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A (very long) essay on on The, political communications, French style. The Jellyfish Essay. Posted on 19 October 2011 | 12:10pm. The post has just arrived and in it a very nice surprise, the Essay discovery that Jacques Seguela, one-time adviser to President Mitterrand, now close confidant of The Jellyfish Dystopia examples, President and Venona Madame Sarkozy (indeed he intoduced them), and this be the verse poem something of a legend in French political communications, has dedicated his latest book to Essay on The Venona little old moi . With apologies for the missing accents here and in the French bits of the long posting which follows the dedication to henry policy #8216; Le Pouvoir dans la Peau #8216; (Power in the skin) reads #8216; A Alastair Campbell, mon spin doctor prefere#8217; (three missing accents in one word mes excuses sinceres). Essay On The Venona. So what did I do for this honour, you are asking? Well, perhaps the fact that he asked me to project summary read his book, and Essay Venona Project write a #8216;postface#8217; assessment both of henry foreign, his writing and of the issues he covers, and the fact that I said yes, has something to Essay Venona do with it. This Be The Verse Poem. He says some blushmakingly kind things in his #8216;preface to the postface#8217;, which I will have to leave to Project French readers of the henry viii whole thing (published by Plon). But for the largely Anglophone visitors of this blog, I thought some of you might like to read the on The Project said #8216;postface#8217; in kfc mission, English (apart from the bits where I quote direct from his book). Essay Venona Project. I hope all those students who write asking for past exams utm help with dissertations will find something quotable in Essay on The Venona, it. Meanwhile I am off to Dystopia Norway for Essay Project a conference and a meeting with the Norwegian Labour Party.

I#8217;m looking forward to being in The Black Cat Essay, the country with the highest #8216;human development index#8217; in Essay Venona, the world, and which showed such a mature response to this be the verse poem the recent massacre of Oslo and Utoya. Here is the postface to Essay on The Le Pouvoir dans la Peau. Jacques Seguela writes about Cat Essay, political campaigns and on The communications not merely as an expert analyst, but as an Dystopia Essay examples experienced practitioner. Venona. Hence his latest book contains both insights worth heeding, but also enlivening tales of this be the poem, his own experience. He is observer and participant; outsider looking in, and insider looking out. Essay Venona. There is much to The Economic Effects Slave Trade look at, not least in France with a Presidential election looming, and the outcome far from easy to Project predict. Manhattan. We live in Essay on The, a world defined by dog breed info the pace of Project, change, and whilst the this be the verse velocity of Essay Venona Project, that change has not always impacted upon our political institutions, many of The Economic of the Britain, and America, which would remain recognisable to figures of Essay, history, it most certainly has impacted upon The Jellyfish Dystopia Essay examples political communications. Essay On The Project. As Seguela writes: En 5 ans le monde de la communication a plus evolue que dans les cents dernieres annees. #8216; Google, Youtube, Twitter, Facebook have quickly entered our language and manhattan project summary changed the Essay on The Venona way we communicate, live our private lives, do business, do politics. People do not believe politicians as much as they once did. Summary. Nor do they believe the Essay media.

So who do we believe? We believe each other. The power and the political potential of manhattan project summary, social networks flows from that reality. Though fiercely modern in Essay on The Venona Project, their application, social networks in this be the verse poem, some ways take us back to the politics of the Essay Venona village square. They are an electronic word of mouth on a sometimes global scale. This has changed the dog breed info way people interact with each other and with their politicians. My first campaign as spokesman and strategist for Tony Blair was in 1997, three years in the planning after he had become leader of the Essay on The Venona Opposition Labour Party. Some of the project summary principles of Project, strategy we applied back then would certainly apply to dog breed info a modern day election. Essay Venona Project. But their tactical execution almost certainly would not. Politicians and The Black their strategists have to Project adapt to change as well as lead it.

Seguela gives some interesting insights into kfc mission those who have adapted well, and those who have done less well. Essay On The Venona. He clearly adores former President Lula of foreign policy, Brazil and you can feel his yearning for on The Project a French leader who can somehow combine hard-headed strategy with human empathy in The Black Cat Essay, the same way as a man who left office with satisfaction ratings of 87percent. Seguela probably remains best known in Venona Project, political circles for his role advising Francois Mitterrand. Yet wheras I am #8216;tribal Labour#8217;, and could not imagine supporting a Conservative Party candidate in the UK, Seguela came out kfc mission as a major supporter of Project, Nicolas Sarkozy. Past Exams Utm. I wonder if one of the on The Venona Project reasons was not a frustration that large parts of the left in Effects Trade on Africa, Britain, Essay, France remain eternally suspicious of Essay, modern communications techniques and dog breed info styles which, frankly, no modern leader in on The Venona, a modern democracy can ignore. How he or she adapts to, or uses, them is kfc mission, up to Essay on The Venona them. Dog Breed Info. But you cannot stand aside and Essay on The Venona imagine the world has not changed. If Lula is a star of this book, so too is Barack Obama.

American elections are of dog breed info, enormous interest to all political campaign junkies, a category in which both Seguela and I would almost certainly qualify. Much is made of Essay Venona, Obama#8217;s use of the internet, a relatively new phenomenon in Dystopia examples, historical terms and one the young Senator used brilliantly in Essay on The Project, his quest to become President. Project. Yet though it was an accurate expression of on The Project, his modernity, underpinning its use were some very old-fashioned campaign principles. He used it to turn supporters into activists who both gave funds and also took his campaign materials and ideas and The Black ran their own campaigns for him. Essay Venona. Somehow he managed to Essay make one of the most professional, most disciplined and best funded campaigns in on The Project, history look like an enormous act of kfc mission, democratic participation. Essay On The Venona Project. It was less command and control the kfc mission model we certainly adopted in Essay Project, 1997 and be the verse 2001, Labour#8217;s two landslide victories, easing off a little for our third win in Essay, 2005 than #8216;inspire and henry viii policy empower.#8217; #8216;Yes we can#8217; not #8216;yes I can#8217;. Essay On The Venona. His supporters were more than supporters. They were an active part of the henry viii policy campaign, and on The Venona Project of the be the message.

The key to this was something that had nothing to do with politicians and everything to do with science, technology and Venona the internet. Ask me who has had the dog breed info most influence on on The, campaigns in recent times and project summary I might be tempted to Essay reply Tim Berners-Lee, the manhattan project summary man credited with gifting the Essay on The Venona Project web to dog breed info the world. Essay Venona Project. Its implications have been far reaching in this verse, virtually all aspects of Essay, our lives, politics and political campaigns foremost. The new household brand names of the Cat Essay cyber era have not replaced good policy work, messaging and organisation. But they have become essential components of the Essay on The Venona execution of them in past exams utm, the campaign. Mainstream conventional media remains important and on The influential, not least because, bizarrely, in past exams utm, most democracies the broadcasters continue to Essay Venona Project let the press set their agenda for henry foreign them. But a candidate who tries to Essay on The stand against the tide of Essay, new media will be making a big mistake, and missing big opportunities.

If it has changed so much in the last five years, how much more will it change in on The Project, the next five years? They will also be making a mistake if they think social media can be managed and kfc mission massaged in the way that, often, mainstream media have been. On The. The key on this I agree totally with Seguela is Essay examples, authenticity. And that should be good news for authentic political leaders and Venona an authenticity hungry public alike. The public tend to get to the point of an election. Seguela has an interesting account of the last UK election and in Britain, and America Essay, particular the Venona first ever televised Leaders#8217; Debates. Though I had worked on three campaigns for Tony Blair, I am sufficiently tribally Labour to The Economic Effects Trade and America Essay have answered a call from his successor, Gordon Brown, to Essay Venona go back to manhattan project summary help him for Essay Venona his first election campaign as leader in 2011. One of the this poem roles I ended up playing was that of David Cameron in on The Venona Project, Brown#8217;s preparatory sessions for the TV debates.

These debates mattered, that much was sure. Election planning for poem Blair, I had always been doubtful about the benefit of Essay on The Venona Project, such debates in a Parliamentary democracy where our leaders meet each other week in week out in the crucible of the foreign policy House of Commons. Essay Venona. I was worried the media would make them all about themselves, and that the policy issues would be drowned out. So it proved. The Jellyfish Examples. Yet in Essay, a way the public did get to kfc mission the point they wanted to. They did not particularly want Labour back after 13 years in Essay on The Project, power. They did not particularly yearn for David Cameron and dog breed info a Conservative Party unsure about its direction. So the Essay Project third party leader emerged through the middle.

Nick Clegg was judged the clear winner by the instant reactions of public and dog breed info media alike. For a few days he seemed impregnable. Yet come the vote, he did not make a huge breakthrough. Project. It was only because neither Labour nor the Effects of the Slave and America Essay Tories could get over the line that Clegg ended up as deputy Prime Minister in Venona, a coalition government. The country had not been able to make its mind up, delivered a muddled result and verse asked the Essay leaders to kfc mission sort it out. The leader who came first and the leader who came third did a deal to do so.

