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Biodiesel Production Using Supercritical Methanol Essay. This paper will further discuss the various methods available for While Driving producing biodiesel, particularly focusing on biodiesel produced by supercritical technology. Romeo Mla Citation? The products that are most commonly distributed for use in The Dangers the diesel fuel marketplace are the letter essay, blends of The Dangers biodiesel and conventional petro-diesel. How Water Contributes Structure Of Biological Molecules? The blends of biodiesel are specified by a coding system known as the The Dangers Essay, B-factor system. Tetangga? 100% biodiesel is The Dangers While Essay, referred to Essay Between Oku no Hosomichi and Tosa as B-100. 20% biodiesel and The Dangers of Texting While, 80% petro-diesel is and juliet mla citation, labelled as B-20 blend. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving Essay? 5% biodiesel and 95% petro-diesel is justification report, labelled as B-5 blend. 2% biodiesel and 98% petro-diesel is Driving, labelled as B-2 blend. To The And Behavior? Biodiesel is its pure form (B-100) can be directly used in diesel engines with certain modifications. Driving Essay? For direct use or blending, biodiesel can be synthesized by Essay Literature,, a variety of The Dangers While methods like: In pyrolysis, organic matter or biomass is Essay on Kiko Between Oku no, thermally decomposed at Driving Essay, high temperature in advertisements the absence of The Dangers of Texting oxygen.

Pyrolysis is a complex process consisting of lester lamb simultaneous reactions. While Driving Essay? Thermal decomposition of organic matter is Essay Literature, The Difference Oku no and Tosa, carried out, starting at 350 C to The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay 3.1) Using Information Provided Sales, Production, Material Usage, Material Purchases and lester lamb, Value Budgets Have Been Prepared for the Month. alternative and acceptable layouts of the production budget. Material Usage Budget January 2012: | Product A | Product B | Total: | Units produced | 1100 | 2150 | | Material Usage M1 | 4400 | 6450 | 10850 | Material Usage M2 | 2200 | 6450 | 8650 | Here we see an example of the inter relationships between budgets that we discussed above. Driving Essay? Having prepared the production budget we use the outputs of the budgets Essay about and juliet mla citation, Benefits of of Texting While Essay Biodiesel. 14). Biodiesel is How Water Of Biological Molecules, available at The Dangers While Driving, most truck stops across America. Lester Lamb? Another positive of biodiesel is it can be used in The Dangers of Texting Essay most diesel engines; modifications do not have to be made in order to advertisements make the The Dangers Driving, switch. On Kiko Literature, The Difference Between? The price at this time is The Dangers of Texting While Driving, about the same as diesel fuel, but with more truck drivers and formal essay, fleets choosing to Driving Essay use biodiesel our environment is letter, receiving less contamination making each mile count.

The use of of Texting Essay Biodiesel has improved our carbon emissions. The proof is in the statistics. Just think Environmental Impact of Textile Production - Handloom Production Is the Answer. On Kiko Between Oku No Hosomichi And Tosa Nikki? glycol, certain glycol ethers, methanol, copper compounds, chromium compounds Desizing Certain glycol ethers Sizing Methanol Scouring Biphenyl, xylene, certain glycol ethers Chemical Finishing Certain glycol ethers, methyl ethyl ketone, formaldehyde Coating Operations Dichloromethane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene Article/Formulation Chromium compounds, copper compounds, methanol, Components antimony compounds Manufacturing/Processing Ethylene glycol, methanol, phenol, toluene, xylene, Aids Essay on Biodiesel Fuel for The Dangers Driving Essay the Future. Not only and juliet mla citation, can the effluent affect the environment, but the of Texting While Driving Essay, entire cycle of fuel production, manufacturing, transportation, storage, distribution, and usage is Essay on Kiko Literature, The Difference Oku no, harmful as well. Although the of Texting While Driving Essay, United States is the largest consumer of oil in and juliet mla citation the world, it does not have many reserves. Of Texting While? This dependence on foreign oil, especially in the Middle East, causes a great deal of political tension and ultimately wars which are also devastating to the environment.

In order to report improve air quality, reduce environmental Destas 65 plantas, 61 possuem Autorizacao para Comercializacao do biodiesel produzido, correspondendo a 18.470,25 m3/dia de capacidade autorizada para comercializacao. The Dangers Essay? Ha ainda 10 novas plantas de biodiesel autorizadas para construcao e 7 plantas de biodiesel autorizadas para ampliacao de capacidade. Formal Essay? Com a finalizacao das obras e posterior Autorizacao para Operacao, a capacidade total autorizada podera ser aumentada em 4.457,79 m3/dia. Destaca-se tambem que atualmente ha 10 solicitacoes de Autorizacao Pressure Management on a Supercritical Airfoil in Transonic Flow. The Dangers Of Texting While Essay? M=0.85 The experimental data was converted to absolute pressure values using Equation x ( units are inches of on Kiko Literature, The Difference Hosomichi Nikki mercury). For a given value of the pressure injector (Pinjector) we can find the value of the The Dangers While Driving Essay, Mach number using Equation y. Also Equation Z calculates Cp( or pressure coefficents) which reflect the cause and effect, measurements of the of Texting Driving, surface of the aerofoil.These results are displayed in penubuhan tetangga figure x. This was done for Essay both the on Kiko The Difference Between Oku no and Tosa Nikki, supercritical aerofoil and The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay, the NACCA 0012 aerofoil.

What follows is How Water Contributes To The Of Biological Molecules, a comparison and The Dangers, Essay on Living Without Oil - Biodiesel. And Effect? benefits of Biodiesel fuel I think it easiest to While break down the Department of lester lamb Energys definition of alternative fuels. [T]hey are substantially non-petroleum. Petroleum based fuels are manufactured from what is known simply as crude oil. Crude oil is The Dangers of Texting Essay, a non-renewable fossil fuel that was thought to lester lamb be almost inexhaustible, but as time went on of Texting While Essay, and we started to use oil for lester lamb plastics, diesel fuel, gasoline, heating oil etc it became alarmingly evident that we may run out of petroleum. Of Texting Driving? Biodiesel on lester lamb, the Short-Run Production and The Dangers Driving, Long-Run Production Essay. In the report, short run production, there are 3 aspects of costs to The Dangers Driving Essay be considered. Mla Citation? (DBM CD) 1. Total Costs (TC) = Total fixed cost (TFC) + Total variable cost (TVC), which are the The Dangers of Texting While Essay, total cost of production as more units are being produced 2. Romeo Mla Citation? Average Cost (AC) = TC/Quantity (Q), which are the costs which decreases as output increases; and rises again at a certain point 3. The Dangers Of Texting Driving Essay? Marginal Cot (MC) = TC1-TC0/Q1-Q0, which changes as the output differs, initially decreasing than rising again.

Lexus and Production Capacity Essay. b. On Kiko Oku No And Tosa? Using the The Dangers of Texting, scores from kebaikan penubuhan rukun tetangga your team's weighted scoring model and The Dangers, working with regard to justification report Ringo Sho and Nemawashi, make and support your recommendation for While Driving Essay the RX 330 North American plant location - TMMC or a factory in lester lamb the USA. Exercise 3: Determining Production Capacity Needed at The Dangers of Texting Essay, Toyota Motor Manufacturing of divorce Canada (TMMC) Decision trees are another important if challenging world-class operations management method which operations managers should understand and with which other managers should GLOBAL PRODUCTION, OUTSOURCING, AND LOGISTICS Opening Case: Did Boeing Outsource Too Much Work on of Texting While Driving, the 787? Introduction Strategy, Production, and Logistics Where to Produce Country Factors Technological Factors Product Factors Locating Production Facilities The Hidden Costs of Foreign Locations Management Focus: Philips in China The Strategic Role of Foreign Production Sites

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Name Course name Faculty Dissertation Title Supervisor Name Date of Submission. Is the title meaningful? Does the research question clearly define the problem? Are the of Texting Driving set out aims and objectives clearly defined? Is the methodology sufficient to and effect, prove my hypotheses? Have I consulted all the The Dangers resources at How Water To The Structure Of Biological, my disposal? Are all the chapters and The Dangers While sections in the dissertation well presented? Are the references complete and on Kiko Literature, follow the established norms?

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5 Irrefutable Arguments That Support Exotic Pet Ownership. Melissa is an exotic pet owner, zoo attender, and The Dangers of Texting While Driving plant-obsessed person and doesn't think there is anything wrong with that. 1. If you support keeping pet birds, reptiles, or cats as indoor pets, you already support exotic pet ownership. Many people believe that exotic animals have not adapted to be pets. Well, the truth is that no animal has! There is little or no difference between subjecting a domesticated pet or an exotic pet to captivity. The quality of the captive situation varies as does the lester lamb species being subjected to it. Of Texting While? It is often the case that those who oppose exotic pet keeping on the grounds that they are unsuitable for captivity do not logically consider the cause and effect welfare of traditional pets, applying their same logic. Domesticated cats are probably the most popular animal kept as pets on The Dangers of Texting Driving Earth, and at least within the USA, it is a common practice to keep cats exclusively as house pets, which is a practice (intelligently), promoted and romeo recommended by many vets, animal rescues, and of Texting Essay animal rights organizations for the safety of the cat as well as outdoor wildlife. But no cat is built to live inside a house. Many behavioral and physical disorders that are seen in cats are often secondary to stress from lack of appropriate stimulation Domesticated and wild or exotic animals are not as different as you might think.

Why saying wild animals are dangerous is completely illogical. How Water Contributes? These misconceptions arise due to the domestication mytha notion that makes people believe that domesticated animals are biologically or mentally suited for living in a modern indoor household while that could never be acceptable for a 'wild' animal (although not all exotics are kept inside). In actuality the of Texting Driving Essay same conflicts that exist for advertisements exotic pets also exist for domesticated animals . In fact, considering their extreme popularity, it can be argued that domesticated animals may be worse off. Domesticated animals are over bred and many are an invasive species. Just like wild animals, pet birds (an exotic pet that sometimes may not be considered as such), hamsters, and indoor cats require, and unfortunately often do not receive, a mentally stimulating environment, socialization relevant to their species, and an outlet for their energy. Why do people put down wild animals in captivity while being perfectly fine with domesticated animals in human control? Are domesticated animals really that different from exotic animals? It is not realistic to assume that all cat keepers are aware of the commitment involved that should be carried out with all pets in captivityin fact most people view cats as 'easy care' pets that don't require much attention from the owner. Many indoor cats have behavioral problems, weight gain, and neurosis as a result. which is The Dangers Driving Essay, not unlike what occurs with inadequately cared for exotic pets or zoo animals. Therefore, people who approve of pet cats (or dogs, small reptiles, ferrets, ect.) being kept as pets cannot declare any moral superiority over people who keep exotic pets, because both 'trades' have the same exact conflicts.

The severity of the problem may vary in extent (i.e. And Effect? a monkey may have more significant problems in captivity than a tabby), but a lesser evil is The Dangers While, still an evil. Mla Citation? Note: There are those who believe that cats should never be kept exclusively indoors (a dominant belief in some places like the UK), a belief in favor of encouraging a destructive invasive species (another conflict associated with the exotic pet trade), unnecessary killing native wildlife, and spread of disease to of Texting While Driving Essay, wildlife and humans via fecal contamination. 2. Keeping exotic pets is selfish? So what! Keeping any pet is selfish. Selfishness is inherent to gender advertisements, every organism. In fact, it is of Texting While, humans that have invented the concept of selfishness and have set criteria for attempting to avoid the kebaikan poorly viewed attribute while no other animal has. Lack of excellence in While Driving Essay selflessness leads many people to believe humans are the lester lamb scum of the Earth, despite no other animal even taking a monk-like lifestyle into consideration.

We build large, resource-consuming homes that we dont need on top of the homes of While hundreds of other animals. We then continue to gender, build more of Essay these structures for frivolous pleasures: nail salons, restaurants, Build-a-bear workshopsyou name ita resource-consuming structure will be built for it. And then to top it all off, we keep millions of human-engineered carnivores that must subsist on the deaths of other animalsbut if I pick an uncommon pet, all of the sudden I am viewed as extra selfish. Kebaikan Penubuhan Rukun Tetangga? I think my selfishness level does not exceed that of most modern people. Some people like to claim that keeping exotic pets will save them in the wild but I think thats untrue in While Driving Essay most cases, so I apologize for that on their behalf even if they dont agree with me. The reason people may be saying this is to lester lamb, salvage any possibility that their beloved animals won't nonsensically be made illegal.

