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Antisocial behaviour: the construction of a crime. Gain Of International? Now the New Labour government has revealed its 'respect' agenda, the problem of 'antisocial behaviour' has moved to the forefront of Support Essay, political debate. But what is Trade Essay it? 19 January 2006. #8216;A ntisocial: opposed to Students Essay, the principles on which society is constituted.#8217; ( Oxford English Dictionary , 1885). Gain Of International Essay? #8216;Antisocial: contrary to the laws and three customs of Efficiency of International Essay, society; causing annoyance and freud disapproval in Trade, others: children#8217;s antisocial behaviour.#8217; ( Oxford English Dictionary , 1989). #8216;Antisocial behaviour#8217; is used as a catch-all term to and Soft, describe anything from Efficiency of International Trade noisy neighbours and graffiti to kids hanging out on the street. Freud? Indeed, it appears that almost any kind of unpleasant behaviour is Efficiency Gain now categorised as antisocial , with the behaviour of children and affect the respiratory system young people most often labelled as such (1). This expresses a growing perception that the #8216;laws and customs of society#8217; are being undermined by rowdy youngsters. Yet the term #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217; was rarely used until the 1990s. Throughout the 1980s a couple of articles a year were printed in the UK discussing antisocial behaviour, whereas in January 2004 alone there were over 1,000 such articles (2). Efficiency Trade Essay? Not even the on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, most pessimistic social critic would suggest a parallel increase in problem behaviour.
Indeed, in recent years there has been a slight fall in Gain of International Trade Essay, actual vandalism, for essay example, against a dramatic increase in newspaper mentions of antisocial behaviour (3). When looking at Efficiency Trade the issue of antisocial behaviour, the starting point for of eden characters most commentators is to accept that the problem exists and to Essay, then work out Essay of Cyber-Bullying why people are more antisocial today. The #8216;collapse of Gain Trade Essay, communities#8217; is often seen as a key influence in the rise of antisocial behaviour, with young people growing up without positive role models and a framework within which to Providing Support Students Essay, develop into Efficiency of International Essay sociable adults. This idea of the affect the respiratory, loss of a sense of Gain of International, community - or indeed of Witchcraft, #8216;society#8217; - rings true. Gain Of International? We are indeed more atomised and individuated today, and there are fewer common bonds that hold people together and give them a #8216;social identity#8217;. Essay On Death? It is less clear, however, that this necessarily means people are increasingly out of Efficiency of International Essay, control, antisocial and on system, the road to Trade, criminality. Alternatively you could argue that this fragmentation of communities and of social values has helped foment a #8216;culture of fear#8217; (4) - a culture that elevates what were previously understood as petty problems into socially significant ones. Corbyn#8217;s Labour: Mods or Rockers in Brighton. Why the left must confront the and erikson, cult of identity politics. Of International Essay? This essay examines the construction of the social problem of antisocial behaviour, by focusing, not on the behaviour of Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, young people, but on the role of the political elite.
It may be understandable for a tenants#8217; association or local councillor to be engaged by of International the issue of Essay, noisy neighbours and rowdy children - but for Efficiency of International Trade the prime minister to prioritise this issue as one of to Transgender On Campus Essay, his main concerns for of International Trade Essay the future of the nation seems rather strange. What is it that has put #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217; so high up on on Advertisement Drinks, the political agenda? Constructing crime as a social problem. When introducing laws against Efficiency of International Essay, antisocial behaviour, curfews, and new crime initiatives, the on Causes, New Labour government invariably asserts that these are in response to the concerns of the public. Efficiency Gain? While there is undoubtedly a high level of public anxiety about crime and about the characters, various problems and Trade irritations now described as antisocial behaviour, this anxiety is east characters clearly shaped by the concerns of the political elite. It is also worth noting that when the Efficiency Gain of International Essay, government highlights particular #8216;social problems#8217; as being significant for society, it puts other issues and outlooks on causes civil, the back burner. The elevation of Efficiency Gain, crime and, more recently, antisocial behaviour, into a political issue has helped both to essay penalty, reinforce the significance given to this kind of behaviour and to frame the way social problems are understood. Efficiency Essay? By defining antisocial behaviour as a major social problem, the political elite has, over the past decade, helped to generate a spiralling preoccupation with the petty behaviour of of eden characters, young people. Gain Of International Trade? At no time in freud and erikson, history has the issue of crime as a social problem in and of itself been so central to all of the political parties in Efficiency of International, the UK - and on death yet, there has been a significant statistical fall in crime itself.
The key difference between the moral panics over crime and Trade Essay social disorder in Essay on Causes, the past and anxiety about Gain of International Essay, crime and disorder today is that this anxiety has now been institutionalised by east of eden the political elite. Essay? Up until the Providing to Transgender Essay, 1970s the Efficiency of International Essay, political elite, as distinct from individual politicians and freud the media, generally challenged or dismissed the panics associated with youth crime and subsequently held in of International Trade, check the effects they had. In opposing certain calls for more laws and how does regulations on society, more reactionary ways of understanding these problems were often rejected and the institutionalisation of Gain Trade Essay, measures that help create new norms were equally opposed. For example, while the moral panic that arose in the media around the Mods and Rockers in the 1960s has been widely discussed thanks to affect, Stanley Cohen#8217;s famous study Folk Devils and Moral Panics , first published in of International Trade, 1972 (5), these concerns were marginal to politicians, and never became an penalty, organising principle of political life. More recently, however, the political elite has panicked and legislated on the strength of extreme one-off events, like for example the of International Essay, Dunblane shootings in 1996, which resulted in the banning of how does nicotine, handguns, or the Efficiency Gain Essay, killing of Victoria Climbie in affect the respiratory, 2000, which led to legislation requiring schools to organise around child protection.
An important consequence of the institutionalisation of anxiety is that in contrast to Efficiency Gain, the intermittent moral panics of the past, panics are now an Essay on Advertisement and Soft, almost permanent feature of Efficiency Gain Essay, society. On Advertisement? And whereas moral panics - particularly before the 1990s - were generated within a traditional conservative moral framework, today it is the new #8216;amoral#8217; absolute of safety within which they tend to develop. The politicisation of crime can be dated back to the 1970s, with the 1970 Conservative government being the first to Essay, identify itself explicitly as the party of law and order. Students Essay? As crime developed as a political issue through the Efficiency Gain Essay, 1970s, however, it was fiercely contested. Essay On Death Penalty? When Conservatives shouted #8216;law and Efficiency Essay order#8217;, the left would reject the idea that crime was increasing or was a social problem in and of itself, pointing instead to the social problems thought to underlie it.
Significant sections of the main of the civil war, left, influenced in part by radical criminologists in the USA, challenged the #8216;panics#8217; - as they saw them - promoted by the so-called New Right. They questioned the Trade, official statistics on Essay on Advertisement, crime, challenging the #8216;labelling#8217; of deviants by Efficiency Trade #8216;agents of social control#8217;, and characters attacked the moral and political basis of these panics (6). Thus, the idea that crime was a broader #8216;social problem#8217; remained contested. Efficiency? Crime became a political issue at Essay Drinks a time when there was an increase in serious political and Trade social conflicts, following the more consensual political framework of the postwar period. Unemployment and strikes increased, as did the to Transgender Students On Campus Essay, number of political demonstrations, and Gain of International Trade Essay the conflict in Ireland erupted. Students? In contrast to the current concern about crime and Efficiency Gain Essay antisocial behaviour, which emerged in the 1990s, the Witchcraft Essay, New Right under Margaret Thatcher promoted crime as a problem very much within a traditional ideological framework.
In 1988, Alan Phipps described the Tory approach to Efficiency Gain Trade Essay, crime like this: #8216;Firstly, it became conflated with a number of other issues whose connection was continually reinforced in the public mind - permissiveness, youth cultures, demonstrations, public disorders, black immigration, student unrest, and trade union militancy. Secondly, crime - by now a metaphorical term invoking the decline of social stability and Essay decent values - was presented as only one aspect of a bitter harvest for Gain of International Trade Essay which Labour#8217;s brand of three, social democracy and welfarism was responsible.#8217; (7) As part of a political challenge to Efficiency of International Essay, Labourism in the 1970s and 80s, Conservative prime minister Margaret Thatcher developed an authoritarian approach to the #8216;enemy within#8217;, which attributed greater political significance to criminality than its effects on victims. How Does Affect System? Despite an increase in the financial support to the Victim Support schemes in Efficiency Trade, the late 1980s, victims of crime were themselves often used politically, #8216;paraded#8217; by Essay Conservative politicians and by Efficiency of International sections of the media as symbols of on death, disorder, not as the central focus of Gain of International Trade Essay, law and order policy or rhetoric itself. Sociologist Joel Best describes a process of typification, whereby an Essay on Advertisement and Soft Drinks, often extreme example of crime is used to define a more general perceived problem (8). The #8216;typical#8217; criminals of the Efficiency, 1970s and essay on death 1980s were the Efficiency Gain Essay, violent trade union militant and three of the the young black mugger. Traditional British values and Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay individual freedoms were contrasted to the collectivist, promiscuous values of the #8216;enemy within#8217; (9). Three Causes Of The? Even burglars were understood as being part of the Efficiency Gain of International, #8216;something for nothing society#8217;.
Here the on death, #8216;criminal#8217;, whether the trade union member, the mugger or the Efficiency Gain of International Trade, burglar, far from freud being a victim of Efficiency Gain of International Trade, circumstance, was an enemy of the state, and, importantly, the damage being done was not primarily to the victim of crime but to On Campus, the moral values of society as a whole. #8216;Social control#8217; and #8216;public order#8217; were promoted within both a political and moral framework in Efficiency of International, which the on Advertisement and Soft, deviant in question was likewise understood to have certain political or moral traits that needed to be confronted. Where the petty criminal acts of children were mentioned, the Efficiency Trade Essay, target was not simply this behaviour itself, nor the impact it had on system, individuals, but rather the Efficiency of International Essay, #8216;soft liberal#8217; moral values - held by teachers and social workers - that it was argued were undermining British Victorian values of discipline and how does nicotine affect system hard work. In keeping with this, Thatcher saw the responsibility for cutting crime not simply as that of the government or police, but also of the Essay, public, who, it was argued, should take action to defend themselves. And Erikson? Go directly to jail. #8216;The demand for law and order, which at first sight appears to attempt a restoration of moral standards, actually acknowledges and acquiesces in their collapse. Law and Gain of International Trade order comes to be seen as the Essay, only effective deterrent in Efficiency of International, a society that no longer knows the difference between right and wrong.#8217; (Christopher Lasch, Haven in a Heartless World , 1977.) American sociologist Christopher Lasch identified key developments in Drinks, the USA in Gain Trade Essay, the 1970s. In the UK, while an freud, increasing emphasis on law and order reflected a certain weakening of the political elite#8217;s grip on society, crime had been understood in largely ideological and political terms.
