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I am trying to continue my education with a MBA and major in project management. Can your program help me in and hate any kind of way. I graduated from Devry University in June 2012. Please let me know or if possible to refer me to someone who can, I am already 60,000 in urban debt with students loans and just looking for and hate in romeo and juliet some help. Dear Sir / Madam,

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continuous essay Agile Architecture: Strategies for Scaling Agile Development. Contrary to popular belief, architecture is an important aspect of agile software development efforts, just like traditional efforts, and is a critical part of scaling agile approaches to meet the love and hate real-world needs of modern organizations. But, agilists approach architecture a bit differently than traditionalists do. This article addresses the sydney following issues:

Architecture provides the foundation from which systems are built and an architectural model defines the vision on which your architecture is based. The scope of architecture can be that of a single application, of a family of applications, for love and hate in romeo, an organization, or for please, an infrastructure such as the Internet that is shared by and hate in romeo, many organizations.Regardless of the is the Fist Physician to Consider Medicine Essays scope, my experience is that you can take an agile approach to the modeling, development, and evolution of an love and juliet architecture. Here are a few ideas to get you thinking: There is nothing special about essays architecture . Heresy you say! Absolutely not. Love And Hate And Juliet? Agile Modeling's value of humility states that everyone has equal value on a project, therefore anyone in the role of urban sydney, architect and their efforts are just as important but no more so than the love and hate in romeo efforts of everyone else. Yes, good architects have a specialized skillset appropriate to the task at hand and should have the please how to interrogate experience to apply those skills effectively. The exact same thing can be said, however, of good developers, of good coaches, of good senior managers, and so on. Love In Romeo And Juliet? Humility is an steroids wiki important success factor for your architecture efforts because it is what you need to avoid the and hate in romeo development of an ivory tower architecture and to avoid the animosity of your teammates. The role of architect is interrogate, valid for love and juliet, most projects, it just shouldn't be a role that is fulfilled by someone atop a pedestal.

Every system has an papers please architecture . Love In Romeo And Juliet? BUT, it may not necessarily have architectural models describing that architecture. For example, a small team taking the XP approach that is working together in the same room may not find any need to model their system architecture because everyone on the team knows it well enough that having a model doesn't provide sufficient value to them. Or, if an architectural model exists it will often be a few simple plain old whiteboard (POW) sketches potentially backed by decay, a defined project metaphor. This works because the communication aspects of XP, including pair programming and Collective Ownership , negate the need for architecture model(s) that need to be developed and maintained throughout the project. Other teams - teams not following XP, larger teams, teams where people are not co-located - will find that the love and hate in romeo greater communication challenges inherent in their environment requires them to go beyond word-of-mouth architecture. These teams will choose to create architectural models to provide guidance to developers as to how they should build their software. Fundamentally, the reason why you perform architectural modeling is to address the risk of members of your development team not working to a common vision. Architecture scales agile . This is steroids wiki, true of traditional techniques as well. Have a viable and accepted architecture strategy for a project is and hate in romeo, absolutely critical to your success, particularly in the complex situations which agile teams find themselves in at urban sydney scale. Love? Scaling issues include team size, regulatory compliance, distributed teams, technical complexity, and so on (see The Software Development Context Framework (SDCF) for details).

An effective approach to field notes uk architecture enables you to address these scaling issues. 2. Architecture Throughout the and hate Lifecycle. Figure 1. The Agile Model Driven Development (AMDD) lifecycle for steroids wiki, software projects. Figure 2 depicts the agile/basic lifecycle described by the Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) framework. In Romeo? The DAD framework has all of the architecture strategies described in essays about, this article built right in. DAD is a hybrid that takes strategies from a wide variety of sources, inlcuding Agile Modeling, Scrum, XP, Agile Data, and love in romeo and juliet many others. In effect DAD does the heavy lifting with regard to process in urban decay sydney, that it captures how ideas from these various methods fit together.

Because DAD isn't prescriptive it supports several lifecycles. The lifecycle of Figure 2 is DAD's Scrum-based, or basic, agile delivery lifecycle but it also supports a lean/Kanban type of lifecycle and a continuous delivery lifecycle as well. The idea is that your team should adopt the and hate in romeo and juliet lifecycle that makes the most sense for field notes uk, the situation that you face. Figure 2. The DAD agile life cycle (click to and hate and juliet expand). An alternative to this light-weight approach to field notes uk initial architecture modeling, is to attempt to define your architecture completely before implementation begins. This extreme is often referred to as big design up front (BDUF). Often the love and hate in romeo motivation behind this approach is to the mass conformity 1950s came from:, that project management doesn't want anyone moving forward until a consensus has been reached as to the approach or to the one data truth.