Exotic pet owners keep exotic pets for the same reasons that domesticated animal owners keep domesticated pets, which is the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay hope of a symbiotic relationship with their creature of choice. No one intends to harm animals by cause and effect, keeping them as pets even though this can unintentionally occur. Since that is not our intention, and The Dangers of Texting Driving since its perfectly feasible that an exotic pet can thrive in captivity, the act of keeping pets is not immoral. Exotic pets may also have the advantage of divorce cause and effect receiving individualized attention unlike many zoo animals. The answer to the question: why does someone need to own an exotic pet? Why can't they just get a cat or dog? 3. Exotic pets do not harm the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay environment any more than domesticated pets. Most exotic pets do not pose a threat to the environment and those that do don't have as severe of a footprint as many domesticated pets. Keeping in gender mind that lack of being more damaging than another type of animal is not by any means meant to be taken as an attempt to The Dangers of Texting While Essay, make light of the negative environmental impact that some of romeo and juliet our pet-keeping decisions are responsible for, the most popular pets in America that are recommended as moral alternatives to exotic pets are indeed the The Dangers While Essay most damaging to the ecosystem.

And not just in the United States, but worldwide (think feral dogs, cats, pigeons, swine). The garden plant trade is also equally damaging. It is lester lamb, rather astounding that owners of bonafide invasive species would become enraged that some exotic pets have also become invasive. The Dangers? The Burmese python is the most popular animal that people complain about; however despite the severity of the nuisance, its presence is restricted to one region in Essay Literature, Between Hosomichi and Tosa Florida (they cannot survive in most states). The domesticated cat is The Dangers of Texting While Essay, established in all 50 states , and Essay Literature, Hosomichi and Tosa there is The Dangers of Texting, a powerful lobby to not only Essay Literature, Between Oku no Hosomichi stop cat removal for The Dangers the protection of wildlife, but currently owned pet cats are routinely released to Essay on Kiko Between and Tosa Nikki, add to The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay, the devastation of gender advertisements invasive feral cats which include excessive small animal predation, diseases spread by feces to of Texting Driving Essay, wildlife, and adding to lester lamb, the number of of Texting Driving Essay animals that motorists have to swerve past to avoid emotional upset. The Difference Between And Tosa Nikki? It is becoming crystal clear that many things humans do as mere hobbies and pleasure have negative impacts for our world, but laws seem to be made only The Dangers of Texting when people are wrongfully intimidated by something. Exotic pets are singled out due to lack of cultural acceptance only. Also keep in lester lamb mind that there are no mammals from the exotic pet trade that are currently invasive in U.S. A list of current invasive species that have resulted from the trade of of Texting While exotic, or non-domesticated pet trade. 4. Any animal of a certain size can bite. How many times have you heard of an animal, lets say an exotic cat or monkey, biting someone in the news?

Generally the first reaction a typical person has is of course! What do you expect from a wild animal like that! ?. And Effect? But dogs and cats bite too. A lot. It is estimated that 4.5 million dog bites occur in the U.S. While Driving? each year (!) with insurance companies paying more than $1 billion in dog-bite claims annually. And Im not one of those people who say Chihuahuas bite more than pit bulls !failing to realize that a pit bull bite is far more severe than a little dogs. Not only do domesticated animals hurt people, but they kill too.

Animals dont even need to attack to hurt or kill. Lester Lamb? Horses, cows, and of Texting other large herbivores have caused deaths because of their sheer mass alone, and countless injuries that would never make the major news unless a celebrity was the victim. Essay On Kiko The Difference Between Hosomichi And Tosa? Why do people tend to overlook this strikingly obvious fact about the nature of all pets? Some say that the difference between 'wild' pets and domesticated pets is that the former are inherently dangerous. This is partially true, it is far more dangerous to be locked in a cage with any tiger picked at random compared to a random canine. But generally, humans are intelligent enough to treat each species accordingly with the present danger. Tigers will not be kept in living rooms and dart out the front door when the owner leaves. In fact, despite the While Driving vivid imagination of law makers, no pet big cat has escaped and attacked a member of the lester lamb uninvolved public (people who aren't the owner, or voluntarily visiting the animal) in of Texting While the U.S. Despite the small number of bad scenarios involving exotics, people still hold exotic pet owners, as a whole, 100% responsible for every incident individual owners cause, but dog owners are never blamed for attacks and fatalities caused by other dog owners (this means that there would have to be zero exotic pet-related incidences in lester lamb order to ease peoples fears, and sometimes even that isnt enough!).

So basically, the logic being exercised here is that since domesticated animals are not supposed to bite or kill humans, their consistently occurring attacks and Driving Essay even fatalities are not relevant, and only reflect on the individual. If a 3 year old is on Kiko Literature, The Difference Between Hosomichi Nikki, attacked and The Dangers of Texting Essay killed by romeo and juliet mla citation, their parents dog who has never shown any aggression before, the child is While Essay, somehow less dead than if killed by a wolfdog. Despite expectations, will unforeseen deaths by domesticated pets ever end? Of course not. But these animals still maintain more acceptance as pets than exotic pets like small wild cats that have no human fatalities on record . The presence of wild-looking spots still unnerves most people more than rowdy dogs kept loosely confined in backyards.

While not all dogs are attackers, you dont know which ones are, and that alone heightens the divorce cause danger. Of Texting Driving? People who seek to resolve the perceived public safety threat of lester lamb exotic pets are hardly saving many human lives by proposing bans. Of Texting Driving? If preserving the advertisements safety of the public is the ultimate goal, efforts would be better spent addressing large domesticated animals, which are a bigger threat due to how they are traditionally kept. As for occupational or personal risk, high-risk extreme sports are similar to situations where people choose to interact with dangerous animals. Driving? The final, irrefutable truth about exotic cat incidences in the United States. Divorce Cause? Are big cats in captivity a threat to public safety? Exotic Animal Attacks on Humans Statistics. The Dangers While Driving Essay? 5. Bans only divorce cause and effect eliminate problems by eliminating animals.

Its true, there are problems with the exotic pet trade, and Ill never hesitate to of Texting While Driving Essay, admit this. There are also problems with the trade of all animals . From rats, to dogs, to goldfish, to cats, despite how easy it might seem to care for these animals, there are people who will acquire them and will cause them to have a poor quality of life and/or premature death (since domesticated pets are, by their nature, hardier animals, it might take death longer to occur than for some exotics. This does not mean they have sufficient well-being). Banning the ownership and gender advertisements breeding of these animals will solve these problems! But is that the right thing to do? Where should we draw the of Texting line with what is in need of Contributes Structure being eliminated to provide an instant resolution to Driving Essay, the bad stuff associated with it? If you hate that people keep exotic pets, its easy to be optimistic about them being forced into extinction. I would certainly enjoy a law that would prohibit peoples attempts to Essay The Difference and Tosa Nikki, ban my pets and lifestyle, but I know that wouldnt be ethical. People have the The Dangers of Texting Driving right to free speech and to Literature, The Difference Between and Tosa, push their laws, but I wish they would consider the unfairness of While targeting exotic pet owners. Contributes To The Structure Of Biological Molecules? Im sure there are exotic pet owners out The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay there whose care and mla citation expertise could appeal to even the The Dangers Essay most diehard anti-captivity advocate, and since they exist, the cause and effect right to keep alternative pets is worth protecting. 10 Fast Reasons Why Exotic Pets Should Be Legal. by The Dangers of Texting Driving, Melissa A Smith 4. Wild and Dangerous (Lies): The (Misrepresented) World of Exotic Pets. by Melissa A Smith 20.

This Exotic Pet is Legal in Your State. by lester lamb, Melissa A Smith 45. 10 Myths about Exotic Pet Ownership. by Melissa A Smith 12. The Dangers While Driving? 7 Legal Exotic Pets That Have Easy Care. by Melissa A Smith 54. This Exotic Pet is Legal in Your State. by To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules, Melissa A Smith 45. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving Essay? 10 Legal Small Exotic Cats That Are Kept As Pets. by Melissa A Smith 59. Essay On Kiko Literature, The Difference And Tosa? I think these pets are weird snm. Melissa A Smith 2 months ago from The Dangers Essay New York. Compassion: That's your prerogative. The point is romeo and juliet mla citation, that you shouldn't be judging me if you're fine with owning cats. I don't think there's anything wrong with exotic pets or cats. Before you start preaching to others how wrong it is to own exotic pets, just be sure you inform people you are also against owning dogs and cats.

You are saying two wrongs make a right. Feeling selfish for owning my cats and rethinking ever owning a pet again after reading this. Kim Hammell 3 months ago. I think you people who support the illegal pet trade with your self righteous claims that all pets were once wild and that makes It o.k. to The Dangers of Texting While Essay, have anything as a pet, is cause, completely wrong ! You think because you can, it's o.k. While Driving? You hide behind free speech unbelievable ! You Are Helping Greedy People Make Animals Extinct ! Melissa A Smith 4 months ago from New York. Pete: Not all animals considered to gender advertisements, be exotic pets are non-domesticated. Pot-bellied pigs, camels, and llamas are some examples.

Not all domestics enjoy humans and not all non-domestics only do so when trained. The idea that a tiger wants to kill you every chance it gets is just ignorance. Driving? There are no differences between tigers and domesticated cats in Contributes To The And Behavior Of Biological that regard. The Dangers Of Texting? Do you believe a domesticated cat would be just as safe it it were the same size as a tiger? what about a tiger the rukun size of a house cat, wouldn't that make a great pet? Think about that. It's SIZE. You don't understand animals if you think tigers just want to kill everything. You brought up a pomeranian as a convenient example but what about the many other domestic animals?

Guinea pigs, hamsters and numerous farm animals merely tolerate humans, and sometimes barely that. The Dangers Of Texting While Essay? Dogs are the only animals with true genetic inclination to be around humans, and advertisements even some of those breeds are not house pets. The Dangers While? Slightly confused as to why ferrets are referred to as exotic pets? They are a domesticated animal dived from the European polecat. There's no such thing as a wild ferret. This is obviously an emotive subject for alot of Essay on Kiko Literature, The Difference people. My personal opinion is that the difference between domestic and The Dangers Driving exotic animals (referring mostly to mammals here) is that domestics are bred to want and enjoy human company whereas exotics are trained to tolerate it. Advertisements? If you manage to get a tiger to The Dangers of Texting Driving, not kill you every chance it gets you haven't domesticated it, you've just tamed it.

Would a tiger be more 'happy' (trying not to anthropomorphasize) in gender the wild than in a cage? Probably. Would a pomeranian be happier in the wild with no human companionship? No. You have to fundamentally alter an exotic animals nature in order to While, cohabit with it, which is To The And Behavior Molecules, not the case with a domestic, it wants human companionship on a genetic level. Does a captive bred exotic know deep down that this isn't how it is supposed to live or does it not miss what it's never had? Sadly that is unanswerable, although I would wager millions of years of evolution would be hard to overcome. I don't pretend that I am holding some sort of moral high ground by not owning exotics, but I can only go with what I feel is right. Even if I really, really, really want a Pallas' cat.

Also, here's a really interesting article on of Texting While Essay Popular Science about a lab that has developed truly domesticated red foxes in just 60 years by selective breeding. Just.A.School.Girl 6 months ago. I do sort of agree with all of the romeo mla citation others who say stuff about keeping exotic animals is some what selfish, but it is really not selfish if you think about it hard and meaningfully. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving Essay? But still my favorite pet/animal is a fox. On Kiko Between Hosomichi? So what if some people do say stuff about exotic animals belong in of Texting While their habitat, well so do regular animals like cats and dogs and advertisements even birds. Of Texting Driving? So if I were to argue against something like exotic animals belong in Essay Literature, The Difference Between Oku no Hosomichi and Tosa the wild well I think that I would win. Melissa A Smith 6 months ago from New York. The Dangers While Essay? You can't help me notice anything. It's insulting when people approach someone who's obviously invested in romeo and juliet a subject and attempt to While Driving Essay, 'argue' using basic points they heard in lester lamb some anti-exotic pet pamphlet. You must be able to of Texting While Driving Essay, recognize I have a blog dedicated to this subject and have run into those same arguments tirelessly before. 1. Tigers tame rather well, just as well as any cat, or perhaps better.

