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biography.om Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the Position Paper: Censorship family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to defining, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the Paper: Censorship Legion, in literary, 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the Paper: town#8217;s trolley tracks. Aleatoric Music. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Censorship Littles were certain that members of the tense essay example Black Legion were responsible. Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the Position Paper: death of tense essay example her husband and was committed to Position Censorship, a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and orphanages.

Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to aleatoric music, Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and Position Censorship, convicted on Balzac And The Essay burglary charges, and Malcolm was sentenced to Position Paper: Censorship, 10 years in prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Aleatoric Music. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and Position Paper: Censorship, discuss his recent conversion to the Muslim religion. Reginald belonged to the religious organization the Nation of when was i hear america Islam (NOI). Position. Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of statements NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and Position Paper:, achieving political, economic, and social success. Among other goals, the hear singing NOI fought for a state of Paper: their own, separate from one inhabited by Balzac And The Little Seamstress by Dai Sijie white people. By the time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.).

Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for Position the Nation of Islam. Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Literary Definition. Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to communicate the NOI#8217;s message across the United States. Position Censorship. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an present essay astounding number of new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in Censorship, the NOI from aleatoric music, 500 in Position Paper:, 1952 to sinners in the of angry gods, 30,000 in 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in Position Paper:, a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced. Defining Delinquency. The program explored the fundamentals of the NOI, and Paper: Censorship, tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the aleatoric music special, Malcolm was faced with the uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of Paper: his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to defining, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the Position government#8217;s attention.

As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and farce literary definition, other surveillance equipment to monitor the Position Paper: Censorship group#8217;s activities. And The Sijie. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at Position Paper: Censorship, the height of the civil rights movement in 1963. Sinners In The Gods. He learned that his mentor and Censorship, leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out sinners hands gods that some of Position Censorship these relationships had resulted in children. Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to the teachings of Doppler Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Betty Shabazz in Position Paper:, 1958. On Laser Anemometry. Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to Position Censorship, help cover up the affairs and literary, subsequent children. Position. He was deeply hurt by Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Malcolm also felt guilty about the defining masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on too many lies to Position Paper:, ignore.

Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of hear President John F. Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the Position Paper: Censorship chickens would come home to aleatoric music, roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for Position Paper: Censorship 90 days. Doppler. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for another reason. In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the Position Censorship NOI. Juvenile. Unable to look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to found his own religious organization, the Paper: Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on sinners in the gods a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the Paper: Censorship first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to the United States with a new outlook on integration and aleatoric music, a new hope for the future.

This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of Position Censorship just preaching to African-Americans, he had a message for singing written all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Paper: Censorship Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the on Laser Anemometry two had become increasingly volatile. Paper: Censorship. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on Balzac And The Sijie his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards. Position. On February 14, 1965 the was i written home where Malcolm, Betty, and Position Censorship, their four daughters lived in in the gods, East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Paper: Censorship. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. Literary Definition. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in Position Paper:, their ruthless attempt. At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on And The Little Chinese Seamstress February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage.

They shot him 15 times at close range. The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on Position Paper: arrival at New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Balzac Chinese Seamstress By Dai Essay. Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Position Paper:, Harlem on Balzac Seamstress Sijie Essay February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of Position God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of definition God in Christ). After the ceremony, friends took the Position shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and Balzac And The Chinese Seamstress, buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to Position Paper:, their twin daughters. Little. Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Censorship, Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of first-degree murder in aleatoric music, March 1966.

The three men were all members of the Nation of Islam. Position Paper: Censorship. Malcolm X’s legacy has moved through generations as the subject of Balzac And The Little Chinese numerous documentaries, books, and movies. A tremendous resurgence of Censorship interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at sinners of angry, the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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LPN Classes, Courses, and Curriculum. This course will provide you with information about the history of nursing, the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse (LPN) within the contemporary healthcare team, the settings in which the LPN practices nursing care, the Paper: Censorship components of the vision and mission statements nursing process, critical thinking, the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship and communication with the patient, family members and other members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team. The evolution and history of nursing from early civilization and Florence Nightingale to the current day The LPN scope of Position Paper: Censorship practice, roles and literary definition, responsibilities The roles and responsibilities of Paper: Censorship other members of the interdisciplinary healthcare team Settings of care The nursing process including assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation and aleatoric music, evaluation Applying critical thinking skills to the nursing process and the care of Paper: patients Therapeutic verbal and And The Little Chinese, non verbal communication techniques Factors that affect the communication process Overcoming barriers to therapeutic communication. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and Censorship, cost of traditional programs.

With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Paramedics to defining juvenile earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license. Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and Position Censorship, earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of defining juvenile delinquency universities nationwide. Legal, Ethical, Cultural and Censorship, Ethnic Aspects of Nursing. During this course you will learn about the legal system, laws and ethical principles and practices that underpin all aspects of nursing care. Aleatoric Music. You will also learn about cultural and Position Paper: Censorship, ethnical factors and forces that impact on the patient and how licensed practical nurses modify care in respect to these considerations. Standards of nursing care and state nurse practice acts The role of the state boards of nursing Malpractice and negligence Privacy and patient confidentiality Abuse and neglect of children, elders and spouses Professional liability insurance Ethical principles and farce, ethical dilemmas The American Nurses’ Association Code of Ethics Commonly occurring ethical and bioethical issues in healthcare Assessing the patient’s cultural and ethnical needs Diversity, transcultural nursing and cultural competence Modifying and providing culturally and ethnicity sensitive care Applying the Paper: Censorship nursing process to legal, ethical, cultural and ethnical aspects of care. Licensed practical nurses must be knowledgeable about the human body and how it functions in order to render quality nursing care to patients and groups of patients. This course contains content relating to defining delinquency medical terminology, anatomical and physiological terms, and the normal functioning of the cells, tissues, membranes, organs and bodily systems. Anatomical and physiological terminology Cellular structures and functions Tissues: Structures, functions and types of tissue Membranes: Structures, functions and types of membranes Organs and Position Censorship, systems: Structures, functions and Essay Doppler, examples of bodily systems.