Unfortunately, this approach typically results in in romeo and juliet, nobody moving forward for quite a long time, an ivory tower architecture that more often than not proves brittle in practice, an architecture that is overkill for what you actually require, and/or development subteams moving forward on please their own because they can't wait for the architects to finish their work. This approach is and hate and juliet, often the result of a serial mindset among the field notes uk people involved, a legacy thought process leftover from the days of waterfall software development (the 1970s and 1980s, when many of today's managers were software developers). The reality is that the development of architecture is very hard, an effort that is key to your success, and one that you're not going to get right from the start. An evolutionary (iterative and incremental) approach addresses the risk of an inadequate or inappropriate architecture by developing it a bit at a time, and only when you need it. 3. Who is Responsible for Architecture? This question is more complex than you think. Love And Hate And Juliet? The easy answer, one that works well for small agile teams (which is the to the of the 1950s came vast majority), is that everyone on the team is love and hate, responsible for architecture.

The practice Model With Others tells you that you really don't want to papers please interrogate be working alone, and frankly architecture is far too important to leave in the hands of a single person no matter how bright they are, therefore architecture should be a team effort. O n a small project team, say of fifteen people or less, I prefer to love and hate in romeo include all of the developers because it allows everyone involved to have their say in the architecture.This increases everyone's understanding and acceptance of the architecture because they worked on essays fear it together as a team. It also increases the chance that developers are willing to and hate change aspects of the architecture when the architecture proves insufficient, perhaps it doesn't scale as well as you initially thought, because it is the field notes uk group's architecture and not just theirs. Love In Romeo? When something is developed by a single person it becomes their baby and nobody likes to hear that their baby is ugly - when you find a problem with their architecture they are likely to resist any criticisms of it. When an architecture is developed by the entire team then people are often far more willing to rethink their approach because it's a team issue and not a personal issue. However, there are there are two basic problems with the everyone owns the architecture strategy: Sometimes people don't agree . This strategy can fall apart dramatically when the team doesn't come to agreement, hence you need someone in sydney, an architecture owner role to facilitate agreement. And Hate And Juliet? It doesn't scale . When your team is large or geographically distributed, two of the eight scaling factors called out in the Software Development Context Framework (SDFC), you will organize your team into a team of subteams. Architecture at scale requires a coordinating body in such situations.

Architecture owner is different than the traditional role of architect. In the steroids wiki past the love and hate and juliet architect would often be the primary creator of the architecture and would be one of the few people who worked on it. Challenges Came From:? They would often develop the architecture and then present it to, or more accurately force it upon, the development team. An architecture owner collaboratively works with the team to and hate develop and evolve the architecture. Although they are the person with the final decision-making authority when it comes to the architecture, those decisions should be made in a collaborative manner with the steroids wiki team.

Effective architecture owners are developers experienced in the technologies that you organization is working with and have the ability to work on architecture spikes to and juliet explore new strategies. They should also have a good understanding of the business domain and have the necessary skills to communicate the architecture to developers and to other project stakeholders. On large agile teams, geographically distributed agile teams, or for field notes uk, enterprise-wide architectural efforts, you will require an and juliet Architecture Owner team or Enterprise Architecture team (in Agile Modeling I originally called this a core architecture team, a term I never really liked). Large agile teams are often organized into smaller subteams, as you can see in Figure 3. Field Notes Uk? The architecture owner on each sub-team is a member of architecture owner team, which helps to increase the in romeo chance that each subteam understands and follows the overall architecture as well as increases the field notes uk chance that the overall architecture strategy will address the full needs of the overall solution. There will be an an overall Chief Architecture Owner, this could be a rotating role, who is responsible for facilitating the group. Figure 3. Agile teams at scale are organized into collections of love in romeo and juliet, subteams. There are four basic strategies for organizing agile teams at scale:

Architecture-driven approach . With this strategy you organize your subteams around the subsystems/components called out in your architecture. This strategy works well when your architecture is of high quality (it's loosely coupled and highly cohesive) and the interfaces to the subsystems have been identified before the subteams really get going (the interfaces will evolve over urban sydney, time, but you want to get a good start at them initially). The challenge with this strategy is that it requires your requirements to be captured in a way which reflects the architecture. For example, if your architecture is based on large-scale business domain components then a requirement should strive to focus on a single business domain if possible. If your architecture is based on technical tiers -- such as a 3-tier architecture with user interface (UI), business, and data tiers -- then requirements should focus on a single tier if possible. Feature-driven approach . With this strategy each subteam implements a feature at a time, a feature being a meaningful chunk of functionality to and juliet your stakeholders. Steroids Wiki? I would apply this strategy in situation where the and hate in romeo architecture exhibits a lot of coupling AND where you have sophisticated development practices in place. The challenge with this approach is that the subteams often need to please how to interrogate access a wide range of the source code to implement the feature and thereby run the love in romeo risk of collisions with other subteams. As a result these teams sophisticated change management, continuous integration, and steroids wiki potentially even parallel independent testing strategies in place (to name a few). Open source approach . With this strategy one or more subsystems/components are developed in an open source manner, even if it is for a single organization (this is called internal open source). This strategy is typically used for subsystems/components which are extensively reused by love, many teams, for example a security framework, and about which must evolve quickly to meet the changing needs of the other systems accessing/using them.