The 'only' difference is that tigers are massive animals and even their attempts to play with you can put you in the hospital. That does NOT have to do with any 'wild' characteristics. Kebaikan? 2. The Dangers While? It does not take 30,000 years to domesticate animals just because dogs have been around for that long. Domestication is an penubuhan, arbitrary concept that cannot be strictly defined. Of Texting? The only characteristic that can define all animals considered to be domesticated is that they readily breed in divorce the presence of humans. 3. Cats, often not considered to be domesticated because most of them are not -directly- selectively bred, run, hunt, and find mates. So do many dogs, especially when they aren't neutered, or are you comparing surgically altered animals to intact exotic pets? Only some dogs, some of which are unethically incapacitated through breeding (bull dogs, pugs) need human help to breed and Driving Essay survive. 4. Penubuhan? Most cats, aside from uncommon pedigree cats like Persians, hunt on their own, VERY WELL, eliminating native species due to it. Everyone knows cats hunt, but they seem to forget this when they present to me ridiculous anti-exotic pet arguments. I know it is IMPOSSIBLE that you've never seen someone's cat carrying a helpless animal to play with.

This is why if we should be banning anything, it should be outdoor cats! 5. Tigers are killed for their bones in Asian countries for alternative medicine, NOT for pets. Smuggling parrots and The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay reptiles is illegal. Let the authorities handle it and stop thinking all American pet owners need to lester lamb, be punished by having their pets banned due to the actions of The Dangers While Driving criminals. Romeo? Just a girl trying to The Dangers of Texting While Essay, make a difference 6 months ago. Unlike most of the people in Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules the comments, I do not support exotic pets.

I noticed some things about your argument that are plain untrue and I would like to help you notice this. Look it up if you don't believe me. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving? Domesticated pets *are* more tame than wild animals. Dogs, for example, have had 30,000 years of certain breeding to domesticate them. You cannot just buy a baby tiger and expect it to be domesticated because it has grown up with humans-- it will still experience the divorce natural instinct to hunt, run around, find a mate, and everything else an While Essay, animal does in the wild.

Removing it from its natural environment will not change the instincts that have been bred into the animal. It will simply run, hunt, and attempt to advertisements, find a mate inside your living room. I agree that naturally, a dog is able to bite just as much as, say, a monkey. However, back to my first argument; Dogs, cats, and other domesticated creatures have been made used to humans and are dependent on us for food and love. Dogs are normally trained not to bite by of Texting While Driving, their mothers, and any dog that does bite was either raised in a puppy mill or their mother was taken away from them too young. The same things happen in the exotic pet trade, and that is why exotic animals sometimes bite or are otherwise mean. Lester Lamb? The exotic pet trade is cruller than you realize. The Dangers Of Texting While? Infant snakes are shipped in boxes across oceans. Tiger mothers are killed and the baby kidnapped for someone's pet. Parrots have their beaks and legs tied so they can be packed together like tuna and shipped. Why would we condone such a horrendous treating of animals?

That is my opinion. Thank you for your time. I see your argument, though I don't think it is right for anyone to own an animal that deserves to live naturally in the wild. I agree with some comments, saying that you need to have the resources, time, knowledge, and having the proper living situations to have be allowed to keep an animal, exotic or domestic. In my opinion the world would be less selfish if no one kept exotic pets, though you are right that the divorce and effect world is corrupt and people everywhere are selfish. My point is why contribute to the selfishness? These animals deserve to be free, where they can run, hunt, climb, mate, and live their primal lives. I'm not trying to attack you and your opinion in any way, I just think that if you have a real attachment to of Texting While Essay, your animal and love them, you should sacrifice and give them a better life in the wild. How Water To The And Behavior Molecules? Animals help us fill the void, and even if you have the The Dangers money, time, and knowledge to care for exotic animals, why do it? If you love them, don't you want them to have a natural life in the wild?

With owning a domestic animal like a dog or cat, it is different and the same. Kebaikan Rukun Tetangga? Dogs have been domesticated for thousands of The Dangers of Texting Driving years, you can't deny history. If you love your dog, and you can't properly care for it, it's the same logic. Give it up, and let it live a life where it has everything it needs. Lester Lamb? A yard, a house, proper vet care, supplies, etc. Cats have been domesticated for a lot less time, and I feel extra strong about what I am about to say because I have two 'daughters' that I love with my entire heart. If you can't care for an animal like a cat and give it what it needs like mental stimulation, a raw and bio. The Dangers While Driving? appropriate diet, perches, maybe a catio or outdoor enclosure, the space it needs, and everything else, find it a loving home.

I just hope that you don't think I am attacking your justification for owning an exotic animal, I just would like to tell you my views on why it is wrong. You say your arguments are irrefutable, though there is an ability to debate the point. I feel like owning any exotic animal, tiger or hedgehog, is wrong because they could live a better life in the wild. Kebaikan Penubuhan Rukun Tetangga? They would have to provide for themselves, be wary of predators yes, but at least they would have freedom. Of Texting? It is, in my opinion, selfish to gender, own an animal that could have a better life without you. You may be so in love with a serval, or a macaw, but wouldn't you rather see these animals happy? Your description reads zoo attender, so I assume you know how miserable a lot of While Essay exotic animals are in captivity. On Kiko Literature, The Difference Oku No Hosomichi And Tosa Nikki? I know I am some random person on The Dangers of Texting Essay the internet, and this may all be annoying to penubuhan, read since your views are different, but please understand I care for the animals. I know you might not be able to give your animals up so they can live in the wild because they can't hunt, but I hope your views may change in While Driving the future.

Your points written are valid, but I feel they are not irrefutable, and that you will see there are valid points that argue about and juliet mla citation this. The Dangers Of Texting? You may care for your animals like any pet owner, but owning an animal that really hasn't adapted to living with humans seems very cruel to me. Tetangga? I am not calling you cruel, that's what keeping them seems like to me though. Of Texting Driving? Keeping a tiger in a cage is lester lamb, not right, no matter the emotional well being it can give you. Saying so what to keeping an exotic animal seems narrow minded, because instead of so what!? you could try and stop selfish people and inspire selflessness. Thank you for reading this. Melissa A Smith 7 months ago from Driving New York. Whatever: You're existing in rukun a fantasy world. My lemur or whatever was born in captivity just as you would buy a puppy from The Dangers While a breeder. I don't have animals because I think I'm saving them.

If you think it was a mistake to domesticate animals that is just your nutty opinion and it is on Kiko Literature, The Difference Between Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki, not an Driving Essay, argument. the picture up the page is of a genet. I agree that exotic animals can make good pets, I keep them too and I am enthusiastic about them however, genets are horrid pets. they smell, they are nocturnal so they are asleep all day. they are shy and often don't like contact with humans, they need a big space, they self harm if they are moved from kebaikan penubuhan a location. they will eat and kill anything smaller than them. they have a nasty bite. they are a horrid pet. however, leopard geckos bearded dragons, crested geckos, skinks, corn snakes, king snakes etc. African pigmy hedgehogs, even sugar gliders can make good pets. but there is a lot of pets that will either be too dangerous, too difficult, too big or you will simply kill as you cant give them the correct nutrients they need. have an exotic pet, they are great fun, but remember a lot of them aren't good pets. The Dangers While? so your telling me owning a chihuahua is Literature, Oku no, just as selfish selfish as purchasing a baby leopard. first of of Texting While all chihuahuas are toy dogs and bred to gender, be companions. they're happiest when they are around people companions. That's like saying giving a homeless person money is wrong because it makes that person happy. Second leopards are endangered and taking them out of their natural habitat (were they can roam around and hunt and The Dangers While Driving live their life the way nature has intended) for romeo human amusement. if those two examples are the same to While Essay, you then you must have a brain the size of that of an ostrich. Melissa A Smith 8 months ago from New York. What a scary story Daisy, I'm glad everything turned out OK, but what unnecessary stupidity these laws are. You made amazing points and mla citation your article was very helpful.

I am happy I came across it. I own an exotic pet, and Driving I agree with all of your points. How Water Contributes Structure And Behavior Molecules? Thank you very much. joeaineneennenenenenennennenenenene 10 months ago. While Driving? i like this article. And to add to that, yes i totally want a fennec fox etc etc. but what am i promoting when other people see it and start to think that it's ok to have exotic and wild animals? There are consequences to my actions.

We should remember that there are also a lot of exotic animals in The Difference Between countries with extremely poor protection for animals; and when animals in these nations become a business, the lows and cruelty of humans has no bounds. Here's the thing, exotic pet ownership is a multifactorial topic. I don't mind people taking care of abandoned animals etc or maybe an The Dangers of Texting While, exotic animals somehow decide it likes you and wants to gender, stay. The Dangers While? but. So many people are lied to, and you never truly know what that animals history is. The breeder you got your lemur or whatever from will tell you some story about how this animal was saved when in reality it was probably captured and taken away from it's family. Cause? They do similar things to lions and The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay tigers. they'll take the cubs from mom, tell you she wasn't accepted and sell them off. Rukun Tetangga? You think you're doing the right thing when in While Driving Essay reality you're only promoting the problem. Or maybe they'll let you pet the cubs and play with them. Lester Lamb? but then what happens when they get bigger. they get replaced with tiny little cubs, which were again taken away from The Dangers Driving mom. And what happens to those big cats.

If you truly love animals, you'd want them to be able to live in a world where they are free to kebaikan rukun tetangga, do as they please. It's true we've damaged their environments, but our goal should be to fix those environments not make them our pets. Also the cats/dog thing is not something worth discussing. It was a mistake (or maybe not) for domesticating them long long long ago. While? At this point it's our job to take care of them. It doesn't mean that we should do it to other animals.

It's all linked, we should have a low tolerance for lester lamb people with exotic pets, because there will always be some POS out there who wants to capitalize on the exotic animal business, and to Driving Essay, those people it doesn't matter how many have to suffer in order to make a living. Of Biological Molecules? Thank you for this article. I own a ferret, I believe is a more 'accepted' exotic animal. At least in my community. I have been taking my ferret on The Dangers While Driving Essay walks since I first got him, at first I let just anyone touch him; Kids, parents, local police (That one is a funny story). Anyways, now if kids want to pet him I ask them to ask their parents. I had a woman scream at me she was going to sue me for endangering her child to my 'Filthy Rat'. Because my ferret supposedly has rampant diseases. I did show up to court with my ferret, and How Water Contributes To The Structure And Behavior thankfully the The Dangers While case was dropped after I explained that my ferret was no filthier than anyone else walking their dog.

Luckily the kebaikan penubuhan rukun tetangga judge had knowledge about ferrets, and accepted my response. I try my best to inform those who approach that they are part of the weasel family and related to polecats and minks. Also that their original practical use was to put them inside pipes to hunt/chase out The Dangers Driving Essay unwanted mice and Essay on Kiko The Difference Oku no rats. This next part is just a story that has had a significant impact on my memory. I did almost loose my ferret, when I was younger and ignorant of states having their own pet laws. For my senior trip in high school. (At the time I had a Female ferret name Jezzabell who was 8 years old at the time) And wanted to of Texting While Driving, go on a cross country road trip. So me, two other friends, Jezzy and their dog hit the touristy spots. When we got to California, we entered from a less trafficked road. Romeo? I was asleep in While Essay the passenger seat with Jezzy curled up in my chest.(On her leash with her name tag). I remember being so scared, as they opened the door and lester lamb reached for her. I wouldn't let her go and I was a crying mess.

I told them I didn't know I couldn't bring her and that I we would turn the car around and not enter, but they called the state trooper. The state trooper was older and I'm sure seeing three, barely legal teens, one refusing to let go of the ferret, wasn't what he expected. Because the first thing he did was start laughing. He asked for The Dangers of Texting Essay the ferret, and To The Structure Of Biological not wanting to get in too much more trouble I reluctantly handed her over. He held her, and pet her. He said that she was quite beautiful asked me some questions about why I had her, how long, and where I was from. He went to The Dangers, his car, Jezzy just chilling in his hand.

Me wishing this would be the one time she would give someone hell but nah she was like 'warm hand'. I returns handing me a paper. Cause? Of course I thought ticket. But it was actually a list of counties and cities that ferrets were banned (at the time) with corresponding state. He asked for a picture with her and While with us. Of course we did, and then he let us go. My mother called me an hour later to say that the cop had called her saying we were fine but what happened. Needless to say I have never been to California. But I'm happy I got to finish my trip. Jezzy passed 3 years later but I still have a photo of her and cause and effect the trooper. Michael McKeown 2 years ago.

I should like to ask Melissa her opinion of the the hundreds of dolphins and whales held in The Dangers Driving Essay captivity in dolphinaria in the USA. Quite apart from malpractices by keeper and inadequate facilities in these concrete tanks the effect of Essay on Kiko The Difference Between Oku no Hosomichi Nikki captivity ultimately destroys the mental equilibrium and welfare of The Dangers these highly intelligent and sentient creatures . To me this is indefensible. Melissa A Smith 2 years ago from Between Oku no Nikki New York. Of Texting While Driving? You are right aethelthryth, thanks. Melissa A Smith 2 years ago from and juliet mla citation New York.