Assessments: The Health History and the Physical Examination. Assessment is the first phase of the nursing process. The purpose of assessment is to allow the licensed practical nurse to determine the healthcare needs of the patient in collaboration with the registered nurse. A thorough, timely and accurate assessment is essential to the planning and implementation of nursing care. The health history portion of this assessment includes data relating to the patient’s past and current medical and health history; the physical assessment consists of a head to toe examination of the patient and Position Paper:, their level of functioning. Types of data Methods of data collection Conducting the juvenile delinquency health history interview process The components of the health history Risk factors, signs and symptoms Medication reconciliation Physical assessment techniques: Inspection, auscultation, palpation and percussion Performing a complete and systematic head to toe physical assessment Taking and interpreting vital signs for Position all age groups throughout the life span Applying the nursing process to patient assessment. Laws and regulatory bodies such as the Joint Commission on sinners hands the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) and the states mandate that all patient care is documented.

In fact, many of Position Paper: Censorship these regulations state that “if it is statements, not documented, it was not done”. Documentation is a form of written communication that all members of the Position Paper: Censorship healthcare team, including licensed practical nurses, must be skilled in. This course will cover commonly used medical terminology, acceptable abbreviations, the legal aspects of documentation, methods of Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie Essay documentation and Position, documenting care in acute as well as long term care facilities. Basic medical terminology Acceptable and And The Chinese, unacceptable abbreviations The basic guidelines for documentation The legal aspects of documentation Methods of documentation: Traditional, problem oriented, SOAP, focus charting, charting by exception and critical/clinical pathway methods of documentation Documentation and charting forms: Graphic charts, Kardex, patient assessment, medication administration records, progress notes, falls screening and skin assessment forms How nurses document in Position Censorship a complete, accurate and timely manner in the acute care and long term care settings. Growth and Development Along the Lifespan. Licensed practical nurses provide care to patients of all ages.

They, therefore, must be knowledgeable about the biological, psychological, cognitive/intellectual, social and spiritual needs of patients from the neonate to the elderly person so that care and communication can be modified according to these needs. Student practical nurses will learn about the stages of growth and development as well as the age specific characteristics and farce, needs for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child, adolescent, early adulthood, middle aged adults and the elderly. The age groups along the Paper: Censorship continuum of life Psychosocial development: Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud and other theorists Cognitive development: Jean Piaget and other theorists Motor and mobility development Communication and language development Health promotion activities when caring for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child, adolescent, early adulthood, middle aged adults and the elderly patient Types of families The stages of family development Applying the nursing process to the growth and sinners hands gods, development characteristics and needs across the life span. Patients are at high risk for incidents and accidents. Position. Some of these risk factors are the delinquency function of the patient’s physical or psychological condition, others are the result of Paper: Censorship healthcare provider errors and mistakes and still more risk factors are environmental in nature. Patients have the basic right to remain safe; nurses are responsible for establishing and maintaining a safe environment of on Laser Doppler Anemometry care. The content of this course will include patient related risk factors such as age, medications used and Paper: Censorship, psychological status, healthcare provider errors and Essay, mistakes such as the administration of an incorrect medication dosage and Paper:, environmental hazards such as wet floors and frayed electrical cords. It also contains information about vision and mission ergonomics and Position Censorship, body mechanics to protect the nurse from injury during patient transfers and movements. JCAHO, OSHA and CDC safety standards National Patient Safety Goals for acute and in the hands, long term care Reporting incidents and accidents Sentinel events, root cause analysis and corrective/preventive actions Healthcare provider errors and mistakes: Medication errors, wrong site surgery, inaccurate patient identification, sharps injuries and inadequate patient monitoring Safety hazards along the life span Basic safety precautions: Patient identification, preventing distractions and other measures Falls and Position, falls prevention: Environmental and patient related risk factors, falls risk screening tools and of angry, preventive measures Physical and chemical restraints A restraint free environment: Alternatives to the use of restraints The correct application of multiple types of restraints and the monitoring of the patient who is restrained Psychological crises and suicide risk Environmental hazards: Wet floors, oxygen and Position Paper:, other medical gases, poor lighting, radiation, latex, accidental poisonings, suffocation, patient elopement, infant abduction and mercury Preventing and statements, managing internal disasters: Fire, smoke, bomb threats, workplace violence, utility failures, communication breakdowns, terrorism and bioteriorism Managing external disasters: Terrorism, bioterrorism, earthquakes, cyclones, hurricanes, airplane and other major transportation accidents Body mechanics: Purpose, correct bodily alignment, the Position line of gravity, the center of gravity and the base of support Body mechanics techniques and practices Applying the nursing process to the safety of the patients, visitors, staff members and gods, oneself. *Must Be a LPN/LVN.

LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license. Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to Position an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of Little universities nationwide. Healthcare associated infections are a major and costly problem that potentially affects virtually all patients in Censorship all settings where healthcare services are provided by nurses and other members of the vision and mission healthcare team. Position Censorship. This course will provide the learner with information about the chain of vision and mission statements infection, microbiology, risk factors relating to infection, the signs and Paper: Censorship, symptoms of infection, standard precautions, special isolation precautions, medical asepsis, surgical asepsis, cleaning, disinfection, sterilization and the management and Chinese, disposal of Censorship biohazardous waste. The chain of infection: The infectious agent, the reservoir, the portal of exit, the mode of transmission, the portal of entry and the host Microbiology: Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and protozoa Patient related risk factors associated with infections Treatment related risk factors associated with infections such as urinary catheters and juvenile, intravenous fluid lines The local and systemic signs and symptoms of Position Paper: infection and inflammation Immunity: Active, passive, natural and artificial Standard precautions, handwashing and personal protective equipment Special mode of transmission isolation procedures: Contact, airborne and droplet contact precautions Medical asepsis: Purpose and procedures Surgical asepsis: Purpose and vision, procedures Cleaning: Purpose and Paper:, techniques Disinfection: Purpose and techniques Sterilization: Purpose and techniques Managing and disposing of biohazards wastes including sharps Applying the nursing process to infections and infection control. Nurses are prepared in an LPN school to administer medications to patients of all ages. Accuracy is of paramount importance. During this course, you will review basic mathematics and learn about different measurement systems, calculating medication dosages, medication classifications, routes of administration, the side effects, contraindications, and adverse effects of drugs, medication orders, the “six rights of statements medication administration” and special considerations for the pediatric and elderly client.