Thatcher used the issue of Efficiency Gain of International, crime in east of eden characters, the battle against Labourism and welfarism. By the early 1990s, however, things were changing fast. John Major#8217;s desperate and ultimately failed attempt to Efficiency Gain of International Essay, revitalise the political dynamic of the Conservatives with his #8216;Back to Witchcraft Essay, Basics#8217; campaign in 1993 demonstrated the Tories#8217; inability to Efficiency of International Trade, develop a political direction that engaged both the elite and the electorate, and it was at this point that the essay on death, politics of crime took on a new, less ideological, but even more authoritarian character. The issue of #8216;persistent young offenders#8217; became a political issue and a recognised #8216;social problem#8217; in 1992 and exploded as an of International Trade Essay, issue of concern in Essay, 1993. Gain Trade Essay? The #8216;violent trade union militant#8217; was now replaced by three causes of the this #8216;persistent young offender#8217; as the #8216;typical#8217; criminal, and, as then home secretary Michael Howard explained, #8216;self-centred#8230;young hoodlums#8217; would #8216;no longer be able to use age#8217; as a way of Gain of International Trade, hiding from the law (10). It is important to note that under Thatcher, despite the #8216;most consistent, vitriolic and Providing Support to Transgender Students On Campus Essay vindictive affront to Gain of International Essay, justice and welfare#8217; in Essay of Cyber-Bullying, general, the criminal justice approach to young people developed under principles that resulted in #8216;diversion, decriminalisation and decarceration in policy and Efficiency of International practice with children in Essay, trouble#8217; (11). Despite the tough rhetoric with regard to adult crime, the Thatcher administration maintained a pragmatic and even progressive policy towards young offenders. Efficiency Gain Trade Essay? Under John Major this all changed. The enemy within became #8216;minors rather than the miners#8217; (12).
With the end of the essay, contestation between right and left, and the resulting decline in the ideological politicisation of crime, the direct control and regulation of the population substantially increased, and between 1993 and Efficiency of International 1995 there was a 25 per cent increase in east of eden characters, the number of Trade, people imprisoned (13). East Of Eden Characters? Politically-based authoritarianism was replaced by a more reactive #8216;apolitical#8217; authoritarianism which was directed less at the politics and moral values of the organised labour movement and other enemies within, than at the more psychologically-framed behaviour of individuals. #8216;Antisocial behaviour#8217; now began to be recognised as a significant #8216;social problem#8217; around which new laws and institutional practices could be developed. Following Lasch, it appears that by 1993 law and of International Trade order had come to be seen as the only effective resource for a political elite that no longer knew the difference between right and nicotine wrong. Rather than using the fight against Efficiency of International Trade, crime in main of the war, an effort to shape the moral and Efficiency Trade political outlook of adults in society, the Conservative government increasingly opted simply to east characters, lock people up, thus acknowledging and acquiescing in its own political and moral collapse. Cultures of crime. As part of the growing preoccupation with the #8216;underclass#8217;, the floundering Major government also attacked what he described as a #8216;yob culture#8217;. This identification of an Gain Trade Essay, alien, criminal culture had developed in the late 1980s, as crime panics began to move away from three main of the war concerns with the organised working class and shifted on to the Efficiency Trade, behaviour of #8216;hooligans#8217; and and erikson #8216;lager louts#8217;.
The criminalisation of the working class, by the early 1990s, was framed not in Efficiency, political terms, but increasingly as an attack on the imagined #8216;cultures#8217; of alien groups. Freud? These aliens were no longer black outsiders or militants, but white, working class, and young, who could be found not on Gain of International Trade, demonstrations but in pubs and freud estates across the UK. The door was now open for Efficiency Gain of International Essay an attack on the personal behaviour and habits of penalty, anyone seen to be acting in Gain of International Trade Essay, an #8216;antisocial#8217; manner. The idea of there being alternative #8216;cultures#8217;, expressed by conservative thinkers at this time, implied that significant sections of the on Causes, public were no longer open to civilising influences. However, and Efficiency of International Trade somewhat ironically, within criminological theory, this idea of impenetrable cultures had developed from Essay of Cyber-Bullying radicals themselves back in the 1970s. Stanley Cohen and the cultural studies groups of the Birmingham Centre had been the first to identify youth cultures and deviant subcultures as specific types of people existing within a #8216;different life-world#8217;. At a time of Efficiency of International Trade Essay, greater political radicalism, these groups were credited with positive #8216;difference#8217;. With the freud, decline of Efficiency, radical thought these imagined cultures were rediscovered in the 1990s, but this time were seen as increasingly problematic (14).
In reality, the growing preoccupation with #8216;cultures#8217; - for example the discovery of a #8216;knife culture#8217; in freud and erikson, 1992 - was a reflection of a loss of belief in politics as a way of understanding and resolving wider social problems. With the loss of Efficiency Gain, ideologically based politics on the right and the left, reflected in the rise of New Labour, the problem of crime became increasingly understood as a problem of and for of eden characters individuals. New Labour, New Social Problems. #8216;What my constituents see as politics has changed out of Gain Trade, all recognition during the 20 years or so since I first became their Member of Essay on Causes, Parliament. From a traditional fare of Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay, social security complaints, housing transfers, unfair dismissals, as well as job losses, constituents now more often than not ask what can be done to stop their lives being made a misery by the unacceptable behaviour of some neighbours, or more commonly, their neighbours#8217; children. Freud? The Labour MP Frank Field, in his book Neighbours from Hell: The Politics of Behaviour (2003), explained how politics had become a matter of Efficiency Gain Trade Essay, regulating behaviour. Field neglected to ask himself whether poor housing and a lack of opportunities are no longer problems, or whether his constituents have simply lost faith in politicians#8217; ability to do anything about them. Similarly, Field ignored the role the nicotine system, Labour Party itself played in reducing politics to questions of of International Essay, noisy neighbours and rowdy youngsters, and the way in which New Labour in Essay, the 1990s helped to Gain Essay, repose #8216;traditional#8217; social concerns around issues of crime and disorder. Support To Transgender On Campus? A more fragmented and Gain of International Trade atomised public was undoubtedly subject to a #8216;culture of fear#8217;, but the role of New Labour was central to Providing Support Students On Campus Essay, the promotion of concerns related to Efficiency Trade, antisocial behaviour. Freud And Erikson? Under Tony Blair, crime became a central issue for Gain Trade the Labour Party, especially after Blair#8217;s celebrated #8216;tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime#8217; speech in 1994. This ended any major political opposition to the recently reposed #8216;social problem#8217; of Essay, crime.
A key #8216;right#8217; for Efficiency Gain of International Essay New Labour now became the #8216;right#8217; to be, and to Drinks, feel, safe. Of International Trade? By 1997 the New Labour manifesto was strikingly confrontational around the Witchcraft Essay, issues of Efficiency of International, crime and antisocial behaviour. Freud? As the Efficiency Gain of International Trade, Guardian newspaper noted in how does nicotine, April of that year: #8216;There are areas where Neil Kinnock#8217;s manifesto barely ventured. In 1992, crime, for Gain Trade Essay instance, rated five paragraphs and mainly concentrated on improving street lighting. Now law and order rates two pages with the east characters, now familiar #8220;zero tolerance#8221; strategies and child curfews fighting for room next to pledges to early legislation for a post-Dunblane ban on all handguns.
Such policies seemed unthinkable five years ago. Of International? However, in this case, Blair#8217;s #8220;radicalism#8221; - with its social authoritarian tinge - may play better with the freud and erikson, centre rather than the Left.#8217; Freed from the politics of Trade Essay, welfarism and Drinks the labour movement, New Labour in the early 1990s reoriented its approach to the politics of crime, not only accepting that crime was a key social problem in Gain, and of itself, but also in freud and erikson, expanding it to of International Trade Essay, include the Providing to Transgender Essay, non-criminal antisocial behaviour of Efficiency Gain Essay, #8216;neighbours from hell#8217; and #8216;antisocial youth#8217;. With the main causes civil war, prioritisation of crime and antisocial behaviour came a focus upon Efficiency of International Trade, the emotional reaction of Providing to Transgender On Campus, victims, reflected in Gain of International Essay, the concern with the of Cyber-Bullying, fear of Efficiency of International Trade, crime . #8216;Tackling the how does nicotine the respiratory system, epidemic of crime and Gain of International Trade Essay disorder#8217; was now a #8216;top priority for Essay Drinks Labour in government#8217; and #8216;securing people#8217;s physical security and freeing them from the Gain, fear of and Soft, crime and disorder#8217; was described as the #8216;greatest liberty government can guarantee#8217; (15). Efficiency Trade Essay? Liberty was transformed from the active freedom of freud and erikson, individuals, to the protection given to them by government and the police. In contrast to the social and economic framework within which crime had been largely understood by the #8216;active#8217; labour movement in the 1980s, New Labour now addressed the problems of crime and disorder with reference to a more passive, disorganised and Gain of International Essay fragmented public. As the government took a more direct approach to On Campus, tackling crime in its own terms, so the Efficiency Gain of International Trade, issue expanded to consume problems that previously had been understood in on death penalty, more political terms. Accordingly, social, economic and Gain political solutions were replaced by attempts to regulate the of eden, behaviour of Efficiency Gain Trade, both criminals and antisocial neighbours and Essay of Cyber-Bullying children.
Imprisonment, antisocial behaviour orders and more intense forms of behaviour management of Efficiency Gain of International Essay, parents and Essay children increasingly became the political solution offered by New Labour to these problems. Gain Trade Essay? Engaged by nicotine the respiratory safety. The term #8216;community safety#8217; did not exist until the late 1980s, but has subsequently become a core strategic category around which local authorities and Gain of International national government have developed community-based policies. Community safety is not about crime as such, but is east characters more broadly about the of International Essay, fear of crime and of petty antisocial acts, especially committed by young people, and thought to undermine communities#8217; sense of security. Here the loss of Providing Essay, #8216;community#8217; that has been generated by Trade Essay such major social shifts as the on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, defeat of the old Labour movement and the weakening of the postwar institutional welfare framework has been reinterpreted as a problem of mischievous children creating fear across society. An important watershed in the organisation of society around the issues of Efficiency Trade, safety was then shadow home secretary Jack Straw#8217;s notorious attack in 1995 on the #8216;aggressive begging of winos, addicts and squeegee merchants#8217; (16). Only a year earlier, Straw had accused John Major of #8216;climbing into the gutter alongside the unfortunate beggars#8217; when the on Advertisement and Soft Drinks, prime minister had made seemingly similar comments (17). Gain Trade? There was an important difference, however. Major and his chancellor Kenneth Clarke had attacked beggars as dole scroungers - #8216;beggars in designer jeans#8217; who receive benefits and east of eden characters #8216;think it is of International Trade perfectly acceptable to add to their income by begging#8217;. Support Students? Still understanding crime through the political prism of welfarism, Clarke saw begging as a criminal act that defrauded the benefit system. Efficiency Gain Of International Trade Essay? In his later attack on beggars, Jack Straw redefined the issue.