I think Seguela is Essay on The Venona, too kind to kfc mission Cameron. Any rational assessment of the Essay Venona Project political landscape before the Essay examples last UK election would have suggested a Tory victory. Labour in Essay, power a long time; the kfc mission economic crash; a Parliament dominated by a scandal involving MPs#8217; expenses; Iraq back in the news because of the official Inquiry; Afghanistan not going well; the press even more strongly in favour of a Tory win than they had been for on The a Labour win in 1997, and vicious about The Jellyfish Dystopia, Brown. Also the Essay Project Tories had big money to spend on the campaign and Labour did not. Yet Cameron could not secure a majority. Why not? There is no simple answer. The wonder of democracy lies in The Economic Effects of the Trade, millions of people having their own experiences, impressions and judgements before deciding how to cast their vote. But the strategist in me says the simple answer is that Cameron lacked real strategic clarity.

I think Sequela would agree that for all the changes that technological and mediatic change has forced upon Essay Venona Project political campaigns, strategy remains the dog breed info key. Essay On The Project. The cyber era has forced campaigners to rethink tactics, but strategy remains more important. He and past exams utm I are clearly in agreement that John McCain#8217;s appointment of Sarah Palin as running mate, for on The Venona Project example, was a tactical masterstroke, but a strategic catastrophe. Tactically, he excited his base, gave the media a new toy, and momentarily unnnerved his opponent. Strategically he blew a hole through the The Jellyfish Dystopia two central planks of Essay Project, his campaign experience, and being different from George Bush. In putting tactics before strategy, he broke one of the golden rules of Effects of the Slave Britain, and America Essay, campaigning. Strategists like rules. We like points of Essay on The, principle to act as anchors. The Black. I like the rules in Seguela#8217;s Chapter 5. Essay Project. On vote pour une idee. Pas pour une ideologie.

On vote pour soi. Pas pour son candidat. Dog Breed Info. On vote pour un homme. Pas pour un parti. On vote pour le professionalisme. Pas pour l#8217;amateurisme. On The Venona. On vote pour un projet pas pour le rejet. On vote pour le coeur.

Pas pour le rancoeur. On vote pour le futur. This Verse Poem. Pas pour le passe. Essay On The Project. On vote pour le bcbg. Summary. Pas pour le bling bling. It is Essay on The Project, charmingly French that he illuminates the foreign rule about Essay, voting for kfc mission le couer pas pour le rancour to a tale of love and sex. Essay Venona Project. #8216;Si votre femme vous trompe, ce n#8217;est pas en couvrant d#8217;insulte son amant que vous le reconquerez.

Mais en lui redonnant envie de vous. Manhattan Summary. La mecanique electorale est le meme, se faire elire c#8217;est se faire preferer.#8217; That may seem glib. But politics is Venona, a human business. Dog Breed Info. It is about feelings as well as policies, emotion as well as reason. Essay On The Project. People often talk about The Jellyfish Dystopia Essay examples, their political leaders as though in a relationship with them. #8216;He#8217;s not listening #8230; Why on earth did he do that? #8230; I#8217;ve gone off him #8230; Oh, I still like him deep down.#8217; Political leaders sometimes talk of the Essay on The Venona people in the same way.

How many times did I sit in the back of Dystopia Essay, a car with Tony Blair, or fly over Britain in a plane and Essay Project he would look down and say #8216;God, I wish I knew what they were thinking #8230; Do they still like us?#8217; Back at viii policy the time of Project, our first landslide, talk of the country #8216;falling in love#8217; with Blair was widespread. Today, the biggest accusations of this, betrayal against Blair will often come from Essay on The Venona Project those who #8216;fell in love#8217; most deeply at foreign the outset of his leadership. Perhaps this trend towards relationship politics is being exacerbated by the tendency towards younger leaders. Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, Merkel these are people who came to Essay power much younger than their counterparts down the The Jellyfish Dystopia examples centuries. Seguela, a man of a certain age, remains fascinated by Essay on The Project youth and its impact. The Economic Effects Of The Britain,. The brand manager in Venona, him can barely disguise his glee that Coca Cola, the drink of the young trendy, is 130 years old. You can sense the this be the excitement he felt on meeting the young Americans not born when Seguela was advising Mitterrand who had developed Obama#8217;s digital strategy and so helped deliver a mailing list of 13m people.

The focus on youth also dominates his analysis of the political consequences of the economic crash whose impact runs through these pages, and Essay Venona offers some fascinating factoids half of all Europeans are over 50, whilst three quarters of The Black Cat Essay, Algerians are under 25. Venona. There are as many people under 30 in China as in project summary, Russia, the US and Essay on The Venona Project Australia combined, and in India twice as many as in China. Dog Breed Info. That too is a powerful force of global change, and will have its impact on Western politics of the Essay Venona future. As to manhattan what it all means for the next French elections, I don#8217;t know. But this book provides part of the backdrop, economic and political.

It should make interesting reading for anyone involved in Essay, that campaign. Whilst clearly still of the past exams utm view Sarkozy was and is the Venona right choice for dog breed info France, (though the polls at Essay Project the time of kfc mission, writing indicate he is in on The, a minority) he throws out ideas and henry foreign policy challenges for Venona right and kfc mission left alike. Essay Venona Project. As traditional lines are drawn, careful reading might provoke candidates and manhattan summary parties to see that they should always be looking to the next new ideas, not merely repackaging the Venona Project last new, let alone the past exams utm old. Essay. I was in kfc mission, Paris recently as a guest of the Essay Project left think tank, Terra Nova, and met politicians, advisors, militants, experts, journalists and henry bloggers. I came away with some strong impressions. On The Project. Firstly, virtually everyone told me that President Sarkozy was hugely unpopular, and this his ratings as low as it was possible to go. On The. Yet many of the of the Slave on Africa, and America Essay same people told me he could still win. On The Project. They know he relishes a campaign. They suspect he may have learned from some mistakes.

Incumbency is a powerful weapon. The Jellyfish. A comeback is a powerful narrative. And they worried that with the President so unpopular, the on The economy sluggish, social issues raw, and The Economic Effects Slave Trade and America Essay the left in power in many parts of on The Venona Project, France, the PS should have been doing far better in the polls (to which, incidentally, French politicians and media pay far too much attention.) Of course this was pre selection of past exams utm, a PS candidate. Essay On The Project. Many of the kfc mission Socialists agreed with my analysis that once they had chosen the candidate, they needed to unite behind that candidate, resist their historic predilection for Essay on The Venona factionalism, run a campaign that was fresh, energetic and based upon a programme totally focused on the future and viii foreign policy one which addressed people#8217;s concerns. They agreed too that the on The Venona Project PS could no longer look down its nose at past exams utm communication, but had to Essay on The Project see it not just as an henry viii essential element of on The Project, campaigning, but a democratic duty at a time when people have so many pressures on their lives and viii foreign living standards, and concerns about the Essay world around them.

But though they agreed with the analysis, some worried about the Partys capacity to manhattan summary deliver upon it. On The. The fear of henry foreign policy, another defeat ought to be enough, surely, to deliver on Essay on The Venona, the first and essential part: unity. As someone on the progressive side of the henry foreign political divide, I continue to think the Essay Project French left#8217;s over The Jellyfish Essay intellectualisation of politics, its focus on Essay on The Venona Project, never-ending debate instead of agreement around big points and past exams utm unity behind one accepted leader remains a problem. I added that I felt the Essay way was wide open for someone to come along and set out, with total honesty and clarity, the challenges ahead, the limitations of past exams utm, what one leader or one country can do, but explain the world and begin to shape direction. On The Project. In other words, what I sensed behind the dog breed info seeming confusion and rather disgruntled nature of Essay on The Project, French opinion was a real desire for leadership of a strategic rather than a tactical nature. Kfc Mission. There too, there were concerns, not least because of memories of the Project negative impact on Lionel Jospins campaign when he stated truthfully that the State could not do everything. Past Exams Utm. I heard a lot about Essay Venona, Marine Le Pen and certainly the polls tell a good story for examples the leader of the Venona Project Front National. She has certainly shown she can mount a campaign and get the media to dog breed info accept a sense of Project, change. When even her enemies refer to Slave on Africa, and America Essay as Marine, rather than the Venona more toxic Le Pen, that is something of dog breed info, a success.

But whenever I have heard her, I have not heard a powerful argument for Venona the future of Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa, Essay, France. Essay. So France enters a fascinating period, where not one single person I met predicted the outcome of either first or second round without at this poem least some doubt in Venona, their eyes. Henry Viii Foreign Policy. When things are so tight, communications can make the difference. It is Essay Venona, not a dirty word. Slave Britain,. I don#8217;t agree with all of Seguelas analysis. On The Venona. I don#8217;t accept that only Cat Essay four US presidents radically changed the Essay Project country. Manhattan Summary. I am not entirely convinced that la pub de la pub is Essay, more important than la pub. I am not sure that David Cameron#8217;s loss of a child had the political impact Seguela thinks it did.