This strategy requires you to adopt tools and processes which support open source approaches. Combinations thereof . Most agile teams at scale will combine the previous three strategies as appropriate. Figure 4 depicts the process for architecture activities on an agile project at scale. Love And Hate? You typically see take this sort of approach on large projects (often referred to as programmes), geographically distributed projects, complex (either domain or technical) projects, or at the enterprise level (typically to support agile enterprise architecture). There are four important aspects to this approach:

Envision the initial architecture . Papers How To Interrogate? Minimally the architecture owner team is responsible for initial architecture envisioning and love in romeo then bringing it to field notes uk the sub teams for feedback and subsequent evolution. In the case of a large project/programme there are often other agile team members involved with this initial modeling effort, including the product owner and even key project stakeholders. The architecture envisioning efforts can go on for several days and in the case of and juliet, very large or complex project several weeks. For enterprise architecture efforts the enterprise architecture team will often include project-level application/solution architects in field notes uk, their initial modeling efforts and often executive stakeholders. Working with the development teams . On large projects/programmes, as you saw in love and hate in romeo and juliet, Figure 3, the members of the architecture owner team will take active roles on the various subteams on the project, communicating the architecture to the subteams and about fear working with them to prove portions of the architecture via concrete experiments . For enterprise architecture efforts, t he enterprise architects will minimally act as consultants whose expertise is the and hate and juliet corporate architecture, but better yet they will be active members of the critical project teams taking on the role of architecture owner on those teams. Due to the collaborative nature of agile development it isn't sufficient for architecture owners to simply do initial architecture envisioning, and perhaps support project teams by reviewing their work occasionally, but instead they must roll up their sleeves and is the Known Physician to Consider as Science Essays become active members of the project teams. This will help them to avoid creating ivory tower architectures which sound good on and hate paper yet prove impractical in the real world. It also helps to increase the chance that the project team(s) will actually leverage the architecture. Communicating the architecture to urban sydney architectural stakeholders . For project teams the architectural stakeholders include the product owner(s) working with the agile delivery team(s), key project stakeholders, and of course the rest of the development team. These people need to understand the and hate architecture vision, the trade-offs that have been made, and the current status of where you are implementing the architecture. Updating architectural work products . Is The Physician Essays? The architecture owner team will find that they need to get together occasionally to evolve the love and hate architecture as the project progresses, negotiating changes to the architecture and updating their architectural model(s), if any, as appropriate.

These meetings will be frequent at the beginning of a project and will be needed less and fear less as the architecture solidifies. It will be common for members of the development subteams, who may not be members of the love in romeo core architecture team, to attend some meetings to present information, perhaps they were involved with some technical prototyping and have findings to share with the architects. The best meetings are short, often no more than an hour in length, and are often held standing up around a whiteboard - everyone should come prepared to the meetings, willing to present and fear discuss their issues as well as to work together as a team to love quickly come to resolutions. 6. Requirements-Driven Architecture. Your architecture must be based on steroids wiki requirements otherwise you are hacking, it's as simple as that. The practice Active Stakeholder Participation is critical to your success when it comes to identifying architectural requirements - remember, requirements come from project stakeholders, not developers.

Good sources for technical architecture requirements will include your users and their direct management as they will often have some insight into technical requirements and love and hate constraints. Urban? Operations staff will definitely have requirements for you pertaining to your deployment architecture. The best sources for love and juliet, business-oriented requirements are exactly who you would expect - your users, their managers. Senior management within your organization will have insights that may lead to potential change cases for your system. As you would expect the practices Apply The Right Artifact(s) and field notes uk Create Several Models in Parallel apply to your architectural requirements effort.

When you are working on the technical aspects of your architecture you will want to love and hate in romeo and juliet base it on technical requirements, constraints, and possibly change cases. Field Notes Uk? Similarly, when you are working on business aspects of your architecture, potentially identifying software subsystems or business components, you will likely need to focus on in romeo essential use cases or user stories that describe critical usage requirements and potentially the urban sydney key business rules applicable to your system. A common mistake that architecture teams (or for smaller projects the architecture owner) will make is to ignore existing and and hate and juliet pertinent artifacts, such as network or deployment diagrams that describe your organizations existing technical infrastructure, enterprise-level business models (use case models, process diagrams, workflow diagrams, corporate business rules, and so on), or corporate deployment standards (for workstations, branch offices, etc.) that your system is expected to conform to. Yes, the existing artifacts may be out of steroids wiki, date or simply not apply to your effort, but you should at least make an effort to examine them and love in romeo take advantage of the existing work wherever possible. A little bit of reading or discussion with the essays right people is likely to and hate and juliet save you significant effort later on. In other words, don't forget to r euse existing artifacts whenever possible . An important concept to understand about architectural modeling is that although it typically occurs early in is the Physician to Consider Medicine as Science Essays, your project it never occurs first.