For Straw the problem was not the crime of begging or the political or economic problem of benefit fraud, but the disorderly and intimidating behaviour of the aggressive beggar, which was understood to increase the fear of freud and erikson, crime and help to Gain Trade Essay, undermine society#8217;s sense of wellbeing (18). Jack Straw believed that the Tories had failed to understand the main causes, significance of street disorder as a cause of the fear of crime, the #8216;loutish behaviour and Efficiency of International incivility#8217; that made the east of eden characters, streets #8216;uncomfortable, especially for women and black and Asian people#8217; (19). The issue for New Labour was not the political question of Efficiency Gain, benefit fraud, but the emotional sense of security of a newly discovered vulnerable public. By the time the freud and erikson, election year of Efficiency, 1997 came around the how does affect the respiratory, soon to be prime minister, Tony Blair, had elaborated on Efficiency Trade, the typical beggar. This was not a man quietly scrounging money off the public, but the often drunken #8216;in your face#8217; lout who would, #8216;push people against Essay Drinks, a wall and demand money effectively with menace#8217; (20). No figures for the rise in bullying beggars were given, but Tony Blair noted that he himself sometimes felt frightened when he dropped his children off at King#8217;s Cross in London - a notorious area for Gain Trade #8216;winos#8217;, prostitutes and east #8216;aggressive beggars#8217;. Gain Of International? Straw, using a well-worn feminist slogan, demanded that we #8216;reclaim the streets#8217; - streets that had been #8216;brutalised#8217; by of eden beggars and graffiti vandals.
The radical creation of Efficiency Trade, victimhood. Three Main Causes Civil War? Because much of this rhetoric of intimidation, abuse and Gain of International Trade Essay the collapse of communities has its origins in the radical school of Essay on Causes, criminology, Labour politicians felt able to employ it without embarrassment. In the late 1980s, left-wing and feminist criminologists had a significant influence on Labour-run inner-city councils, carrying out victim surveys, and sitting on Efficiency Trade Essay, a number of council boards particularly within the Greater London Council. Main Of The? Developing out of the radical framework of the early 1970s, a number of such criminologists had become disillusioned with the Efficiency of International Trade Essay, fight for political and and erikson social change and, rather than challenging the focus on crime as an expression of class prejudice as they once might have, increasingly identified crime as a major issue, particularly for the poor, women and Efficiency Gain Trade Essay blacks who were now conceived of as #8216;victims#8217; of crime. Instead of identifying with and engaging its constituency in terms of freud, politics and Trade public matters, the Providing Students On Campus Essay, left sought a new relationship with the poor and oppressed based on their private fears and their sense of powerlessness. Identifying fear as a major factor in of International, the disaggregation of these communities, the so-called #8216;left realists#8217; noted that it was not only crime but the non-criminal harassment of women and freud and erikson petty antisocial behaviour of Gain of International, young people that was the how does nicotine affect the respiratory, main cause of this fear among victimised groups (21). The identification of harassed victims of antisocial behaviour rose proportionately with the declining belief in the possibility of radical social change. As the #8216;active#8217; potential of the working class to Gain, #8216;do#8217; something about the New Right declined, Jock Young and other realists uncovered the Essay, vulnerable #8216;done to#8217; poor. Gain Of International Trade? Discussing the three causes of the war, shift in Labour councils from radicalism to realism, Young noted that: #8216;The recent history of radical criminology in Britain has involved a rising influence of feminist and anti-racist ideas and of International Trade an encasement of left-wing Labour administrations in on Causes, the majority of the of International, inner-city Town Halls.
An initial ultra-leftism has been tempered and often transformed by a prevalent realism in the wake of the third consecutive defeat of the Labour Party on the national level and severe defeats with regards to #8220;rate capping#8221; in of eden, terms of local politics. Efficiency Trade? The need to encompass issues which had a widespread support among the electorate, rather than indulge in marginal or #8220;gesture#8221; politics included the attempt to recapture the issue of law and order from the of Cyber-Bullying, right.#8217; (22) Indeed, crime and the fear of Gain Trade Essay, it became so central to on Advertisement Drinks, Young#8217;s understanding of the conditions of the Gain Essay, working class that, on finding that young men#8217;s fear of Providing Support to Transgender Students, crime was low - despite their being the main victims of crime - he argued that they had a false consciousness. Rather than trying to allay women#8217;s fears about the Gain of International Trade Essay, slim chance of serious crime happening to the respiratory, them, Young asked whether it #8216;would not be more advisable to attempt to raise the fear of crime of Efficiency Gain Trade Essay, young men rather than to causes of the civil, lower that of other parts of the Efficiency Essay, public?#8217;. For the Providing to Transgender Students Essay, first time, it was safety that began to frame the relationship between the Efficiency Gain of International Essay, local authority and the public, expressing a shift from a social welfare model of that relationship to one of causes war, protection. The significance of the Gain of International Essay, left realists and Witchcraft Essay feminists at this time is that they were the first people systematically to Trade Essay, redefine large sections of the working class as #8216;victims#8217;, and freud thus helped to reorient Labour local authorities towards a relationship of protection to Efficiency Gain of International Trade, the public at the expense of the newly targeted antisocial youth. It is this sense of the on death penalty, public as fundamentally vulnerable, coupled with the disengagement of the Labour Party from its once active constituency within the Gain of International Trade, working class and to Transgender Students On Campus Essay the subsequent sense of Efficiency Gain of International Trade, society being out of control, that has informed the Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, development of Efficiency Trade, New Labour#8217;s antisocial behaviour initiatives. Issues related to inner-city menace, crime and Providing Support to Transgender On Campus Essay what was now labelled antisocial behaviour, which had been identified as social problems by conservative thinkers periodically for over a century, now engaged the Labour Party. Increasingly for Efficiency Gain Essay New Labour, having abandoned extensive socioeconomic intervention, the problem of the disaggregation of communities and the subsequent culture of how does the respiratory, fear that grew out Efficiency of International Trade of the 1980s was identified as a problem of freud and erikson, crime, disorder and Efficiency Essay more particularly the on death, antisocial behaviour of young people. The Hamilton Curfew and Gain of International the politics of fear. The development of the politics of antisocial behaviour was accelerated in 1997 when the first #8216;curfew#8217; in the UK was set up in a number of housing estates in Hamilton in the west of Scotland. Introduced by Essay on Causes a Labour council, this was a multi-agency initiative involving the notoriously #8216;zero tolerance#8217; Strathclyde Police and the council#8217;s social work department.
The curfew that followed was officially called the Trade, Child Safety Initiative. This community safety approach reflected a number of the how does affect the respiratory system, trends identified above. Trade? Rather than tackling crime as such, the initiative was supposed to tackle the on Advertisement Drinks, broader, non-criminal problem of antisocial behaviour, in order to keep the of International, community free from crime and affect the respiratory also, significantly, free from the Gain of International Trade, fear of crime (23). The rights of people in the community promoted by this initiative were not understood in terms of a libertarian notion of Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, individual freedoms, nor within a welfarist conception of the right to Efficiency Gain Essay, jobs and and Soft Drinks services. Rather it was #8216;the right to be safe#8217; and the #8216;right to a quiet life#8217; that Labour councillors promoted. Without a collective framework within which to address social problems, and concomitantly without a more robust sense of the active individual, a relationship of protection was posited between the local authority and the communities in question. Efficiency Gain Of International Trade? Talk of #8216;rights and responsibilities#8217; implied the right of three main causes of the war, vulnerable individuals to Gain of International Trade Essay, be and feel safe, not by being active in their own community but rather by either keeping their children off the streets, or by on Advertisement Drinks phoning the of International Trade Essay, police whenever they felt insecure. Advocates of the Child Safety Initiative identified all sections of the community as being at On Campus Essay risk - children were at risk simply by of International being unsupervised; adults were at risk from teenagers who hung about the streets; and young people were at risk from freud their peers, who could, by Gain Trade involving one another in drink, drugs and crime, #8216;set patterns#8217; for the rest of main of the, their lives, as the Gain Trade, head of the social work department argued. Even those teenagers involved in antisocial and criminal activities were understood as an Essay and Soft, #8216;at risk#8217; group - the of International Essay, #8216;juvenile delinquents#8217; of the past were thus recast as #8216;vulnerable teenagers#8217; who needed protection from each other. To Transgender Students On Campus Essay? The centrality of the concern with victims of crime, which has developed since the Hamilton curfew was first introduced, is Gain reflected within the Providing Support Essay, curfew itself. In effect all sections of the Gain Trade Essay, public were understood to be either victims or vulnerable, potential victims of their neighbours and of local young people.
The legitimacy of the police and the local authority was based not on a wider ideological, political or moral platform, but simply on their ability to protect these victims. Providing Essay? The politics of antisocial behaviour lacks any clear ideological or moral framework, and therefore it has no obvious constituency. In fact, the basis of the Child Safety Initiative was the weakness of community. Essay? Rather than being derived from east of eden characters a politically engaged public, the Gain of International, authority of the three main of the war, council and the police was assumed, or #8216;borrowed#8217;, from that public in Efficiency Essay, the guise of main causes, individual victims. Gain Of International Trade? Accordingly, the police in Hamilton constantly felt under pressure to nicotine system, show that the Efficiency Gain Trade, potential victims they were protecting - especially the young people who were subject to the curfew - supported what they were doing. Of course, nobody has a monopoly on borrowed authority.
A number of children#8217;s charities similarly took it upon themselves to speak for Witchcraft Essay the children, arguing that the Efficiency Essay, curfew infringed their #8216;rights#8217; and penalty coming up with alternative surveys showing that young people opposed the use of curfews. There was little effort to make a substantial political case against the curfew, however. In fact, #8216;child-friendly#8217; groups and individuals tended to endorse the presentation of Efficiency Trade Essay, young people and Witchcraft Essay children as fundamentally vulnerable potential victims, and some opposed the Essay, curfew only on the basis that children would be forced back into freud the home where they were even more likely to be abused. Just as Blair was put on Efficiency Trade Essay, the defensive over and erikson, his attack on aggressive begging by charities campaigning for the rights of the Efficiency Trade, victimised homeless, so the curfew exposed the authorities to charges of #8216;harassing#8217; or #8216;bullying#8217; young people. Since the curfew was justified precisely on the basis of east of eden characters, protecting young people from these things, the charge was all the Gain Trade, more damaging. How Does Nicotine Affect? This was more than a tricky PR issue: it demonstrated a fundamental problem with the Efficiency Gain, politics of antisocial behaviour.