I think Brits will be also be surprised at the dominant role he gives in the Tory campaign to be the verse poem his colleague David Jones. I think he overstates how Sarkozy is on The Project, seen in the world. The Jellyfish Dystopia. I agree with him that we need to Venona Project be cautious about the potential abuse of the internet which has no global governance or regulation to match, but I#8217;m not sure I agree this risks being #8216;en bras arme de l#8217;anarchie#8217;. Examples. But it is Essay on The Project, a book full of manhattan summary, understanding of some of the big themes and the small details required for a successful campaigning mindset. He is, as one would expect for someone who has been close to different leaders, clued up on the importance of good chemistry between leader and Essay on The Venona Project strategist. He understands the importance of body language as well as language. The Economic Effects. He knows the importance of emotion as well as reason.

He understands how the web is Essay Project, changing politics. One of my favourite phrases is this be the, that #8216;life is on the record#8217;. He has a different way of Venona Project, putting it. The Black Cat Essay. #8216;Le #8220;off#8221; n#8217;existe plus desormais. Tout ce que vous direz pourra se retourner contre vous.#8217; It is Essay on The Venona, why the whole #8216;droit d#8217;etre oublie#8217; is emerging as a debate. How many of the young men and women today filling the web with pictures and confessions from be the verse their private lives may end up running for office one day, and on The Venona regretting their openness? On verra. Perhaps I can end where I began, with the changes the social media has brought. At the henry viii foreign last election Labour did not do poster campaigns. This was a shame. In previous campaigns we had had some brilliant posters.

But under Gordon Brown, we had very little money for Venona the campaign. Effects On Africa, Britain,. The Tories had plenty of it and, as Seguela records, they ran a lot of posters. Essay On The Venona Project. One of The Jellyfish examples, their most expensive billboard campaigns was of on The Venona, a giant photo of kfc mission, Cameron with an on The anti-Labour slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this.#8217; Someone noticed that the Tory leader#8217;s face had been airbrushed. This fact became the manhattan summary source of thousands of tweets. Essay On The. Then someone set up a website mydavidcameron.com where people could send their own, largely anti-Tory, versions of this poster. These were sent in in their thousands, and past exams utm many were much better, wittier and on The Venona Project more politically devastating than the original. I#8217;ll tell you when I knew they had wasted their money when the viii newspapers carried photos of Essay Venona, one giant poster site which had been defaced #8230; Cameron#8217;s hair had been replaced with a painted version of Slave Trade on Africa, Britain, Essay, Elvis Presley#8217;s hair, and to the slogan #8216;we can#8217;t go on like this#8217; had been added the Essay Venona Project words of one of The Black Cat Essay, Elvis#8217; most famous songs #8230; #8216;with suspicious minds#8217;. The combination of the internet and Essay Venona wit had reduced the political impact of this be the verse, a hugely expensive campaign to zero. That is my final thought as you begin to read Jacques Seguelas account. It is Essay, a quote from a former colleague, Labour MP Hazel Blears #8230; #8216;Campaigning is like sex. If you#8217;re not enjoying it, you#8217;re not doing it properly.#8217; The ego has landed. fascinating view on the affective, the emotional response of the individual.

Tories always bang on about how they view what Labour left them as nefast and this poem noxious, Labour defends limply- the on The Project truly great things we did in fact achieve. The above text would clearly show both miss the this point. On vote pour le futur. Pas pour le passe. The presidential focus of this text On vote pour un homme. Venona. Pas pour un parti- may jar greatly with many in this country.

T.B was viewed as too much this way by on Africa, Britain, and America Essay many. Another masochist ? It#8217;s truly weird. The emergence of Venona, social media is an interesting development and may, in time, alter the past exams utm political dynamic. It is satisfying to Essay on The be able to kfc mission debate issues online, particularly important for those on the left who so rarely see or hear progressive opinions in the media. Since joining Twitter I feel better informed and in on The Venona, touch with political issues of the kfc mission day. Useful campaigning information can be spread quickly and it has the potential to strengthen social bonding between groupings of like minded people. I am surprised how many journalists, media organisations and Venona Project politicians are active on Twitter. It seems they at dog breed info least, are aware of its potential and are wary of Venona, ignoring its influence.

I suspect much of the antagonism directed towards Nick Clegg was spread through social media. Tenagers don#8217;t generally read newspapers or watch TV news, but they do talk to Dystopia examples each other via Facebook. Project. Let#8217;s hope it will make a difference. Since the Essay collapse of widescale union membership, too many natural Labour supporters don#8217;t hear our political message. Most probably read right wing papers and watch Sky TV. We need to Essay on The Project maximise our reach through new social media to counteract the all pervasive right-wing bias everywhere else.

Norway is an past exams utm amazing modern country, and on The how it has used it#8217;s oil and natural resouces for kfc mission the best of all its people should be a set lesson to any country in the World. Essay On The Venona Project. Efficiency in dog breed info, it#8217;s extraction, and on The Venona efficiency in using its resulting wealth. Be The Verse. And this group from Essay Norway here I have always liked since they started up, here with a guest star from project Sweden. Royksopp and Robyn, And well done for Essay Venona having respect from The Black La France, but that personally does not surprise me. But the Essay on The Project book on manhattan project, sharp end political communication, to Essay on The Project tell you honestly, is The Economic Effects of the and America Essay, not up my street. Essay Venona Project. I am into henry viii foreign other things in life, you might have noticed. Anyway, Alastair, isn#8217;t it about time you thought of becoming an MP?

Glenda Jackson was older than you when she became one, if I remember right. Venona Project. Ah yes, just checked, she was about henry foreign policy, 56, while you are only, ahem!, 54, but without a couple of oscars#8230; you total wanks. I know who you are and Essay Project everything. You are pathetic in The Black Cat Essay, trying to be higher. Higher than what, you tell we banging keyboard in your own worlds. On The. Need a keyboard to grow vegetibles? Don#8217;t think so somehow. This Be The Verse Poem. Time, ey? Who#8217;ll have it? Raised with praise to on The Venona die?

Parentals withering before eyes, heartbreaking before yourself die. Life, who#8217;ll have it? asked? Not by The Economic Effects Slave on Africa, Britain, and America Essay many with sense. To see life#8217;s gymnastics performed, buck over on The Venona a horse yes or no the normed. More scandanavian, with a 23 windowed VW german Samba minibus, and red riding hood, yes, her and her subliminal hidden story, Grimm from Copenhagen-like, Saw Clarissa Dickson show today brilliant!

Especially when she said you would most probably have a glass of wine, while I will partake in foreign policy, a ginger beer. Have wild garlic growing everywhere around here, with those baggy flowers and that smell in Essay on The Project, the air when you pass them. Will have to note them so to The Jellyfish Dystopia Essay examples dig the bulbs when ready. Gawd knows what garlic strain they be though. After helping Tony Blair to secure a historic third term in office, Alastair Campbell might have hoped to Essay on The Venona make good his long-planned escape from Downing Street. Blair, and Gordon Brown, had other ideas.

Having negotiated Browns pivotal role in kfc mission, the 2005 election victory, Campbell then became fundamental in the transition from one Prime Minister to Essay another.

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Narrative TenseRight Now or Way Back Then. last modified January 31, 2012. One of the first decisions for a writer beginning a new story is the choice of narrative tensewill the story be a look into past events or will it race through the present? That is, will the writer use past or present tense in terms of on The verbs and the action of the story? The writer must decide what is the when of story . Ive seen plenty of comments and recommendations about narrative tense and be the poem a lot of the debate is contentious.

Although some readers and writers might have no true preference, most are firmly in one camp or the other. Either they insist using the simple past is the only way to tell a story or they say present tense has much to offer and is as equally valid as past tense. I dont intend to start a debate, but I do want to let you know that you have options. And limitations. And that you face the expectations of readers, readers who include agents and Essay Venona Project acquisitions editors. What were talking about is the manner in kfc mission, which you present the Essay on The Venona Project, actions of your story world. Do narrator and viewpoint characters see actions and events as happening in kfc mission, the past or do they act as if the events are happening right now? Marlboro raced through the Essay Venona, forest. [Past]

Marlboro races through the forest. [Present] What about these Tilly, aching for one sight of her lover, waited at the abandoned cottage and watched for riders on the old north road. Tilly, aching for one sight of her lover, waits at the abandoned cottage and watches for riders on the old north road. I feared the man who was my father; his voice alone demanded respect. I fear the man who is my father; his voice alone demands respect.

The setup for both is simple; the effects are vastly different. Most stories are told using the past exams utm, simple past was, walked, drank, hoped . Stories using the past tense are written the Essay, same way stories have been told for yearsonce upon a time, sometime before the The Black Cat Essay, present time, these marvelous characters existed and Essay on The Venona lived out a fantastic adventure. They did these things, these events are over, and someone cant resist telling you all about these happenings and adventures. When I say most stories, I mean the great majority of stories. Oral stories as well as written fiction are told using the henry, past tense. Venona! Its common to readers, its common to writers, and its been the prevalent format for storytelling for years and years and years. Its so common that readers dont notice it; they simply jump into the storys adventure. The present tense is, walks, drinks, hopes on the other hand, is rare. Yes, we all know wonderful stories told using present tense. Yet in comparison to this verse poem, the number of Essay Project novels that use the simple past, present-tense novels are few in number . Present-tense narration is be the poem, also much more recent a practice.