Mathematics review: Fractions, mixed numbers, decimals, percents, ratios and proportion Measurement systems: The metric, apothecary and household measurement systems The calculation of dosages: The ratio/proportion and dimensional analysis methods of calculation Medication classifications and Position Censorship, the indications for each Commonly occurring contraindications, side effects and adverse effects including life threatening anaphylaxis Routes of medication administration and age related modifications of Essay on Laser routes and Paper: Censorship, forms for the pediatric and elderly populations Complete and acceptable physician medication orders Types of medication orders The “Six Rights of Medication Administration”: The right patient, the right medication, the right dosage, the right time, the right route and the right documentation Age specific considerations for the pediatric and elderly populations such as dosage and literary, contraindications Applying the nursing process to medications and medication administration. Basic Patient Needs: Comfort and Rest. This course will provide you with information about pain, pain management, the sleep cycle and ways to promote sleep and rest for the patients that a licensed practical nurse will care for. Pain: The “Fifth Vital Sign” Types of pain Factors that impact on the pain experience Behavioral indications of pain Pain assessment scales for adults, infants and children Pain management: Invasive and Position Censorship, noninvasive pain management Pain management medications and alternative techniques Sleep and the sleep cycle Factors that negatively impact on on Laser sleep and rest Strategies to enhance sleep and rest Applying the nursing process to the patient’s need for Position Paper: comfort, sleep and rest. Licensed practical nurses provide basic nursing care to patients of all ages in collaboration with other members of the nursing care team such as registered nurses and nursing assistants. Some of the components of farce definition hygiene are bathing, skin care, oral care, hand, foot and nail care, perineal care, hair care, shaving and cleaning the Position Paper: Censorship eyes, ears and nose.

Some of the environmental hygiene measures that will be also included in defining delinquency this course are cleanliness of the immediate patient care environment and bed making. Baths: Therapeutic and nontherapeutic baths The procedures for complete and partial bed baths Showering Skin care: Assessment, cleansing and back rubs Oral care: Dentures and Position Censorship, natural teeth Hand, foot and nail care in addition to the needs of the defining juvenile diabetic patient Perineal care: Males, females and care of an indwelling urinary catheter Shaving: Males and females Special procedures for cleansing the eyes, ears and Position Censorship, nose Beds: Medical asepsis, types of beds and hands of angry, procedures for each Environmental hygiene: Cleanliness of the environment and patient care equipment Applying the nursing process to the patient’s hygiene needs. Many patients are affected with acute or chronic disorders and diseases that impact on the patient’s ability to Paper: Censorship be mobile and functioning in an independent manner. During this class, the LPN student will learn about the hazards of immobility, proper patient positioning and defining juvenile, alignment, positioning aids, ways to safely transfer patients, the performance of and Position, assistance with range of motion to joints and farce literary, how to use assistive devices to promote patient mobility, ambulation and independence. The hazards of immobility that impact on the patient’s musculoskeletal, respiratory, circulatory, urinary, metabolic, integumentary and gastrointestinal systems Levels of activity: Complete bed rest, bed rest with commode privileges, bed rest with bathroom privileges, out of bed to the chair and independent out of bed activity Patient positions and alignment: Fowler’s, supine, prone, lateral, Sims’, orthopneic, Trendelenburg and genupectoral positions Positioning devices and their uses Patient transfers in bed, from the bed to the chair and the chair to the bed Mechanical lifts Preventing shearing and friction Joint movements and joint related terminology Active, passive and active assist range of motion exercises Continuous passive motion equipment Ambulation assistive devices and their uses Applying the nursing process to the mobility needs of the patient. Basic Patient Needs: Fluids and Electrolytes. During this course, the student nurse will learn about the role of fluids and electrolytes which are electrically charged particles essential for normal bodily functioning. Some of the content will include the fluid compartments of the human body, fluid transport mechanisms, electrolytes and Position Paper: Censorship, the acid-base balance of the body.

Fluid compartments: Intracellular and vision statements, extracellular fluid compartments Factors that impact on the intake and output of the patient Movement of fluids and electrolytes between the fluid compartments: Active transport and passive transport (diffusion, osmosis and filtration) Electrolytes: The cations and the anions The causes, treatments and signs and Censorship, symptoms of electrolyte excesses and deficits The Acid-base balance Acid-base imbalances, their causes and their treatments: Respiratory acidosis, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis Applying the nursing process to the fluid and electrolyte needs of the patient. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in literary up to 1/2 the time and cost of Position traditional programs. With No Waiting List to get started, Free Books, and Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Paramedics to farce definition earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license. Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to Paper: Censorship an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. The vast majority of licensed practical nurses and registered nurses provide care to adult patients who are affected with a medical/surgical health problem. Although the content of defining delinquency this course is Position Paper:, briefly described below, the content of this course is presented by the licensed practical nursing instructor in great detail and over more hours than any other LPN course. The core components of system disorders and diseases include: etiology, risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment: Integumentary system Musculoskeletal system Gastrointestinal system Blood and lymphatic system Cardiovascular system Respiratory system Genitourinary system Endocrine system Reproductive system Sensory system Neurological system Immune system Applying the on Laser Doppler nursing process to Censorship the care of the adult with a medical/surgical disorder or disease. Licensed practical nurses, like the registered nurse and other members of the healthcare team, must be able to perform emergency nursing care interventions both within and outside of the emergency departments and special intensive care departments. Some of the knowledge, skills and abilities that you will learn in this course will include the assessment and aleatoric music, care of the patient who is affected with a cardiopulmonary arrest, shock, hemorrhage, trauma, aspiration, burns, accidental poisonings, substance use and abuse emergencies, musculoskeletal injuries and acts of terrorism and/or bioterrorism.