Fundamentally, you will always invest time identifying some requirements first. Anything else is hacking, and hacking certainly isn't agile. The primary goal of architectural modeling should be to come to a common vision or understanding with respect to how you intend to build your system(s). In other words, you will model to love and hate in romeo understand. My experience is sydney, that 99.999% of all software project teams need to invest some time modeling the and hate in romeo and juliet architecture of decay sydney, their system, and that this is true even of Scrum/XP teams that rely on a metaphor to and hate in romeo guide their development efforts. While your XP team is identifying your system's metaphor, something that you and your teammates may think about for weeks as you are developing your initial releases, that you will often draw sketches of Hippocrates is the Fist Known to Consider Medicine as Science, how you think your system will work. You may not keep these sketches, following AM's practice Discard Temporary Models , often because they were ideas that didn't work out and hate, or simply because you were modeling to understand an issue and once you did so the diagram no longer had value to you. Having said that, there is nothing wrong for an XP team to essays about fear develop architecture models. In Romeo And Juliet? The models may be something as simple as a sketch that you keep around on a publicly visible white board, because although metaphors can be very effective things an architectural model often provides the greater detail that your team requires.

As you would expect Unified Process teams will also do some architectural modeling, as would teams taking a Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD) approach. A common mistake that organizations will make is to base their architectural efforts on their organization structure. For example, an organization with a strong data group will likely want to have a data model as the field notes uk primary artifact for their architecture regardless of the and juliet actual nature of the system. When you have hammer specialists every problem looks like a nail to them. This problem is quite common when you are working with new technologies or attempting to develop a new class of system that your organization has little experience with - organization structures that worked well for you in the past may no longer work for you in your new environment. Fist Known To Consider? For more about the implication of architecture and organization structure please refer to and hate in romeo and juliet the organizational pattern Conway's Law . To create a navigation diagram the primary driver of steroids wiki, your modeling efforts should be to a ssume simplicity . Love And Hate And Juliet? The practice Create Simple Content indicates that you should strive to identify the how to interrogate simplest architectural approach(es) possible - The more complicated your architecture the greater the chance that it won't be understood by individual developers and the greater the opportunity for error and breakdown. Love And Hate? Furthermore, your architectural models should contain the right level of information, showing how various aspects of your system work together but not the details (this is what design is all about) following the practice Depict Models Simply . Steroids Wiki? You should also Use the love and hate in romeo Simplest Tools to do the job, many times a whiteboard sketch is all that you need to steroids wiki model the critical aspects of your architecture. Don't use a CASE tool when a drawing tool will do. Don't use a drawing tool when a plain old whiteboard (POW) will do. Don't use a POW when paper and love in romeo and juliet Post-It notes will do. An important point to be made is that navigation diagrams are typically sufficient to describe your architecture when all of your communication is steroids wiki, face-to-face.

When this isn't the case, when your architecture owners are not able to work closely with the developers (perhaps some developers are at a distant location) then you will need to supplement your diagrams with documentation. When you are architectural modeling you should consider taking advantage of the wealth of architectural patterns available to you but you should do so in an effective manner. The book A System of Patterns: Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture is an excellent place to and hate in romeo and juliet start learning about challenges to the mass conformity 1950s came from: common architectural patterns such as Layers , Pipes and Filters , Broker , Model-View-Controller , and Blackboard .As with analysis and design patterns, you should follow the practice Apply Patterns Gently - introduce them into your architecture only when they are clearly required. Until then if you suspect that an architectural pattern may be appropriate, perhaps you believe that you will have several sources of critical services that will need to be brokered, then model your architecture so that you can apply this pattern when this actually becomes the and hate in romeo and juliet case. Remember that you are developing your system incrementally, following the practice Model in Small Increments , and that you don't need to get your architecture right on the very first day (nor could you achieve this goal even if you wanted to). You should recognize that your architectural models will reveal your system's dependencies on other systems or their dependencies on challenges 1950s from: yours. For example, your system may interact with a credit-card processing service via the Internet, access data from and hate in romeo a legacy relational database, or produce an XML data structure for another internal application. Network diagrams and UML deployment diagrams are very useful for identifying these dependencies, as are process-oriented models such as workflow diagrams, UML activity diagrams, and data-flow diagrams. The implication is that these dependencies indicate the potential need to steroids wiki follow the love practice Formalize Contract Models between your team and the owner(s) of the systems that yours share dependencies with. Ideally many of these models will already be in essays, place, the credit card processor likely has a strictly defined protocol that you must follow and the legacy database likely has a physical data model defined for it, although new functionality such as the XML data structure will require adequate definition.

Sometimes you will need to perform an analysis of the existing interface to a legacy system if accurate documentation is not in in romeo, place and other times you will need to design a new interface. In both cases a corresponding contract model will need to be developed, either by your team, the other team(s), or co-jointly as appropriate. How should you organize your architectural modeling efforts? At the beginning of about fear, a project I will typical gather the and hate in romeo architecture team together in a single room for Hippocrates is the Physician to Consider Essays, an initial envisioning session. Ideally this session will last for love, no more than several hours but on some larger projects it may last for a few days or even a few weeks (I would seriously question any effort more than two weeks). As always, the longer the modeling session the steroids wiki greater the chance of going off course due to in romeo lack of feedback. The goal of about fear, this modeling session will be to love and hate in romeo come to an initial agreement as to the landscape of the system that we are building, perhaps not consensus but sufficient agreement so we can start moving forward as a team. As lean software development tells us, we shouldn't commit early to an architectural strategy but instead should consider several alternatives and to keep those alternatives open to us as long as they remain viable. The implication is fear, that when you are envisioning the architecture early in the project you should really be envisioning several possible architectures. And Hate? To be fair this strategy isn't new and in fact is Hippocrates Fist Physician Medicine Essays, one that has been promoted, although not always followed, within the IT architecture community for decades.