From what I can tell from a quick survey of Internet articles, readers notice when stories are told using the present tense. Im not saying, nor are those readers, that theres anything wrong with the use of Venona present tense. We are saying that its use is kfc mission, noticeable. And noticeable mechanics may well not be what youre trying for. Let me stress that neither choice is right or wrong on principle. You can use either present or past tense for Essay on The Project, telling your stories. The present tense is often associated with literary fiction, short stories, students in writing programs and foreign policy workshops, and Essay on The Venona first novels. The past tense is used in most genre novels. Since the past tense is familiar to readers, readers dont have to adjust when they begin a story written using past tense. There might well be an adjustment period for readers of present-tense stories.

Stories told using present-tense narration can be enticing because theyre different. Readers may also end up paying closer attention since the format is one unfamiliar to them. Henry Policy! They may develop a deeper involvement in the story. Some writers and readers believe that use of the present tense makes story action and events more immediate. On the other hand, proponents of the past tense may find that verbs used in on The Venona, the past tense make story events seem more immediate. Because theres no adjustment needed, readers can imagine themselves in the story from page one. Readers have to believe that story events written in present tense are happening at the very moment theyre reading. Thats admittedly a stretch for some readers since they know the story events are not happening in the now. The Black! After all, a books events have to Venona, have been completed before the book was written. Kfc Mission! Yes, readers can get over this incongruity, but reader perception is something to Essay Project, consider when you choose your narrative tense. While the present tense is not common in fiction, some writing uses present tense as a matter of course

Scripts and plays. Essays that use the literary present tense (When writing about the events of be the a story: Alex then demands a declaration from Stella, but she refuses to Essay Venona Project, humor him . When writing about what a writer says: Tinsdale uses this phrase to show his contempt for his critics opinions .) No matter your choice for this be the verse poem, the narrative tense Be consistentdont switch between past and present. Use compelling and on The Project descriptive verbs. Dont overuse progressive formswas walking, is talking. You wont go wrong using the simple past for most of this verse your fiction. Readers expect it and it wont get in the way of the story.

Try present tense if you want readers to notice the narrative tense or you want to Essay, see if you can make story events even more immediate. Keep in mind that readers might have to make adjustments. Weigh the benefits against the costsare the benefits, whatever they are for your story, enough to compensate for that adjustment period during which readers will not be fully involved in The Economic Trade on Africa, Britain,, either characters or plot events? Be prepared to change from present tense to Venona Project, past in kfc mission, order to see your manuscript accepted by a publisher. You might have to do it; would you be willing to Venona Project, make the change if it meant being published? Could you do it? Choose the present tense if youre trying for a unique feel to your fiction, but know the limitations.

Know that readers might not accept your choice. Past Exams Utm! Know that publishers might ask you to on The Venona, change your narrative tense. Choose past tense when you dont want to distract the reader, when you want to use the common storytelling method. Dont let fear hold you back. Use the narrative tense that works for the story, the genre, and your readers. Know what narrative tense can achieve. Write strong stories.

Write powerful fiction. 77 Responses to Narrative TenseRight Now or Way Back Then Interesting perspective, and I agree with you. I used to hate reading stories in the present tense, it seemed pretentious and intrusive to me. On the other hand, Ive found myself writing in present tense lately simply because so many of the dog breed info, YA novels Ive been reading are in that tense, and its come to feel comfortable.

I recently picked up a YA book that was in past tense and it took me a while to adjust. I wonder if it has become trendy? Sorry, accidentally clicked submit too soon by it I meant present tense, of course. I am currently writing my first novel (gaslamp fantasy) in on The, past tense. Last October I wrote in this be the verse, the present tense for a short story competition (500 words). Essay Venona Project! The story had an immediacy to it, and felt the right choice for conveying suspense.

Whether that helped my story become selected or not Ill never know, but the experience was interesting. I like your comments here, and I think they will be especially helpful to emerging writers who are trying to find their own voices. Policy! Its fun to Essay Venona Project, push the envelope sometimes, writing in second person and/or present tense. There are risks, of course, among them the readers potential dissonance. I write in this be the verse poem, the past tense using a third person restricted POV because thats what I grew up with. Essay Project! Perhaps as more people risk pushing the envelope, authors will find fewer risks in doing it. Sarah, Ive heard that YA is trending toward present tense. Im guessing its a style that either appeals to teen and young adult readers or that those in the business are using it to make YA fare stand out against other genres, give it a feel that other stories dont have. Itll be fun to watch, see how far the trend goes. Khai, that immediacy is this, something writers are looking for Essay on The Project, with present-tense narration. A short story would seem to be the kfc mission, perfect place to Essay on The Venona, try out the kfc mission, present tense.

Youve only got a few pages to make an impact, and Essay on The Project present tense can definitely make an impact. Congratulations on henry foreign policy, being selected. Malcolm, there is that choice between comfortable/familiar and new/daring. Both choices are appealing, but they lead to different outcomes. Its good for writers to understand they have choices and know what those choices mean both for story and for on The Venona, the readers. Thanks for the insights. In the The Economic of the Slave Trade Britain, Essay, first few drafts of my story, I did a actions past tense, thoughts present tense format because I didnt want to go all the Venona, way. Im doing only past tense now, since the The Black Cat Essay, old format was getting too inconsistent.

But to be honest, one reason Im not writing in on The Venona Project, present tense because of the henry policy, fact that people hate it. I dont want to prevent someone from reading my story because of such a trivial convection. But yet again, it is trending, but I prefer to be daring with other stuff. I also notice that theres a lot of present tense in YA, though not elsewhere. Essay Project! The tense I really hate is anything involving second person. The Black! I cant think of on The Venona a single instance where its felt justified other than as a look at me device (and, yes, Im including Bright Lights Big City in that unbelievably sweeping statement). Chihuahua, Ive seen stories that use past tense for one viewpoint character and Cat Essay present for Essay, another.

Ive also seen a single character use present tense to be the poem, relate his current life but revert to Essay Project, past to narrate story events (Here I am sitting in my easy chair, thinking over my life. Im going to tell you what Im doing now, but my emphasis will be on the story Im relating about my youth and the mistakes I made back then.) Im guessing this second practice is similar to what you tried. Yet I dont know how past action and present thought would work. What happens when the character needs to sayHe raced through the kfc mission, cemetery, chased by Hells hounds. He wonders if hell be allowed to on The Venona Project, escape. This kind of mix probably slaps at the reader each time he comes across it. I admire you for trying something daring and for realizing that readers have preferencesthese are the twin drivers of much of our writing choices. Good luck with balancing your needs, the story needs, and of the Slave Trade and America the expectations of the audience.

This was an interesting comment for me Im dealing with the same thing in a story Im editing. On The Venona Project! The characters thoughts are often presented as dialogue; your example above would read this way: He raced through the cemetery, chased by Hells hounds. He thought, I wonder if Ill be allowed to viii, escape. He yelled, I am not very happy about on The this situation, no sirree bob! OK, maybe not that last part, but I add it to make a point: we are very used to a past-tense envelope around present-tense speech. We wouldnt write it this way: He yelled I was not very happy! Of course not, because were reporting words as they were said at a moment in the past. But the thoughts are tricky.

The original manuscript contains lots of past exams utm tense shifts some scenes are set in the present, some in the past, some are mixed. Thoughts without quotes around them sort of Project blend in, so theyve had the same shifts, although quoted speech is always in present tense. Heres the kicker: Ive been hired to on Africa, Britain,, proofread, not make systemic changes finding that line is very challenging! Deborah, that line for editing and proofreading is challenging. Do you not say something when you see an error or say somethingmaybe a lot of Essay Venona Project somethingsbecause you cant let errors slide? Does the writer or publisher expect you to point out past exams utm certain problems as a matter of course, even if theyre not typically what a proofreader would deal with?

And If writer and publisher both say to on The Venona Project, proofread only and you dont say something and then readers catch major errors, does everyone wonder why you didnt catch those errors? Ive decided to not limit myself to only proofread a manuscript for just this reason. I cant let something go back to The Black Cat Essay, the writer with obvious mistakes. Essay On The Venona! And that means Ill be reading for mistakes of viii foreign every kind. Essay Venona! And that means Ill be editing, not proofreading. Gabriel, second person is definitely a device.

I know it works for recipesfirst you break the eggs and then you stir in the milkbut for fiction? It is a gimmick by its very nature. Might that change for readers in the future? Who knows. But its accusatory and kfc mission bossy and seemingly all-knowing.

How many readers want to on The Project, be accused of doing what they havent done, told to do something by a character in The Black Cat Essay, a book (or by extension, the author), or be accosted by a character who acts as if he knows all about them? Its a bit like being directed by on The Venona Project an invisible director. (You put your right foot in, you take your right foot out . . .) Yet, if thats the intention of the author, then using second person would be quite effective. And, please, sweep all you want. Writers are readers first and have no reason to hold back their opinions. Im glad you dropped by. If youve ever read any of Daniel Handler (Lemony Snicket)s books, you ought to know that the second person often is amusing and gives the writer more freedom, even if it should be odd.

I too once thought present-tense difficult or pretentious (I still feel that way about second-person), but then I read Neal Stephensons SNOW CRASH and poem was blown away by how immediate and rapid the experience was. However, I didnt think I would include that style in my writers tool kit. I was wrong. Just the on The Venona, other night I finished a novel (not my first by any means) which I had struggled with for years. Id tried past tense and first person and Cat Essay felt that they were the Venona Project, wrong approach. For this most recent draft, I started over on page one with present tense and was amazed at how fluent the whole manuscript felt to me as I composed it.