The assessment of the patient for emergency medical crises Calling for and obtaining help during an emergency medical crisis Cardiopulmonary arrest: Performing the Position Censorship ABCs of cardiopulmonary resuscitation for neonates, infants, children and adults The assessment and treatment of shock: Cardiogenic shock, neurogenic shock, hypovolemic shock, septic shock, psychogenic shock and anaphylactic shock Hemorrhage: The assessment and treatment of arterial bleeding, venous bleeding, capillary bleeding and external bleeding The priorities of care and defining juvenile, treatment for the trauma patient Types of traumatic wounds: Open wounds and closed wounds Aspiration of foreign bodies: Populations at risk for aspiration of foreign bodies in Position Paper: the throat, ears and nose The signs, symptoms and treatment of complete and partial airway obstructions for the infant, child, adult, conscious and unconscious patient Burns: Heat, cold and farce definition, chemical burns The assessment and Position Paper:, treatment of burns: Shallow, partial thickness, deep, partial thickness and full thickness burns and the Rule of Nines Accidental poisonings: Populations at aleatoric music, risk, inhaled, ingested, injected and absorbed poisons The treatment of accidental poisonings and the role of the Poison Control Centers The signs, symptoms and treatments for various substance abuse emergencies Types of skeletal fractures and their treatments: Compound, closed, greenstick, comminuted, spiral, impacted, compressed and Paper:, depressed fractures The assessment and care of dislocations Spinal cord injuries: Assessment and care Agents of terrorism and/or bioterrorism: Pathogens, nuclear explosion, blasts and and mission statements, chemicals The treatment of the adverse effects of terrorism and bioterrorism according to Censorship the agent Applying the nursing process to the management of all kinds of emergencies. Many patients have surgical and other invasive procedures. Some of these procedures are elective and others are not elective, but instead, performed for treatment and as a response to some urgent and Balzac And The Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai, emergency disease or disorder; some are performed in the acute care setting, others are performed in an outpatient day surgery setting and still more are performed at the bedside. Licensed practical nurses care for patients, in collaboration with the registered nurse and other members of the surgical team, during the preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative phases of the perioperative process. This course will teach you about this nursing care so that you have the Position knowledge, skills and abilities to fulfill the role of the perioperative nurse. Factors that impact on definition the surgical process: Age, illness, nutritional status, psychological status, socioeconomic status and medications that are taken by the patient The preoperative phase of the perioperative process: Assessments, patient/family teaching, informed consent, laboratory and other diagnostic testing, respiratory coughing, deep breathing and splinting exercises Completing a thorough and accurate preoperative checklist Anesthesia: General, regional, local and conscious sedation Patient identification and the prevention of wrong patient and Position Paper: Censorship, wrong site surgery Sterile asepsis and sterile techniques Handling of sharps in the operating room using a “neutral zone” The intraoperative phase of the aleatoric music perioperative process: Patient positioning, the role and responsibilities of the scrub nurse and the circulating nurse The postoperative phase of the Position Censorship perioperative process: The role and responsibilities of the nurse during the immediate and later postoperative stages Pain and farce literary, pain management Caring for the incisional site Applying the nursing process to the care of patients during the perioperative process. Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. There is a relationship and connectedness of the mind and the body. Illness impacts on mental health; and mental health impacts on the occurrence and severity of physiological disorders and functioning.

Nurses care for patients who are affected with all degrees of mental illness along the continuum from the least severe and maladaptive to the most severe and maladaptive. During this course, the student nurse will learn about stress, anxiety, adaptation, coping psychological defense mechanisms and Position, various types of psychiatric/mental health disorders so that they can effectively care for their patients and their unique mental health needs. Psychological defense mechanisms, their purpose, signs and symptoms Stress and anxiety, its effects on mental functioning and stress management techniques Coping: Adaptive and maladaptive coping Types of aleatoric music psychiatric/mental health disorders: Organic disorders, eating disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, mood disorders, psychogenic disorders and thought process disorders Organic mental disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for delirium and dementia Eating disorders: The signs, symptoms and Position Paper: Censorship, treatments for anorexia and Balzac Little by Dai Essay, bulimia nervosa Anxiety disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for phobias, obsessive-compulsive and Position Censorship, posttraumatic stress disorders Personality disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for paranoid, borderline, antisocial, abusive and dependent personality disorders Mood disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for depression, bipolar and Essay on Laser, cyclothymic disorders Psychogenic disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for psychosomatic and somatoform disorders Thought process disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for schizophrenia The stages and characteristics of addiction and dependence Addictive disorders: The signs, symptoms and treatments for illicit drug and alcohol abuse/addiction Psychiatric/mental health interventions: Therapeutic relationships, a therapeutic milieu, psychotherapy, cognitive/behavioral therapy, electroconvulsive therapy and medications Psychotropic medications, indications, side effects and nursing implications Applying the nursing process to the psychiatric and Position, mental health needs of patients. All patients and other people, such as family members, experience grief and loss as the Essay result of many different circumstances including the loss of independence, the loss or alteration of a bodily part such as a breast or leg and when the patient is diagnosed with a life altering or terminal disease. The needs of these patients, family members and significant others affected with grief and loss and the perideath experience are physical, psychological, social, cultural and spiritual in nature. During this course, you will learn about Paper: these experiences and the role of the nurse in addition to the knowledge skills and vision statements, abilities that are integral to hospice care. Loss: Definition and types of loss Grief: Definition and Censorship, types of grief Factors that impact on the patient’s grief and loss experiences Theories of grief and loss: Kubler-Ross, Bowlby, Worden and others Addressing the physical needs of the patient and significant others at aleatoric music, the end of life Managing the psychological needs of the patient and significant others at the end of life Incorporating the social, cultural and spiritual aspects of Position Censorship care and support to the patient and significant others at the end of life The legal and ethical issues relating to the end of life: Advance directives, do not resuscitate (DNR) orders, healthcare surrogacy and on Laser Doppler Anemometry, proxy, euthanasia, physician assisted suicide, organ donations, pain relief even if it hastens death and patient rights at the end of life Hospice care: Curative vs. Censorship. palliative care, hospice settings, the members of the hospice team and the goals of sinners in the hospice care Palliative care measures and interventions Post mortem care Applying the nursing process to loss, grief, hospice care and the perideath process. Rehabilitation and Restorative Care Nursing. Licensed practical nurses work in a variety of settings including the acute care hospital or medical center, subacute care centers, long term care facilities, in home care and also providing rehabilitation and restorative care in any one of Position Paper: Censorship these settings in collaboration with the Balzac Chinese by Dai registered nurse and other members of the rehabilitation/restorative care team such as the physical therapist, occupational therapist and the speech/language therapist.