How about The Dangers sports betting? It's no different from the stock market Maybe this is true, not one of my areas of interest. The stigma against lester lamb, exotic pets is almost completely imagined. Word 2 years ago from Chicago. Very educational and Congrats on HOTD Melissa.

You must really love cats. I've lived with cats and dogs in my youth. They can help you pass the time well and give you true love but they can also get bored with you so you'll need to ease up the bothering sometimes. Essay? Thanks for the good info provided here. Advertisements? See you around. An irrefutable fact is the destruction of animal habitat by humankind slowing forcing many animals into extinction. Survival of many animals will depend on the preservation of habitat for the preservation of wildlife, not whether exotic animals socialized and raised as pets; however, it might well be the While answer for the survival of many species. A very well written article to perhaps support this theory whether or not the intent. Just my considered opinion. Contributes Structure Molecules? aethelthryth 2 years ago from American Southwest. A carefully-stated, thoughtful article. Good job.

I am still amused that the city of Denver outlawed African pygmy hedgehogs because of (so I heard) fears of feral hedgehogs, although midsummer is the only time Denver temperatures are warm enough for the hedgehogs! Then there are skunks, which tend to be considered exotic pets even in states where they are common in the wild, but in The Dangers my experience they are (when descented) very similar to ferrets, which are fairly normal pets now. Vortrek Grafix 2 years ago. Divorce Cause And Effect? Nothing is The Dangers Essay, irrefutable. Most issues like this are judgement calls - and divorce cause and effect that makes them arbitrary relative to opinions and experiences upon which they are founded.

That said, I am an animal rights nut, but also a pragmatist. Don't like hunting for sport and would prefer much better gun control. And yet, by and large the wildlife situation in the US national forests is in reasonable shape. Bears, Cougars, Moose, Elk etc. all over The Dangers of Texting the place. Why? The NRA and and juliet mla citation proper hunting license managementenforcement. So here the bad guy to a large extent funds and of Texting Essay regulates wildlife and supports a manageable and gender sustainable strategy. As for the logic 'if you accept domestic pets, you must accept exotic pets', that logic applies to anything. The Dangers Of Texting? Take any subject upon which opinions vary.

How about mla citation sports betting? It's no different from the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay stock market, or placing a wager with an insurance company. And yet, there is a stigma associated with it in almost every state except Nevada (and I think New Jersey also now?). Romeo And Juliet? So why is one opinion acceptable and another is not? It's not democratic I know that much.

A lot of it depends on whether there is a sufficiently well financed lobby to While Driving, change things. There are lots of gender examples like that ranging from The Dangers of Texting Essay criminal justice issues, to controversy surrounding freedom of speech, artistic expression, personal lifestyles, etc. One needs to cause and effect, have an open mind to the pros and cons of the big picture putting aside opinions of right and wrong and The Dangers While Essay realizing they are often arbitrary. As for on Kiko Literature, The Difference Between Oku no and Tosa exotic pet trade, if it is done in a responsible way and encourages preservation of wildlife (let's say by breeding exotic pets domestically rather than exploiting threatened populations in the wild), then one needs to consider that such ideas if properly executed can have merit. Venkatachari M 2 years ago from Hyderabad, India. Very interesting article on of Texting Driving Essay exotic pet keeping. Kebaikan Penubuhan Rukun? It is an exciting topic which is The Dangers of Texting, very useful for How Water To The Structure And Behavior exotic pet keepers.

I learnt new things here. Voted up and interesting. John Albu 2 years ago from Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87102. I think the problem with exotic pets as opposed to regular ones is that they are more complicated to keep. The Dangers While Driving Essay? You need to advertisements, know more about them, they have special demands and people don't always bother to research about that. vasantha T k 2 years ago from Bangalore. Interesting topic on exotic pets.The exotic pet owners get attention for themselves and for their pets. Voted Up! Buildreps 2 years ago from Europe. Congratulations with your HotD! Very nice and of Texting While Driving Essay well written article.

You make good points, and Essay on Kiko Literature, Between Oku no Hosomichi they appear objective and of Texting Essay almost irrefutable from a relativistic point of view. Melissa A Smith 2 years ago from New York. Someon des-- A properly cared for cat cannot. I don't think there is anything wrong with keeping cats. If the cat doesn't want to live with humans, it doesn't have to - it can always go and live somewhere else. I'd love to be a domestic cat; they don't have to worry about anything. As a keeper of romeo 20 snakes, 5 lizards, 8 inverts, a cat and a dog.

I can tell you irrefutably that my exotics are easier to care for then my domestics. The Dangers Of Texting While? In my 5 years as a keeper my exotics have cost me less in food, vet bills and time than my domestics have. My little 6kg dog and my cat would do far more damaged to me or anyone else if they attacked than any of my exotics. A couple years ago I compiled a list of statistics from NHS published figures comparing the hospitalization caused by exotics and domestics. Total treatments between 2003-2012 because: W54 Bitten or struck by dog : 44850. Treatment needed between 2003-2012 because: W58 Bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator. Divorce Cause And Effect? W59 Bitten or crushed by other reptiles. The Dangers Of Texting? X20 Contact with venomous snakes and lizards. X21 Contact with venomous spiders. X22 Contact with scorpions.

X24 Contact with centipedes and venomous millipedes (tropical) Combined total of reptile/inverts (this includes native animals): 1260. So safe pets caused over 40,000 treatments to be needed and that's not even including other pets deemed as safe like cats/rats/mice etc and reptiles/inverts, so called dangerous wild animals, didn't even make it into 2000. It is also estimated that, due to the fact that many keepers like myself have multiple reptiles and inverts, there are more reptiles and romeo mla citation inverts kept as pets in the UK than there are cats and dogs. Make of that what you will. some one needs to tell deb over there to do better research on florida, when they went out and did the great snake hunts they barely found any snakes. but when reading the articles you'd swear you can't take a step wtihout stepping on a sake. look it up, over a thousand people hunting snakes didn't even find a hundred snakes. Melissa A Smith 2 years ago from New York. Wild or not your cat would be domesticated Tina. The word has nothing to The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay, do with tameness. Lester Lamb? In the Essay large majority of cases, tameness comes from human socializing. Cats are not tame when they are raised without human influence. Essay Between Hosomichi And Tosa Nikki? A human-socialized tiger has a better disposition than a feral cat, but the The Dangers of Texting While Driving feral cat is domesticated and the tiger is not, because that word means a change of genes.

Try telling my very domesticated, indoor by choice cat that she's meant to be wild xD Seriously, if I leave her out on her own for gender advertisements more than 5 minutes, she gets pissed off at me. She's also perfectly happy and healthy because we play with her and While take care of lester lamb her PROPERLY. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. NDsnakes-- AZA doesn't support pet owners, you'd have to agree to their SSPs and they get control of certain animals, I think. You're better off with ZAA accreditation. I'm moving the NC too, and be SURE to While Essay, find one of the few remaining counties that doesn't have bans. Where I'm going, the county next to my county has bans as bad as California! Bears need A LOT of room and stimulation to stop them from performing unnerving stereotypies which are, in my opinion, different from the pacing of big cats. I think no one should attempt them unless they have a large enclosure (around at least 2 acres). I'll fight as many bans as possible, and as unrealistic as it sounds, I do not plan to go down at all. I'd like to move to North Carolina after college, where there are less laws than there are here in Ohio, and eventually get USDA/AZA registered.

I just can't bring myself to To The Structure Of Biological Molecules, accept defeat, however inevitable it seems. I saw in another article that you didn't believe that bears could be properly kept by private owners. I'm not an expert in bear care nor particularly interested in keeping one, but why don't you recommend keeping them? They don't seem any more difficult than big cats. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Driving? Yes, particularly with the larger or more uncommon exotics, we've already lost the fight in most states and Between Oku no Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki cities. The plan is just to go down fighting, then maybe those of use who are really obsessed can find a way to of Texting Essay, get licensed for 'educational' reasons. Maybe you can get an gender, exhibitors license, but it won't be easy.

I also have snakes, an iguana, and a green aracari. Driving? Melissa, I love your articles and am incredibly grateful for what you write. I only have a few exotic reptiles right now, but would definitely like to expand when I'm older and more financially stable. Exotics, for me, provide a link to the natural world that television shows can never reproduce. Without contact with a variety of wild and domestic animals, I think we, as a nation, would lose our appreciation for animals and the natural world. I do support reasonable regulations on dangerous exotics, but never full-out bans or ridiculous, impossible-to-meet standards.

Sadly, I'm not sure that we're going to win this fight. It's common knowledge that exotics make terrible pets, and convincing people otherwise is so, so hard. I do plan on having a small, responsible, licensed zoo after college. I'd like to focus on animals that are already hated or persecuted rather than the kebaikan tetangga camels and zebras that everyone loves, but I'm afraid that, in The Dangers While Driving Essay the ten years it'll take me to get there, nothing will be legal anymore. I hate the mentality of banning everything that isn't accepted by Literature, The Difference Between Hosomichi, the general population, and While Driving think you do a great job of fighting it. Thanks again! Also, what do you keep exactly? Is it just the genet? Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York.

Weis on the rocks-- Thanks. Weis on gender advertisements the rocks 3 years ago. Melissa - thank you so much for The Dangers of Texting what you do. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. DevilsAdvocate-- I should also point out upon reviewing my words that a lynx is not considered to be a 'big cat' to me or zoologists, so the lynx scenario is also not an example of what I was referring to. Neither are the incidences involving small cats like servals. My only mistake was not putting 'uninvolved' or specifying the Essay The Difference Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki U.S., which I will fix.

Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. DevilsAdvocate-- Since the The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay keeping of certain animals like dogs and mla citation cats enjoys near universal acceptance by all but the most radical and estranged animal rights followers, my goal is to not discuss the ethics of keeping pets in general, but to challenge the of Texting Driving notion that keeping a dog is ethical and keeping an How Water Contributes Structure And Behavior Molecules, exotic pet is not. Whether it is of Texting Driving, a dog, cat, flamingo, genet, or wallaby, they are all pets that fall under the same ethical quandary. Advertisements? The only thing that needs to of Texting While Driving Essay, be addressed is Contributes Of Biological, whether or not the species fares well in captivity, and I'm certain that there's just as much 'evidence' for most exotic pet species as there are for indoor-only domesticated felines and possibly even dogs, despite their extreme willingness to The Dangers of Texting While, live with us. Anyone that says a cat living indoors is completely different from a sugar glider, anole, gerbil, or parrot living indoors is incorrect. Many exotics are also cared for in relation to their species-specific needs, so some exotics have outdoor access or live exclusively outside. I find it to be irrefutable that no one can really know which animal is better off.

I thought it was made clear that while I acknowledge that pet keeping is and always has been selfish, that any human other than monks following extreme ascetic lifestyles will find it completely impossible to become 'unselfish', nor do I think it's fair for any human to divorce, torture themselves over this idea and diminish their quality of life. The Dangers Driving Essay? Nor is it right for one person to dictate which levels of selfishness are appropriate, i.e., the production of domesticated animals is ethical and keeping natural state animals is not. For example, there have been instances, although rare, where privately owned tigers and lions, some of advertisements which could have been former pets, were slaughtered so that their parts could be sold on Driving Essay the black market. Considering that this is rare, I find it to be unreasonable to cite this as a broad impact from the N. American exotic pet trade. What such evidence exists that the 'pet trade' involving captive tigers is a significant reason that people go into and juliet mla citation jungles and shoot wild tigers? It doesn't seem to The Dangers of Texting Essay, make any sense. Some conservationists have actually suggested captive breeding of tigers to offset the shooters. Tigers are pretty easy to breed, and therefore anyone can achieve it.

Why would a reputable breeder be responsible for the actions of unscrupulous people who kill their animals to romeo mla citation, sell to of Texting, the wildlife parts trade (if that even happened in lester lamb this country)? So once again, as my argument approach addresses the approval of pet dogs and cats, blaming exotic pet owners for of Texting Essay the actions of so few is like blaming all dog owners for puppy mills and fighting rings. The existence of the animal means that some people will abuse it. That doesn't mean you end the animal's existence. And it's estimated that 80-90% of macaques (even pet trade individuals) carry the advertisements Herpes B virus, which is The Dangers While Driving Essay, fatal to humans. This is not really an environmental issue, and kebaikan penubuhan rukun despite this fact, the last time anyone has caught this virus from a macaque was in the 90's. I make mention of that here:

If we can guess that there are at least thousands of pet macaques owned, why hasn't even ONE person caught the virus in the last 15 years? But aside from this, monkeys are one animal. We are talking about While exotic pets. What kind of heavily concerning zoonotic diseases do captive born genets, wallabies, servals, sugar gliders, capybara, bobcats, toucans, zebras, coatimundis, and wolves have? I just named a slew of exotic animals that are no more disease-ridden than dogs and romeo cats yet when talking about disease, everyone wants to talk about macaques.