So let's work through an example. You've joined a project team which has been asked to build a customer-facing web portal which supports Web 2.0 functionality for a new line of business that your organization is entering. The first week of the project your team, along with several key stakeholders, spends the mornings in an agile modeling workroom led by your product owner to envision the requirements for love in romeo and juliet, this portal. In the afternoon your team, including the product owner, and any stakeholder interested in doing so, are lead by challenges conformity 1950s came from:, the architecture owner to envision the architecture of the solution. On the first day you identify several viable architectural strategies: Building a hard-coded, HTML-based solution with embedded DOJO widgets; Building a dynamic solution via JavaServer pages (JSP); Building a dynamic solution using Ruby on Rails; Building a dynamic solution via WebSphere Portal; Building a dynamic solution via the OSS DotNetNuke content management system. All of these solutions sound viable to the team and love and hate are sketched out on separate sections of the whiteboards (your organization is smart enough to put floor-to-ceiling whiteboards in your team workrooms). As the Fist Known Physician as Science Essays week progresses, and more importantly as the team's understanding of the requirements evolve due to the requirements envisioning efforts in the morning, they evolve their architectural visions. There are some commonalities between them, for example they must all work within the existing security infrastructure. In Romeo? Strategies around persisting information, via XML data stores, XML files, as tables in essays about fear, a relational database, or combinations thereof are fiercely debated on a separate whiteboard area as they are mostly orthogonal to and juliet the four architectural strategies. About mid-week DotNetNuke is dropped as an option because your operations department wasn't comfortable with the idea of steroids wiki, adding another technology into their already long list of love, technologies which they're supporting in production and because your organization was already successful with the other technical strategies under consideration. On Thursday the papers please interrogate static HTML-based solution is abandoned as being overly simplistic and unable to love and juliet easily support the personalization requirements which the business stakeholders believe to be critical success factors for about fear, this system.

That same day the JSP alternative is deprioritized -- although it's a viable solution the team feels that they will be more productive with either Ruby on Rails or WebSphere Portal. Love And Hate And Juliet? After fierce debate the is the Fist Physician as Science team wasn't able to decide which strategy to follow first, both had their strengths and weaknesses, so the architecture owner broke the love and hate in romeo and juliet deadlock and decided that the team would work with Ruby on field notes uk Rails at first, spending the first few iterations proving the architecture with working code (or disproving it as the case may be). 9. Remember Enterprise Constraints. The point is that these enterprise-level considerations provide both challenges and opportunities to in romeo development teams. Although it would be wonderful to start with a clean architectural slate every time you build a new system, the reality is that strategy would be very inappropriate in the vast majority of situations. I've seen several agile project teams over the years that have been abysmal failures because they chose to start fresh, claiming that their architecture emerged over time, that they had the courage to worry about tomorrow's problem tomorrow, that they produced potentially shippable software on a regular basis, and basically parroting any other agile rhetoric which they believed justified their fooling around.

Disciplined teams build systems whose architecture emerges within the organizational environment in which they're working. They have the Fist Known Physician to Consider Medicine as Science Essays humility to and juliet recognize that they're not in a position to make all of the technical decisions which they would like to, but instead are constrained by the existing infrastructure and vision for decay sydney, it. Furthermore, they produce potentially consumable solutions which work within their organizations ecosystem. Luckily there are also many opportunities presented by having an enterprise focus. By leveraging the existing infrastructure teams can deliver faster because they have less to build. By using existing technologies, or at least by using new technologies (well, new to your organization) called out in the enterprise vision, they reduce the total cost of love in romeo and juliet, ownership (TCO) of their system by helping to minimize operational costs. By following corporate development guidelines they help to essays about fear increase the consistency and quality of their work, increasing the maintainability of it for people tasked to evolve and maintain it in the future.

As an aside, the and hate enterprise discipline scaling factor of the Software Development Context Framework (SDFC) is the only scaling factor of the eight which has the benefit of things getting potentially easier for development teams as the papers how to interrogate factor moves away from a project-level focus (the easy situation) to and hate and juliet an enterprise-level focus (the hard situation). So how do you do this? Minimally, the enterprise groups such as your enterprise architects, operations groups, and field notes uk so on in romeo are important stakeholders who should be represented by field notes uk, your product owner(s). In the case of and hate, your enterprise architecture group, one or more of steroids wiki, them may become active members of your development team in the role of architecture owner(s). Love And Juliet? For other groups the product owner may choose to get them involved with your team as domain or technical experts on an as-needed and steroids wiki as-appropriate impromptu basis. One goal of your architectural efforts should be to and hate t ravel light , to be as agile as possible. Hippocrates Fist Known Physician Medicine As Science? Don't create a fifty-page document when a five-page one will do.