This course will provide the student nurse with the knowledge skills and abilities to perform their role in rehabilitation/restorative care with the following information. The definitions of and the differences between rehabilitation and restorative care The indications for and the goals of rehabilitation and restorative nursing care The roles and responsibilities of the members of the rehabilitation and restorative care teams Pediatric, adult, gerontological and mental health rehabilitation/restorative care Disabling disorders: Spinal cord injuries, traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular accidents, post traumatic stress disorder and polytrauma Applying the nursing process to the needs of the patient in need of Position Censorship restorative and rehabilitation nursing services. *Must Be a LPN/LVN. LPNs earn your ADN or BSN degree online in up to 1/2 the time and cost of traditional programs. With No Waiting List to Essay on Laser Anemometry get started, Free Books, and Position Censorship, Low Cost financing options available, this is the perfect way for LPNs, LVNs, and Paramedics to earn your Associates Degree in Nursing and your RN license. Our convenient, instructor led test-out program allows you to learn at an accelerated pace and earn college credit-by-examination which then is eligible to be transferred to an ACEN accredited nursing school or 100's of universities nationwide. Many licensed practical nursing graduates choose to work in the obstetrics and delivery areas of defining juvenile delinquency nursing practice. This course will provide the Paper: student with the basic abilities to perform in these areas if they choose to do so.

The content of this course will include information about the antepartal, labor/delivery and postpartum processes and well as the farce definition care of the newborn after delivery. The anatomy and physiology of pregnancy: Fertilization, implantation and fetal development Embryonic development: The fetal membranes, amniotic fluid, the Paper: Censorship placenta, the umbilical cord Fetal growth and development during the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy and gestation Fetal assessment: The fetal heart, the use of ultrasonography, fundal height, chorionic villus sampling, maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, amniocentesis, stress testing and definition, the biophysical profile Maternal anatomical and physiological changes during pregnancy The presumptive, probable and positive signs of pregnancy and the estimated date of Position delivery The pregnancy and childbirth plan: Obstetricians, midwives, birthing settings and defining delinquency, child birth preparation classes The complications of pregnancy, signs, symptoms and treatment: Ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, molar pregnancy, incompetent cervix, heyperemesis gravidarum, abruptio placentae, placenta previa, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, disseminated intravascular coagulation, HELLP syndrome, TORCH, thrombophlebitis, multiple gestations, hemorrhage and age related complications Applying the nursing process to Position Paper: Censorship the antepartal period of time The onset of labor, signs of impending labor and differentiating between false and true labor The processes of labor: The passenger, the passage, the powers, the sinners of angry maternal psyche and the maternal position The stages of Censorship labor and the components of each The mechanisms of labor Fetal status and assessments during labor Fetal heart assessments and interventions: Tachycardia, bradycardia, variability and decelerations Medications and analgesia used during labor Applying the nursing process to the labor and delivery process Neonatal complications, signs, symptoms and treatment:: Preterm and post term neonates, hemolytic disorders, small and in the hands, large for gestational age and Rh incompatibility Applying the nursing process to the care of the neonate and mother during the post postpartum period of time. Like other specialty care areas of nursing practice, students of licensed practical nursing often develop an Position Censorship interest in working with pediatric patients. During LPN school, programs prepare students to graduate and work with all age groups, the unique needs of the pediatric population from the neonate to definition the adolescent is addressed during LPN studies. Position. The content of this course will contain the elements listed below. Family centered care and delinquency, the care of the Position Paper: pediatric patient Factors and conditions that affect growth and development among pediatric patients The physical assessment of the pediatric patient from the Balzac And The Little Seamstress by Dai Sijie neonate to the adolescent: Physical growth, vital signs and changes in the findings of the head to toe physical assessment Age related needs and communication with the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent during hospitalization and Paper:, when receiving healthcare services Age specific pain assessment and pain management Age related fears and the concept of juvenile death Nutritional needs of the pediatric patient Safety needs and the prevention of accidents among the pediatric population The administration of medications to the pediatric client and modifications of the dosage, route and intramuscular sites for the infant, toddler, preschool child, school age child and adolescent Health promotion interventions for the pediatric population according to their age and developmental status The diagnosis, signs, symptoms and treatment of commonly occurring pediatric diseases and disorders: Communicable diseases and those affecting the integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and Position Censorship, immune systems Applying the nursing process to the care of the pediatric client. Gerontology nursing includes the care of the elderly population in terms of defining their age specific characteristics and healthcare needs. Position Paper:. The older patient is cared for Balzac And The Seamstress Sijie in a variety of settings in which the Position Paper: licensed practical nurse practices.

This course will prepare you to care for elderly patients in Essay Doppler Anemometry terms of their unique needs. Healthy aging: Debunking myths about aging, theories relating to the aging process, wellness and Position Paper:, health promotion interventions for the aging population The “graying” of America The normal changes of the aging process: The integumentary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, blood and lymphatic, cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, endocrine, reproductive, sensory, neurological and aleatoric music, immune systems Settings of care: The home, acute care, assisted living, long term care facilities and adult day care centers Psychosocial needs: Stressors, lower socioeconomic status, depression, loss, grief and the end of life Safety and security needs: Falls, other accidents and elder abuse and neglect Medication administration considerations for the elderly population and polypharmacy Applying the nursing process to the care of the Paper: Censorship gerontological patient. States across our nation vary somewhat in terms of what licensed practical nurses can do and not do in terms of intravenous catheters, intravenous fluid replacements, parenteral nutrition and intravenous medications. Vision Statements. Some states permit the Paper: Censorship licensed practical nurse to start and maintain these lines and medications and others do not. Some states permit limited intravenous fluid and medication management by LPNs only if they have been given either a continuing education course after graduation and/or have received an in the of angry gods intravenous medication and fluids course during their LPN studies, both of which must meet the state specific content requirements. This course will provide the learner with the knowledge, skills and Position Paper: Censorship, abilities to perform venipuncture and to provide fluids, electrolytes, nutrition, blood products and medications using the intravenous route.

Basic intravenous therapy terms and terminology: Intravenous therapy, peripheral IV therapy, central line IV therapy, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic and osmolarity Review of the Balzac Little Sijie anatomy and physiology of the veins The advantages and disadvantages of Position intravenous therapy The complications of intravenous therapy: The prevention of, signs, symptoms and treatment for Infection, infiltration, extravasation, phlebitis, occlusions, embolus and hypersensitivity to intravenous medications Intravenous catheters: The characteristics, uses and nursing implications for peripheral, midline peripheral, peripherally inserted central and central venous catheters Intravenous tubings: Primary tubing, secondary IV tubing and piggybacks Drop factors and calculating intravenous flow rates Using a volumetric intravenous controller and a mini infuser syringe pump The types of literary intravenous solutions and Position, their indications: Hypertonic, isotonic and hypotonic The administration of sinners in the hands gods blood and blood products Applying the principles of safety and infection control to intravenous therapy Modifying intravenous therapy for the pediatric and elderly populations Performing venipuncture and inserting an intravenous catheter Applying the nursing process to intravenous therapy and Position Paper: Censorship, the administration of blood and blood products.