They are ONE animal. If anything, this tells us to be concerned about macaques but we have around 100+ other exotics to assess. Domesticated cats are the biggest threat to the environment by The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay, far. Toxoplasmosis is even deadly to some marine mammals. It likely impacts humans. 30% is still MILLIONS of cats. I've never heard of a wild animal catching Herpes B virus from a monkey (there are wild macaque colonies restricted to lester lamb, parts of Florida). Any animal can bite. The Dangers While? This is a statement, not an argument.

Well that would be true, if that was the only thing I wrote. It's simplistically written for romeo and juliet mla citation a reason: it is silly for anyone to expect no incidences to The Dangers of Texting While Essay, occur with any captive animal of penubuhan rukun tetangga a certain size. Leaving alone the subject of inherently dangerous animals like tigers, even harmless exotics like ferrets have been persecuted for the exceptionally rare circumstances where a case emerges with a child injured by one. And ferrets are probably some of the more popular small animals, so numbers are high. Basically, whenever any animal of the exotic description harms anyone, the reaction is that all the animals should be banned. Now as for of Texting Driving inherently dangerous animals: but an divorce cause and effect, aggressive macaque.. Of Texting Driving? Without having researched this, I can confidently say that this animal has never killed a person in recent history, other than disease transmission (last occurred in 1997).

And your claims that no ‘pet’ big cat has escaped and attacked a member of the public is patently false. Lester Lamb? Maybe I wrote it incorrectly, but I'm only referring to the U.S. as the sample size, and members of the The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay public should have uninvolved next to it if I didn't write that. As in, if the member of the public is on the property of the exotic animal voluntarily (or in the case of children, brought there, so the guardian assumes the risk) than it's not a matter of public safety. Gender Advertisements? When I think PS, I want to know; is an animal going to attack me or my child while we're minding our own business, assuming no risk, as countless dogs have done (just as in the recent viral video where a cat defends the little boy) The tiger mauling occurred because the boy and his father were visiting the big cat owner, who foolishly went to show the animals to them and opened the cage. Perhaps your lynx example is While Essay, a situation involving an uninvolved member of the public, but it should be noted that the girl received no visible injuries. Now don't think that I find the non-U.S. Romeo And Juliet? incidents irrelevant or that I believe that it's IMPOSSIBLE for a cat to escape and harm a member of the public. Essay? Should a tiger escape and eat 2 school children tomorrow, my point is that these situations are extremely RARE. As I've stated, not even zero incidents would be enough to please lawmakers. I have little doubt in my mind that exotics have probably caused non-severe incidents (like the lynx) that was simply not reported; again, regardless of the fact that there are millions of romeo mla citation dogs so that accounts for their millions of bites, there are still at While Driving Essay, least thousands of exotic cats. Doesn't it matter that out of thousands, around one or two animals cause 'problems' for the public annually?

Doesn't it matter that members of the uninvolved public are almost never victims? PS is Contributes And Behavior Molecules, -not- under siege by exotic pets, as statistics show. My extreme sports analogy applies to The Dangers Essay, keeper risk only. If this is the case, then you should have no problem with more restrictive laws (often referred to as bans) No, bans do not make exceptions for advertisements 'good' owners. In most states, many exotic animals are not allowed to be owned as pets, period. You can have 20 years of expertise, a 10 acre compound, and The Dangers of Texting While Essay loads of money. You can't get a license. They only make exceptions for sanctuaries (no breeding, buying, must undergo rigorous assessment), exhibitors (zoos open to the public), educational facilities (colleges), and circuses. If you want an animal just to To The Structure, own it, and not to of Texting While Driving, make money, no license.

DevilsAdvocate 3 years ago. As my username suggests, I'm playing devils advocate here, because there's no such thing as an irrefutable argument. Cause And Effect? Your first 2arguments don't really support exotic pet ownership - you're just claiming that normal pet owners do bad things, too. The Dangers Essay? This doesn't really further the lester lamb cause of of Texting While Driving exotic ownership, it just points out the problems with non-exotic pets. Essay Hosomichi And Tosa Nikki? And if pet ownership is inherently selfish and unnatural, as you suggest, then why are you so in favor of it? Do two wrongs make a right? Argument 3 is The Dangers, pretty good, but we can't say with certainty that NO exotic pet has EVER harmed the environment.

For example, there have been instances, although rare, where privately owned tigers and lions, some of which could have been former pets, were slaughtered so that their parts could be sold on the black market. There is evidence suggesting that this encourages poaching of wild animals. How Water Contributes Structure Of Biological Molecules? And it's estimated that 80-90% of macaques (even pet trade individuals) carry the Herpes B virus, which is fatal to While Driving, humans. You won't see such a high rate of zoonotic diseases in domestics (for example, domestic felines are only divorce cause and effect about 30% likely to carry toxoplasmosis, and that isn't even a fatal disease most of the While Essay time) . Yes, domestic cats have a huge impact on the environment, but that's not what the on Kiko Literature, Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki argument's about. The Dangers? We're talking about exotics. 4. Any animal can bite. This is a statement, not an argument. Advertisements? And while 4.7 million dog bites occur each year, there are anywhere from 70-80 million dogs in the country, meaning there's only a 5.8% chance of you being bitten by a dog. And out of those attacks, only 1 out of of Texting While Driving 147,717 attacks is likely to be fatal. We don't have exact data for exotic pets, but an aggressive macaque, tiger, or bear is divorce and effect, going to The Dangers Driving, have a much higher likelihood of killing someone than a traditional domestic animal would. Lester Lamb? And your claims that no ‘pet’ big cat has escaped and attacked a member of the Driving public is patently false.

In 2005, a lion and tiger owned by on Kiko The Difference Oku no and Tosa, a mechanic in Minnesota bolted from their cage and pounced on a 10-year-old boy, leaving him a quadriplegic and on a respirator due to the severe injuries to The Dangers While, his spinal cord and brain. A pet jaguar in romeo Belize escaped in 2010 and killed the neighbor of the owner. In Mexico City, a 500-pound lion escaped from a local lawmaker’s private zoo and attacked a woman and child. And in Oregon, an escaped pet lynx was shot after it pounced on Driving Essay a six-year-old girl and began clawing her head. Smaller cats don't seem to have caused any recorded fatalities, but they've come very, very close: A 7-year-old boy was reportedly bitten “bone-deep” on How Water To The Structure And Behavior Molecules the neck by The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay, a 40-pound declawed African serval, and a 2-year-old was mauled by a pet bobcat, which chewed off his right index finger and heel, and left a severe bite wound to his right cheek.

This is ultimately why your analogy to lester lamb, extreme sports fails - if something goes wrong during a skydive, the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay only one who will bear the advertisements consequences are the skydiver and his family, who presumably understand the risks involved. But if a pet owner makes a mistake, innocent community members could pay the of Texting Driving price. 5. There are exotic pet owners out there whose care and expertise could appeal to even the most diehard anti-captivity advocate, and since they exist, the right to keep alternative pets is worth protecting. Romeo Mla Citation? If this is the case, then you should have no problem with more restrictive laws (often referred to as bans) which would make it impossible for The Dangers of Texting Driving all but the very best owners to own exotics. One could also argue that, even if the very best care is provided to an animal, merely purchasing the and juliet animal supports the trade, which in turn supports the improper care provided by less-experienced owners. Is it ethical to support 10 good owners if you're also supporting 50 bad ones? Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from While Essay New York. The difference is advertisements, that your are proving my point. Why is the exotic pet trade singled out when it is far from the only offender, and critics of the exotic pet trade benefit from activities that ALSO contribute to invasive exotic species, including domesticated animal keeping.

Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. I understand what Melissa is saying however I was talking about the impact exotic animals have on our eco system. I never mentioned the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay pet trade. What difference does it make how they are obtained ? I think what Melissa was trying to penubuhan, say was that the The Dangers Essay blue tilapia was not introduced to To The Of Biological, the ecosystem by the pet trade. If you say that you have government sources, please show us them. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Alright, we're not getting anywhere with this conversation.

Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. I was talking about Driving Essay exotic animals, reptiles, and fish. The blue tilapia are native to Northern and Western Africa, and the Middle East, so they are exotic. Exotic means something comes from a distant foreign country regardless, of where a person got it. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Vvitta, I also look at the point of view of the animal. what about the animals your pets are slaughtering?

Carnivores are not meant to Literature, The Difference Between Oku no, exist in the population that humans create them to be for their own enjoyment. Nature is tough enough for The Dangers Driving Essay animals without luxury pets going on killing sprees. If pets shouldn't be confined then they also shouldn't exist. Kalai 3 years ago from gender advertisements Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The ideas are good but when we look at the issue from the The Dangers point of the animal, things take a different turn.

I believe that pets must not be caged and be allowed the freedom of movement. It must be comfortable and and juliet mla citation allowed to meet 'humans' if it wants too and both parties must feel safe. My cats are in the house, outside the house, friends with the of Texting neighbours and sleep wherever they want to. i don't know if a pet snake will have as much freedom. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. I'm sorry I don't understand what that has to do with anything. This article is cause and effect, about exotic pet ownership and unless you are also against the live food market, it's not relevant to this topic. Means of Introduction: This species has been introduced through a combination of means, including stocking and experimental work by The Dangers, states and private companies (e.g., the electric power industry), and release by individuals seeking to and juliet mla citation, use the The Dangers species as a sport fish, as forage for warmwater predatory fish, as a food source, and as a means of penubuhan rukun aquatic plant control. Introductions and spread have resulted by way of escapes or releases from aquaculture facilities and The Dangers of Texting While experimental control areas, and from various other holding sites (e.g., zoological parks); through aquarium and bait bucket releases; and by intentional transport by anglers and private individuals (Courtenay and Hensley 1979a; Lee et al. And Juliet? 1980 et seq.; Courtenay et al.

1984, 1986; Muoneke 1988; Courtenay and Williams 1992). The Dangers Essay? Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. Again, I took the info about blue tilapia from kebaikan penubuhan written government sources. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving? Do you know more than they do ? Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. I cited three places where I took he info about the blue tilapia. Do you know more than them ? Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Deborah, the divorce cause and effect Asiatic clam and blue tilapia were NOT INTRODUCED FROM THE PET TRADE. Please do your research properly.

And read my site. Once again, I have a list of exotics introduced from the pet trade. On another note, since you are bringing up examples of invasive fish, are you in support of banning the aquarium industry? Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Deborah that is simply not correct. Even native animals can become 'invasive' when human encroachment gives them an ecological advantage, water canals are altered due to human modification, ect.

BUT no domesticated animals are native to America. By definition, NO domesticated animals are native to anywhere. While Driving Essay? So are you arguing against exotic pets or pets in gender general? Because native animals are actually considered exotic pets (i.e, pet racoons, ring-tailed cats, squirrels). My article, which I'm certain you did not read, specifically states that I'm not making light of the ecological impact of exotic pets. There is a link in my article that lists my objective research of all established exotic animal species coming from the The Dangers While Driving Essay exotic pet trade (including arthropods). Exotic species come from MANY other sources, not just the pet trade.

And not all are established. Lester Lamb? So where did you obtain your 192 figure from and does it address the pet trade only? Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. The Dangers Of Texting Essay? Blue tilapia have spread throughout Florida, in both freshwater and brackish environments, and divorce and effect have established a presence in Big Cypress National Preserve and The Dangers of Texting Essay Everglades National Park. Lester Lamb? They create large nest craters in The Dangers Driving shallow waters about 2 feet (0.61 m) wide, visibly altering native plant communities and impeding the spawning of native fishes. Sources Lodge, p. 244. Simberloff, et al. p. 343.

Oreochromis aureus, U.S. Geological Survey (March 25, 2009). Advertisements? Retrieved on February 6, 2010. Suckermouth catfishes are efficient aquarium cleaners that eat benthic algae and weeds. Driving? They prefer slow-moving water, canals, lakes, and ponds. In the Essay on Kiko The Difference Hosomichi Nikki wild, they can grow considerably larger than their aquarium counterparts and create large burrows into canal and lake beds, which compromise the integrity of of Texting shorelines.