In presenting the public as vulnerable and in east, need of protection, the state transformed the basis of Efficiency Gain, its own authority from democratic representation to a more precarious quasi-paternalism; in of Cyber-Bullying, effect it became a victim protection agency. Essay? The very social atomisation and freud and erikson lack of political cohesion that underlies the politics of Gain of International Trade Essay, antisocial behaviour means that the authority of the Essay on Advertisement Drinks, state is Gain of International Essay constantly in question, despite the fact that its assumptions about the vulnerability of the penalty, public are widely shared. As such, the Hamilton curfew gave concrete expression to the attempt to Efficiency, re-engage a fragmented public around the on death, issue of safety, and the difficulties this throws up. In contrast to the pragmatic approach of of International Trade, past political elites to the issue of crime and occasional panics about Essay on Advertisement, delinquent youth, the current elite has come to see crime, the Efficiency of International Trade, fear of crime and antisocial behaviour as major #8216;social problems#8217;. With the emergence of New Labour in how does, the 1990s any major political opposition to the issue of crime as a key social problem has disappeared and Gain of International Trade its centrality to political debate and public discourse was established.
Under New Labour, however, the concerns being addressed and and erikson the #8216;social problems#8217; being defined are less to Essay, do with crime and Essay on Causes criminals than with annoying children and noisy neighbours. Gain Of International Trade Essay? These petty irritations of affect the respiratory, everyday life have been relabelled #8216;antisocial behaviour#8217;, something which is understood to be undermining both individuals#8217; and society#8217;s sense of well being. At its most ridiculous extreme what we are witnessing is the criminalisation of mischief (24). Basil Curley, Manchester council#8217;s housing executive, told the Guardian : #8216;Yes, we used to Efficiency, bang on doors when we were young. But there used to be badger-baiting once, too.
It#8217;s different now, isn#8217;t it? Things are moving on; people want to live differently.#8217; (25) This casual comparison of Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, children playing #8216;knocky door neighbour#8217; with the brutality of badger-baiting tells us nothing about Gain of International Trade, young people, but indicates that what has changed is the adult world with an inflated sense of how does nicotine the respiratory, vulnerability driving all antisocial behaviour initiatives. For New Labour the problem of the disaggregation of Efficiency Gain Essay, communities and the subsequent culture of fear that grew out of Cyber-Bullying of the 1980s was located within politics as a problem of crime and disorder. Devoid of a sense of social progress, in Gain of International Trade, the 1990s it was the political elites - both right and left - who became the driving force for reinterpreting social problems within a framework of community safety. Lacking any coherent political direction, the government has both reacted to and reinforced panics about crime and disorder, institutionalising practices and causes of the civil war initiatives based upon society#8217;s sense of fear and anxiety. In an attempt both to regulate society and to reengage the public, over the past eight years New Labour has subsequently encouraged communities to Efficiency Gain Essay, participate in and organise around a raft of safety initiatives. Despite the freud, fall in the official crime statistics society#8217;s sense of insecurity has remained endemic and no #8216;sense of Efficiency of International Trade, community#8217; has been re-established, much to essay penalty, the government#8217;s frustration. Efficiency Essay? However, rather than recognising that constructing a society around the issue of safety has only helped to further the public#8217;s sense of essay on death penalty, insecurity, New Labour is becoming ever more reactive and developing more and Essay more policies to regulate a growing range of #8216;antisocial#8217; activities and forms of behaviour. Essay Penalty? By thrashing around for solutions to Efficiency Trade, the #8216;politics of behaviour#8217; in this way, the government is helping to characters, fuel the spiral of fear and of International Trade Essay alienation across society. Rather than validating the more robust active side of and Soft, our character, validation is given to the most passive self-doubting aspects of our personality.
Communities and Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay a society that is more at ease with itself would expect men and women of character to resolve problems of everyday life themselves, and would equally condemn those who constantly deferred to the authorities as being antisocial. Today, however, we are all being encouraged to east, act in Efficiency, an antisocial manner and demand antisocial behaviour orders on our neighbours and their children. Rather than looking someone in the eye and resolving the incivilities we often face, we can increasingly rely on the CCTV cameras to do this, or alternatively look to characters, the community wardens, the Efficiency Trade, neighbourhood police and the antisocial task force to resolve these problems for Essay us. Gain Of International Essay? We are told to act responsibly, but are expected to call on others to and erikson, be responsible for Efficiency Gain Trade dealing with noisy neighbours or rowdy children. As this approach develops a new public mood is being created, a mood based on affect the respiratory, the notion of Gain of International Trade Essay, #8216;safety first#8217; where an increasing number of people and problems become the concern of the essay, police and local authorities. This weakened sense of Efficiency Gain of International, individuals is nicotine system a reflection of the Gain of International, political elite itself, which lacks the causes civil war, moral force and Efficiency Gain Trade Essay political direction that could help develop a sense of community. Providing To Transgender Students Essay? Ultimately, it is the Efficiency of International, crisis of politics that is the basis for the preoccupation with curtain-twitching issues - the Witchcraft Essay, product of an antisocial elite, which is ultimately creating a society in its own image.
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Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis. Geely Auto Financial Report Analysis 1. 0 Executive Summary This report discusses the details of the Geely Automobile Company and an analysis of its financial statements in the past 5 years. Efficiency Of International Trade? The purpose of the report is an application of the knowledge learnt from the Financial Statement Analysis course, and tries to give recommendations. Rather than giving simple suggestions like buy, sell or hold the essay on death stocks, it is hoped that by analyzing the of International Trade financial statements, the data can provide support for main of the the recommendations such as the future profit and loss of Geely. As one of the Gain of International Trade Essay four largest independent private automobile manufacturers in China, Geely Auto has been expanding rapidly.
The sale of Geely has increased from 200 units in 1998 to 329. 100 units in 2009. In addition, in 2010, the purchase of Volvo greatly increases the reputation of Geely. Although the acquisition just happened few months ago, it is three causes of the war believed that it will beneficial to Gain of International increase the market share. Further SWOT analysis shows that, the Essay well-established sales network and the emphasis on RD capabilities will have a positive effect on Gain of International Trade, the future growth of Geely.
Moreover, the external environment such as the freud continuous growth in Chinese market and Gain Essay, government policy support shows a promising future for Geely. However, there are also threats exist outside the market and causes war, weaknesses inside Geely. Efficiency Trade Essay? It is really hard to essay on death give any suggestions by Efficiency Gain of International simply analyzing the industry and outside environment. Therefore, the report mainly focuses on the analysis of the financial statements. Analysis includes the capital structure and solvency, liquidity, operating performance and freud, profitability, and cash flow statements.
On October 28, 2009, Geely was named as the preferred buyer of Volvo Cars by Ford. On December 23, 2009, Ford confirmed that all substantive commercial terms for the sale to Geely had been settled. A definitive agreement was signed on March 28, 2010 worth $1. 8 billion, and the deal was completed on August 2, 2010. Management * Executive directors: Mr. Li Shu Fu, Mr. Gui Sheng Yue, Mr. Yang Jian, Mr.
Ang, Siu Lun, Mr. Yin Da Qing, Mr. Liu Jin Liang, Mr. Zhao Jie, Dr. Trade Essay? Zhao Fuquan * Non-Executive Directors:Mr. Xu Gang * Independent Non-executive Directors: Mr. Song Lin, Mr. Lee Cheuk Yin, Mr. Yeung Sau Hung * Senior Management: Mr. Zhang Peng, Mr. Cheung Chung Yan Products * Xiali TJ7300-based * 1998 — HQ/Haoqing/Haoqing SRV * 2000 — MR/Merrie * 2002 — MR/Uliou/MS * 2004 — PU/Rural Nanny/Urban Nanny * 2002 — BL/Beauty Leopard/BO * Daewoo-designed * 2005 — CK/Freedom Cruiser * 2006 — MK/LG/KingKong * 2006 — FC/Vision * 2008 — Geely China Dragon Major activities and achievements * Geely’s JI-6360 model was certified by the government making Geely the three main first private company qualified to Efficiency Gain of International Trade be producing automobiles in China.
First Chinese automaker present at the Frankfurt Motor Show in Essay September 2005. Of International Trade Essay? * First Chinese car maker to display at the US Detroit auto show. Winning the freud Special Contribution Grand Prize for Invention and Creation for its Blow-out Monitoring and Brake System (“BMBS”), a unique safety system independently developed by Geely. * In Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, Geely has already started to sell its products. Geely has also entered the Bangladeshi, Cuba, New Zealand, Pakistani, Romanian, Turkish and South African car markets. Figure 1; Development in sales, source: Geely annual report 1998-2009 3. Financial Analysis In the following sections Geely’s capital structure, solvency and liquidity, profitability and cash flow will be discussed. Efficiency? 3. 1 Analysis of Capital Structure Geely automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Capital Structure| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| L-Tdebt| –| –| –| 87000| 1318000| Deferred taxation| –| –| –| 8018| 37727| other L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 0| 1442153| Total L-T liabilities| –| 682838| 309274| 95018| 2797880| Current liabilities| 54548| 227198| 5273470| 76378| 8907789| Total liabilities| 54548| 910036| 5582744| 171396| 11705669| %| 6%| 46%| 68%| 3%| 62%| | | | | | common shareholder’s equity| 798080| 1030157| 2441440| 4197862| 6375613| minority interests| 9013| 19769| 211760| 584619| 720907| Total equity capital| 798080| 1049926| 2653200| 4782481| 7096520| %| 94%| 54%| 32%| 97%| 38%| | | | | | | Total liabilities and equity| 852628| 1959962| 8235944| 4953877| 18802189| | 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| 100%| These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with Hong Kong Financial Reporting Standards (“HKFRSs”) ————————————————- From common-size analysis, we know leverage rate of Geely is on death penalty stable for of International Trade Essay year 2006 and 2007, declines sharply for year 2008, and Essay on Advertisement, then rebounds strongly to 62% in Efficiency Gain Essay year 2009. Then look at the absolute value, it’s not difficult to find out a great rise in both liability and and erikson, equity capital. In 2009, the Trade total liability is more than a trilion. Referring to affect the respiratory its investment and operation in recent years, we think Geely is trading on the equity, which indicates it is Efficiency Gain of International Trade using equity capital as a borrowing base in a desire to reap excess returns. This can be confirmed by its step-by-step acquisition of essay penalty many assembly line and investment on new factories financed by bond and bank borrowing, which is Gain Trade conversely based on increasing equity (stock price stimulated by freud expansion).
Those investments are revalued and taken into asset as a new backup. 3. 2 Solvency Analysis Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Solvency Ratios| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| D/E ratio| 0. 07 | 0. 88 | 2. Efficiency Gain Of International Trade Essay? 29 | 0. 04 | 1. 84 | Interest coverage ratio| –| 7. 66 | 10. 11 | 16. 06 | 15. 46 | S-T D/E| –| 0. 22 | 2. 16 | 0. Of The War? 02 | 1. Efficiency Of International Trade Essay? 0 | | The computation for Year 2009 is shown here:| D/E ratio= Total liabilities / Shareholder’s equity = 2,797,880 / 6,375,613| Interest coverage ratio= EBIT / Interest Expense = 1,657686 / 107,226| S-T D/E= Long-term liabilities / Shareholder’s Equity = 8,907,789 / 6,375,613| | The computation for EBIT is Essay shown below:| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Profit| 115377| 214149| 318100| 866053| 1319028| Interest expense| –| 32390 | 35103 | 60952 | 107226 | Taxation| –| 1585 | 1673 | 51869 | 231432| EBIT| 115377| 248124| 354876| 978874| 1657686| Since the ratio of debt to Efficiency Trade equity capital is and erikson relatively high, we need to take a further look of its financial condition. Gain Of International Trade? Before assessing long-term solvency we want to be satisfied about the Witchcraft near-term fiancial survival of Geely. Unfortunately, Geely’s short term debt to equity ratio is 1. 40, quite high in the most recent year.
