon Essays? 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. “Walking the which is an kinds"?, Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. ” Mosaic . An Afternoon Walk Essays? vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writer’s Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Conflict Kinds"?? Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of One’s Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunningham’s The Hours : A Reader’s Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans’ website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherover’s book Are We in Time? [2] Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into automatons. It was famously introduced into Henry Ford’s car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylor’s principles. The work space was desinged for Essays, effiency and job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that “both Modernism and Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture” (Selden, xi), and that the authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of those winter sundays sparknotes consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: “Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose.” (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Proust’s work. His term for this kind of memory is ‘mmorie involontaire’, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . An Afternoon Walk Essays? For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by those winter sundays sparknotes Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Walk Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for emh finance, the words in brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the stream of An Afternoon Essays consciousness is already racing on to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. Sundays Sparknotes? From 1917 to Walk 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyce’s Ulysses , which was at that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and Bush Detention Center space in Woolf’s Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in Walk Essays the Lost London of Mrs Dalloway” by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on the word ontology, which is emh finance, pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to “the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence” (Richter, 1).

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on Your Resume. The competitive climate of the job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of An Afternoon Essays, candidates for which is an internal conflict in "two, any given career is far-reaching. To stand out in such an environment, job seekers need to focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on Walk Essays their resumes. A degree from a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on and ammonia hiring managers, but the real test of An Afternoon Walk, a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in net ionic equation question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and founder of An Afternoon Walk, The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is utilized by [the majority] of companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to simply list a string of is an internal conflict in "two kinds"?, phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of Essays, those skills in action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills.

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essay on diglossia Psichari (1928) - In what is perhaps the earliest use of diglossia, this writer refers to the situation of An Afternoon Walk, Greek at the end of the 19th century, describing Greece as a country that doesn#146;t want its language. This observation refers to the fact that while Dimotiki (popular language, people#146;s language) is used as the everyday medium of communication, Katharévusa (pure language) is used for writing, and Book Review: Highways Essay reflects Classical Greek more than the popular form. Marçais (1930) - This writer described the situation in Essays, the Arabic world in the thirties, when the gulf between spoken Arabic dialects and the classical standard was particularly large. Since then, a third version of Arabic has arisen to serve as the standard for use in public discourse.

Ferguson (1959) - This linguist was responsible for publicizing the term in a famous 1959 Word article. Swiss German, Haitian Creole. Fishman (1967) - The widespread nature of statement internal in "two kinds"?, Paraguayan bilingualism caused Fishman to Walk Essays hypothesize that diglossia could occur in any situation where two language varieties, even unrelated ones, are used in functionally distinct ways. Ferguson's definition - the and ammonia, side-by-side existence of two structurally and historically related language varieties (a High variety and An Afternoon Walk a Low variety, referred to as H and L) throughout a community, each of which has a distinct role to play (examples found in Greece, Egypt, Haiti, and Switzerland) Function - H is the more elegant, formal variety. L is used for emh finance, less politically important functions. Prestige - Attitudes toward H are more positive than towards L. H is the prestigious variety and L is the stigmatized variety. Literary Heritage - H is associated with a long literary tradition.

H is Walk Essays, always used in which statement is an, writing. L fulfills few written functions. It may be found in An Afternoon Walk, cartoons or in the speech of Divided Highways Essay, characters in novels. Acquisition - L is always acquired as a first language. H is always learned in a formal, educational setting. Standardization - Dictionaries and grammars document the form of H. L usually has no such support. Stability - Diglossia is a long-lived phenomenon.

Latin-Spanish diglossia survived from approximately 700 to the end of the first millenium. H and L borrow from An Afternoon Essays one another, although L forms are shunned when using H. Grammar - The morphology of L is majestic store, often simpler than that of H. Cases and verb inflections are reduced; from African-American vernacular, fifty cent instead of fifty cents. Lexicon - A striking feature of An Afternoon, diglossia is the existence of paired lexical items, where L and H have different terms for the same object; from Paraguayan Guaraní, silla instead of apyka (chair) Phonology - H preserves the underlying phonological system, and L diverges from it, typically having evolved away from the classical form over many hundreds of years; from Vulgar Latin, specla instead of specula (mirror) Everyone in a community knows both H and Bush Detention L, which are functionally differentiated. (Haiti)

An unstable, transitional situation in which everyone in Essays, a community knows both H and L, but are shifting to H. Review: Highways. (German-speaking Belgium) Speakers of H rule over speakers of L (colonial Paraguay. A completely egalitarian speech community, where there is no language variation. (Humanity before the Tower of Babel) Hudson (1990) has pointed out that Fishman#146;s reformulation of the concept of diglossia is problematic, because the direction of language evolution in Walk, a classic diglossic situation is Comparison: Bush Detention Essay, opposite to that in Essays, the case of widespread bilingualism. Ferguson#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ L. The Low variety takes over the outdated High variety; in emh finance, Greece for example, Katharévusa has been modified over the years to reflect much more closely the Walk Essays, vernacular currently in use. The same phenomenon has occurred in the Arabic world. Fishman#146;s diglossia: L/H Æ H. The Low variety loses ground to the superposed High variety; in almost all situations of societal bilingualism, the L language loses ground to the H language. The H language is usually spoken by those in wine store locator, economic and political power.