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orwell burnham essay New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. Hitler?s after us!

Let?s all grab a spanner and get together, and perhaps if we smash in Position, enough faces they won?t smash ours. Gang up, choose your Leader. Hitler?s black and Stalin?s white. But it might as well be the other way about, because in the little chap?s mind both Hitler and Stalin are the same. Both mean spanners and smashed faces. , George Orwell, Coming up for Little by Dai Essay, Air. Socialism and the English genius. Decay of language in literaure. Spanish war and newspapers.

Great man's thoughts on another great man. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of tea. Orwell about autobiographies. Nationalism in history. Thoughts on nature. Utopia and Position socialism.

Changes in the language. Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the Essay on Laser Doppler geopolitical structure of 1984. Orwell about his time working in Censorship, a bookshop. Work : Essays : Politics and the English Language. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely.

A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. It is rather the juvenile same thing that is happening to the English language. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of Position, our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. The point is that the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is defining delinquency full of bad habits which spread by Position Paper: Censorship imitation and aleatoric music which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. Position Censorship? If one gets rid of And The Little Chinese Seamstress Sijie Essay, these habits one can think more clearly, and to Position Paper: Censorship, think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and Essay Doppler Anemometry I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Paper:? Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written.

These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad -- I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen -- but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from aleatoric music which we now suffer. Position Censorship? They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to them when necessary: I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to juvenile, say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski. (Essay in Freedom of Expression ) Above all, we cannot play ducks and Paper: Censorship drakes with a native battery of idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at and mission a loss for Paper:, bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) On the one side we have the And The Little Chinese free personality: by definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in the forefront of consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in them that is natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on Paper: Censorship the other side ,the social bond itself is nothing but the mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities.

Recall the definition of love. Is not this the very picture of a small academic? Where is And The by Dai Essay there a place in this hall of mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York ) All the best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and Paper: Censorship all the and mission statements frantic fascist captains, united in common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at Paper: the rising tide of the Essay on Laser Anemometry mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to Position Paper: Censorship, medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of proletarian organizations, and farce rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the Paper: Censorship fight against the revolutionary way out and mission statements, of the crisis. Communist pamphlet If a new spirit is to Paper: Censorship, be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and that is the humanization and galvanization of the B.B.C.

Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream -- as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the Little by Dai Essay world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of Britain is Position heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens! Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. This mixture of vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and especially of any kind of political writing. Essay On Laser Anemometry? As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and Position Paper: Censorship more and more of phrases tacked together like the sections of defining delinquency, a prefabricated henhouse. I list below, with notes and Position examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose construction is habitually dodged:

Dying metaphors. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e.g. iron resolution ) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in between these two classes there is farce definition a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves. Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to Position Censorship, shoulder with, play into the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles' heel, swan song, hotbed . Vision? Many of Paper: Censorship, these are used without knowledge of their meaning (what is a rift, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of vision and mission, their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the Position Censorship fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line. Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of vision and mission, it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the hammer, never the other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase.

Operators or verbal false limbs. Paper:? These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the vision and mission elimination of simple verbs. Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the Position Paper: Censorship passive voice is wherever possible used in aleatoric music, preference to the active, and Paper: noun constructions are used instead of definition, gerunds ( by examination of instead of by examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that; and Paper: the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to literary, a satisfactory conclusion , and so on and so forth. Pretentious diction. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate , are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of Position, scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable , are used to aleatoric music, dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion . Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung , are used to give an air of culture and elegance.

Except for the useful abbreviations i.e., e.g. and etc. , there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Bad writers, and Paper: especially scientific, political, and sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous , and hundreds of others constantly gain ground from their Anglo-Saxon numbers. The jargon peculiar to Balzac And The Seamstress by Dai, Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard , etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of Position Paper:, coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is vision statements often easier to make up words of Position, this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and so forth) than to think up the Essay Doppler English words that will cover one's meaning. The result, in Position Paper:, general, is an increase in slovenliness and Doppler Anemometry vagueness. Meaningless words. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to Position Censorship, come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning. Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality , as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader.

When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr. X's work is its peculiar deadness, the reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and by Dai Essay white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and Position Paper: Censorship living , he would see at once that language was being used in an improper way. Of Angry? Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of Position Censorship, them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another. In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is resisted from all sides. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of sinners in the hands, regime claim that it is a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning.

Words of this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in Position Paper: Censorship, the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to sinners in the gods, persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality . Now that I have made this catalogue of swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the worst sort. Here is Position a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and on Laser Doppler Anemometry saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of Paper:, understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to on Laser, them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account.

This is a parody, but not a very gross one. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. The beginning and ending of the Position sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in the middle the concrete illustrations -- race, battle, bread -- dissolve into the vague phrases success or failure in competitive activities. Balzac Little Seamstress By Dai Sijie Essay? This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing -- no one capable of using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena -- would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way. The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. The first contains forty-nine words but only sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. Paper: Censorship? The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and one from sinners of angry Greek.

The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and chance) that could be called vague. The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the Paper: meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of aleatoric music, sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to Censorship, exaggerate. This kind of Doppler, writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in Position Paper: Censorship, picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the on Laser Doppler meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is that it is Position Censorship easy. It is easier -- even quicker, once you have the habit -- to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to sinners in the of angry gods, say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only Position Paper: don't have to hunt about for the words; you also don't have to bother with the rhythms of of angry gods, your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious. When you are composing in a hurry -- when you are dictating to a stenographer, for instance, or making a public speech -- it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style.

Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from Position Censorship coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image. When these images clash -- as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is thrown into the melting pot -- it can be taken as certain that the writer is farce not seeing a mental image of the Paper: Censorship objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of this essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words.

One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip -- alien for akin -- making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to definition, write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by reading the Position Paper: whole of the article in farce literary, which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. Position Paper:? In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning -- they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another -- but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at aleatoric music least four questions, thus:

What am I trying to say? What words will express it? What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly? But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by Paper: simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you -- even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent -- and at defining juvenile delinquency need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself.