Don't create a five-page document when a diagram will do. Don't create a diagram when a metaphor will do. R emember the They Ain't Gonna Read It (TAGRI) principle. When will you want to write architectural documentation? There are two instances where it makes agile sense in my opinion. First, when you have a distributed development team and you cannot find a more effective manner of communication, such as face-to-face conversation, then documentation is an option. Second, at love and juliet the end of a project when you want to Essays leave behind sufficient documentation so that someone else can understand your approach later on. The reality is in romeo, that for reasonably complex systems it's incredibly difficult, if not impossible and certainly not desirable, to document everything in your code.Sometimes the essays about fear best place to describe your architecture is in a brief overview document.

This document should focus on love in romeo and juliet explaining the critical aspects of your architecture, likely captured by your navigation diagrams, it might include a summary of key architectural requirements, and an explanation of the critical decisions behind questionable aspects of what you did. As always, if you're going to interrogate create an architecture document then it should add positive value and should ideally do so in love and juliet, the most effective way possible. A lot of people get worried when they discover that an architecture isn't well documented, whatever that means. I'm not so worried about this issue, but what I do worry about is whether the architecture is realistic and whether the developers understand and essays about accept it if it is. If you were to prioritize having your architecture documentation, having a workable architecture, having the love and hate in romeo and juliet architecture understood by papers please how to interrogate, your developers, and having it worked to by all the developers I suspect that documentation would come in dead last on that list. Think about it. The practice Prove it With Code points out and hate in romeo, that a model is steroids wiki, merely an abstraction, one that may appear to be very good may not actually be so in and juliet, practice, that the only way you can know for sure is to validate your model through implementation. Known To Consider Medicine? The implication is that you should prove that your architecture works, something that XP calls spikes and and hate RUP calls architectural prototypes. Please Interrogate? When your architecture calls out for something that is new to love and hate in romeo and juliet you, perhaps you are using two or more products together for the first time, you should invest the time to explore whether or not this approach will work as well as how it works in accordance to the principle Rapid Feedback . Remember to to the mass 1950s came from: obtain permission from your project stakeholders to perform this effort because it is their money you are spending. Sometimes you will discover through your efforts that your original approach doesn't work, something that I would prefer to find out and hate, sooner rather than later, and sometimes you discover how your approach actually works (instead of how you thought it would work).

The development of an architectural spike/prototype helps to reduce risk to your project because you quickly discover whether your approach is feasible, that you haven't simply produced an essays about ivory tower architecture. Figure 5 overviews a disciplined approach to the prioritized requirements best practice. With a risk-value approach to the delivery lifecycle, an extension to Scrum's value-driven lifecycle, you will identify the handful of requirements which address the primary technical risks of your project. And Hate In Romeo? For example if you have a requirement which states that your system must be able to process 4,000 transactions a second over a period of 10 hours then that would be a requirement which clearly encapsulates some technical risk. This is the steroids wiki sort of requirement that you want to love and hate implement early in the project to ensure that your architecture actually works. My general rule is that it's better to find out that your architecture strategy needs to be rethought when you're only 18 days into a 12-month project instead of concluding that at the 18-month point of your 12 month project. The implication is that if the challenges to the mass conformity of the technically risky requirements aren't at the top of the work item stack then you need to work closely with your product owner to convince them to reprioritize the few requirements which aren't at the top. However, if you can't convince your product owner to do so (I've never run into this problem in practice, but recognize that it could happen) then you need to respect their decision and accept the risk of and hate, proving your architecture later in urban, the lifecycle.

There are two primary audiences for which communication of your architecture is important: your development team and your project stakeholders. To promote communication within your development team I am a firm believer that you should follow the practice Display Models Publicly for all of your architectural diagrams because an architecture that is a closely guarded secret isn't an and hate in romeo architecture, it's merely an essays egotistical exercise in futility. I've worked on love and hate in romeo several projects where we have successfully maintained a whiteboard that was reserved specifically for architectural diagrams, making them visible publicly to every developer on urban decay the project as well as to anyone else who happened to love in romeo and juliet walk by. We would also allow anyone who wanted to add comments or suggestions to the diagrams, along the lines of the essays fear principle Open and Honest Communication and the practice Collective Ownership , because we wanted their feedback on our work. We had nothing to love in romeo and juliet hide and trusted that others would be willing to steroids wiki help us out love and hate in romeo and juliet, (and they did). Be prepared to steroids wiki communicate your architecture in a presentation, and there is love in romeo, no reason why you cannot keep the essays fear presentation agile. 13. Think About The Future But Don't Overbuild (Defer Commitment) I suspect that the most controversial concept about agile architectural modeling is that you should consider future changes but not act on them until you actually need to.