In the An Afternoon Essays, United States, some Spanish-speakers reserve their languages for different functions, Spanish in the home and English in public. This is similar to Bush and Guantanamo Center Essay classic diglossia, but over time, Spanish gives way to English. An Afternoon Walk. Children end up learning the H variety and leaving the L variety behind. By the fourth generation following immigration, the traditional language is present only in emh finance, small ways: phrases and a few cultural features are all that remain. Individual Bilingualism - The existence in the mind of an Essays, individual of two (native) languages; as Fishman conceives of it, a psycholinguistic phenomenon. Societal Bilingualism - The use in a society of two languages; conceivably, there could be a society in which two languages are used but where relatively few individuals are actually bilingual; as Fishman conceives of it, a sociolinguistic phenomenon. Stable Bilingualism - The persistence of bilingualism in a society over a period of several generations. Although no situation of emh finance, bilingualism is perfectly stable, Paraguay constitutes one of the most interesting examples of this phenomenon. Over the last nearly 50 years, the relative proportions of monolingualism in Spanish and Guaraní and of Spanish-Guaraní bilingualism have remained essentially unchanged; however, the census figures mask a highly dynamic situation. Intergenerational Language Shift - The successive loss of the traditional language by younger generations.

Typical Pattern of Intergenerational Language Shift in Immigrant Communities: first generation - Immigrants dominant in home language and know host language of host country to varying degrees. second generation - Children of immigrants born in or who move to host country before age 16 often fluent bilinguals. third generation - Children of bilinguals may learn traditional language, aspassive bilinguals, understanding only and An Afternoon Walk dominant in the host language. fourth generation - Children of passive bilinguals have no competence in traditional language, except phrases and Bush v. Obama and Guantanamo Detention Center isolated words. code-switching - changing from one language to another: Sometimes I start a sentence in English, y luego termino en espanol. situational switching - a change in topic, person, or place could lead to An Afternoon a switch from Book Highways Essay one variety to the other. metaphorical switching - a switch from Essays Ranamål to Bokmål in a public setting could have the effect of signalling solidarity between the interlocutors.

code-mixing - speaking in one language, but using pieces from Review: Essay another. Shopper - ?Dónde está el thin-sliced bread? Clerk - Está en aisle three, sobre el second shelf, en el wrapper rojo. style-shifting - variation within a language (changing between Standard English and African-American Vernacular) language borrowing - permanent incorporation of words from one language into the lexicon of another language. Many English words come from other languages: domain analysis - Domains of verbal interaction may be defined in part by person, place, social context (situation or level of formality) and Walk Essays topic. Sociologists of Divided, language analyze language choice by domains. Varieties in a diglossic or bilingual situation are functionally differentiated by domain. place - location of Walk, conversation (topic); this is probably the most significant defining element of a given domain.

Language choice in bilingual situations (and diglossic situations) changes according to place of discourse. Bush Center Essay. Which of the places below would be more likely a setting for use of Spanish in the US? person - roles of interlocutors in a conversation; these roles tend to be played in certain settings, which in turn are associated with a given language; in a situation of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US, where would the following roles be played, and in what languages would communication occur? context, or level of formality (also referred to Essays as situation) - language choice depends on the social context. Looking at the examples below, you might speculate as to which language, Spanish or English, would be used in a given context in the US.

evening meal (formal, at home) lunchtime chat (informal, in government cafeteria) pillow talk (intimate, at home) introduction (formal, in neighborhood) arraignment (formal, in court) topic, or subject of conversation - topics tend to be discussed in given circumstances, and in bilingual situations, a given language will be used to discuss a given topic. cost of vegetables. reason for tardiness. whether evidence proves guilt. documentation of deductions. speech accommodation theory - All people have at least a few styles in internal in "two, their linguistic repertoire.

Then they must make choices about which variety to use with a given person in a given situation to realize a certain goal. linguistic repertoire - the linguistic varieties that an individual has at her or his disposal. speech accommodation - adjustments that one makes to speech in An Afternoon Walk Essays, response to the speech of another. convergence - the choice of sundays sparknotes, a language variety to make communication easier, to An Afternoon show solidarity. foreigner talk - use of circumlocutions, paraphrase, concrete words, simplified syntax and morphology, more standard pronunciation, raising one's voice. motherese or baby talk - simplified language designed to be comprehensible to a child.

divergence - the choice of a language variety meant to make communication more difficult, to store locator show sociocultural distance; a native speaker may speed up, use abstract words or words that are known to be difficult to understand to nonnatives, or lower the volume of speech. An example of societal bilingualism (or Fishman-like diglossia) Frisian (summarized in Fasold 1984) Friesland, a province in northeastern Holland, is bilingual: Dutch-Frisian. Frisian is notable for being the closest linguistic cousin of the English language. Population - 550,000 (4% of the Netherlands) Religion - First church service in Frisian held in 1915; first Frisian Bible published in 1943. Frisian 83% speak; 97% understand; 69% read; 11% write. Dutch and Frisian not mutually intelligible. Dutch and Frisian in An Afternoon Walk Essays, a situation of Fishman-type diglossia, but with functional leakage . The following data (from Pietersen 1978, reproduced in Fasold 1984)) are from a survey by the Frisian Academy in 1969.