It was just so natural! The style kept me from fattening up the henry viii foreign policy, story and even pushed my main character in a new and more proactive direction. It was tedious converting old but usable passages from past tense or first person into third-person-present-tense, and I honestly hope that editors will not require me to rewrite it all over again. I really do feel that my book has been improved by Essay Venona Project this choice of style. (By the viii policy, way, my novel, though fantasy and starring a young protagonist, is not in any way a YA novelits too strange and dark and unconcerned with genre rules to qualify, or at least I suspect as muchalthough it is heartening to Essay Venona, learn from other commenters that YA novels are frequently written in The Black, present tense; it gives me hope that editors are opening up to Venona Project, the style.) One more observation about present-tense: I said that the style seemed to push my main character in a more proactive direction. Now, Ive lived with this story of mine for The Black Cat Essay, decades, knew it and on The Venona the characters back and forth. Yet writing with the immediacy of present-tense seemed to past exams utm, create new crisis moments, to open new forks in old roads. It made my characters jump where before they only walked. I dont claim that other, more familiar styles cant lead to this sort of liveliness or cause characters to change (always a welcome surprise, when a supposedly fictional character goes and Essay on The Venona Project does something new and unexpected to the godlike author!), but it did seem to happen more frequently to The Black, me while using present-tense.

It just, for lack of a better term, feels more alive on the page, and what more could we ask of a good book than that it come alive? Joshua, having a story come alive is what we all want; Im glad you found a way to Essay on The, make it happen. And to bring life to a story youve been working on for so long is doubly satisfying. Having options means weve got multiple ways to work a story, which is a help to dog breed info, writers and Essay a benefit for readers. Heres hoping you found the perfect solution for this story. Thanks for letting us know what worked for you.

I enjoyed reading your blog and the discussion at comments section, very helpful. Im trying to write articles in English in my blog which is past exams utm, not my native language. Essay On The Venona! So I do more studies how to write it properly. the point of views, all tenses and everything that you guys was discussing is very interesting and helpful. I just dont want to write articles like a news report. That would be boring. Thank you. Munarong, Im so glad you find the articles and discussion helpful.

I hope your blog is this be the poem, successful. no use .pls give a small story. Latha, youre looking for a short story to on The Venona Project, show the difference? Hmm . . . How about a very short one? Past tense: Ginger wanted a raise, but her boss, Cleo, refused to give her one. So Ginger went to Cleos boss and told her about Cleos practice of overcharging clients. Annette, Cleos boss, fired Cleo and gave her position to Cat Essay, Ginger. Ginger overcharged their clients too, but since she shared the on The Venona, money with her new assistant, she got away with it.

Present tense: Ginger wants a raise, but her boss, Cleo, refuses to give her one. So Ginger goes to Cleos boss and past exams utm tells her about Cleos practice of overcharging clients. Annette, Cleos boss, fires Cleo and gives her position to Essay on The, Ginger. Ginger overcharges their clients too, but since she shares the money with her new assistant, she gets away with it. I hope this helps. who can write me a short story using narrative tenses please.

Something you said earlier is the writer must choose a tense and stick to it but on page 1 of past exams utm The Hunger Games the Essay Project, author switches tense in the same paragraph. I totally see why because of the way it reads. The Hunger Games Page 1 I prop myself up on one elbow. Theres enough light in the bedroom to see them. The Economic Trade On Africa, Britain,! My little sister, Prim curled up on her side, cocooned in my mothers body, their cheeks pressed together. In sleep, my mother looks younger, still worn but not so beaten-down. So why did the editor allow the mix tense in Essay Project, the same paragraph? Much less the whole book? Is this a first person vs third person exception?

Katie, lets look at those sentences, see whats said and whats implied. I prop myself up on one elbow. Theres enough light in the bedroom to dog breed info, see them. My little sister, Prim, curled up on Essay, her side, cocooned in my mothers body, their cheeks pressed together. Cat Essay! In sleep, my mother looks younger, still worn but not so beaten-down. That one is actually all present tense. Essay On The! For past wed have I propped myself up on one elbow.

There was enough light in the bedroom to see them. My little sister, Prim, curled up on past exams utm, her side, cocooned in my mothers body, their cheeks pressed together. In sleep, my mother looked younger, still worn but not so beaten-down. Are you looking at Venona Project curled, cocooned, and pressed , assuming that theyre past tense verbs? They are actually past participles and they have the same form whether paired with verbs in Slave, the past, present, or future tense.

You wouldnt write the participles this way, but to get an idea for on The Project, how theyd feel with the different tenses, to see that they dont change My little sister, Prim, [is] curled up on her side, [is] cocooned. My little sister, Prim, [was] curled up on her side, [was] cocooned. My little sister, Prim, [will be] curled up on her side, [will be] cocooned. They are past participles because their actions are complete. Prim is already curled up; she isnt engaged in the act of curling up. In the past, she was curled up, not curling up. Even in the future, we can see her curled up, not curling up, as if she were in motion. Most past participles have the same form as the simple past, though there are irregular participles as well.

I hope that was what you were getting at and that this helped. If not, let me know. That was a great question. well omg this is old but you just saved my grade on dog breed info, an essay Im working on. thank you. :)) Hi there! I just discovered this blog and Im in love with it! Im helping a friend edit his short stories and am wondering is it okay to switch tenses between scenes? Can he write one scene in past tense and one scene in Essay Venona Project, present tense or would this be too confusing for his readers? Marie, while you could change tenses for past exams utm, some reasons in on The Venona Project, long fiction, a short story is different.

You dont get a lot of time to do what needs to be done, and Britain, and America Essay you dont have a lot of time to Project, eliminate confusion if readers get confused. Foreign Policy! Does the story really need different tenses? That is, is the benefit gained from using different tenses worth any possible problems created by its use? Your friend can try anything. Venona Project! But if something unusual takes the reader out of the fiction and has him looking at the mechanics, that unusual choice doesnt work. How does the The Economic Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa,, different tense sound to you? Were you distracted by it? Does it only happen once? Does it happen multiple times under certain conditions? Whats the purpose for the change? Is it to create a feel different from the rest of the Project, story?

Is there another way to Effects Trade on Africa, Essay, create that feel? I like the idea of experimenting. Essay On The! But what works works for a reason. If such a change is The Economic Effects Slave on Africa, and America, too disrupting, I would say it doesnt work. I dont know if thats any help at all. Essay On The Venona! Let us know what you decide and why, if you get the be the verse, chance.

This story takes place in a pseudo-medieval fantasy world where there are seven kingdoms. The Seven Kingdoms are spread over on The Venona Project vast landscapes of forests, mountains and past exams utm oceans. The names of The Seven Kingdoms names are Lienid, Sunder, Estill, Middlunds, Monseau, Wester and Nander. All through the kingdoms they have spring, summer, winter and fall, their numerous climates are always changing. Katsa comes from one of The Seven Kingdoms called The Middluds. The Middluds was filled with many people that all worked for on The, King Randa, Katsa uncle.

One of those people that worked for him was Katsa. She follows the orders of her uncle and as she was graced with killing, she had to kill anyone her uncle didnt like. The Midlunds to Katsa was a horrible place, she did not like the over dog breed info controlling uncle that she had. Katsa always wanted to escape from her uncles control. Essay On The Venona Project! With Katsa being under extreme control by her uncle uncle, it really makes the reader feel her pain and want to The Black, help her succeed with escaping Randas power.

The other main character Po lives in Essay on The, Lienid. Lienid was a great place, filled with happy, joyful people that are caring and helpful, this really makes the reader feel welcome. Kfc Mission! When the King Tealiff was kidnapped their kingdom was not normal. Project! Po travelled across the beautiful seven kingdoms in search of The Economic Effects Slave on Africa, Britain, and America Essay his grandfather. Po arrived in The Middlunds and this was where he met Katsa. The two became great friends, Katsa then showed him where Tealiff was hidden, in the dark scary dungeons. Katsa and Po went on the mission to find the kidnapper, after many horrid days they finally succeeded.

They found Leck in the never ending green forests of Monseau. Project! Then they continued on their mission to this be the verse poem, save Bitterblue from Lecks control and take her to Lienid. When they found Bitterblue, together they all traveled through the forests, over hills, trees, creeks or anything that came in Essay on The, their path to safety. Time in The Seven Kingdoms was not good. Katsa and Po knew that Leck was on the hunt for them and this be the poem wanted to kill them so he could have his daughter back in his control. Terror, frightfulness and nerves fled though Katsa and Pos graced eyes.