Although it can raise capital from HK listed market, equity is apparently not enough to make up its shortage of capital in short term. According to Trade NOTE, Geely has discounted notes receivable to banks in exchange for cash with recourse in the ordinary course of business. Therefore, the risk resulting from its speeding expansion not only depends on its own performance, but its customers’ financial distress. Essay On Advertisement Drinks? Interest coverage ratio is Trade satisfactory, which means payment of the interest liability Geely has incurred on on Advertisement, its long-term borrowing is in a less pressure. 3. 2 Analysis of Gain of International Trade Essay Liquidity Geely Automobile Holdings Limited Analysis of Liquidity| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Industry norm| Accounts Receivable Turnover| 1. 91 | 0. 95 | 1. 99 | 1. 51 | 2. 29 | 19. 47| Acid-test ratio| 1. 13 | 0. 68 | 10. 44 | 0. 71 | 1. Three Civil War? 19 | | Inventory turnover| 15. Of International Trade Essay? 9 | 11. 10 | 8. 36 | 136.
70 | 393. 17 | 31. 79| | | | | | | | The computations are as follows:| | Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net sales / Average accounts receivable| | Acid-test ratio = Cash and equivalents + Marketable securities + Accounts receivable / Current liabilities| | Inventory turnover = Cost of goods sold / Average Inventory| | The selected accouts used in computation are here:| | HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| | Sales revenue| 101411| 127006| 137209| 4289037| 14069225| | COGS| 90649| 110036| 121251| 3637752| 11528489| | Inventory | 5703| 9910| 14498| 26611| 29322| | urrent asset| 67212| 280681| 884331| 5110552| 12219411| | current liability| 54548| 227198| 79559| 5273470| 8907789| | Trade and three main civil war, other receivables| 44840| 59065| 65443| 2840255| 6144929| | Dividend receivable| 8220| 74840| 3560| –| –| | Accounts receivable| 53060| 133905| 69003| 2840255| 6144929| | cash ; cash equivalents| 8449| 20972| 761684| 889408| 4498155| | Marketable security| | | | | | | The accounts receivable turnover is much worse than industry average. Trade Essay? However, an increase of accounts receivable may due to the respiratory system rise in sales or difficulty in collecting quite timely. Referring to Efficiency Trade Essay NOTE, we know that receivables are guaranteed by established banks in the PRC and have maturities of six months or less.
So the likelihood of timely collection is in less question. The inventory turnover is exaggeratedly higher than industry level, especially after its installment of P-SCM supply chain management system, which integrates ordering, producing, selling, and distributing. So we can conclude that Geely is doing excellence in inventory management and is enjoying a growth in market demand of its products 3. Analysis of main causes Operating Activities To be able to Gain of International Essay make a comprehensive analysis of Geely’s activities, both the income statement and the balance sheet have been restated in appendix A and B, such that it is nicotine affect system possible to identify operating and non-operating income, assets and Gain Trade Essay, liabilities. Assumptions regarding classifications are also available in Essay on Causes the appendixes. Figure 2: illustration of revenue and operating income, Source Geely annual report 2007 -2009 Figure 2 illustrates how dramatic the development in especially revenue has been the last three years. Net sales are up by Efficiency Gain Essay almost 200 percent from 2008 to 2009, while only a 60 percent increase in volume is of Cyber-Bullying reported in the annual report.
Mainly the large growth is Gain a result of full consolidation of the Essay and Soft Drinks Groups manufacturing Operations. Moreover, the acquisition of “Drivetrain Systems” at June 30th 2009 generated extra revenue the last half year of 2009. Further the notes reveal that 95 percent of sales are within China in Gain Trade Essay 2010, in 2009 it was only Essay Drinks, 81 percent. A decline in export can in a future growth perspective be a concern. Geely have improved profit margin over the last three years (18 percent In 2009), while the operating margin have been rather volatile (Appendix 1). This is caused by large income/expences from “share of results of associated companies”.
It is expected that this account will be less important in the future as some associates now are fully consolidated. A large increase in distribution and Efficiency Trade Essay, selling expenses in 2009 (increase more than 200 percent) is of Cyber-Bullying worth to note. It raises questions as can Geely manage all the new acquisitions without getting less effective and the level of earnings quality. No extraordinary or unusual are identified in the financial statement. It is a good sign since these accounts often are subject to earnings management.
Comprehensive income is nicely increasing and no unusual increase in unrealized gains/losses of currency is identified. 3. 4 Analysis of Return on Common Equity This analysis show that the drivers behind the increasing return to of International Trade Essay common equity is mainly due to heavy increase in asset turnover and an equal percentage increase in leverage. The adjusted profit margin has unfortunately been declining heavily over essay, the period. Geely is Gain of International Trade therefore relying on of Cyber-Bullying, Non-operating activities to Trade Essay reach the growth in ROCE. From a shareholder perspective is an increase in ROCE due to leverage not sustainable. However it must be noticed that it was only how does the respiratory, last year the increase in leverage was heavy, while the increase in asset turnover has been for longer. From a financial point of view it can be argued that taking up debt while it is cheap, since the interest rate is currently low, is in the long run better for the shareholders, if the alternative was to Efficiency Gain Trade finance expansion with more expensive equity. What is critical is if Geely is strong enough to turnaround their adjusted profit margin to keep growing healthy.
3. On Causes? 5 Cash Flow Analysis It is useful to construct a summary of cash inflows and Efficiency Gain of International, outflows by Witchcraft major categories because we can evaluate a firm’s sources and uses of cash from operating, investing and Efficiency Gain, financing activities directly. Geely Automobile Holdings LimitedSummary of cash inflows and outflowsYear ended 31 Dec 200X| HK$’000| 2005| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Total| Operating activities| (7636)| (31858)| (17747)| 550977 | 948805 | 1442541| Investing activities| 5064| (660806)| 247079 | (274542)| (1305946)| (1989151)| Financing activities| 9452| 704988 | 542943 | (148711)| 3966382 | 5075054| Increase( decrease) in cash| 6880| 12324 | 772275 | 127724 | 3609241 | 4528444| Year 2009 cash reinvestment ratio = (operating cashflow-Dividends) / (Gross plant assets+investment+other assets+working capital) = (948,805- 59,500)/[103+(293,697+97,788)+4,185,892+3,311,622) = 11. 27%| The summary of nicotine affect cash flow chart shows that during fiscal year 2005. 2007 Geely experienced negative operating cash flow. Besides that it has used cash to finance increase in Efficiency of International inventory and receivables, the ‘Share of results of associates’ turnaround profits before tax from a positive position to a reverse one as it contributes more than 100% negatively before 2008 to freud Geely’s profit after tax.
This may be due to its stage of growth since total capital expenditures by its operating associates amounts to approximately RMB1 billion, which are mainly funded by the operational cash flow generated by associates. The insufficient operating cashflow part is made up by Gain financing activities through issuing debt and securities and borrowing from banks. From fiscal year 2008 Geely was able to begin generate positive operating cashflow . However, positive operating cashflow may due to the decrease in its working capital. The cash flow statement shows that payables decreased significantly after 2008, which raises doubt on a possibility that Geely delayed payments to suppliers until its operating cash flow before adjustment of working capital become healthier. The major cash outlay is main causes investing activities, corresponding to its funding for the research and Efficiency Gain of International, development of essay penalty new vehicle models, new engines and gearboxes, the construction and Gain of International Essay, expansion of plants. Concerning financing activities, one point should be mentioned here is that Geely borrows with its receivables as collateral, the essay inflow of cash is reported as a financing activity in Gain Trade the cash flow statement. The second doubt come up when comparing with income statement. Earnings are significantly exceeding operating cashflow, this may be an indication of essay aggressive accounting choices, such as recognizing revenues too soon or delaying the recognition of expenses. Take a look at the free cash flow statement.
From free cash flow to equity (FCFE) we know the cash flow availabel for distribution to common shareholders is sufficient. Along with its satisfactory reinvestment ratio, Geely proves that it is Gain taking care of investors. Geely automobile Holdings LimitedFree cash flow statementYear ended 31 Dec 200X| | HK$’000| 2006| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net income| 214149| 305767| 866053| 1319028| Depreciation| 1403| 2282| 141053| 364598| intereset expense| 32390| 35103| 60952| 107226| net capital expenditure| 99304. 87| 93000| 113990| 113443| working capital investment| 53483| 804772| -162918| 3311622| FCFF| 95154. 13| -554620| 1116986| -1634213| Net borrowing| 716000| 330000| 1061000| 4300000| FCFE| 584837 | 219253 | 1497987 | 5135362 | net capital expenditure = approximate expenditure in essay penalty RMB* rate of exchange prevailing at the balance sheet date| 4. 0 SWOT analysis of Geely Automobile Strengths 1. Continuously Increasing Revenue Geely’s gross profit margin has continued to grow over the past few years due to successful company expansion and increasing market shares. The total sales for various kinds of Geely vehicles has accumulated to over 800,000 since 2001, and the Geely trademark has been recognized as a well-known mark in China.
It has established over 200 sales service bases overseas, and performed SKD/CKD assembly production and sales in Ukraine, Russia and Indonesia and other countries. 2. Emphasis on Research ; Development Capabilities. By the end of 2009, Geely owns a total of 1,600 technology patents. Geely has a professional research and development team, the staff number of which exceeds 1,400, representing 12% of the total staff of the Group With its extensive investment in research and development, the group’s R;D team is capable of launching four to five new models every year, reflecting its leading position in R;D and technology innovation capabilities in China’s automobile sector. 3. Acquisition of Volvo and Enhanced Green Technology. New energy-powered vehicle is the latest trend and Efficiency, it will be the future of the world’s auto industry. Penalty? Ford and Volvo have already invested millions of dollars over the past decade in terms of Efficiency Gain Trade Essay new energy technology. Acquiring Volvo may enhance Geely’s technology in new energy-powered vehicle area, help Geely take a step forward in competing with other homegrown brands, and pave the way for Geely to enter the global auto market. Weaknesses 1. Accounts Receivables Worse than Industry average Geely’s average turnover ratio of accounts receivables from 2005 to 2009 is 1. Essay On Death Penalty? 3, which is substantially lower than the of International Essay industry average, 19.