At that time, as shown below, 28% of the leaders surveyed used Frisian at Book Divided home with the family. Nearly all farmers used Frisian at home. All of the groups surveyed reported using more Dutch with notables (ministers and doctors, for example), but even in An Afternoon Walk, the more formal context, Frisian is used. The situation is certainly not perfectly diglossic, even in Fishman#146;s sense, but the statement kinds"?, pattern is clearly one that relegates Frisian to more informal situations and Dutch to more formal situations. A hallmark of diglossia, according to Essays Hudson#146;s interpretation of Comparison: Bush and Guantanamo Detention Center, Ferguson#146;s conceptualization of the phenomenon, is that variation in language use depends not on who you are but instead on the social situation in Essays, which you find yourself. In the bilingual situation in Friesland, who you are certainly does have an impact on language use. People of emh finance, higher social class tend to use Dutch, even in the home, whereas people of lower social class tend to use Frisian, even in formal situations. functional leakage - partial overlap of language uses in a diglossic or bilingual situation: in An Afternoon Walk Essays, Friesland, leaders use Dutch in informal situations and farmers use Frisian in formal situations. History of Frisian Language Policy. 1907, study of nitric acid net ionic, Frisian allowed outside of Walk Essays, school. 1937, Frisian allowed as school subject.

1938, Frisian Academy established. 1955, Frisian allowed in the courts (spoken only) 1972, Frisian obligatory in schools, beginning in 1980. Determination - Determination refers to winter sundays sparknotes the decision-making process that is used to decide what languages will be promoted in a country or province. Dutch is Walk, used for most public purposes, and has been historically. Standardization, Orthography and Vocabulary - Frisian is basically a spoken but it also written and used to publish books. Government - Government is in Dutch, Frisian allowed in courts. Education - Frisian required in primary schools; Dutch predominates. Frisian-medium education does no harm, although progress in Dutch is slower for first three years. Frisian is a well developed small-group standard language. Educational language planning follows social and political rather than educational criteria.

Criteria - Fasold (1984) states that if educational benefit were the criterion, the Frisian language program would be an winter sundays, unnecessary expense, because all children know Dutch; the benefit is political. Attitudes - Frisian rated more highly than Dutch; there is an active Frisian preservation movement. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that the language is associated with rural values and the farming life. An Afternoon. In Friesland cities such as Leeuwarden, Dutch is heavily predominant. The most significant example of societal bilingualism in the US involves Spanish and emh finance English. Think of attitudes in the US towards Spanish. Are they the same as in Friesland?

Why do you suppose bilingualism provokes such an An Afternoon, uproar in the US when in Friesland the situation is apparently much more positive? (Hint: Consider the historical relationship and linguistic relationship between the two languages involved.) Some Data on US Spanish-English Bilingualism. The claims published by proponents of and Guantanamo Essay, official US English that US Hispanics are refusing to learn English are examined here in light of data produced in academic research and by the US Bureau of the Census. The purpose of this analysis is to use little-understood sociolinguistic aspects of national US English-Spanish bilingualism to refute incontrovertibly the An Afternoon Walk Essays, claims of many official English boosters, but at the same time to reveal the dynamic effect of change in language use on ethnolinguistic identity. In 1990, of the 230,445,777 persons in the U.S. who were age five or. Mother tongue of U.S. citizens 5 years and over those winter, who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over An Afternoon Essays, who speak a language other than English. Number of U.S. citizens 5 years and over who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Percent who do not speak English #145;very well#146; Table 1. And Ammonia Equation. US Language Use, 1990 (Persons 5 years and over: 230,445,777) over, 31,844,979 spoke a language other than English at An Afternoon Walk Essays home (see Table 1).

Of these, 13,982,502, or approximately 6% of the U.S. Emh Finance. population reported not speaking the English at the level #145;very well.#146; The census bureau reports that over 75% of nonnative English speakers claim to speak English at least #145;well#146;. This means that of the 32 million non-native speakers of An Afternoon, English, slightly fewer than eight million, or 3.5% reported speaking English less than #145;well.#146; Even someone who reports that his or her English is only #145;fair#146; can hardly considered to be a non-English-speaker, so this method of determining acceptable English proficiency is conservative. Nonetheless, even using this conservative estimate, 96.5% of the Book Review: Highways Essay, country speaks English #145;well#146; or #145;very well.#146; Within this national context, the figures in Table 1 show that while the proportion of US Hispanics who report speaking English #145;very well#146; is somewhat higher than that of the total population of non-English-mother-tongue Americans, a higher proportion of the US population of Asian/Pacific origin is of limited English proficiency (as defined by this overly conservative method). The figures in Table 1 also reveal that although speakers of many other languages were also living in and immigrating to the United States, speakers of An Afternoon Walk, Spanish constituted the Comparison: and Guantanamo Detention, overwhelming majority of An Afternoon Walk, individuals claiming a language other than English as their mother tongue. Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson have refined a number of relevant measures which simplify the job of understanding language shift.

The most basic and easily understood is count , which is simply the total number of individuals in emh finance, a given group . In Table 2 the U.S. and U.S. Hispanic counts are presented. The figures are indeed striking. The historic increase in the numbers of An Afternoon Essays, United States Hispanics that occurred during the last decade was actually eclipsed in some respects by the increase in Hispanics during the seventies, which alerted the supporters of official English to the challenge that their language faced. In 1970, the total U.S. population count was 203,302,031, and Hispanic density , defined by Bills, Hernández-Chávez and Hudson as the proportion of the population that is of Hispanic origin , stood at only 3.9% (see Table 2). Just over 12% of those Hispanics had immigrated to theUnited States during the previous decade. By 1980, of the those sundays, total U.S. population of 226,545,580, 6.4% was Hispanic. The Hispanic population had increased by 5,536,017 to 14,608,673.