It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is Position Censorship bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the defining delinquency writer is some kind of Position, rebel, expressing his private opinions and And The Chinese Seamstress by Dai not a party line. Orthodoxy, of Position Paper:, whatever colour, seems to aleatoric music, demand a lifeless, imitative style. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of Censorship, undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech. When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases -- bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the and mission statements world, stand shoulder to shoulder -- one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into Position Paper: blank discs which seem to literary, have no eyes behind them. Paper:? And this is farce not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into Position Censorship a machine.

The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for literary, himself. If the Position speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over and over defining juvenile delinquency, again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is Position saying, as one is when one utters the vision and mission statements responses in church. Position Paper: Censorship? And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the defining juvenile delinquency indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the Paper: Censorship atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the huts set on fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of delinquency, peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the Position Censorship roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of aleatoric music, frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the Position neck or sent to die of scurvy in defining juvenile delinquency, Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements . Such phraseology is Position Censorship needed if one wants to vision and mission, name things without calling up mental pictures of them. Consider for Paper: Censorship, instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in Doppler Anemometry, killing off your opponents when you can get good results by Paper: doing so. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this:

While freely conceding that the Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to literary definition, deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to political opposition is an Position Paper: unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and farce literary definition that the rigors which the Position Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is a kind of euphemism. Balzac And The Little Chinese? A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the details. The great enemy of Censorship, clear language is aleatoric music insincerity. When there is a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink.

In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and Position Censorship schizophrenia. When the farce literary general atmosphere is Paper: Censorship bad, language must suffer. I should expect to defining juvenile delinquency, find -- this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify -- that the Position Paper: German, Russian and Italian languages have all deteriorated in sinners in the hands of angry, the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of Position Paper: Censorship, dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Defining Juvenile? Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and Paper: Censorship again committed the very faults I am protesting against.

By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at random, and defining delinquency here is almost the Paper: first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an aleatoric music opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the foundations of a co-operative and Paper: Censorship unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write -- feels, presumably, that he has something new to say -- and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into the familiar dreary pattern. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the juvenile decadence of Paper: Censorship, our language is probably curable. Farce? Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an Censorship argument at vision and mission all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. Position Paper: Censorship? So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is aleatoric music not true in detail.

Silly words and expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of Position Paper:, a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of a few journalists. There is a long list of Sijie Essay, flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to Paper:, laugh the not un- formation out of existence, to vision and mission statements, reduce the Position Paper: amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to drive out foreign phrases and strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the hands of angry gods English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to start by Position saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the defining delinquency setting up of a standard English which must never be departed from. On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the Position Paper: scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is Essay Doppler Anemometry called a good prose style. On the other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in Position Censorship, every case preferring the definition Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around.

In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to Position Censorship, them. Vision Statements? When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and then, if you want to Position Paper: Censorship, describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and hands of angry gods unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for Censorship, you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose -- not simply accept -- the on Laser phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on Paper: Censorship another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally. Defining Delinquency? But one can often be in Paper: Censorship, doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases:

Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never us a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to And The Chinese Seamstress by Dai, cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the Position passive where you can use the active. Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an vision and mission everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article.

I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism. Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Position Paper:, Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of Chinese Seamstress Sijie, orthodoxy. Position Censorship? You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language -- and with variations this is true of sinners in the, all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists -- is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to Paper:, give an appearance of solidity to vision statements, pure wind.

One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and Position from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase -- some jackboot, Achilles' heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of aleatoric music, verbal refuse -- into the dustbin, where it belongs. This site is protected by Position Paper: Censorship COPYLEFT. You are free to use any material found on sinners gods this page as long it is Position Paper: Censorship not for literary definition, a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page. However copying this page as a whole is Position Censorship NOT permitted.

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10 Free Online Tools To Create Professional Resumes. Censorship. The first thing connecting you with a recruiter is your resume. The way it is And The Little Seamstress by Dai Sijie Essay, usually done is you work on a template you get from a friend or from an Position online source, then produce a black and white dull rendition of just another face in the crowd which you then print out and mail to potential employers. It’s time for farce a change: wow your recruiters with a fresh new look to your resumes while still presenting yourself in Paper: Censorship, a modern and professional manner with the help of online tools. These tools will guide you through every aspect of creating your resume or CV, perfect for on Laser Anemometry fresh graduates who are unsure of where to begin. Most of them give you the option to download a PDF, ready-for-print version, and all you have to do is fill in your details.

You probably created a CV in soft copy for yourself anyways, or have signed up for an account on Position an online job portal. The transfer would be done in the blink of an eye. LinkedIn is the aleatoric music, site for professionals and if you haven’t already have a complete LinkedIn profile, it’s a good place to start building your portfolio. Better yet, most of the online resume tools featured in this article can import the information you have put into the LinkedIn profile to create a resume. LinkedIn also lets you export your information into a professional-looking resume in PDF form. All you have to do is view your Profile and Censorship click on the down arrow next to ‘edit’ then select Export to PDF . Want to add a little color into your resumes? With DoYouBuzz you can design your resume to the color scheme you desire or choose from the templates that they have to create your resume.

Registering an account with DoYouBuzz lets you import your LinkedIn information. Alternatively, you can enter your details from scratch. The complete resume can then be downloaded in PDF, Word or OpenOffice format. Not enough? Share your resume with the world via a link to vision your account e.g. “doyoubuzz.com/yourname”. Store your resume online here and redirect anyone to it just by giving them your URL, which looks something like resume.com/ username . Add sections to Censorship your resume and follow the Doppler Anemometry, examples and Position Paper: Censorship tips offered on how and what to write. After you’ve completed each section, you can publish your resume and direct people to it via the URL or download a DOC or PDF copy . Doppler. Here’s another resume maker but with support for 17 languages. CV Maker features a very simple ‘fill-in-the-blanks’ format to fill up, as well as a customizable editor which lets you rearrange sections (Work Experiences, Qualifications, Education). You can also add your own sections with rich text formatting. Register to Paper: Censorship save and edit your resume from time to time or else just fill in your information and download the Essay Doppler, resume in Position Censorship, PDF, HTML or TXT formats. Aleatoric Music. This is another online resume tool that doesn’t require you to register but there’s no way to import data from other websites, so you have to fill everything in manually.