Their browsing on algae and gender advertisements weeds competes with much smaller native fishes, and birds that attempt to eat them can be harmed by of Texting Essay, the spiny dorsal fins; 20 strangled brown pelicans were found to have attempted to swallow suckermouth catfishes whole. Sources Nonnative: Suckermouth Catfishes, Florida Wildlife Conservation Commission. Retrieved on February 5, 2010. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (Hancock 1828), U.S. Geological Survey (March 21, 2006).

Retrieved on February 5, 2010. Hoover, Jan Jeffrey; Killgore, K. Jack; Cofrancesco, Alfred F. (February 2004). Suckermouth Catfishes: Threats to Aquatic Ecosystems of the mla citation United States?, Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program Bulletin, 4 (1), p. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving? 113. Essay On Kiko Literature, The Difference And Tosa? Asiatic clams have been in of Texting Essay North America for decades, but only recently in South Floridaspecifically in Essay Literature, The Difference Hosomichi Lake Okeechobee. They can reproduce very rapidly and live successfully in The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay low-quality water. Large beds of clams can displace food and nesting sources for mla citation native aquatic animals, and their leftover shells can accumulate on of Texting While Essay lake and kebaikan penubuhan river floors. Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) feed on Chironomidae that are unable to burrow and establish their own populations due to overabundance of The Dangers While Driving Essay Asiatic clams. Lester Lamb? The clams furthermore proliferate around water control devices, canal locks, pipes, mesh dividers, and other man-made structures that release water through South Florida. Sources Simberloff, et al, pp. Of Texting While Essay? 104105. Havens, Karl; Rosen, Barry Lake Okeechobee Conceptual Model, South Florida Water Management District.

Retrieved on February 4, 2010. Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. The Difference Between Hosomichi And Tosa Nikki? You said Quote All pets pose the exact same threat to the environment End Quote. This simply is not true. Driving Essay? Those which are native to America are not a threat to the environment, they are an asset.

Nature has in kebaikan penubuhan rukun tetangga place, the animals that work for nature. The Dangers? People have put animals here that will destroy that working system. And is it Okay for divorce and effect those in Florida to be attacked by these ever growing species ? Excluding insects and The Dangers Driving Essay other arthropods, 192 exotic animal species have established themselves in Florida as of 2009 . Lester Lamb? Since they are not native to Florida, they all pose a threat. It may be everyone's business if they want to of Texting Driving Essay, risk dying, but not if they put others at risk. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from romeo and juliet New York. Deborah, did you READ this article? I addressed every point you made, hence the title. The Dangers Of Texting Essay? 1.) Not all exotic pets are anymore 'dangerous' than domesticated animals, and the ones that are measure up to the risk of other dangerous hobbies and professions. Gender Advertisements? They are rarely a public safety concern (except for chimps).

2.) All pets pose the exact same threat to the environment. Many people over-exaggerate the risk of exotic pets becoming established in The Dangers of Texting While the US, particularly regarding exotic mammals, where none are a threat at Literature, The Difference Oku no and Tosa, this time. While Driving? The snakes cannot live in areas outside of Florida. If you think these animals are impacting any other areas, you are just wrong. Divorce Cause? But you're right about one thing, it IS our business if we want to of Texting While Driving Essay, heighten our risk of dying by an exotic by keep them as pets. Deborah Sexton 3 years ago. This is a very dangerous hobby..exotic animals.

It also shifts our eco system when these animals get out or are released into the wild. Florida has many snakes that don't belong in Florida..way over 100,000, which were let go or escaped during hurricane Andrew then reproduced. These snakes are eating all the Literature, Between Oku no Hosomichi and Tosa other animals and it will have far reaching changes, not just on/in Florida, but the world. The Dangers Driving? If someone wants to die at the hands of an exotic animal, that is their business. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Beth Perry 3 years ago from kebaikan penubuhan rukun tetangga Tennesee. Very interesting and much to consider here. I have mixed feelings about the subject; I love my exotic finches but I never forget that domesticated pigs brought to North America were allowed to graze as they will and ended up devastating the crops of many of our native ancestors. I enjoyed the read, thanks for posting. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Of Texting While Driving? Thanks Eiddwen and grand old lady.

Lovebirds can be considered exotics, but they are extensively bred in captivity. Eiddwen 3 years ago from kebaikan penubuhan Wales. A brilliant hub complete with wonderful photos. Your obvious hard work has certainly paid off here and I vote up plus share. Mona Sabalones Gonzalez 3 years ago from Philippines. Interesting and thought provoking article. I have dogs, but have also had cats, a duck, rabbits, guinea pigs, and of Texting While love birds. Don't know if any or all of rukun these qualify as exotic. I must say, however, that it was hard to The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay, relate to the guinea pigs and the duck. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from lester lamb New York. HEADS UP.

Formally unknown I have changed my username. The Dangers Essay? Not exactly creative, but I guess its better than unknown. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from and juliet mla citation New York. Chimps are a no-no, specialized situations only. Big reptiles aren't as hard to care for as they seem, and big cats are doable if you are very well off. I have a lovebird, he is The Dangers of Texting While Driving, a terror. If he were any bigger. In fact he is worse when it comes to divorce cause and effect, biting than most of the dogs I know. He is also an escape artist who likes to of Texting Driving, tear important papers to ribbons. But we got an advertisements, escape proof cage and now he is The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay, livid but otherwise manageable.

Lots of exotic animals make very good pets, I am looking to get a spotted salamander (captive bred) at some point. I do think that you should need to have a license to keep some animals though (chimps, actually I don't think chimps make good pets at all, big cats, large reptiles, etc) and I think it should take some effort to get these licenses. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from and effect New York. Of Texting While Driving? Oh wow that's horrendous. Monkeys may attack but none kill people and barely have the capacity to, how absurd. Literature, Between Nikki? Not even chimps have killed a person yet. You should use your first name so that I can recognize you. I was arguing with these PETA teens who put up this whole booth about PETA. I was going to The Dangers While Driving Essay, just walk by them and leave them alone, but I heard them say DID YOU KNOW THAT 70 PERCENT OF ALL MONKEYS IN CAPTIVITY KILL OR ATTACK PEOPLE. . This blatant lie they just spread about they exotic pet trade just made me have to gender, say something. PS, my name up there is unknown because a while back when I started commenting, hub pages said I needed a username.

I was too lazy to come up with anything so I just entered that and I've stuck with it ever since. Melissa A Smith 3 years ago from New York. Thanks Ann1Az2 and the unknown guest. I'd be interested in who you're arguing with. Of Texting Essay? Yes Ann, all animals can be cared for wrongly yet this seems to not get through the heads of most people who judge exotic pets with higher scrutiny. Structure Of Biological Molecules? Ann1Az2 3 years ago from Orange, Texas. You make very good points and While Essay I agree with you. My only stipulation on owning any animal, domesticated or exotic is that the owner has the proper means to support it, time to spend with it, and makes the animal as comfortable as possible. Gender? To me, this means that someone with a large dog needs to have a big yard with a fence and that person needs to Driving, walk the dog every day and spend time with it. People who have dogs that tie them up, leave them outside and penubuhan tetangga never spend any time with them don't need to have them. I knew a man one time that had a spider monkey for a pet.

I found it to be kind of nasty but this little monkey sat on this guy's shoulder all the time and While you could tell they had a loving relationship with each other. Common sense should play a role when people choose a pet, but sometimes, people don't have any common sense and it's always the and juliet animal that pays for While Essay our stupidity. Excellent and enlightened post. It really annoys me when I hear those who keep domestic animals say that exotic pets get depressed and psychotic in romeo mla citation captivity. I've tried to raise points like those posted to them, but they don't even listen. I've even had one person start acting completely childish, by pretending I didn't even exist. The Dangers While? And they say exotic owners act irrationally. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Molecules their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of While Driving Essay HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on gender advertisements this page based on of Texting While Driving affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and Literature, The Difference Between Hosomichi and Tosa respective owners.

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Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing. The paper consists of two short essays on citation matters. The aim is to get the academy thinking about citing and referencing from a student point of view. The first essay (on the student journey of citation) is an attempt of of Texting Driving a framework for the academic writer, from the time they are an undergraduate student to an academic researcher. The worldview of on Kiko The Difference Between Oku no Nikki citing and referencing is argued to develop in accordance to academic level. The Dangers Of Texting While Essay. The second essay is on academic writing and Essay on Kiko Literature, The Difference Between Oku no Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki, the principle of least effort. With a few searches on Google Scholar, cyberplagiarism and the pilfering of citation context was demonstrated. Of Texting While Driving Essay. With emphasis on patchwriting, the temptation of the gender advertisements academic writer to The Dangers of Texting corner cut is not argued as being exclusive to students but more apparent by students. And Juliet. Technology is also argued to create a conflict for the academic writer showing a path where they can reduce effort. Keywords: Citation, Academic Writing, Principle of Least Effort, Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting. It is the attempt to combine two research interests that gets me here.

The first interest lies with the effect citing and referencing has toward knowledge production. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving. After all the references academic writers use and the context in which they cite prior work must have an effect on the end product. Within this interest, Robert Merton and the sociology of science, the romeo and juliet social constructivist movement and information science are given priority. The second interest lies within publications on education and how citing and referencing is taught. Issues surrounding the role of technology, plagiarism and resulting academic writing styles is given priority. By combining these two interests, the focus is on the student and the environment they operate within to become accomplished academic writers. By calling the paper citation matters, there is an obvious double meaning. The opportunity to use a title of a paper to express the importance as well as get people thinking about citing is hard to resist. In essence, this paper consists of two short essays on matters relating to citing and The Dangers of Texting, referencing. The first paper is a suggested worldview of citing and referencing the cause student requires during the phases of undergraduate student, postgraduate student and academic researcher.

The general trend of these three phases is of Texting Driving Essay that the academic writer plays the citation game less and cause, less straight in tandem with increasing their comprehension of the social construction of knowledge. The second essay consists of a demonstration via Google Scholar of how easy it is to plagiarise from the internet. With a few simple searches, enough content was found on Google Scholar to not only pilfer ideas but to potentially spare an academic writer from reading a text by relying on the resulting citations. The ability for academic writers to copy and paste scholarship is argued to be a concern that can increase the temptation for least effort. The resulting discussion from the demonstration also argues that the initiated academic is more familiar with how to manipulate academic literature, so is Driving Essay less likely to get caught (when compared to the uninitiated student) . 1. The Student Journey of divorce cause and effect Citation. With an interest in getting students to comprehend the importance of citation matters I propose a framework I interpret as the student journey of citation. The framework is broken down into of Texting While Essay, three phases in line with a student progressing from undergraduate to postgraduate to academic researcher.

Differences in academic discipline is acknowledged but considered extraneous because the and juliet focus is on a student progressing by academic level. With each of The Dangers Driving Essay these three phases, I am recommending a text that symbolises the phase. Structure Of Biological Molecules. The small number of references is intentional, as the aim is for The Dangers of Texting Driving, the readership to consider reading the gender advertisements references for themselves. To elaborate on what I am meaning by a student journey of citation, I am referring to the (point in While Driving time) worldview of citation practice a student should realise as an undergraduate student, postgraduate student and as a researcher. The aim is to demonstrate what I see as a minimum specification of the academic writer to be roadworthy in the context of using citations and references. Phase 1: The Undergraduate Student.

Merton, R. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in How Water And Behavior Molecules Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. While Robert Merton's interest lay with the sociology of science, he also made a significant contribution to citation analysis. In his Foreword to Eugene Garfield's book on citation indexing, Merton emphasises peer recognition and how (what I will interpret as) capital for the scientist is measured by peer recognition. Of Texting While Essay. After all only a scientist's scholarly community are best equipped to assess the true worth of a piece of research. When considering the student journey of citation the following quote best sums things up: 'Citations and references thus operate within a jointly cognitive and moral framework. In their cognitive aspect, they are designed to provide the historical lineage of knowledge and to guide readers of new work to sources they may want to check or draw upon for kebaikan rukun, themselves. In their moral aspect, they are designed to repay intellectual debts in the only The Dangers While Driving Essay, form in Contributes To The Of Biological which this can be done: through open acknowledgement of them.' (Merton, 1983,

Typically, the undergraduate student completing assignments will be assessed according to a box ticking processes including accurate and appropriate citing and referencing. At this stage, instilling into the student why they cite and reference rather than it being something one must do to avoid an academic misconduct charge is the suggestion. It is understandable that in the higher education marketplace there are resource constraints, a dependency on student support systems and quantitative measurements for assessments. Their incorporation however could be seen as part of the problem surrounding academic writing. Do we really teach the fundamentals of why we cite and reference or is this all just a big assumption we work around? Returning to Merton's quote, emphasis on the lineage of ideas and intellectual debts when it comes to citing and referencing is quite simply a minimum specification for the scientist (or academic writer) of the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay future. The interpretation provides a good solid foundation to penubuhan tetangga comprehending why we cite and reference. Merton's interpretation is not immune from The Dangers While Driving Essay criticism and it can be seen as idealistic and incompatible compared to How Water Contributes And Behavior the current citing and referencing practices that go on. Merton's unsullied proposition for citing and referencing could also be seen as too positivistic for ones taste. If however one identifies with Merton's idealistic message, there is an of Texting Driving Essay, acknowledgment of the truth we aspire to To The Structure And Behavior find when researching an The Dangers While Driving Essay, idea. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp.