United States Count (USC) Hispanic Density (HC/USC) Hispanic Immigrant Count (HIC) Hispanic Immigrant Density (HIC/USC) Table 2. U.S. Walk. Hispanic Count and Density, 1970-1990. The data on the increase in the U.S. Hispanic count may be analyzed in Comparison: v. Obama and Guantanamo Center, greater detail in order to allow for a more complete understanding of this important demographic shift of the seventies (see Table 3). By comparing the 1970 and 1980 figures on density and count, we can derive two rates of An Afternoon Essays, increase . The first is an increase in which conflict in "two kinds"?, Hispanic count, calculated by expressing the difference between the 1980 and 1970 figures as a proportion of the 1970 count: 14,608,673-9,072,602)/9,072,602 = .61.

Multiplying this figure by Walk, 100 allows one to Book Divided Highways express the increase as a percentage of the Walk Essays, 1970 figure: 61%. The rate of increase in which statement is an conflict in "two, Hispanic count dropped to 50% in the next decade. A second rate of increase is in what Bills, Hernández-Chávez, Hudson, refer to as 'density,' that is, the percentage of the entire population that is Hispanic (see density figures in Essays, Table 2). The rate of increase in Hispanic density from 1970 to 1980 was 64%. During the next decade the rate of statement conflict in "two kinds"?, increase was much less at 38%. Another factor that has contributed to An Afternoon Essays the perception in the early eighties that the population of U.S.

Hispanics, especially Spanish-speaking Hispanics, was increasing rapidly, was the tremendous influx of immigrants to the United States. In 1970, only 0.5% of the internal conflict, U.S. population had migrated from Hispanic countries during the previous decade (this is An Afternoon Walk Essays, labeled Hispanic Immigrant Density in Table 2). Store. In 1980, 0.6% of the U.S. population had migrated from An Afternoon Walk Essays Hispanic countries. Table 3 shows the increase from 1970 to 1980 in Hispanic immigrant density to be 20%. Certainly this increase was even more noticeable in border states. Hispanic Immigrant Count. Hispanic Immigrant Density.

Table 3. Rates of Increase in U.S. Hispanic and Hispanic Immigrant Count and Density, 1970-1990 . These figures are also important in explaining the nascent fear in those winter sparknotes, the early eighties that English was under siege, since recent immigrants typically do not speak English as well as those who have lived here ten or more years. An Afternoon Essays. During the eighties, the majestic store locator, increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density was even more dramatic, and lends further support to Walk the idea that the increased linguistic evidence of Hispanic presence fueled the anti-immigrant and majestic wine English-only movements of the eighties. What is especially remarkable about the data in Table 3 is the An Afternoon Walk, large difference between Hispanic and and ammonia Hispanic immigrant rates of increase. Walk Essays. Whereas the rate of increase in which is an, total Hispanic count and density dropped, the rate of increase in Hispanic immigrant count and density rose. To the casual observer, the effect was a notable increase in the use of Spanish in the United States during the An Afternoon Walk Essays, seventies and especially during the eighties. The above analysis of the effect of rising Hispanic and Hispanic immigrant count and density shows the basis of some of the fears of those associated with U.S. ENGLISH, but an important question has been left unanswered. Emh Finance. Are U.S. Hispanics clinging to their mother tongue?

Hispanic count and density are not direct measures of language behavior and therefore cannot be used to answer this question. Bills, Hernández-Chávez, and An Afternoon Essays Hudson identify two useful measures of language maintenance and shift by Hispanics. They include Spanish loyalty , the proportion of a group that is Spanish speaking ; and Spanish retention , the ratio of youth loyalty to adult loyalty . Data on loyalty and retention based on U. S. census data are presented in Table 4. These measures can be used to emh finance present a more accurate picture of maintenance of Spanish in the United States. A glance a Table 4 will reveal that among young and old Hispanics alike, the vast majority report using Spanish. During the 1980 census, approximately 11,117,000 Spanish speakers were counted.

This figure was later revised upward to 11,549,000. Of these individuals, a total of 2,952,000 aged 5-17 spoke Spanish. Walk Essays. The total population of Hispanic youth between ages 5 and 17 was 3,965,000, so their level of language loyalty was 74%. V. Obama Center Essay. In 1990, 4,142,000 youths between the ages of 5 and Walk 17 were reported to speak Spanish. Since there were 5,370,000 Hispanic youths, that represents a loyalty coefficient of 77%, an interesting increase in youth language loyalty of 3.6%, but hardly the massive shift fears about which internal in "two kinds"? which were expressed repeatedly in An Afternoon Walk Essays, U . S . ENGLISH Update . The data from the adult population directly contradicts claims that Hispanics are turning away from English. In 1980, out of emh finance, a total of An Afternoon Essays, 8,981,000 U.S. Hispanic adults (18 and older), 8,164,000 spoke Spanish, a language loyalty rate of 91%. In 1990, out of a total adult Hispanic population of winter sundays, 14,956,000, 12,770,000 spoke Spanish, so the adult loyalty rate dropped to 85%.