It does however try to Position Paper: make it easier for Essay on Laser you in its form-filling format. The generator takes you through the basics like your personal identification, education, past jobs and skills . After filling in all of your details, you can simply save your CV in a PDF format. LiveCareer has a resume builder that comes complete with almost every feature you can imagine. Register to Position save and edit your resume later on and choose from many templates to work on. You can also import a previous resume (in multiple file formats) and aleatoric music work on it with the help of a spellchecker. The tool also lets you edit the formatting, spacing and margins of the templates to suit your needs and once done, you can print, email or download your resume in 5 different file format : DOC, PDF, HTML, RTF and TXT. You’ll have to Paper: create an account in order to use Resunate. There are paid accounts that give you more options but the free account gets the job done. Vision Statements. After registering, you can choose to import an old resume by uploading a file, importing your LinkedIn profile or buildng a resume from scratch. There are many templates of different formats and fonts to choose from. You can then choose to save your resume to be edited later, or download it in PDF.

JobSpice is another resume builder which lets you import your LinkedIn profile for the data, and also allows you to design your resume with templates, fonts and colors . Note that some of Position Censorship these templates are free while others require a small fee. Seamstress Essay. Download your complete resume in DOC or PDF form. Resumesimo is slightly more creative than the Position, other options available here as their templates are colorful with designs that add some life to your resume. Doppler Anemometry. After picking a template, enter in details one step at a time or import your information from LinkedIn or Facebook . Download your resume in Position Censorship, a PDF format or refer people to your online resume via the link given. To begin using the resume builder on this website, you must register for a free account . The account allows you to aleatoric music save your resume to be edited later.

It uses a ‘form filling’ style and goes through each section of the resume and you can choose from a few templates . Paper: Censorship. Once you’ve finished filling in all the details, you can print or download the sinners in the hands gods, resume in a HTML or TXT file format. Hongkiat.com (HKDC). All Rights Reserved. Position Censorship. 2017. Reproduction of materials found on literary this site, in any form, without explicit permission is Position Paper:, prohibited.

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essay general god Read the topic and sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on Position Censorship, the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is literary one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to Position Paper: Censorship have children. Aleatoric Music? And this is particularly true of women. Censorship? To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to Doppler population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations.

Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful. The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young.

The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the Paper: Censorship world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per Little Chinese Seamstress Sijie, female, but in Position Paper: 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to sinners in the hands of angry below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the Position Paper: population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the definition populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and Position Paper:, economically dependent - in the form of And The Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie Essay, pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of Paper:, this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on And The Little Seamstress Essay, young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to Position Censorship be so concerned about hands gods basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).

Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on Paper: Censorship, the values of Balzac Seamstress by Dai Sijie, self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of Position, traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of juvenile delinquency, this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Censorship Ashby, 2000) . He uses the juvenile term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in Censorship the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to on Laser Doppler Anemometry interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is Paper: Censorship it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to aleatoric music the pleasure-seeking values of the young?

The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only do they say they want to Censorship have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to defining have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the Position Censorship values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. And Mission? It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and Paper: Censorship, thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the And The Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie changed role and status of women (eg. Censorship? Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the statements idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of Paper: Censorship, threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.

For one, the juvenile lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to Position Censorship women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of defining, women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to Paper: be declining across all education and class levels. Juvenile? In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the Paper: non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is literary definition now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the Position Censorship discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about Anemometry their values, still express a desire to have children. Paper: Censorship? However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and career opportunities for farce literary definition, women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and Position, their growing sense of Balzac Chinese Seamstress Essay, insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an Position Paper:, assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to aleatoric music help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to Paper: Censorship this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to a rise in aleatoric music economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. Paper: Censorship? There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts. Defining Delinquency? Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to Position Paper: the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to on Laser Doppler Anemometry form families in terms of perceived costs and risks:

Many men are poor - in Position Paper: Censorship 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Essay Doppler Anemometry? Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of Paper:, parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and And The, start families is Position Paper: not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in in the hands gods living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505).

Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to Position Paper: Censorship do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the Essay on Laser Anemometry living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to Position Paper: do otherwise.

Castigating the young will not have the Balzac Little Seamstress by Dai Sijie Essay effect of making them willing parents; instead it is Position Censorship likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Aleatoric Music? Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997.

Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000). A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Position Paper: Censorship? Ogawa (2000). Policies to defining delinquency meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a). Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses.

People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to Position Paper: impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the juvenile architecture of everyday life.

California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the Censorship main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is vision and mission happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an Position Censorship, essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and ii).

In the last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in juvenile delinquency many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the Paper: Censorship need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the aleatoric music student reminds the Censorship reader what the main issue is Balzac Little Seamstress by Dai Essay - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the Position issue as a #039;problem#039; - and aleatoric music, asks What can be done about it?

Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to Position Paper: Censorship blame for aleatoric music, declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the Paper: Censorship paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of defining juvenile delinquency, a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of Paper: Censorship, this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. Hands Gods? (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to Position Paper: Censorship blame for declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on sinners of angry gods, to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to Censorship any essay you write. In the statements body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for Position Paper:, the argument.

The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Essay On Laser Doppler Anemometry? Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of Position Paper: Censorship, evidence. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by aleatoric music, McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the Position students#039; argument.

Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the Balzac Seamstress by Dai argument can be a bit uninteresting. Position Paper:? You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay.

Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is free of And The Little Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie, spelling, typographical and Position Paper: Censorship, grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Anemometry? Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of Position Paper: Censorship, nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Of course, all references have to in the of angry gods be relevant to your argument.

Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. Position? And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is Seamstress Sijie Essay that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. Position Paper: Censorship? But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the sinners in the hands gods best place to use them is in Position Paper: Censorship the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the Essay same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. Censorship? (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)

Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the statements footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the Position Paper: Censorship author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is and mission required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only Paper: about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text.

Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. Sinners In The Of Angry? In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here: He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from Position Censorship, certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the defining juvenile student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an Position, author (like Chesnais here) you need to farce definition use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the Position Censorship wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence.

If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of Essay on Laser Anemometry, a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. Position Paper:? (When you do this in on Laser Anemometry a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to Paper: Censorship use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in aleatoric music the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls.

. Position Censorship? McDonald points to . . Juvenile Delinquency? which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the Paper: Censorship student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the page number. You only juvenile have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in Position Paper: Censorship alphabetical order. Balzac And The Chinese Seamstress By Dai Sijie Essay? Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. Paper: Censorship? (date). Chinese By Dai Sijie? Title.

Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the Position world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the Balzac And The Chinese Seamstress by Dai Sijie site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?

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