47. Essay? Although the Efficiency Gain of International previous analysis has shown less possibilities of payment collection problem, a low accounts receivable turnover ratio still indicates that there is an opportunity cost of holding receivables for Essay of Cyber-Bullying a longer period of time. 2. Image of Lower-end Brand Although Geely has a well-established sales network and growing competence in core technology, it is of International hard for Geely to alter its lower-end brand image, since its original target market is low cost vehicle. But branding is about value and perceived quality, so price alone can never facilitate a victory. Enhancing quality and ensuring that its cars are on essay, par with the global leading brands are still a major challenge for Geely.
3. Less Advanced Technology Despite the vast amount of investment in research and development, capital and talents for Efficiency of International Trade automobile core technology are limited, and it is hard for nicotine affect the respiratory Geely to compete with the advanced technology of foreign automobile manufacturers. 4. Efficiency Of International Trade Essay? Unsatisfactory Sales in Export Markets Motor vehicles sales in most parts of the world market remains fragile. As a result, Geely exports business could continue to face major challenges given the Witchcraft fierce competition and the short history of operation in Essay its major export markets. Opportunities 1. And Erikson? Continuous Growth of China Sedan Market China’s passenger vehicle market ended last year with a 59 percent year-on-year sales increase to surpass the Efficiency Trade Essay United States as the world’s largest auto market for the first year. According to penalty estimate of Efficiency of International Essay Goldman Sachs Global ECS research report, growth in China car market will be remained for the next 10 years and the industry GDP growth will be 11. % in freud 2010 and 10% in 2011. Goldman Sachs Global ECS research teams forecasts that China will further boost its No. 1 position in the car market with sales reaching 30 million units per year by Efficiency of International 2020. 2. Government Policy Support In the past few years, the focus of main war Chinese government policies for Efficiency Gain automobile industry is to boost sustainable growth in the economy with auto industry as one of its pillars and to support domestic participants and industry consolidation.
Threats 1. Fierce Competition from both Domestic and main causes war, Foreign Brand The huge profit potential of China car market brings about fierce competition among both local and foreign automobile manufacturers. In the luxury automobile market, foreign manufacturers are in Efficiency of International Trade Essay leader position due to their sophisticated technology and three war, high brand recognition. Essay? While in lower end automobile market, local brands are strong competitors. 2. Possibility of Overcapacity in China Auto Market Some industrial experts concern that China’s market may one day face vercapacity problems. A report from the Essay on Causes official news portal of China’s eastern Zhejiang province showed that, based on the production plan of China’s 12 major auto manufacturers for the next five years, China’s auto production would reach 32. 5 million units in 2015, far exceeding the forecast of 22 million units in Efficiency Trade Essay the blue book of China’s automobile industry. If Overcapacity problems occur, serious overproduction capacity will lead to negative market competitiveness a loss in enterprise efficiency, factory stoppages and other problems. . 0 Analyses of management discussion and analyst’s opinion Appendix C summarizes some Analysts view of Geely. However, not all Analysts agree upon whether you should sell, hold or buy the stock.
Several reasons are discussed in on Causes the respective reports; though all analysts agree that Geely is a healthy company with a stable revenue base, increasing volume and satisfactory margins. What analysts do not agree upon Gain of International Trade Essay is whether Geely can maintain their growth potential and freud and erikson, gain market share in both the domestic and Trade, export market. The penetration in the Chinese passenger car market is freud and erikson extremely low compared to USA and Europe (JP Morgan, 2010) and Efficiency Gain, as the three main causes of the civil Chinese people are getting wealthier the market potential will increase the upcoming years. Loads of Automobile manufacturer will compete to gain market share and earn extraordinary profit. Credit Suisse and Efficiency Gain of International Essay, CIMB are representing the negative analysts who believe that domestic market competition will increase as the nearest competitors have invested heavily in and erikson the industry and Gain of International Trade Essay, developing of on death new brands (CIMB, 2010). Geely Management has not commented upon this in their report, but instead they emphasize they have sufficient funds to cover investments and RD expenses to Gain facilitate their own growth. Essay And Soft Drinks? Additionally, Credit Suisse (2010) emphasize that every auto manufacturer in the Chinese market are currently investing in production facilities. Credit Suisse is therefore worried it will result in an oversupply and consequently make inventories to rice.
To bring inventories down a price war on Trade, vehicles can arise. This will affect margins negatively. JP Morgan represents a positive analyst that strongly believe that the current acquisition of Volvo will result in synergy effects and a technology platform that no one else can imitate in the near future. How Does System? Further JP Morgan is confident that the low penetration of vehicles in the domestic market will ensure future growth, and therefore recommends buying the stock. DBS, Deutche Bank and Yuanta are recommending holding the Efficiency Essay stock, since they believe there are too many uncertainties connected to Geely and the future. Especially they all emphasize the lack of a clear growth catalyst to outperform the Essay on Advertisement Drinks market. Further, the Trade Essay acquisition of Volvo seems to have longer prospects before profiting than expected at first hand (CIMP, 2010). Three Causes War? As expected Geely’s management discussion is Efficiency Trade very positive towards the future and leaves the shareholders with the nicotine the respiratory system impression of a highly growing company with a healthy economy and a clear defined strategy, although it is noticed that very little space is of International used to comment upon the current competition in the market. Instead Geely Management has chosen to causes of the civil focus at their new strategic platform and how they can develop brands and of International Essay, product lines into a competitive advantage (Geely, 2010). It can be interpreted as an indirectly method to cope with the market competition without discussing the situation in detail. Shareholders, however, must be aware of this matter when evaluating the business.
Even though current revenue is increasing heavily one must consider how sustainable this growth rate is in the future. It can be concluded that Geely Management are slightly taking a too positive approach towards the current market conditions, since these are not discussed in nicotine affect the respiratory depth and analysts report emphasize different issues than Geely. This analysis facilitate that there are no universal answer to of International Trade Essay trading with stocks. We all wants to three causes of the civil war buy the stocks that are undervalued and sell the ones that are overvalued, and the answer you get depends on the method, forecast and Gain of International Trade Essay, strategic mindset of the analyst. Geely is without doubt a healthy company so the essay on death buy, held, sell decision lies within how you value the growth opportunities, how Geely can facilitate RD and implement acquisitions and thereby benefit from synergies. 6. Gain Of International Trade? 0 Recommendation.
Geely have the recent years had an expansion strategy, and as a consequence a high level of investment. This has resulted in a higher leverage and that earnings significantly are exceeding cash flows. However this is freud and erikson also a natural picture of a company in Trade an expansion phase. It is found that Geely has satisfactory interest rate coverage even though leverage is increasing. Freud And Erikson? Furthermore, accounts receivables is found worse than industry average, but good bank agreements make it easy for Geely to meet liquidity issues. Inventory turnover is also good, as the focus on SCM systems have proven its worth. This is Efficiency Gain Trade moreover expressed in the increased asset turnover which partly is the driver behind the main of the increasing ROCE. However it is important to note that the Efficiency Gain of International Trade adjusted profit margin is on Advertisement Drinks declining. The overall performance shows increased revenue/earnings, but it is Efficiency of International very difficult to determine the on Advertisement Drinks earnings quality since most of the rise is due to consolidation and of International Essay, acquisitions. The positive free cash flow and satisfactory reinvestment ratio shows that Geely are taking care of investors. System? SWOT analysis identifies possible business catalyst as RD and the new acquisition of Volvo that could create synergy effect.
It is Essay our opinion that these business drivers are rather uncertain but is freud and erikson very likely to succeed and combined with Geelys current healthy financial situation; we are taking a positive approach towards Geely and Trade Essay, recommends to buy the stock. 7. 0 Bibliography Geely Automile Holdings Annual report 2005-2009 Investment Reports: DBS (8. June2010) Hong Kong/ China Company Focus; Geely Automobiles Holding; DBS Vickers Securities; Analyst: Miu, Rachel Credit Suisse (12. Causes Of The War? July 2010) Asian Daily – Geely Auto; Credit Suisse Analysis; Analyst: HungBin Toh CIMB (28. Gain Of International Trade? Sep. 010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; CIMB Reasearch; Analyst: Cheam, The Shen JP Morgan (26. Sep. 2010 ) Geely Automiles Holding LTD – Initiating Coverage, JP Morgan Asia Pacific Equity Research; Analyst: by three causes civil war Li, Frank Deutche Bank (26. Aug.
2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Deutche Securities Asia LTD; Analyst: Ha, Vincent Yuanta (26. Efficiency Gain Trade Essay? Aug. 2010) Geely Automiles Holding LTD; Yuata Research; Analyst: Wong, Johnny Websites: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) Appendix A: Restated income statement Appendix B: Restated Balance Sheet. Appendix C: Overview of Analysts opinion Source: Reuters (http://www. reuters. com/finance/stocks/analyst? symbol=0175. HK) ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Industry average figure reference: http:// www. stats. gov. cn [ 3 ]. Property, plant and equipment are depreciated on Witchcraft Essay, a straight-line basis at the following rates per [ 4 ]. Goldman Sachs, China: Automobiles, May 19, 2010 [ 5 ]. Business Monitor International, BMI China Auto’s Report 2010, November 2009 [ 6 ]. Global Times, China’s Expanding Auto Production Triggers Overcapacity Concerns, July 19 2010. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]
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Nov 17, 2017 Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay,
30 Days of Praying the Names and Attributes of God. We#8217;ve compiled 30 names and Efficiency Gain of International Trade attributes of God with accompanying verses to Essay on Causes help you learn more about Him and be drawn into worship. Use this guide to enrich your understanding of God by taking a description of Him and meditating on it, drawing you into worship throughout the day. God is infinitely far above our ability to fully understand, He tells us through the Scriptures very specific truths about Himself so that we can know what He is like, and be drawn to worship Him. The following is a list of 30 names and attributes of God. Use this guide for 30 days to enrich your time set apart with God by taking one description of Him and meditating on that for one day, along with the accompanying passage. Worship God, focusing on of International Trade Essay Him and His character. How Does Nicotine System. God is Jehovah. The name of the independent, self-complete being—“I AM WHO I AM”—only belongs to Jehovah God.
Our proper response to Him is to fall down in fear and awe of the One who possesses all authority. God is of International Jehovah-M’Kaddesh. This name means “the God who sanctifies.” A God separate from all that is evil requires that the people who follow Him be cleansed from of the war, all evil. God is infinite. God is Efficiency beyond measurement—we cannot define Him by proportions or magnitude. He has no beginning, no end, and no limits. God is omnipotent. God is of the war all-powerful. He spoke all things into being, and all things—every micro-organism, every breath we take—are sustained by Efficiency of International Essay, Him. There is Witchcraft Essay nothing too difficult for Him to do.
God is good. God is the embodiment of of International Essay perfect goodness. He is kind, caring, and full of favor toward all of creation. God is love. God’s love is so great that He gave His only Son to bring us into fellowship with Him.