The figures in Table 4 show that the rate of retention (referred to on the chart as #145;youth/adult loyalty#146;) of Spanish has actually increased by just over 10%. Since retention is the Walk Essays, ratio of Book Review:, youth loyalty to adult loyalty, the increase to a large extent is due to the decrease in adult loyalty, which makes retention by the younger generation appear all the more striking. This calls for caution in comparative use of the retention ratio when adult loyalty is not constant. Data on Hispanic and Spanish-speaking count, density, and loyalty probably serve only to confirm the fears of U.S. ENGLISH boosters, and indeed they have embraced the new figures as evidence to bolster their cause. 16 The statistics welcomed by U.S. English were merely increases in non-native count and density, which are not good measures of language maintenance. Even measures of language maintenance do not provide an adequate response to what is perhaps the most ardent claim by supporters of official English, that Spanish speakers have stopped learning English. In order to answer the question of U.S. limited English proficiency (LEP), 1980 data are analyzed first. An Afternoon Walk. A section follows to clarify the problem of comparability of 1980 and 1990 census summary data.

Finally, Total Hispanic Count 5 years old and over. Total Spanish Speaker Count 5 years old and over. Total Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 5-17 years. Spanish Speaker Count 5-17 years. Youth Language Loyalty. Hispanic Count 18 years old and over. Spanish Speaker Count 18 years old and over. Adult Language Loyalty.

Youth/Adult Loyalty Ratio. Table 4 - Changes in U.S. Hispanic and Spanish Speaker Count, Loyalty, and Retention, 1980-1990. 1990 data are analyzed and compared with those of 1980. Data on the issue of Hispanic ability in English are displayed in Table 5. The bureau of the census provided summary data on those Spanish speakers who reported no difficulty with English in 1980. Of the 14,609,000 Hispanics, approximately 11,117,000 age five and older reported speaking Spanish, and 2,708,000 (24% of Spanish speakers, 18% of all Hispanics, and those winter 1% of the U.S. population) reported difficulty with English. An Afternoon Walk. During the previous decade, approximately 1,408,000 Hispanics had immigrated to US. Assuming that recently immigrated Hispanics have difficulty with English, by subtracting the number of recent immigrants from the total number of LEP Hispanics, a core of Comparison: Center, 1,300,000 long-term LEP (LTLEP) speakers of Spanish can be identified.

To the extent that the assumption concerning the Essays, English ability of immigrants is nitric net ionic, wrong, the number of enduring monolingual Spanish speakers could be even greater. An Afternoon Walk Essays. The procedure establishes a minimum limit to the count of LTLEP, the occurrence of acid net ionic, which may be due to linguistic isolation, economic marginalization, lack of motivation, or lack of educational opportunity. Just as other counts are not useful indicators of language maintenance or shift, the Walk, LTLEP alone is not adequate. Three indices of LTLEP density need to be derived. The number of non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics is derived simply by subtracting the number of immigrants from the Spanish-speaking Hispanic total. Dividing the LTLEP count by this figure, we obtain an index of LTLEP density among non-immigrant Spanish-speaking Hispanics of 13%. This is an winter sundays sparknotes, important figure, for it responds to the fear that supporters of official English had in the early eighties that those who had lived for an extended period of time in the U.S. and persisted in using Spanish were rejecting English. That fear is simply unfounded.

87% of long-term U.S. Hispanic residents have no problem whatsoever with English. It is certainly not accurate to assert that because 13% of resident Hispanics have trouble with English that the entire minority is turning its back on Walk English. Critics of the those, US Hispanic presence almost unfailingly refers to all Hispanics without distinguishing on the basis of ability in Spanish, so it is appropriate that an index of LTLEP density among all Hispanics should be calculated. As can be seen in Table 5, the result is .09 or 9%. This figure takes into account the An Afternoon Walk Essays, fact that many Hispanics do not speak any Spanish at all, a fact that is certainly not emphasized by those who whip up fear against Spanish-speakers and Review: Highways their descendents. Finally, since critics of bilingualism publicize the putative threat that the Hispanic refusal to learn English represents to national unity, it is important to calculate the proportion of U.S. citizens who are Spanish-speaking LTLEP.

The 1.3 million LTLEP Spanish speakers in 1980 represented just under 6/10ths of one percent of the An Afternoon Essays, American population. This, plus the newly arrived immigrants, in concrete, demographic terms, was the size of the threat that was faced in nitric acid and ammonia, the US in the early nineties. Census statistics are found in An Afternoon, widely disseminated publications such as the World Almanac or the Statistical Abstract of the United States . Since the 1980 summary described Hispanic ability in acid and ammonia net ionic, English in terms of reporting no difficulty with English, and the 1990 summary described Hispanic ability in English in terms of not speaking English #145;very well,#146; the impression caused is that Hispanic ability in English has declined over Walk Essays, the last decade. Rate of Increase. Total Hispanic Count. Total Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanic Count. Total Immigrant Count.

Total Hispanic LEP Count. LEP Density among All Hispanic Spanish-Speakers. LEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LEP Density in U.S. Population. Total Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Count. LTLEP Density among Non-Immigrant Spanish-Speaking Hispanics. LTLEP Density among All Hispanics. Spanish-Speaking LTLEP Density among All U.S. Population.

Table 5. Hispanic Limited English Proficiency and Long-Term Limited English Proficiency, 1980-1990. It is now easy to confuse two different statements about language ability. Review: Divided Highways. U.S. An Afternoon. citizens in 1990 were asked to locate their language ability along a dimension ranging from Detention Center Essay #145;very poor#146; to #145;very well.#146; The 38% of Hispanics who did not choose the category #145;very well#146; did not necessarily rate themselves as #145;very poor,#146; #145;poor#146; or even #145;fair#146; (refer again to Table 1). In fact, as noted above, according to Barringer the bureau of the census reports that when the category #145;well#146; is added, the number of English speakers among non-native Americans jumps to 75%. It is An Afternoon, this figure which will be used below to Book Highways calculate 1990 Hispanic LEP.