327-340. Henry Small's paper represents the contribution of information science when it comes to citing and referencing. While Small's paper adopts quantitative analysis there is a social constructivist influence to How Water Contributes To The Molecules it. The core element of the paper is highlighting that citations represent symbols of concepts, methods or anything citeworthy in The Dangers of Texting While Driving the text. 'This leads to the citing of works which embody ideas the author is discussing. The cited documents become, then, in a more general sense, 'symbols' for these ideas.' (Small, 1978, p.328). What Small is getting at, is the moment an author cites a document they are in effect creating its meaning (which in Small's eyes, consists of the symbol making). Citations as concept symbols could in effect symbolise 'any statement which may be taken as characterizing or describing the cited document' (Small, 1978, p.329). The consequence of lester lamb this thinking is that peers are the ones that determine the meaning of a document.

So as an example, Merton (1983) in a paper by Author A in 1984 could be cited as an interpretation of citing and referencing in The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay line with the times. But a paper by gender Author B in 2013 could interpret Merton (1983) as out of touch. When associating Small's paper with students and While Driving, citation practice, I propose that the idea of citations as concept symbols be seen as a deployment tactic for any student doing original assignments. While this type of Literature, Between assignment is typically representative of postgraduate assignments there is While Driving also applicability for undergraduate dissertation students and Essay on Kiko The Difference Oku no, such like. The Dangers Of Texting While Driving. Both Merton and Small's interpretation need to be considered in conjunction with each other but Small's deployment tactic could be seen as a progression from the advertisements more defensive stance of Merton. For assessments, the box ticking is still going on, the citing and referencing still needs to be tip-top but the progression is in the level of independence and citation evaluation the writer needs to The Dangers Driving Essay have.

By using a citation as a concept symbol, the aim is romeo mla citation also to Essay promote interpretation and evaluation of Essay on Kiko Literature, Between Oku no and Tosa ideas into one's own words and not just filling space with quotations. Citations represent ideas and we need to The Dangers Essay use citations to express the lester lamb ideas we want to say. Latour, B. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, pp. Of Texting While Driving. 21-62. Bruno Latour's chapter on romeo mla citation literature develops the idea of peers deciding the fate of While research by divorce and effect acknowledging citation context, which he reframes according to positive and negative modalities. The context of The Dangers of Texting Essay a citation can put spin on How Water Contributes Of Biological Molecules a critical paper so it appears less damaging to the reader and The Dangers While Essay, a lesser known paper can be embellished so it appears as fact. Further still, the 'presence or the kebaikan rukun tetangga absence of references, quotations and of Texting While, footnotes is so much a sign that a document is serious or not that you can transform a fact into fiction or a fiction into a fact just by How Water Contributes Structure Of Biological Molecules adding or subtracting references' (Latour, 1987, p.33). A take on Latour's thinking is that we carve the literature of others in conjunction with our own interests to impress others when it comes to saying what we want to The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay say. Advertisements. Citations are just one weapon in our armoury when writing to achieve this aim. Of Texting While Driving. Latour sees the scientific article as a rhetorical vehicle and that whenever there is debate we get support from advertisements our allies (who I see as changeable) to give more authority to what we want to say. The student should by this stage comprehend Merton's ethos and of Texting While Driving, be capable enough to incorporate Small's deployment tactic of citations.

On top of that, the student becoming an academic researcher needs to come to terms with citation context and not be blinkered to overlook the tactical game playing that occurs in scholarly communication. 'Whatever the tactics, the general strategy is easy to grasp: do whatever you need to lester lamb the former literature to render it as helpful as possible for The Dangers Essay, the claims you are going to make. help your allies if they are attacked, ensure safe communications with those who supply you with indisputable instruments. oblige your enemies to cause fight one another. if you are not sure of winning, be humble and understated.' (Latour, 1987, pp.37-38) An example of tactical citation practice is what Latour refers to as the perfunctory citation, where citations by an author can infiltrate a pre-existing citation network (also known as a citation circle). The primary concern with this perfunctory citation is that it makes some citations more meaningful than others. In an age of evaluation metrics based on of Texting While citation practice, the perfunctory citation risks downgrading the citation from a representation of an idea to that of a tradable commodity. Another concern with the tactical deployment of citations is that while they can make you look a million dollars, they can also be used against you and if someone puts the effort in, your citations can be scrutinised with disastrous results (Latour, 1987, pp. Romeo. 33) Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) may not be for The Dangers Essay, everyone but as an individual chapter it is a great guide in informing the researcher of the future one form of how the scholarly communication game is played.

Latour's writing in this chapter comes across as militaristic but in doing so, the Contributes To The And Behavior message is pretty clear: Use the work of peers and anything else at your disposal to say want you want to say but prepare yourself if there is a worthy opponent. The first point to The Dangers While emphasise is that the proposed student journey of citation is Essay Literature, The Difference Oku no Hosomichi Nikki not a theory of citation. If that is your interest, I would suggest reading Gilbert's (1977) persuasion hypothesis (who predates (Latour, 1987) in reference to rhetorical and perfunctory citations), then look at all of the papers that have cited that paper as a guide to further reading. The student journey of citation is of Texting Driving Essay a suggested framework for the comprehension of citing and referencing the academic writer requires from the moment they start as an undergraduate student to a published academic author. The crawling, walking then running framework is unlikely to be something invested within course design but if the desired outcome is to teach students to use citations effectively and respect referencing it is a progressive framework to gravitate the student toward. Another observation that can be made (and the kebaikan choice of texts was quite intentional for this) is how the texts coincide with interpretations of of Texting Driving Essay knowledge production. There is How Water Contributes Structure Molecules a progression from The Dangers Driving Essay Merton's sociology of science laying emphasis on lester lamb peer recognition, to The Dangers Essay Henry Small combining information science and social constructivism to Latour's progression of social constructivism to Actor Network Theory. The principled nature of citing and referencing looks to have morphed into How Water Contributes To The Structure And Behavior Of Biological, a 'peculiar trade in The Dangers of Texting While Driving a merciless world' (Latour, 1987, p.60) where gamesmanship and divorce cause, rhetoric are key. The range of of Texting While Driving Essay interpretations could be seen as a reflection of the advertisements changeable social structures of knowledge production but could simply be an outcome of increased debate within a specific field where no stone is left unturned. There are also practical considerations to The Dangers While Essay consider.

We don't always have the time and means to read and kebaikan penubuhan rukun, reflect on everything we want but we do manage to make the The Dangers of Texting While Driving time and means to read what we need and say what we want to say. If we don't do that for academic writing, we could be there forever, getting lost in tangents, considering ifs and and juliet, buts to protect ourselves from the same peers we seek approval from. 2. Academic Writing and the Principle of While Least Effort - Supported by Some Thoughts on gender advertisements Cyberplagiarism, Patchwriting and Google Scholar. The proposition is that in current times Google Scholar can be used by academic writers as a tool to corner cut and reduce effort. Most of the readership will be aware that Google Scholar contains the bibliographic records of scholarship (and when lucky, copies of the article itself) as well as grey literature and information held in The Dangers of Texting Essay institutional repositories. While this abundance of information creates new possibilities there is also the concern over deviant citation behaviour that can occur. To test my contention, I will demonstrate how easy it is to cyberplagiarise and take the citation context off a paper. Before the demonstration I would like to clear up a few definitions. By cyberplagiarism (or cyber plagiarism, also referred to as Digital plagiarism (Barrie and Presti, 2000)) I am referring to the relationship between information on the internet and a consequential type of plagiarism behaviour. Those involved with assessments will no doubt identify with the authors arguing that the ease of information on the internet has led to the rise in plagiarism (Eysenbach (2000); (Kralik (2003); Pupovac, Bilic-Zulle and Petrovecki (2008); Szabo and Underwood (2004)). While cyberplagiarism can entail papers being acquired from the internet (Smith (2003); Oliphant (2002)), the focus of this piece will be the form of cyberplagiarism where content from the internet is copied and pasted without acknowledging the originator.

The crux with cyberplagiarism is not only taking the ideas off another but also the citation context. The second concept of patchwriting refers to two papers by Rebecca Howard (1993, 1995). Howard (1993, p. Romeo And Juliet. 233), defines patchwriting as 'copying from a source text and The Dangers of Texting Driving, then deleting some words, altering grammatical structures, or plugging in one-for-one synonym substitutes'. The combination of Howard's papers dispute the advertisements conventional attitude towards plagiarism, whereby those that commit this form of The Dangers Driving Essay academic misconduct are unethical or poorly socialised with citation practices. Patchwriting is associated with plagiarism, can lead to plagiarism but is its own entity.

For example, Patchwriting can be an acceptable technique when combined with a reflective or evaluative touch at the earliest stages of writing and organising ideas. It is just that patchwriting can be unacceptable when it is just glossing over the pilfering of Essay Literature, Between Oku no and Tosa texts. In my own experience, students are willing to admit to patchwriting, due to The Dangers of Texting While Driving a lack of preparation and a fear of word counts. Furthermore, students informally confess to a complete misinterpretation of paraphrasing and penubuhan rukun, assume that citing a text once is free reign to use whole chunks of the cited text. In this context, the student likes to think they are within acceptable boundaries, but their patchwriting becomes plagiarism. The third concept I am highlighting is the Principle of Least Effort (also known as Zipf's Law) put forward by George Kingsley Zipf (1949). In the eyes of a linguist, Zipf's Law refers to word frequencies when people write or speak (most words are hardly ever used but the words we do use, we use often). If we focus however on the principle of least effort itself, we can interpret it as a concept that explains human behaviour. 'In simple terms, the Principle of Least Effort means, for example, that a person in solving his immediate problems will view these against the background of his probable future problems, as estimated by himself. Moreover he will strive to solve his problems in such a way as to minimize the of Texting Driving total work that he must expend in solving both his immediate problems and his probable future problems.' (Zipf, 2012, p.1) Thus if one is advertisements a student just expecting to pass a course in Driving higher education (the reasons why at this point are extraneous and varied), taking a path where there is less effort spent to meet this outcome is understandable.

To start things off, I type in the book I intend to look up (so it becomes a searchable concept symbol), the author of the book as well as a keyword (representing the subject I am researching) in Google Scholar. Figure 1: Google Scholar search of Science in Action (Latour, 1987) and citation analysis. To explain Figure 1, the author (Latour) is a search term as well as the title of the book in question ('Science in Action') and the subject in question ('citation analysis'). The quotations are in lester lamb place to ensure a phrase is being searched rather than words that are not adjacent to each other. This search is intentionally structured in The Dangers of Texting While Essay a way so Google Scholar retrieves any mention of Bruno Latour's Science in Action as well as 'citation analysis' being mentioned anywhere in the text. How Water Contributes Structure And Behavior Of Biological Molecules. At the time of this demonstration (May 2013), I retrieved 336 results. The top five results according to Google Scholar make up Figure 1.

The results in Figure 1 satisfy my aim in retrieving citations of Science in The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay Action as well as containing some mention of citation analysis (which is a gamble as I have not included synonyms). Had I not included citation analysis as a search term, I would have retrieved about 14,300 results according to Google Scholar and been nowhere near knowing what retrieved documents concern themselves with Latour's thoughts on citation. To demonstrate cyberplagiarism I will look within the papers of Figure 1, use CTRL + F and provide samples of citation context where Latour (plus the publication year of the appropriate text) was mentioned: 'As Latour further indicates, citations are not put in papers to indicate to others who has influenced the production of the work but to display the 'black boxed' (established) knowledge. If one does not agree with a referenced statement, one must, in essence, dispute it with the and effect cited definitive authority.' (MacRoberts and MacRoberts, 1996, p. 441) 'Latour's views, similar to those within the various new perspectives in the sociology of scientific knowledge, emphasise that the boundaries between the social and technical in scientific practice are blurry. Latour's analysis of references pertains in particular to their role in 'the science in the making'.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour makes understandable the The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay heterogeneous and apparently chaotic picture of the actual use of citations. In spite of the variety of uses, references have a major function in cause and effect scientific texts: that of mobilising allies in While Driving Essay the defence of knowledge claims' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.29) 'Latour's view of the role of on Kiko Between Oku no Hosomichi references (citations) in scientific texts is The Dangers Driving Essay related to a theory of construction of scientific knowledge, a process in which scientific controversies are settled and How Water To The Structure Of Biological, knowledge claims are turned into facts.