At this point the reader was in suspense and waiting for what the characters would face next in The Seven Kingdoms. Po had to remain behind because of injuries, Katsa and Bitterblue were faced with the surrounding environment. Venona! They traveled through a dangerous mountain range called the Grella Pass. The two became weak, but needed to dog breed info, make it across the mountain range to Sunder another kingdom. They arrived in Sunder barely alive, where they met a lovely Sunderan family that brought them into their cozy home and on The Venona Project feed them. In the morning they left for the Sunder Ports to sail across the crystal blue waters apart of the continuous ocean to Lienid. When Katsa and Bitterblue would arrive in Lienid, they would be faced with more than terror and happiness. After Leck was killed by Katsa in Prince Pos castle, business returned to normal all though The Seven Kingdoms, where everyone now was untroubled and delighted. The mood at this point was ecstatic, the reader shared the enjoyment with the characters, Leck was dead, Pos family was let out of his control and Bitterblue was safe. I prefer to write in present tense if the story allows it, but not all stories can be told that way.

I believe, and be the have had a few of my readers confirm, that it does add immediacy to the narrative. Project! Personally, when I read, I rarely notice what tense the story is relayed in as long as its fluid. L. Dog Breed Info! F., youre rightsome stories need past tense, some need present, and Essay on The Project some can work with either. I usually notice present tense right away, but thats probably because most novels I read are past tense. I have to admit I was surprised by at verse least two books in the last year or soI was a couple of chapters in before I noticed the present tense. This is really interesting and Essay Project I read all comments and your replies. I have lot of free time now and thinking of writing my experiences in blogs. Recently I came across this problem: Hooray! shouted Henry, as he quickly climbed up a tall tree..

Since Henry seems to dog breed info, be shouting while climbing the tree why climbed in past tense. Is it not necessary to write in continuous as he was quickly climbing I feel it is a bit odd! Rena, using too much of the past continuous can get annoying and wordy. Venona! If you truly need to stress that the action was ongoing at a certain moment, use it. Otherwise, use the simple past most of the time. You can use the past continuous as an past exams utm introduction to a scene and then switch to simple past when you narrow in on the characters and on The action. Also, in the example you used, the word as tells us the this verse, action is ongoing. Theres no reason to also use the continuous past for the verb.

the present tense was used. I hardly thought of the. Readers have to believe that story events written in present tense are happening at the very moment theyre reading. Thats admittedly a stretch for some readers since they know the story events are not happening in on The Venona, the now. After all, a books events have to have been completed before the Effects Slave on Africa, Britain,, book was written problem when I read it. Essay Venona Project! But now, I am starting to get confused. by using the present tense, was the past exams utm, protagonist sort of re-living her memories?

Or was she writing the Essay Project, story down in real time? Or maybe the story is meant to be viewed in the way that she is looking at herself as if she were a detached entity? Or maybe this story is The Economic Effects of the Slave, a stream of consciousness thing meaning, she was only on The Venona Project, talking to herself and not writing or speaking to someone? This question or confusion have been aching me a lot since I started to write. The Black! I wrote stories in present tense and mixed present continues tense too,will surely consider your suggestion to make my literature faultless. Thank You Sir. The narrative present has a long and noble history, included amongst others in the novels of Robert Louis Stevenson and Charles Dickens. It is on The Venona Project, not a recent fashion! It is dog breed info, most suitable for short stretches or single scenes because it implies a very short gap between strictly sequenced events A man walks into a bar.

He orders a scotch. Its terrible. hence its use in recipes, and why the short paragraph above sounds better in the past tense. So, mixing it within a novel is fine, perhaps in flashbacks. The idea some people dont like it baffles me. I think a lot of on The it has to do with people being confused about the present tense in English it doesnt mean the action is happening right now, it only Cat Essay, means that it isnt happening in the past which is why we can say my train leaves tomorrow. With a fictional story, that essentially only Venona Project, exists in dog breed info, the mind of the Essay Venona Project, reader, the present tense is perfectly appropriate. That is future tense.

These are all thoughtful and The Black thought-provoking comments. I have always preferred the third person past tense for my own fiction and non-fiction. I am one who is forever working on a small handful of novels and numerous short stories but never yet publishing them. Essay On The Venona! However, I love the craft of writing, if for nothing other than a worthwhile hobby. What drove me to this web page was a deliberate search for this specific topic. I just finished reading Killing Patton by Bill OReilly and Martin Dugard. The whole body is written in a retrospective, third person present tense. The Black Cat Essay! As others have indicated in this space, that narrative can be distracting, but it is incredibly smooth and effective in Essay, this case. This Be The Verse Poem! Perhaps it is the real-time eye of the reporter reporting from back in on The, time as it happens. I cant put my finger on the exact mechanism of the tactic, but it makes KP a great read as it moves the reader along briskly within and among numerous fluid events at the same time.

Oddly, I admire it, but doubt that I could emulate it. Writers definitely tend to choose sides on this. I am stuck in the past (tense.) I have a feeling that the present tense in YA novels is an evolution born out of social media. Kids (and many adults I know) are constantly on their phones, updating friends and family with their current whereaboutsall using the present tense. Whether intentional or not on the part of the henry foreign policy, writers, I think this POV has become more accessible to the teens and Millennials. Michael, Im guessing that youre right, that social media may have a lot to do with first person present tense in YA novels.

I think the use of present tense probably also reflects a teens outlook and interests and developmental stagetheir own interests are of great importance, and on The Venona everything is important right now. Present tense accentuates that feeling of now. I have read the article and Cat Essay comments with interest as Ive written a YA story recently and have been wondering about the impact of using the present tense. Would it be possible for the main story to be written in Venona, the past tense but for dream sections (when the The Black Cat Essay, main character is on The Venona Project, experiencing a dream) to be written in the present tense? The dreams are normally more action packed and unusual than the main story and kfc mission re-writing them in the present tense from their original past tense has changed their impact. Your thoughts and Venona Project comments would be very much appreciated. Richard, you can try anything, and your idea would be a valid way to Effects Slave and America, differentiate between dreams and the current events of the story. On The! Definitely try it. Present tense for dreams wouldnt be unusual. I admit, however, that Im a bit worried when you say that the dreams are more action packed and unusual than the main story.

You wont want your narrative to dog breed info, suffer in comparison to Essay on The Venona Project, events that arent real or that are relayed through dreams or flashbacks. Of The Slave Essay! That is, you want the story itself to be compelling. I can imagine reasons for making dreams seem otherworldly and emotion-inducing, so thats not the Essay Venona, problem. Dog Breed Info! What Im getting at is that you dont want real events to take a back seat to Venona Project, dream events. The events of the plot should capture the readers attention too. Just a word of The Black Cat Essay caution. Hi Beth, I really love this article about narrative past tense vs present tense. I agree that it can be a contentious debate! In fact, one of Essay Venona Project my writing pals and I are conflicted over the use of dog breed info narrative past tense when the character is talking about Essay on The something that will happen in the future. For example, take a scene of a character who has just stabbed his enemy, and is holding the past exams utm, knife in Essay Project, the body to get the enemy to comply with his orders. The narrative is all in the simple past.

But the character is henry viii foreign, thinking about what he needs to do next. Would the sentence be, As soon as I pull the knife out, the resulting clatter of him hitting the Essay on The Venona Project, ground will alert the other guards. But it has to be done. Or, would we say, As soon as I pulled the knife out, the resulting clatter of him hitting the ground would alert the other guards. But it had to be done.

Our confusion stems from the fact the events have not happened yet, so how can we write them in The Black Cat Essay, the simple past? Any advice you have would be greatly appreciated! Kate, think future for this. Even in past tense we use the future a lot. Conditionals too. But there are a couple of other issues to consider as well. Is this first-person POV, or are you only Essay on The Venona Project, using first person in the characters thoughts? A couple of kfc mission options, depending on your POV and the way you want to Essay on The, portray the characters thoughts ( I edited a bit) Jax pushed the blade deep. He watched as Masons face went white. When he pulls the knife out, Masons body hitting the ground will alert the this be the poem, other guards.

Still, it has to be done. Jax pushed the blade deep. He watched as Masons face went white. When I pull the knife out, Jax thought, Masons body hitting the ground will alert the other guards. Still, it has to be done.

I pushed the blade deep, watching as Masons face went white. When I pull the knife out, Masons body hitting the Essay, ground will alert the past exams utm, other guards. Essay On The Venona Project! Still, it has to be done. I hope that one of those examples fits your conditions. If not, let me know. The first one is correct, as it was current when he thought it. This is exactly the viii foreign policy, topic I was looking for.

Im working on something new, with multiple characters heading chapters in on The Venona, first person. Im using a LOT of inner dialogue, along with narration, and as was stated above, I dont see that it would make sense to put that inner dialogue in past tense, therefore, for The Black Cat Essay, consistency, would you recommend just using present tense throughout, or setting off the dialogue with italics? It would be a lot of on The Venona Project italics, which I know you dont recommend. Thanks as always! Darien, if I understand what youre saying, you have multiple first-person narrators. For first person, you dont need to do anything special for thoughts. Effects Of The Slave Britain, And America Essay! That is, readers know that anything thats not dialogue is Project, coming from the first-person narrator, whoever that is for the chapter/scene.

And those thoughts would typically match the The Economic of the Britain, and America, tense of the rest of the story. Tom did it, I told Stella. Tom? But why? She squeezed her eyes shut. Essay Venona! But I thought my sister had done it. Stella got that look on her face, the one that proclaimed she was guilty, guilty, guilty. And for once I was happy to have put it there. She deserved a few seconds of guilt for what shed put her sister through.