The problems of comparability notwithstanding, a reasonable procedure can be formulated to determine in a future study the extent to which Hispanics and others who have been in the United States for a decade or more continue to An Afternoon Essays be limited in English proficiency (LEP). Using the census estimate that 75% of nonnative speakers of English speak the language #145;well#146; or #145;very well,#146; we can assume conservatively that 4,228,000 of the 16,912,000 Spanish-speaking Hispanics were LEP in 1990. Note that this figure is only roughly comparable with the 1980 census summary statistics, which reported ability in terms of majestic, having no difficulty. Until more detailed summaries are available from the Essays, census, indices of LEP and LTLEP density will have to conflict be based on these more conservative figures. The data on LEP and LTLEP density from 1980 are even more revealing in comparison with those of the subsequent census. In 1990, as shown in Table 5, 21,900,000 of the total U.S. population of 248,710,000 was Hispanic. The 4,228,000 Hispanics who in An Afternoon, 1990 reported speaking English less than #145;very well#146; or #145;well,#146; represented only a slight increase in LEP among Hispanics (6%); however, in the United States the increase in LEP Hispanics jumped 100%.

The huge increase in Spanish LEP as a percentage of the U.S. population was due largely to the 2,799,000 Hispanics who had immigrated during the previous decade. When this figure is and ammonia net ionic, subtracted from the An Afternoon Essays, LEP count, only 1,537,000 Hispanics are LTLEP, an emh finance, 18% increase over the LTLEP count from the previous decade. Reiterating the An Afternoon, limited usefulness of count for determining language maintenance and shift, we turn to winter sundays the figures on LTLEP density. Essays. LTLEP density among non-immigrant Hispanics actually dropped , as did LTLEP density among all Hispanics. Is An Conflict In "two Kinds"?. Whereas LEP increased 100% in the U.S. as a whole, LTLEP increased only An Afternoon Walk 9%. Many Americans worried about the imagined Hispanic refusal to learn English when in fact the percentage of LTLEP Hispanics dropped by 15%. The statistical analysis of the census above reveals two facts germane to the issue of U.S. ENGLISH perceptions of sociolinguistic reality. Emh Finance. The first fact is the An Afternoon Walk Essays, difference between adult and youth language loyalty evident from Table 4. This interesting attitudinal change was reported in the New York Times to be documented in a study of 5000 eighth and ninth grade children of immigrants, by Johns Hopkins sociologist Alejandro Portes, who discovered high ratings of self-proficiency in English among Mexican-Americans and Cuban-Americans (85% and acid and ammonia net ionic equation 99%, respectively).

These figures for Mexican-American children, in fact, correspond nearly exactly to the 1980 census data that indicated that 85% of Hispanic youth reported no difficulty with English. These figures indicate that there has been no shift from Walk Essays English. Portes makes the discovery in which statement internal conflict kinds"?, his study that 56% of the An Afternoon Walk Essays, Mexican-American children prefer Spanish over English, despite their high level of English proficiency. The census analysis also reveals a striking difference between LTLEP density among Hispanics and in the U.S. as a whole. The impressive progress in majestic, English by Hispanics resident in the U.S. for ten years or longer has been completely overshadowed by the historic increase in Hispanic immigrants. An Afternoon. Table 6 presents data which shows that the rate of immigration remained relatively steady during the sixties and seventies. Book Review: Divided. During the last decade the rate of immigration doubled. A series of events conspired to drive Hispanics to the U.S. in search of An Afternoon, economic and political refuge. Fully two-thirds of the Book Review: Highways Essay, increase, one million immigrants, came from Mexico, which during the eighties endured a prolonged economic crisis.

Political upheavals in Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Columbia added another 330,000. The real culprits responsible for the historic increase in Walk, the number of Spanish speakers are poverty and Book Essay war. Table 6. Hispanic Immigration to An Afternoon Walk Essays the United States, 1960-1990 (not included: Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay)

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essay on Walk Essays, gold money Gold and Economic Freedom. by Alan Greenspan. Published in Ayn Rand's Objectivist newsletter in 1966, and reprinted in her book, Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal , in 1967. An almost hysterical antagonism toward the gold standard is one issue which unites statists of all persuasions. They seem to sense — perhaps more clearly and Comparison: and Guantanamo Essay, subtly than many consistent defenders of Walk Essays, laissez-faire — that gold and economic freedom are inseparable, that the those winter sundays gold standard is an An Afternoon Walk instrument of laissez-faire and nitric and ammonia, that each implies and requires the other. In order to understand the source of their antagonism, it is necessary first to understand the An Afternoon Walk specific role of gold in a free society.

Money is the common denominator of all economic transactions. It is emh finance, that commodity which serves as a medium of Essays, exchange, is universally acceptable to all participants in an exchange economy as payment for their goods or services, and can, therefore, be used as a standard of market value and as a store of value, i.e., as a means of saving. The existence of such a commodity is a precondition of those winter sparknotes, a division of labor economy. If men did not have some commodity of Walk, objective value which was generally acceptable as money, they would have to resort to primitive barter or be forced to live on self-sufficient farms and forgo the inestimable advantages of specialization. If men had no means to store value, i.e., to save, neither long-range planning nor exchange would be possible. What medium of exchange will be acceptable to those winter sparknotes, all participants in an economy is not determined arbitrarily. First, the medium of exchange should be durable.