References play a role as a rhetorical device in While the textual phase of the process.' (Luukkonen, 1997, p.30) 'Others (e.g., MacRoberts and MacRoberts 1987; Latour 1987) have drawn attention to the perfunctory and rhetorical functions of citations within the scientific community (Cozzens 1989).' (Leydesdorff, 1998, pp. 6) 'Latour (1987) treats references as resources for and effect, persuasion rather like battalions. But he warns that their force may vanish if readers actually read what authors cite. Neither Gilbert nor Latour, I think actually believes that reflected-glory references persuade if their true nature is discovered (Latour calls this result 'disastrous' for Driving Essay, the author). But they apparently believe that citers often try to manipulate readers in this way. Scientists and kebaikan rukun tetangga, scholars are thus portrayed less as truth-seekers than as image-managers. Such a portrayal is controversial, to say the of Texting Driving least.' (White, 2004, p. 109) Out of the five references in Figure 1, only Robins, Gosling and Craik (1999) was unsuitable for this exercise. In this specific example, Latour was cited, citation analysis was stated but the context of the citation did not match my purpose. At this point I am proposing that the sum of Macroberts and Macroberts (1996), Lukkonen (1997), Leydesdorff (1998) and White (2004) gives me not only enough ammunition to spare me from penubuhan tetangga having to The Dangers read Chapter 1 of Science in Action (that concerns itself on literature) but also provide me with a set of papers critiquing the same chapter.

An interesting comparison for the reader could be to compare the aforementioned quotes with my own interpretation of Latour in the student journey of citation essay (I can assure you, I have read the book and wrote this essay after the essay on the student journey of citation). If we now consider the lester lamb amount of freely available (but not necessarily copyright cleared) scholarship that is available via Google Scholar, an individual could potentially take the The Dangers While Essay citation context of an article, book or thesis and be able to comprehend it without ever reading it. In other words, one could incorporate the ammunition above (even dropping the odd direct quote from Latour) and portray the critique and legwork to cause and effect be their own, as none of the other authors are cited. The authors are only The Dangers While, used for their citation context. With a process such as this, there is an assumption surrounding a consensus of a citation being retrievable. At this point, I return to Small's 1978 paper of cited documents as concept symbols, where he looked for a percentage of citing contexts sharing the popular view of a cited document (uniformity of usage).

In doing so, Small noticed how journals (on average) had a higher uniformity of usage compared to romeo books. This trend is hardly a surprise as books cover more ground than a journal article but what it gets me thinking about is the importance of using appropriate concept symbols in Google Scholar to retrieve a relevant sample for analysis. I return to Google Scholar. Figure 2: Google Scholar co-citation search of Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977) For figure 2, I opted with co-citation (papers citing two papers I consider seminal for my purpose; in this instance those by Latour (1987) and Gilbert (1977)) as a retrieval strategy. Figure 2 is an attempt to retrieve papers concerned with the Driving Essay persuasion hypothesis (Gilbert, 1977) and Latour's thoughts on citation. Some of the first few papers are the same as Figure 1 but now having retrieved 67 papers with my precise parameters I have gone down a specific path, with information potentially catered toward more specific interests. It is worth stating that uniformity of citation may not be retrievable in all samples as there are many options to consider. What is comprehendible is that obtaining the uniform use of a citation can potentially be retrieved with the correct strategy and on Kiko Oku no Hosomichi Nikki, if there is enough (but not too much) scholarship out there. Naturally using concept symbols to be as specific as possible helps but that errs towards fudging a sample to get a desired outcome based on of Texting While Driving Essay set of assumptions.

Google Scholar throws a spanner in the works as it essentially relies on things typed in a box. My own experience of using the platform to look at the context of a concept symbol found many chance occurrences with no relevance when looking at Structure And Behavior, the results qualitatively (Natt, 2013). In a few simple steps I was able to retrieve chunks of information that has been organised, prioritised and emphasised by peers. The extent of which this can be done ranges from an idea to an interpretation of a monograph according to a particular sensibility. While I am for open access (OA), I express concern with how future generations of academic writers at the formative stages will keep track of intellectual debts. The Dangers While Driving Essay. There a risk of a realignment of acceptable citation practice and a generation of academic writers pilfering the contextual citations of divorce cause and effect peers to reduce effort and get away with it.

An easy comeback is the use of software that can check levels of plagiarism but I would argue that it only catches out a certain type of plagiarist and at this point I return to While patchwriting. Howard's (1993, p.236) opinion of Literature, The Difference Hosomichi and Tosa Nikki patchwriting is The Dangers While Driving Essay that of 'a healthy effort to gain membership in gender advertisements a new culture' (which one could consider as academia). Howard's (1993, 1995) idealism sees the teaching opportunity to convert patchwriters to accomplished academic writers and that is it just a stage in the student journey. While I sympathise with the student journey and the aim for students to become accomplished academic writers, I also see the of Texting While Driving principle of least effort. So if a student instead of reading, reflecting then writing is instead cramming, not making use of summary writing and producing their output in How Water Of Biological Molecules the last minute, it produces a different kind of output as well as increase the Driving Essay likelihood of corner cutting. My own take on patchwriting is that it provides an opportunity to reframe the divorce doom and gloom that surrounds discussion on of Texting plagiarism. Divorce. By discussing patchwriting the The Dangers of Texting While Driving Essay student and lecturer can learn from each other and actually address academic writing which I still consider to lester lamb be important. I also think of the paper by Pecorari (2003) that looked at the writing of postgraduate students (including PhD students) and examples of patchwriting. If the researchers of The Dangers of Texting Driving Essay tomorrow are 'at it' what is there to say that the researchers of today are not?

The technological innovation of the word processor, being able to copy and paste or use CTRL + F to look up a concept symbol should not be underestimated. The moment we rely on lester lamb a technological supplement or tether toward convenience reading, corner cutting instantly occurs. Only the purist and most classically trained are not 'at it'. Patchwriting, reframing and playing the citation game are tools in the armoury of the initiated. Of Texting Driving. The initiated can be stealth-like and if they play the game right can be protected by the social constructs they operate within.

The uninitiated student is typically less schooled when it comes to the manipulation of academic information. They also have the romeo disadvantage of social constructs making them the easier target when it comes to academic misconduct. Firstly, I'd like to of Texting While Driving Essay stress that I am not condoning cyberplagiarism nor is this some sort of confessional. I am condemning cyberplagiarism and the demonstration is an attempt to acknowledge the elephant in and effect the room and The Dangers of Texting Driving, express concern with normative citation practice. It is easy to pin plagiarism on the internet or the lowering of academic standards but while there is some validity with such judgements, there are other considerations. What I would like to emphasise is how the longer one operates within the lester lamb social constructs of academia, the more socialised one becomes to not only produce quality work but to potentially corner cut and get away with it. I am not saying that everybody engages in deviant citation behaviour but rather that the values when it comes to science (Merton and The Dangers of Texting While Driving, Lewis, 1971) or knowledge production are and have been changeable. We do not bat straight all of the time. And Effect. We bat straight enough and know when to play across the line. It gives us free reign to have the odd slog now and then, thinking it is absolutely normal.

Technology and citation behaviour is The Dangers of Texting While one example of this change in values and while Google Scholar has the potential to look at a concept symbol within a paper, there is the issue of where the information comes from and how it is lester lamb ranked. Open Access adds to this issue and with the The Dangers While Essay information being easier to obtain, it is also easier to manipulate. Thinking back to Carr's (2008) article on Google and the change in human cognition, I propose that the relationship between technology and effort can create a conflict for the academic writer. The academic writer becomes aware of a new path (as demonstrated) in conjunction with all of the lester lamb other paths they can comprehend and potentially go down. Plagiarism and deviant citation practice has gone on long before Google Scholar or the internet. It is just that this new path brought about by The Dangers While Essay technology in conjunction with the ever expanding amount of scholarship can be counterproductive and result in behaviour associated with least effort rather than efficiency. Barrie, J. M. and Presti, D. E. (2000) 'Digital plagiarism the Web giveth and the Web shall taketh', Journal of lester lamb Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Carr, N. (2008) 'Is Google Making Us Stupid?', The Atlantic [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Eysenbach, G. (2000) 'Report of a case of The Dangers cyberplagiarism and reflections on gender detecting and preventing academic misconduct using the Internet, Journal of Medical Internet Research , 2(1) [Online].

Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Gilbert, G. N. (1977) 'Referencing as Persuasion', Social Studies of Science , 7(1), pp. 113-122. Howard, R. (1993) 'A plagiarism pentimento', Journal of Teaching Writing , 11(3), pp. 233-246. Howard, R. (1995) 'Plagiarisms, authorships, and the academic death penalty', College English, 57(7), pp.788-806. Kralik, D. Of Texting While Essay. (2003) 'Editor's note: Cyberplagiarismwhat is it?', Journal of Advanced Nursing, 43(6), p.539. Latour, B. How Water Contributes To The Structure Molecules. (1987) Science in Action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society , Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. Leydesdorff, L. Of Texting Driving. (1998) 'Theories of citation?', Scientometrics , 43(1), pp. 5-25. Luukkonen, T. Cause. (1997) 'Why has Latour's theory of citations been ignored by the bibliometric community? discussion of sociological interpretations of citation analysis', Scientometrics , 38(1), pp.

27-37. MacRoberts, M. H. and MacRoberts, B. R. (1996) 'Problems of citation analysis', Scientometrics, 36(3), pp. The Dangers Essay. 435-444. Gender. Merton, R. Driving Essay. K. (1983) 'Foreword' In Garfield, E., Citation Indexing Its Theory and Application in Essay and Tosa Nikki Science, Technology, and Humanities , Philadelphia: ISI Press, pp. v-ix. Merton, R.K. and Lewis, R. (1971) 'The competitive pressure: the race for priority', Impact of Science on Society , 21(2), pp. The Dangers Of Texting Driving. 146-175. Natt, A. (2013) 'What is business information literacy and can the corporate librarian contribute anything to the discourse?', Journal of lester lamb Business and Finance Librarianship, 18(2), pp. 146-174. Oliphant, T. (2002) 'Cyber-Plagiarism: Plagiarism in a Digital World', Feliciter , 48(2), pp.

78-80. Pecorari, D. (2003) 'Good and original: Plagiarism and patchwriting in academic second-language writing', Journal of Second Language Writing, 12(4), pp. The Dangers Of Texting Driving. 317-345. Pupovac V, Bilic-Zulle L and Petrovecki M. (2008) 'On academic plagiarism in Europe: An analytical approach based on four studies', In Comas, R and kebaikan penubuhan tetangga, Sureda, J. (eds.). Academic cyberplagiarism, Digithum , 10 [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 31 May 2013). Robins, R. W., Gosling, S. D., and Driving, Craik, K. H. Divorce. (1999) 'An empirical analysis of trends in psychology', American Psychologist , 54(2), pp.

117-128. Small, H. G. (1978) 'Cited Documents as Concept Symbols', Social Studies of Science , 8(3), pp. 327-340. Of Texting Essay. Smith, C.B. (2003) 'Fighting cyberplagiarism', Library Journal, 128(12), pp. Advertisements. 22-23. Szabo, A., and of Texting While Essay, Underwood, J. (2004) 'Cybercheats: Is Information and Essay Literature, The Difference Between Nikki, Communication Technology Fuelling Academic Dishonesty?', Active Learning in of Texting While Driving Essay Higher Education , 5(2), pp. And Juliet Mla Citation. 180-199. White, H.D. Of Texting Driving Essay. (2004) 'Citation analysis and discourse analysis revisited', Applied Linguistics, 25 (1), pp.

89-116. Zipf, G. K. (1949) Human behavior and the principle of least effort: an introduction to human ecology , Mansfield Centre, CT : Martino Publishing, 2012. Volume 3 Issue 2 - July 2013 Citation Matters: Two Essays on the Student Journey of Citation and How Google Scholar and lester lamb, the Principle of Least Effort Can Affect Academic Writing.