God’s love not only encompasses the Witchcraft, world, but embraces each of us personally and intimately. God is Jehovah-jireh. This name means “the God who provides.” Just as He provided yesterday, He will also provide today and tomorrow. He grants deliverance from sin, the oil of joy for the ashes of sorrow, and Efficiency Trade eternal citizenship in His Kingdom for all those adopted into His household. God is Jehovah-shalom. This name means “the God of peace.” We are meant to know the fullness of God’s perfect peace, or His “shalom.” God’s peace surpasses understanding and sustains us even through difficult times. It is the product of fully being what we were created to be.
God is immutable. All that God is, He has always been. All that He has been and and erikson is, He will ever be. He is ever perfect and unchanging. God is transcendent. God is not merely eminent, the highest being. He is transcendent—existing beyond and above the created universe. God is just. God is righteous and holy, fair and equitable in all things. We can trust Him to always do what is right.
God is holy. God’s holiness is not simply our best image of Gain of International Essay perfection. God is utterly and supremely untainted. His holiness stands apart—unique and incomprehensible. God is Jehovah-rophe. This name means “Jehovah heals.” God alone provides the remedy for mankind’s brokenness through His son, Jesus Christ. How Does Nicotine The Respiratory. The Gospel is the physical, moral, and Efficiency Essay spiritual remedy for all people. God is self-sufficient.
All things are God’s to give, and all that is given is given by Him. Everything we give Him was initially given to us by Him. God is Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying omniscient. This means God is all-knowing. God’s knowledge encompasses every possible piece of Efficiency Trade information regarding anything that currently exists, existed in the past, or will exist in the future. God is omnipresent. God is everywhere—in and around everything, close to everyone. “‘Do not I fill heaven and earth?’ declares the Lord.” God is merciful. God’s merciful compassion is how does affect never ending and does not run dry. Gain Of International Trade. Through His provision in Christ, He took the judgment that was rightfully ours and placed it on and erikson His own shoulders. He waits and works now for all people to turn to Him and to live under His justification.
God is Efficiency Essay sovereign. God presides over every event, great or small, and He is in control of our lives. He rules all creation with all knowledge and power. God is Jehovah-nissi. This name means “God our banner.” Under His banner we go from triumph to on Advertisement and Soft Drinks triumph and say, “Thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Corinthians 15:57). God is wise. God knows and acts with perfect wisdom in all things. He always acts for our good, which is to conform us to Christ. God is faithful.
Out of His faithfulness God honors His covenants and fulfills His promises. Our hope for the future rests upon God’s faithfulness. God is wrathful. Unlike human anger, God’s wrath is never capricious, self-indulgent, or irritable. It is the right and necessary reaction to objective moral evil.
God is full of grace. Grace is God’s good pleasure that moves Him to grant value where it is undeserved and to Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay forgive debt that cannot be repaid. God is our Comforter. Jesus called the Holy Spirit the “Comforter,” and the apostle Paul writes that the on Causes, Lord is “the God of of International Essay all comfort.” God is El-Shaddai. This name means “God Almighty,” the freud and erikson, God who is Efficiency Gain of International all-sufficient and on Advertisement Drinks all-bountiful, the source of all blessings. God is Father. Jesus taught us to pray, “Our Father” (Matthew 6:9), and the Spirit of God taught us to Efficiency Gain of International cry, “Abba, Father.,” an intimate Aramaic term similar to “Daddy.” The Creator of the universe cares for each one of us as if we were the only child He had. God is the Church’s head. God the Son, Jesus, is the head of the Church. As the head, the part of the freud and erikson, body that sees, hears, thinks, and decides, He gives the orders that the rest of the body lives by.
God is our intercessor. Knowing our temptations, God the Son intercedes for us. He opens the doors for us to boldly ask God the Father for mercy. Thus, God is both the Efficiency Essay, initiation and conclusion of true prayer. God is Adonai. This name means “Master” or “Lord.” God, our Adonai, calls all God’s people to acknowledge themselves as His servants, claiming His right to reign as Lord of our lives. God is Elohim. This name means “Strength” or “Power.” He is transcendent, mighty and strong. Elohim is the great name of God, displaying His supreme power, sovereignty, and faithfulness in His covenant relationship with us. Share this Navigator Discipleship Tool. The Prayer Hand is an of Cyber-Bullying, easy way to remember five essential aspects of prayer: confession, petition, intercession, thanksgiving and praise.
Continue Reading. How to Spend Extended Time in Prayer. Lorne Sanny provides five reasons to spend extended time with the Lord and provides an outline of how to make your prayer time fruitful. Continue Reading. NavMissions in United States #038; Namibia. The answer to Lorenzo’s prayer came through a woman in Denver, on the other side of the Gain Trade, world from Namibia, who listened to God’s Continue Reading. Do you ever go through seasons when your prayer life feels mundane and emotionless? You may be in a season like that right now. Or perhaps Continue Reading.
The Navigators changed my life. The people who invested in me helped me form a true relationship with Christ and build my foundation in Him. I now disciple other women and nicotine the respiratory system it is the best thing I could have ever wished for my life. Praise the Lord! I came to salvation in the living room of a Navigator staff member at Castle Air Force Base in November 1988. I was transferred a couple of months later to Germany and lost track of the missionary who led me to Christ.
But I want him to know I was eventually called into ministry and am a pastor today. I grew up and served The Navigators after conversion by #8220;Studies in Efficiency Gain of International, Christian Living#8221; series through my beloved spiritual parents. Thanks to affect the respiratory system God and the vision of Gain of International Trade Essay spiritual generations of The Navigators.
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Nov 17, 2017 Efficiency Gain of International Trade Essay,
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and of International Trade Essay, Tips. The SAT Essay is scored separately from the rest of the SAT now, thanks to the changes that went into effect in March 2016. While the essay is now optional (you don't automatically have to take it every time you take the SAT), some colleges still require students to submit SAT essay scores with their applications. Learning how to civil war, consistently write a perfect SAT essay will be a huge boost to your application to these schools. In this article, we'll discuss what it takes to Gain Trade Essay, get a perfect 8/8/8 on the SAT essay and what you need to do to and Soft Drinks, train yourself to get this top score. If you’re reading this, we’re assuming that you already have a basic understanding of the SAT essay. Efficiency Gain Of International Essay! You know the standard format of how you should write an how does nicotine affect system, essay – introduction, evidence paragraph 1, evidence paragraph 2, (optional) evidence paragraph 3, conclusion.
You know that you should state your thesis in the introduction. All of this will get you a 5/8 as long as you develop your points enough. If you aren’t fully aware of of International this, take a spin through our 15 SAT Essay tips to freud and erikson, raise your essay score. But how do you push your essay to the next level? That’s what this article is Efficiency of International Trade Essay, about. feature image credit: NEW YORK 1970'S TRAILER PLATE 888-883 by Jerry Woody, used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped from original. You’ll have to how does nicotine the respiratory system, practice this. The perfect SAT essay is Trade Essay, like a puzzle that happens to be in written form – it can be mastered, but to do it well and completely every time requires practice with a lot of sample topics. You need to learn the format of an effective essay and Witchcraft, how to fill out a complete essay within 50 minutes. What an SAT Essay Score of 8 Means.
If you’re already scoring a 5 or above in Essay, all three areas on practice (or real) SAT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 8/8/8, with a little practice. But there’s something important to remember in your question for perfection: on the SAT essay, an 8 in all categories is not always achievable. We’ve got good news and bad news for those of you who are determined to three main causes of the, score an 8/8/8 on the SAT essay. Good News and Bad News by Mike Licht, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from of International Essay original. Because the whole essay task (reading, analyzing, planning, and writing) must be completed in 50 minutes, getting an 8 in Reading, Analysis, and causes war, Writing requires some luck. You have to read the article and Efficiency Gain Trade, analyze the way the author builds her/his argument, pick out the most important components to the argument, find evidence to support your interpretation, and plan out your essay before you can even start writing.
A lot depends on how quickly you can come up with a thesis and relevant support for whatever the prompt happens to three main causes civil, be – you might find some articles easier to read and analyze the argumentative structure of than others. You'll need to use precise language to show mastery of English writing. And because essays with perfect scores are almost always at Gain least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare . If you fumble on main of the war, any one of these aspects, the grader might not give your SAT essay an 8/8/8. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to Gain of International, get a reliable 6 across the board . Sometimes you might find the author's argument to Witchcraft, analyze harder than others, or sometimes you might find the article more difficult to get through, but you will always be able to impress them enough to get a 6/6/6. No college worth its salt is going to base your college admissions decision on getting those last two points on an essay you had 50 minutes to write (especially when the essay is optional). The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in that time, and a 6/6/6 shows that just as well as an 8/8/8 does. But you should aim as high as you can, so keep reading to find out Efficiency Gain of International Trade what it really takes to get a perfect score on essay, the SAT essay. The Difference Between a 6 and an 8. If we asked the College Board what the difference is between a 6 and an 8 SAT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 3 and 4 essays scores in Reading, Analysis, and Writing (a total score of 8 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 4 in each of those three areas). We’ve marked the Gain Trade Essay differences between the 3 and 4 criteria in bold. The response demonstrates effective comprehension of the source text.
The response shows an understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and important details. The response is free of substantive errors of fact and interpretation with regard to on death, the text. The response makes appropriate use of textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating an understanding of the source text. The response demonstrates thorough comprehension of the Efficiency of International Essay source text. The response shows an and erikson, understanding of the text’s central idea(s) and of most important details and how they interrelate, demonstrating a comprehensive understanding of the text. The response is free of errors of fact or interpretation with regard to the text. The response makes skillful use of of International textual evidence (quotations, paraphrases, or both), demonstrating a complete understanding of the source text.
A 3 essay demonstrates your understanding of the Witchcraft text’s central ideas, while a 4 essay also shows that you know what the details and examples in the text are and how they relate to the central idea . The response offers an effective analysis of the Efficiency source text and demonstrates an Essay on Advertisement and Soft Drinks, understanding of the analytical task. The response competently evaluates the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. Gain Of International Trade! The response contains relevant and on death, sufficient support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses primarily on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the task. The response offers an Efficiency, insightful analysis of the source text and demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of the analytical task. The response offers a thorough, well-considered evaluation of the author’s use of evidence, reasoning, and/or stylistic and and erikson, persuasive elements, and/or feature(s) of the student’s own choosing. The response contains relevant, sufficient, and strategically chosen support for claim(s) or point(s) made. The response focuses consistently on those features of the text that are most relevant to addressing the Trade Essay task. The 4 essay delves into and erikson the structure of the author’s argument more deeply. The writer not only of International states the techniques used in the text, but also thoroughly explains their impact on the reader. These explanations are backed up with evidence from the text that enhances the writer’s discussion of the structure of the text.
The response is mostly cohesive and demonstrates effective use and control of language. The response includes a central claim or implicit controlling idea. The response includes an effective introduction and conclusion. The response demonstrates a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. The response has variety in Witchcraft, sentence structures. The response demonstrates some precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a good control of the conventions of standard written English and is free of Efficiency of International Trade significant errors that detract from the quality of writing.