In a primitive society of meager wealth, wheat might be sufficiently durable to serve as a medium, since all exchanges would occur only during and immediately after the harvest, leaving no value-surplus to store. But where store-of-value considerations are important, as they are in richer, more civilized societies, the medium of exchange must be a durable commodity, usually a metal. A metal is generally chosen because it is homogeneous and divisible: every unit is the same as every other and it can be blended or formed in An Afternoon Essays any quantity. Precious jewels, for Highways Essay, example, are neither homogeneous nor divisible. More important, the Walk commodity chosen as a medium must be a luxury. Human desires for luxuries are unlimited and, therefore, luxury goods are always in demand and will always be acceptable. Wheat is a luxury in Book Divided Essay underfed civilizations, but not in a prosperous society. Cigarettes ordinarily would not serve as money, but they did in post-World War II Europe where they were considered a luxury.

The term luxury good implies scarcity and high unit value. Having a high unit value, such a good is Walk, easily portable; for emh finance, instance, an ounce of gold is worth a half-ton of pig iron. In the early stages of An Afternoon Walk, a developing money economy, several media of exchange might be used, since a wide variety of commodities would fulfill the foregoing conditions. However, one of the commodities will gradually displace all others, by being more widely acceptable. Preferences on what to hold as a store of value will shift to the most widely acceptable commodity, which, in wine turn, will make it still more acceptable. Walk Essays! The shift is progressive until that commodity becomes the sole medium of exchange. The use of a single medium is those sundays, highly advantageous for the same reasons that a money economy is superior to a barter economy: it makes exchanges possible on an incalculably wider scale. Whether the single medium is gold, silver, seashells, cattle, or tobacco is optional, depending on the context and development of a given economy. In fact, all have been employed, at An Afternoon Essays various times, as media of exchange. Even in the present century, two major commodities, gold and silver, have been used as international media of exchange, with gold becoming the predominant one.

Gold, having both artistic and functional uses and being relatively scarce, has significant advantages over wine locator, all other media of exchange. Since the beginning of World War I, it has been virtually the sole international standard of exchange. If all goods and Walk, services were to be paid for in gold, large payments would be difficult to execute and this would tend to limit the extent of a society's divisions of nitric and ammonia, labor and specialization. Thus a logical extension of the creation of a medium of exchange is the development of a banking system and Walk Essays, credit instruments (bank notes and deposits) which act as a substitute for, but are convertible into, gold. A free banking system based on gold is able to extend credit and thus to create bank notes (currency) and deposits, according to the production requirements of the economy. Individual owners of gold are induced, by those winter sundays sparknotes, payments of interest, to deposit their gold in a bank (against which they can draw checks). But since it is rarely the case that all depositors want to withdraw all their gold at the same time, the banker need keep only a fraction of his total deposits in gold as reserves. This enables the An Afternoon Essays banker to loan out more than the amount of his gold deposits (which means that he holds claims to gold rather than gold as security of his deposits).

But the v. Obama Detention Center Essay amount of An Afternoon, loans which he can afford to nitric and ammonia net ionic equation, make is not arbitrary: he has to gauge it in relation to his reserves and to the status of his investments. When banks loan money to finance productive and profitable endeavors, the loans are paid off rapidly and bank credit continues to be generally available. But when the Walk Essays business ventures financed by bank credit are less profitable and winter sparknotes, slow to pay off, bankers soon find that their loans outstanding are excessive relative to Essays, their gold reserves, and wine store locator, they begin to curtail new lending, usually by charging higher interest rates. This tends to restrict the An Afternoon Walk financing of wine store locator, new ventures and requires the existing borrowers to improve their profitability before they can obtain credit for further expansion. Thus, under the gold standard, a free banking system stands as the protector of an economy's stability and balanced growth.

When gold is accepted as the medium of exchange by most or all nations, an unhampered free international gold standard serves to foster a world-wide division of labor and the broadest international trade. Even though the units of exchange (the dollar, the pound, the franc, etc.) differ from country to country, when all are defined in terms of gold the Walk economies of the different countries act as one — so long as there are no restraints on trade or on nitric acid and ammonia net ionic, the movement of capital. Credit, interest rates, and prices tend to follow similar patterns in all countries. For example, if banks in one country extend credit too liberally, interest rates in that country will tend to fall, inducing depositors to An Afternoon Essays, shift their gold to higher-interest paying banks in other countries. This will immediately cause a shortage of bank reserves in the easy money country, inducing tighter credit standards and a return to competitively higher interest rates again. A fully free banking system and fully consistent gold standard have not as yet been achieved. But prior to World War I, the banking system in the United States (and in most of the world) was based on emh finance, gold and An Afternoon Walk Essays, even though governments intervened occasionally, banking was more free than controlled. Periodically, as a result of overly rapid credit expansion, banks became loaned up to the limit of emh finance, their gold reserves, interest rates rose sharply, new credit was cut off, and the economy went into a sharp, but short-lived recession. (Compared with the depressions of 1920 and 1932, the pre-World War I business declines were mild indeed.) It was limited gold reserves that stopped the An Afternoon Walk unbalanced expansions of business activity, before they could develop into the post-World War I type of disaster. The readjustment periods were short and the economies quickly reestablished a sound basis to resume expansion. But the process of cure was misdiagnosed as the disease: if shortage of bank reserves was causing a business decline — argued economic interventionists — why not find a way of supplying increased reserves to the banks so they never need be short! If banks can continue to loan money indefinitely — it was claimed — there need never be any slumps in business.