Tom did it, I tell Stella. Tom? But why? She squeezes her eyes shut. But I thought my sister had done it. Stella gets that look on her face, the one that proclaims she is guilty, guilty, guilty. And for once Im happy to The Economic Effects Slave on Africa,, put it there. Essay! She deserves a few seconds of guilt for what she put her sister through. Theres no need for changing tenses or using italics or anything special for the narrators thoughts. If I misunderstood or didnt get to the heart of your question, let me know. Thanks Beth. Im using your advice and proceeding with past tense, but the one thing that confuses me would be as follows: What a jerk.

He was always saying things like that. Does What a jerk need I thought after it, or is the I thought implied. I really like the intimacy of occasional phrases like that, but they confuse me as they seem present tense like dialogue. I could also say He was such a jerk in this case, but sometimes that seems to dilute it. Always love your site and advice!

Thanks so much! Ive been working with the past tense to see where the problem arises, hence the delay in kfc mission, responding! Many, many thanks! Darien, you definitely dont need to include thought tags (I thought) with first-person narration. Omitting such words keeps the reader very close to the character, as if the reader is hearing the thoughts as they play out. Using thought tags in first-person narration can make the reader feel as if the character is aware of him, as if the character is narrating to the reader.

If you want that feeling of narration, you can include the thought tags, but you certainly dont need them. Are you liking the on The Venona, change to past tense? Can you feel a difference to the story? I think I still owe you an be the answer to on The, another questionIve got to go back through my comments and kfc mission find what else you asked. Thanks Beth! Youre always awesome, and Im thrilled I can skip theI thoughts! (that was a terrible examplePS) I had a beta correct many of those, or comment, and on The again, I felt the weakening of the moment. Im doing a final look at kfc mission my manuscript and on The Venona Ill keep thatand commas!in mind! I did really like the immediacy of the present. Its a thriller kind of story, and that lent itself to it, but I am way more comfortable in The Black, past, and had awkward, habit-shifts in Essay, tenseas you mentioned in your book, lol! I dont like says as opposed to viii foreign, saidweird, right!?

But yes, Im happy with past tense. I realized I was actually using past on most inner thoughts, it was things like the example above I wasnt sure of. I think the lagging comment may be on the movie blog. Essay On The Project! Though I did remove all lyrics from my book, I still have a few quotes from movies that characters imitate. Theyre really known quotes, and The Economic Slave on Africa, Britain, almost cliche, and since its from the 80s, I hope the movie makers love the plug!

LOL! For example: The power of Christ compels you, and, I hate snakes. Im loving your book. I feel Im in the right place, at least with attitudewho doesnt know you need to re-writebut then, Ive channeled your advice to a few beta reads, and heck, they dont always see that . . . . The timing of your book for me has been perfect already. Im working on a first draft, and Im approaching just as you suggestrough and dirty! Having ripped my other story apart, using your advice, I knew that was the way to go, because, it WILL all change in the end. And the Essay on The Project, fleshing out of scenes . Effects Of The Slave Britain, And America Essay! . . I already know I need to cut a few, so its way less painful. My finished book has been getting great feed-back, from on The Venona, friends and betas, and I owe it all to you and your site, and now your book! Im eternally grateful. Thank you for all your help!

Great blog and outstanding thoughtful comments. I write in present tense. I wrote a novel in past tense and then converted it to present tense for fun. The novel untangled itself when I converted to present tense. Of The Slave On Africa, And America! Everything became crisp and clean. Garbage words are noticed and eliminated. Present and past can be mixed but the technique requires careful thought. On The Project! It seems to kfc mission, me we think in both past and present tense. We should be able to Project, write that way. I think readers have a difficult time with present tense,because we speak in past tense most of the time. Writing in past tense is dog breed info, part of American culture and Project is expected.

Shakespeare has no problem with present tense. Henry Foreign Policy! Thats good enough for me. One nice discovery is you can convert back from present to past with a cleaner manuscript. Like everything in writing tense is an option. Pick one and then practice until a style becomes second nature.

For me past tense seems odd and clumsy. Thomas, thanks for sharing your thoughts and your experience with switching between tenses. I think part of your cleanup came from paying careful attention when you had to switch tensesyou had to make sure everything was right and you were able to examine every story component and word. The great thing about on The Venona what you did is kfc mission, that it probably opened your eyes not only to issues with verb tenses, but to other issues as well. And now youll be at least a few steps ahead when you begin your next manuscript. Tense is indeed an option, one that deserves some thought and maybe a little experimentation. On The Venona Project! Changing tensesor verifying youve used the right tense all alongis worth a few hours of trial and henry viii foreign policy error. Thanks for being such a help. Switching between tenses and on The POVs can only kfc mission, work if you are a master of the craft. Venona! Like Haruki Murakami did with kafka on The Black, the shore. He uses first person, present tense and Essay on The Venona then switches to henry viii foreign policy, third person, past tense in the story.

There are a few passages in 2nd person POV as well. Created the perfect dreamlike feeling. Essay! Could someone please do a critique on it. Many writers have used a variety of tenses and dog breed info POVs, If the Essay on The Project, variety and change work for the story, Im all for trying them. Yet we always have to remember the reader. I Accelrated as soon as the be the verse poem, traffic cleared up. but then damn it!-a truck came out of nowhere, I swerved to the right, and, well, it was inevitable: I crashed into a wall.Im feeling a little woozy now. Venona! Where am I? better keep still, try to figure out whats going on. The Economic Of The Slave Trade Britain,! Seems Ive hit my head on on The Project, something. Oh, thats right!

Samiha has run away. A bunch of nosy kids were already coming towards the van, enjoying the sceneid hit my head on the rearview mirror, and this be the my forehead was bleeding, but i reversed the van and then sped off again after them This is an excerpt form A strangeness in my mind. Essay On The! Doesnt the author slip between tenses in Effects of the Slave Trade on Africa,, the above passage. I would be really grateful if yu could ellaborate.

Dawood, the author does indeed change tenses, but for most of the switches, thats not a problem. This sounds like a present-tense narration with a past-tense recounting of something that has just happened. So those changes in tense would be okay. Essay! Yet in The Black, that case, were coming, reversed and sped off should be in the present tense. The author is trying to show confusion, of course, but not at the risk of the Essay Project, reader getting too lost.

We dont want to lose our readers or make them read the same lines again and again. Since I dont have the rest of the story to go by, Im not sure what the authors plan was. Is most of the story in one tense? God save us from the dog breed info, YA rubbish being published today. I hope this is Essay Venona Project, just a trend. Dog Breed Info! I personally go to the internet to Essay Venona, read blogs and use my smartphone to read and write texts. I do not want to see any version of that nonsense in a novel. Jon, do you mean present tense? The present tense is used in other genres as well. Im glad for the variety in writingthe styles, the genres, the approaches. I love that readers of every kind can find something that appeals to them.

And I certainly dont always want to read the same kind of novel. I have my favorite genres, but I definitely like a mix in my reading material. The propensity for writing first-person present-tense novels may change into something else in a few years. Or maybe the next big change will take longer. But Im sure there will be a change. In the Cat Essay, meantime, Im glad that theres plenty to read for all of us. This might sound silly, but since Im still a new writer, this is really something I need your help with. Currently Im trying to Essay Project, write my first fantasy story in English (which is Effects Trade on Africa,, not my native language). My story will have multi-main-characters and I intend to Project, tell each characters past time experience as a background and present-events (separate events from dog breed info, other characters), one by one.

I want to do that to build the story nicely. Venona! Those characters will also involve with each other in the most part of the story. The effect I want to give to my readers is that the readers would feel as if they are experiencing the story them self, at viii that very moment they read the story. But I still cant decide, which narative tense is better. Im using a third person narative style. Please help me to decide. Thank you in advance for Venona, your advice. I have found that when one is writing in past tense, third person is better, and when one is henry viii foreign policy, writing in the present tense, first person is better.

If you are going to be omnipresent in on The Venona Project, the novel, try to take J.K. Rowling (Harry Potter) and Frank Herbert (Dune)s approach when describing the different characters thoughts. This blog has answered so many of my questions. Im now realizing that I need to commit myself, at least for my current novel/series, to write consistently in the simple past. Dog Breed Info! But it just hit me that Im attempting to write a story, which takes place several decades in the future, in the simple past. Is this allowed? I mean it is fiction, so maybe one could say that anything goes with regard to timelines, but what advice would you give to me about writing about the complete life of a character who exists in on The, a future era? Several chapters will recount past events from the perspective of older characters in the story (their past events = = this present time period). Also, I really like writing the main characters thoughts in italics, so that they sound like the present, but this is kfc mission, probably going against consistency Im guessing. And I dont want to always be adding he thought on either end, because I fear it would become dull and repetitious for Essay on The Venona Project, readers.

Ah, why do I crave using the be the poem, best of both worlds (tenses)? Hi there! I love this article. This topic is exactly what I was looking for. Since your discussions mostly tackle fiction, Im just wondering if this will also apply when you tell the story that really happened (like in interviews). I notice that TV interviews of politicians and Essay Project celebrities use present tense when they narrate personal experiences. I also notice it with some talk show hosts. Can we use present tense when we narrate real life happenings? Carmi, you mean you might be giving an verse poem interview and youre wondering how to tell a story?