The response is cohesive and affect the respiratory, demonstrates a highly effective use and command of Gain of International Trade Essay language. The response includes a precise central claim. The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion. And Erikson! The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Trade! The response has a wide variety in Witchcraft Essay, sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone. The response shows a strong command of the Gain conventions of standard written English and is free or virtually free of errors . The 4 essay is written extremely well , whereas the 3 essay is written fairly well. In addition, the 4 essay is organized in a way that positively influences the impact of the writer’s argument, while the 3 is just organized clearly. Let’s condense the information above. A perfect 4 essay : is extremely clear is consistent, smooth, and Witchcraft Essay, easy to read has few errors is not repetitive in content or language is sufficiently detailed (using evidence from the text) to fully support the Efficiency Trade Essay writer’s thesis demonstrates that you understand the text and the author’s claim(s)
In other words, you need to excel in every one of these aspects to get a perfect score. Now we’ll look at a sample 8/8/8 SAT essay, and make note of how it fits the criteria above. The prompt (taken from The Official SAT Study Guide ) for the sample essay is as follows: Write an essay in which you explain how Peter S. Goodman builds an argument to persuade his audience that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to and erikson, people in the United States. In your essay, analyze how Goodman uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of of International Essay your own choice) to on Causes, strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.
The passage to which this prompt refers appears on pp. 183-185 of The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , or on slightly different pages in later editions. You'll need the passage to follow along with the sample essay below. Here’s the essay. Read it first, and we’ll have annotations below. In the article “Foreign News at a Crisis Point,” Peter S. Goodman eloquently argues the ‘point’ that news organizations should increase the amount of professional foreign news coverage provided to people in Efficiency of International Trade Essay, the United States. Goodman builds his argument by using facts and evidence, addressing the counterarguments, and Witchcraft Essay, couching it all in Efficiency Gain of International Trade, persuasive and Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, compelling language.
Goodman begins the of International Trade article by bombarding the reader with facts and statistics. He states that, according to a census conducted by the American Journalism Review, the number of full-time foreign news correspondents in penalty, the United States dropped from Efficiency Gain of International Essay 307 in 2003 to 234 in 2011. In addition, the AJR survey also discovered that “the space devoted to foreign news [in American papers] had shrunk by 53 percent” in on death penalty, the last 25 years. Beginning the Efficiency Gain of International Essay article with all of these facts and figures has a couple of strengtheing effects on Goodman’s argument. First, by starting out with hard evidence, Goodman lays the groundwork of his own credibility. He’s not just writing an opinion piece – his opinion is backed by the truth. This will bring the readers onboard and make them more likely to trust everything else he says. Second, because Goodman presents these facts without much explaining/interpreting, the Essay on Causes of Cyber-Bullying reader is forced to do the math herself. This engaging of the Trade Essay reader’s mind also ensures that Goodman has the reader’s attention.
When the reader does the math to find a drop of 73 full-time foreign news correspondents employed by US papers in just 8 short years, she will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. In addition to Essay and Soft Drinks, employing facts to his argument’s advantage, Goodman also cunningly discusses the Efficiency Trade Essay counterargument to his position. By writing about how social media and man-on-the-ground reporting has had some positive impact on the state of foreign news reporting, Goodman heads off naysayers at the pass. It would have been very easy for Goodman to three civil, elide over the whole issue of citizen reporting, but the resultant one-sided argument would have been much less convincing. Instead, Goodman acknowledges things like “the force of social media during the Arab Spring, as activists convened and reacted to changing circumstances.” As a result, when he partially refutes this counterargument, stating the “unease” many longtime profession correspondents feel over the trend of ‘citizen journalism’ feel, the reader is much more likely to believe him. After all, Goodman acknowledges that social media does have some power. Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined, in turn, to take Goodman’s concern about the Gain of International limits of social media seriously. The final piece that helps bolster Goodman’s argument that US news organizations should have more professional foreign correspondents is Goodman’s linguistic + stylistic choices. Goodman uses contrasts to draw the reader deeper into his mindset. By setting up the Witchcraft contrast between professional reporters as “informational filters” that discriminate good from Gain of International bad and amateur, man-on-the-spot reporters as undiscriminating “funnels,” Goodman forces the reader to view the two in opposition and admit that professional filters are to be preferred over how does the respiratory funnels that add “speculatio, propaganda, and other white noise” to their reporting.
In addition, Goodman drives the reader along toward agreeing with his conclusion in the penultimate paragraph of the article with the repetition of the Efficiency Gain phrase “We need.” With every repetition, Goodman hammers even further home the essay inescapable rightness of his argument. The use of “We” more generally through the article serves to make the Gain Trade readers feel sympathetic towards Goodman and identify with him. By employing the rhetorical techniques of presenting facts, acknowledging the other side, and Essay on Advertisement Drinks, using persuasive language, Goodman convinces the reader of his claim. Here are our notes on what stands out in this essay (general comments are in purple, spelling/grammar errors are highlighted in yellow): Note that not every 8/8/8 essay needs to have exactly the same items in here, nor do you need to argue in Efficiency Gain Trade, exactly the same way. But the elements in this essay make it a standout and demonstrate clear mastery. And now for the million-dollar question:
What Makes This SAT Essay an 8 Rather Than a 6? Maybe you get the theory behind what makes an essay an 8/8/8, but what about in on Causes of Cyber-Bullying, practice? Read on to find out what distinguishes this particular SAT essay as a perfect 8 in Reading, Analysis, and Writing. SAT graders are big on clarity, and clarity requires precise language and obvious, sound logic. In this essay, vivid language is used effectively and appropriately: Goodman is Trade, described as bombarding the reader with facts and figures The writer describes Goodman as arguing his point using not just language but persuasive and Essay, compelling language : The effect of Goodman’s argument is not just that it convinces the reader, but that the reader…will find herself predisposed to agree with Goodman’s call for more professional foreign news reporting. All of this clear and Efficiency Gain Trade Essay, precise language helps support and explain the author's point (just as Goodman’s language supports his point in the text!) Effective Analysis and Organization. The writer's clarity extends to her logic as well. Sufficient background is Witchcraft, given to make it clear the writer read and understood the text. The examples used are clear and logically connected within paragraphs.
The writer also makes sure to Efficiency Gain of International, identify the Essay on Advertisement what/why/what of the author's argumentative devices: What are the techniques the author used to Gain, persuade the reader of his claim? Why did the author use them? What effect does their use have on on death, the reader? The organization of the essay follows the organization set out in the introduction: the writer first discusses facts and evidence, then the Gain of International Trade presentation and nicotine the respiratory system, refutation of Essay a counterargument, then compelling language. Organization in the essay is aided by transitions between all paragraphs, which create a smooth, consistent argument that is how does affect the respiratory system, easy to follow. The clarity of the argument and the lack of errors remain consistent from start to finish. The highlighted errors are few and do not detract or distract from the meaning of the Trade essay. The wording of the thesis statement in essay on death penalty, the introduction and the conclusion is similar but not identical, and the description of Gain Trade Essay how Goodman builds his argument is the same. Dos piezas by Raul Hernandez Gonzalez, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from Essay and Soft Drinks original.
The author uses a variety of words (marked in blue) and sentence structures to convey similar ideas in different ways throughout the essay. For instance, social media , man-on-the-ground (or man-on-the-spot ) reporting , citizen journalism , and amateur reporting are all different words and phrases used to describe the same phenomenon of Gain non-professional foreign news correspondents. Another example of this can be found in Paragraph 4. And Erikson! “Knowing that Goodman takes the power of social media seriously will make the reader more inclined…” could easily be the simpler “Goodman takes the Efficiency of International Trade power of on Advertisement and Soft social media seriously, which makes the reader more likely to agree…” This kind of linguistic flourish can be found in Efficiency Gain Trade, most top-scoring SAT Essays. Penalty! Note that this usage is effective, and Efficiency of International Essay, SAT vocab words aren't thrown into the essay haphazardly - it's clear, effective writing like what you might read in the New York Times. The essay is long enough to detail 3 complex examples (discussing Goodman’s use of facts and evidence, a counterargument, and vivid language) and include introductory and concluding paragraphs. With the updates to the essay rubric, College Board made it explicit that your essay should have an introduction and conclusion. Essay Of Cyber-Bullying! In The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , they also make it clear that shorter essays will receive lower Writing scores (because if you don't write more than a couple of paragraphs, there's not enough writing by Efficiency of International Essay which essay graders can accurately judge your writing abilities).
But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long SAT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the space to give lots of context for Essay on Advertisement Drinks, her examples. Dos and Don’ts for an 8/8/8 SAT Essay. The key for a perfect score on the SAT essay is to of International, use your time wisely and Witchcraft, stay focused on the task. Gain Essay! To help you do this, we've compiled tips for things to do (and things to avoid). Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. Revising the first and last paragraphs (they stand out in readers’ minds). Making sure you have effective transitions for a seamless essay. And Soft Drinks! Explaining the persuasive effect the Efficiency of International Essay author’s argumentative techniques have on the reader. Thinking of “smart-sounding evidence – analysis of how the author used a personal anecdote is freud, just as viable as a discussion of the author’s use of logos and Trade, other rhetorical strategies. Trying to on Causes, correct every single error – the grammar and the spelling do not have to be perfect to score an 8 in Writing.
This doesn't mean that you should just leave sentence fragments all over the place, but it does mean that accidentally leaving off the last letter of Trade Essay a word or making a small subject/verb agreement error won't be the end of the Essay on Causes world (or of Efficiency Gain Trade your perfect SAT essay score). Spend the extra time trying to write more and develop your points. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can – you do need some stylistic flourishes, as noted above, but you shouldn’t overdo it, or your writing will sound clunky. How to Train to Improve Your SAT Essay Score. As I mentioned above, most anyone can train to reliably get a 6 on all sections of the essay, and many can move beyond that to consistently get 8/6/6, 6/6/8, or 8/8/8. Here’s a framework for how to and Soft Drinks, do this:
Read through our complete list of SAT essay prompts Memorize a list of persuasive techniques that you can find in most essay prompt articles Start by practicing with extended length time (80 minutes) so you can feel what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. If you’re struggling, you can also split up the different parts of the essay task for practice. For instance, you can practice reading and analyzing articles separately from writing the Efficiency Gain of International Essay essay. Find a way to grade your essay. If you can be objective about your writing , you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do (and it'll be good practice for analyzing the passage on Witchcraft Essay, the essay!). Of International! Otherwise, try to get help from an English teacher or a friend who’s a better writer. Start narrowing the time down to 50 minutes to mirror the actual test.
Looking for Essay, a great way to prep? Check out PrepScholar's online prep program. It customizes your prep program to your strengths and Gain Essay, weaknesses so you get the most effective prep possible. Even better, we give detailed essay feedback from a leading SAT instructor. You'll get point-by-point comments on essay, where you're falling short, and how to improve your weak spots to jump up in SAT essay score. Click below to Efficiency Gain of International Essay, sign up for our 5-day free trial. Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and three war, earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.
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