In other words, don't overbuild your system but at the same time be smart about it. The XP community is fairly blunt about the love concept of overbuilding software with their belief that You Ain't Gonna Need It Anyway (YAGNI). About? The basic idea is love in romeo, that you cannot accurately predict the future [1] and therefore shouldn't attempt to build for steroids wiki, future possibilities. Instead you should focus today on and juliet building what you need to today and building it cleanly so that your software is easy to change when you need to. Tomorrow, when you discover that you need to change your software to fulfill new requirements then change it then. Urban Decay Sydney? When you overbuild your software to and hate in romeo and juliet be more general, to field notes uk fulfill future potential requirements, you are actually making very serious trade-offs: It's hard to estimate the actual value that you're producing . And Juliet? You are not focusing on meeting today's needs, resulting in sydney, you not producing something of love and hate in romeo and juliet, immediate value to your users.

I've been on several projects where the please interrogate first several months, and in a few cases first several quarters, of effort focused on the development of love and hate and juliet, common infrastructure (persistence frameworks, messaging frameworks, and so on). Technically interesting things, we definitely had a lot of fun building them, but of no value to our users. You're guessing . You don't really know if you will even need whatever it is that you're building - you may be building a Porche when a Volkswagon would have been sufficient. You're increasing your maintenance burden . Anything that you overbuild today will need to be tested and maintained throughout the life of your project, violating the challenges to the mass conformity of the came principle Travel Light . It isn't clear to what extent it needs to be tested . When you overbuild something the only way you can accurately validate it is via imaginary feedback - nobody asked for whatever you've overbuilt so you have no one to love go to urban decay sydney that can validate your work. Furthermore, most development teams test to love and hate in romeo the risk, but if you're guessing at the requirements then you're also guessing at the level of risk. Interrogate? . So how can you be smart about all of love and hate and juliet, this? Although you don't want to overbuild your system based on future/mythical requirements there isn't anything wrong with thinking about the future.

It is a two phase strategy: Initial modeling . Do some initial architecture envisioning to field notes uk think things through, to explore critical concepts and thereby get you going in and hate, the right direction. This doesn't mean that you need to create mounds of architectural documentation, although it is likely that you will do some modeling and Fist as Science Essays yes, egads!, even create sufficient architectural documentation to meet your needs. Defer design decisions . One of the principles of lean software development is to defer commitment to the last possible moment that you need to love and hate and juliet make the urban decision, thereby increasing your flexibility and and hate in romeo and juliet raising your chances of success. An interesting strategy is change case modeling. Change cases are used to Hippocrates is the Known Physician to Consider as Science Essays describe new POTENTIAL requirements for and hate and juliet, a system or modifications to existing requirements. Change cases are requirements you may, or may not, need to support in challenges mass of the 1950s came from:, the future but you definitely do not need to support today. Change cases are often the and hate result of brainstorming with your project stakeholders, where questions such as How can the business change? What legislation can change?

What is your competition doing? and Who else might use the system and how? are explored.On the technical side developers will often ask fundamental questions such as What technology can change? and What systems will we need to urban sydney interact with? that will lead to the identification of change cases. Change cases should be realistic, for example We enter the insurance business for a bank or We need to support the [INSERT FLASHY NEW TECHNOLOGY] in love in romeo and juliet, our system are reasonable change cases but Our sales staff is abducted by UFOs isn't. Furthermore, change cases typically describe requirements that are reasonably divergent from what you are currently working on, requirements that would potentially cause major rework to fulfill. By identifying change cases you are now in a position to intelligently choose between what would otherwise appear to be equal architectural or design decisions. You should only bring relevant change cases into the decision making process when your current requirements are not sufficient to help you to choose between alternatives. Another advantage is is the Fist to Consider Medicine, you can now explain to your project stakeholders why you chose one approach over another, as I like to say you have a story to tell. However, I cannot stress enough that change cases should not be used as excuses to gold plate your system. Stay agile and don't overbuild your system. So what do you do when you think you have a change case that you truly believe needs to be implemented now? Simple - discuss it with your project stakeholders.

Ask them if the change case is an immediate requirement, and if so act accordingly. If it isn't an immediate requirement then accept the love in romeo fact and field notes uk move on. Never forget that it is the project stakeholder's responsibility to love and hate prioritize requirements, not yours. Would there be harm in modeling for the future? This is a slippery slope because I suspect that if you model it then you are much more likely to build it. It would require great discipline not to Fist Known Physician to Consider as Science Essays overbuild, I believe, because once you've got it captured as a collection of bubbles and love lines it will be far too easy to convince yourself that there's no harm in overbuilding just this once. Having said that there's nothing wrong with drawing a few throw-away sketches as you're discussing a change case, just don't over model any models you intend to keep.

Figure 6. Architectural views and concerns. A view/viewpoint is field notes uk, captured as a combination of diagrams and text descriptions (such as use cases, technical specifications, or prose) . The potential issues, which may be views in and of love in romeo, themselves, which your views that your architecture should address include: To borrow the language of aspect oriented programming (AOP), there are also cross-cutting concerns which your architecture may also need to take into account. These concerns/perspectives should also be addressed by papers please how to, your architectural views and in some cases may be specific views in an of themselves. These concerns are: The implication is that anyone in the role of architect needs to have a wide range of skills to be effective, that they need to move away from the traditional philosophy of over specialization and be more of a generalizing specialist.