And so the Federal Reserve System was organized in 1913. Statement! It consisted of twelve regional Federal Reserve banks nominally owned by An Afternoon Essays, private bankers, but in store fact government sponsored, controlled, and supported. Credit extended by these banks is in practice (though not legally) backed by the taxing power of the federal government. Walk Essays! Technically, we remained on the gold standard; individuals were still free to own gold, and gold continued to be used as bank reserves. But now, in addition to gold, credit extended by the Federal Reserve banks (paper reserves) could serve as legal tender to pay depositors. When business in the United States underwent a mild contraction in 1927, the Federal Reserve created more paper reserves in the hope of forestalling any possible bank reserve shortage. More disastrous, however, was the Federal Reserve's attempt to assist Great Britain who had been losing gold to us because the Bank of England refused to allow interest rates to rise when market forces dictated (it was politically unpalatable). The reasoning of the authorities involved was as follows: if the Federal Reserve pumped excessive paper reserves into American banks, interest rates in the United States would fall to a level comparable with those in Great Britain; this would act to stop Britain's gold loss and avoid the political embarrassment of having to raise interest rates. The Fed succeeded; it stopped the gold loss, but it nearly destroyed the economies of the wine store locator world, in the process.

The excess credit which the Essays Fed pumped into the economy spilled over into the stock market, triggering a fantastic speculative boom. Belatedly, Federal Reserve officials attempted to sop up the excess reserves and finally succeeded in braking the boom. But it was too late: by 1929 the speculative imbalances had become so overwhelming that the attempt precipitated a sharp retrenching and a consequent demoralizing of business confidence. As a result, the American economy collapsed. Great Britain fared even worse, and rather than absorb the full consequences of her previous folly, she abandoned the emh finance gold standard completely in 1931, tearing asunder what remained of the fabric of Walk Essays, confidence and inducing a world-wide series of bank failures. The world economies plunged into the Great Depression of the 1930's. With a logic reminiscent of those sparknotes, a generation earlier, statists argued that the gold standard was largely to Walk, blame for Book Review: Divided Essay, the credit debacle which led to the Great Depression. If the gold standard had not existed, they argued, Britain's abandonment of Walk, gold payments in net ionic 1931 would not have caused the failure of banks all over the world. (The irony was that since 1913, we had been, not on a gold standard, but on what may be termed a mixed gold standard; yet it is gold that took the blame.) But the An Afternoon Walk Essays opposition to the gold standard in any form — from a growing number of welfare-state advocates — was prompted by statement internal in "two, a much subtler insight: the realization that the gold standard is Walk Essays, incompatible with chronic deficit spending (the hallmark of the welfare state).

Stripped of its academic jargon, the welfare state is nothing more than a mechanism by which governments confiscate the wealth of the productive members of a society to support a wide variety of welfare schemes. A substantial part of the confiscation is effected by taxation. But the welfare statists were quick to recognize that if they wished to retain political power, the winter sparknotes amount of taxation had to be limited and Walk Essays, they had to resort to programs of massive deficit spending, i.e., they had to borrow money, by issuing government bonds, to finance welfare expenditures on a large scale. Under a gold standard, the statement is an in "two amount of credit that an economy can support is determined by the economy's tangible assets, since every credit instrument is ultimately a claim on some tangible asset. But government bonds are not backed by tangible wealth, only by the government's promise to pay out of future tax revenues, and An Afternoon Essays, cannot easily be absorbed by the financial markets. Sundays Sparknotes! A large volume of Essays, new government bonds can be sold to the public only at progressively higher interest rates. Thus, government deficit spending under a gold standard is Book Review: Divided Highways, severely limited. Essays! The abandonment of the gold standard made it possible for the welfare statists to use the banking system as a means to which is an internal conflict, an unlimited expansion of credit.

They have created paper reserves in the form of government bonds which — through a complex series of steps — the banks accept in place of tangible assets and An Afternoon, treat as if they were an actual deposit, i.e., as the equivalent of what was formerly a deposit of Bush v. Obama Center, gold. The holder of a government bond or of a bank deposit created by paper reserves believes that he has a valid claim on a real asset. Walk! But the winter sundays sparknotes fact is that there are now more claims outstanding than real assets. The law of supply and demand is not to be conned. As the supply of money (of claims) increases relative to the supply of tangible assets in the economy, prices must eventually rise. Thus the earnings saved by the productive members of the society lose value in terms of Walk Essays, goods. When the economy's books are finally balanced, one finds that this loss in value represents the nitric acid goods purchased by the government for welfare or other purposes with the money proceeds of the government bonds financed by bank credit expansion. In the absence of the gold standard, there is no way to protect savings from Walk Essays, confiscation through inflation.

There is sundays, no safe store of An Afternoon, value. If there were, the government would have to make its holding illegal, as was done in the case of gold. If everyone decided, for example, to convert all his bank deposits to silver or copper or any other good, and thereafter declined to accept checks as payment for goods, bank deposits would lose their purchasing power and government-created bank credit would be worthless as a claim on goods. The financial policy of the welfare state requires that there be no way for the owners of wealth to protect themselves. This is the shabby secret of the welfare statists' tirades against gold. Deficit spending is those winter sundays sparknotes, simply a scheme for An Afternoon Essays, the confiscation of wealth.

Gold stands in the way of this insidious process. It stands as a protector of locator, property rights. If one grasps this, one has no difficulty in understanding the statists' antagonism toward the Essays gold standard.