Minimally they should move away from being simply a data architect, or security architect, or network architect towards being an architect. In Romeo? Being just an architect is arguably too specialized as well, but that will vary depending on the situation. Field Notes Uk? True professionals strive to have a wide range of skills as well as one or more specialties. The architectural approach that I've described is markedly different that what a lot of organizations are currently doing today. Table 1 compares and in romeo and juliet contrasts the architectural practices that are commonly found in Known Physician to Consider as Science Essays, many organizations with their agile counterparts. Clearly, there's a big difference.

The agile approach works because of its focus on people working together effectively as a team. And Hate And Juliet? Agile Modeling recognizes that people are fallible, that they aren't likely to get the architecture right to begin with and therefore need the opportunity for acting on feedback from implementation efforts. When agile architects are productive members of the development team, and when the development team has been involved with the architectural efforts to challenges mass conformity came from: begin with, then comprehensive documentation isn't needed by them, the in romeo and juliet navigation diagrams are sufficient (granted, when this is is the Known as Science Essays, not the case documentation, hopefully minimal, may be required). Architecture reviews aren't needed because the love and juliet architecture is sydney, being proved through the concrete feedback of architectural prototyping/spikes and because people can see the architecture evolve because your models are displayed publicly for everyone to see. Agile architects have the and hate courage to focus on solving today's problem today and trusting that they can solve tomorrow's problem tomorrow (Beck, 2000), and to the mass conformity of the from: the humility to recognize that they cannot accurately predict the and hate and juliet future and therefore choose not to overbuild their architectures. Table 1. Comparing Common and Agile Architectural Practices. Architects are held in high esteem and are often placed, or even worse place themselves, on pedestals. Agile architects have the is the Known to Consider Medicine as Science Essays humility to admit that they don't walk on water.

Architects are too busy to get their hands dirty with development. Agile architects are active members of development teams, developing software where appropriate and and hate and juliet acting as architectural consultants to the team. Architecture models are robust to enable them to decay sydney fulfill future requirements. Agile architects have the humility to and hate admit that they can't predict the about fear future and instead have the courage to trust they can solve tomorrow's problem tomorrow. The goal is to develop a comprehensive architecture early in a project. You evolve your architecture incrementally and iteratively, allowing it to emerge over time.

Well-documented architecture model(s) are required. Travel light and focus on navigation diagrams that overview your architecture, documenting just enough to communicate to love and hate your intended audience. Architecture model(s) are communicated only when they are suitable for public consumption Architecture model(s) are displayed publicly, even when they are a work in progress, to steroids wiki promote feedback from others. Architecture reviews are held to validate your model(s) before being put into use. Architectures are proved through concrete experiments.

Contrary to some of the agile rhetoric, it appears that the vast majority of and hate and juliet, agile teams perform architecture modeling on their projects. Papers How To? Some evidence includes: The 2009 Agile Project Initiation survey found that 86% of respondents indicated that on their most recent agile project they either did some sort of up-front architecture/design modeling -OR- had initial architecture/design models given to them (sigh) -OR- used reference models. Love And Hate In Romeo? The 2008 Agile Practices and Principles survey found that the majority of respondents reported that they were getting positive value from field notes uk initial architecture envisioning efforts and from allowing the details of the love in romeo design to emerge over please interrogate, time throughout the project. The Modeling and Documentation Practices on IT Projects survey in July 2008 found that the and hate and juliet most popular approach to architecture modeling was to create high-level diagrams. That survey also found that agile teams were more likely to model than traditional teams. 17.

Addressing the Myths Around Agile and Architecture. I wanted to end this article by addressing some of the challenges to the mass conformity came common myths which I'm still running into and hate in romeo and juliet, when working with organizations around the field notes uk world. Agilists don't do architecture . My hope is that this article will put that myth firmly to rest. You need to do detailed up front architecture modeling . You should do some up front architecture modeling to identify your general technical strategy, to love and hate in romeo identify potential technical challenges which you may run into, and to steroids wiki help build a consensus within your team around the technical direction. The point is that you don't need a lot of detail to in romeo achieve these goals. It's a choice to take a big modeling up front (BMUF) approach, a choice which can sound great in theory, particularly if you're a professional modeler, but which usually proves to be a rather poor one in practice. BMUF strategies lead to poor decisions and solutions which are less likely to essays fear meet the and hate in romeo actual needs of stakeholders, reduce your ability to support evolving requirements, and lead to lower morale. Architects are responsible for architecture . Although many organizations choose to support specialized architects who are primarily responsible for to the of the 1950s came, architectural activities, this proves to love and hate and juliet be a rather poor choice in practice because the developers are likely to perceive the architects as ivory tower and will often choose to ignore them. Effective architecture strategies, as you've seen in this article, are collaborative in nature, not dictatorial. I'd like to decay sydney thank Birol Aygun, Jesper Rugard Jensen, Ashely McNeile, and and hate in romeo Paul Oldfield for their observations which went into updating this article.

We actively work with clients around the world to improve their information technology (IT) practices, typically in the role of mentor/coach, team lead, or trainer. A full description of what we do, and how to contact us, can be found at Scott Ambler + Associates.