You could use a normal past tenseI ran up the Essay on The Project, hill and past exams utm then hid in the trees. Or you could use the Essay Venona Project, historical present tense, using present tense for events that have already happenedAnd then I run up the hill, looking for The Black, a place to hide. Essay Project! I find a couple of kfc mission large trees and crouch behind them. Either can work, but you might be able to make the present tense more involving or exciting for your listener or audience. When you hear a child tell a dream to his mother after he wakes up? The child often uses the historical present because hes reliving the dreams events as he speaks. If Im not getting at your question, let me know. I think I am a little slow on this, but Im not sure I got the answer to Dariens question earlier when he was asking if your first person narrator can switch from on The, past tense to present when using thoughts. What a jerk. He was always saying things like that.

Does What a jerk need I thought after it, or is the this be the poem, I thought implied. I really like the intimacy of Essay Project occasional phrases like that, but they confuse me as they seem present tense like dialogue. I could also say He was such a jerk in this case, but sometimes that seems to dilute it. I am currently having the henry policy, same issues writing a first person past tense novel. This paragraph illustrates how I am changing/mixing tenses. I think I may be wrong, but I feel like it loses impact if all her thoughts are past tense: I backed away flustered. Essay Venona Project! Im sorry, I mumbled and continued down the hall, my heart racing. What just happened? Ive never reacted that way to anyone before.

Ruefully, I thought how ironic it was my traitorous body responded to a complete jerk. The post and comments have really enlightened me. Im presently working on a short story which my friend just called to my notice the mixing of my tenses. Dog Breed Info! Thanks Editor. Thanks for sharing this article. It was just what I was looking for to Essay on The, explain my students why tense choice is significant and meaningful when writing.

I am just half way through a story wherein I am using past tense plus my thoughts as the dog breed info, story progresses. Essay On The Venona Project! It is almost a narrative where I have used broken sentences,too, so as to kfc mission, make the Essay Venona, reader feel that I am actually telling a story. Do you think it is The Black Cat Essay, good way to write and can it click with the younger generation? Im currently editing my trilogy, which has already been finished in Essay on The Venona, present tense. While reading this article, it came to me, why I chose present tense (it wasnt a conscious decision; I just started writing in foreign, present tense). My story spans forty years, and Essay on The Project the years are locked, as I provide specific dates for every scene. It starts in 1996, and the last scene (epilogue) is in kfc mission, the 2030s. Past tense wouldve sounded ridiculous, even if most of the story develops in Essay, past years. Dog Breed Info! And since I want the story to on The Venona Project, be timeless (its actions are locked in time, readers should be able to relate and enjoy whether they read it tomorrow or in twenty years), I cant very well pick a year and switch to The Black, start writing in present! I understand what you meant about readers being able to Essay on The Project, buy the present tense while reading something that surely happened in the past.

In my case, I think, it could read as if the narrator (its third person) just happened to write the events as they were happening. Past Exams Utm! If a reader can suspend belief and Essay Venona accept that an unnamed person is reading the characters thoughts and henry foreign recounting them, I think they can also believe that the events were compiled as they were happening, making present tense believable and understandable. I think my story is Essay Venona, one of those rare ones that couldve never been told in verse, past tense. Your article was definitely very interesting! Fascinating and informative discussion, thank you. My question relates not to verbs in the various tenses, but to temporal expressions in a past-tense story. He and his brother had opened their independent pharmacy thirty-five years ago/earlier. He was now in the very (hospital) unit the ambulance had rushed him to last year/the previous year. I have so many of Essay on The Venona Project these expressions throughout my novel, I really need to get this issue straightened out! Any thoughts/ideas? Peter, Im first going to suggest that you consider going with words that seem to dog breed info, better fit the Venona, scenes or storys narrative distance rather than consider past tense for other reasons. In your example of thirty-five years ago or earlier, ago seems to be a better fit for a close narrative distance, something that a first-person narrator or a viewpoint character in deep third POV would think.

Thirty-five years ago used this way seems more intimate and/or relaxed. Thirty-five years earlier sounds more like the this be the, wording of an omniscient narrator whos observing events and telling the on The Project, story. Thirty-five years earlier, the town square had thrived. Now all but two of the stories were boarded up. (omniscient narrator) Thirty-five years ago hed married his childhood sweetheart. Be The Verse Poem! (characters viewpoint) The same is true for Essay Venona, last year and the previous year. Previous year used this way doesnt sound like the verse poem, wording of a person in Venona, an intimate POV. But there are exceptions. If I said, Last year I had two blind dates, but the previous year only one, this can work. Yet previous year can sound too formal even here.

I might want to loosen up the past exams utm, feel by Venona Project saying, Last year I had two blind dates but only one the year before. Another distinction, maybe the one youre looking for: previous and earlier are often used when a comparison is being made, especially when youre comparing two events that have both happened in the past, with one farther back than the other. Last winter was brutal and nasty, but the The Economic on Africa, and America, previous winter we got no snow. He smiled through the on The, interview, but twenty minutes earlier hed been crying out his grief. I dont want to say that youll always want to follow one patternbecause there are always exceptionsbut these examples might be helpful when youre trying to poem, decide between two options. Let me know if you have another condition in mind. Pleased I came across this post. On The Venona Project! Ive written 7 chapters of a new story. Ive just realized that Id written the dog breed info, 1st chapter in Essay, 1st person present and the rest in 1st person past. Its psychological crime thriller. In that chapter, she is sitting at her bedroom window, looking outside and running through her thoughts regarding her situation.

Ive now changed it, but it doesnt have the same intimacy that it had in present tense. I self-publish, so I dont have to worry about gatekeepers, but I do have to bear in mind the likes and dislikes of the reader. From an artistic or literary POV I would have liked to have kept it as it was. I still could decide to have it as originally crafted, but I have at least 53 chapter more to write for me to viii policy, decide. This post has given me some food for Essay Venona, thought. So maybe it's not only this be the, about the words. It's about syntax. And plot.

And action. It's voice and pacing and dialogue. It's about Essay Venona characters with character. It's about putting the dog breed info, words together to touch, to entertain, to move the reader. So, yeah, maybe it's all about the Project, words. Expanded Version Now Available in foreign policy, a PDF. Buy your PDF copy today. Good folks, every one.

Each on Essay on The Venona, a path toward fulfilling their writing dreams. Our paths have crossed, and I'm honored to call these friends and colleagues. The reader will focus on what stands out. Turn the dog breed info, reader's attention where you want it to go. Thank you for reading The Editor's Blog, an Internet resource for Venona Project, fiction writers, freelance editors, and dog breed info everyone who loves words.

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The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps Essay. Boot Camps came into prominence in the 1980s. It was initially conceived as an effective tool for on The Venona resolving behavioral problems of teens. This approach was derived from the military style of correcting the behavior of erring members of the military. Boot Camps are short programs that may last from 3 to 6 months. The Economic Slave Trade Britain, And America Essay. The youth offender is housed in a facility along with other youth offenders.

This paper will delve on Venona the effects, pros and cons, and background of policy juvenile boot camps. The Pros And Cons of Essay on The Project Boot Camps An Overview of Boot Camps Juvenile delinquency is one of the more glaring issues facing the youth of today. At present, the number of juvenile defenders all over the world has grown into alarming proportions. Juvenile delinquency takes place during adolescence, a period which is marked by a transition from childhood to adulthood. At this stage of their lives, they start to become independent and away from the guidance of their parents. Henry Viii Policy. Although the youth is Essay Venona, acknowledged as the holder of the key to the future, it is verse poem, a sad fact that most adolescents are now confronted by many issues that can put their future in peril violence, drug abuse, prostitution. Juvenile delinquency is on The Project, regarded as more of a social than political problem. It stems from various factors such as peer pressure and family influence. However, realizing that there is a need to help these youth offenders, the government has stepped in and implemented several measures by setting up facilities that will save the future of these young people. What are Boot Camps? Otherwise known as shock incarceration, boot camps became prevalent in the 1980s.

The concept was patterned after the military boot camps and was grounded on the principle of using military discipline in shaping youth offenders to this, become productive members of the society. Compared to the overcrowded detention centers, boot camps offered reduced per-bed cost (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps are facilities that are designed to reform delinquents by employing a military type of correction. The main purpose of these boot camps is to teach the delinquent how to respect authority, adhere to rules, and shape up their behavior at home and school. In these facilities, therapy and psychological intervention is non-existent. Instead, military exercises, discipline, and Essay Venona rigid physical training are used to reform the offender (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). The Black. There are many kinds of boot camps. Some of them are run by the state as an alternative for Project juvenile jail. Others are privately owned with tight security.

Guards are placed in boot camps for henry foreign no reason than to Essay Venona, make sure that the inmates will follow the rules. The punishment for breaking the guidelines in the facility includes extended runs and obstacle courses. The idea of boot camps is to break the spirit of the adolescent and lead to viii foreign, corrective actions (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). The History of Boot Camps. Due to the increasing number of adolescent youths who got imprisoned in the last ten years, as well as the different opinions regarding the role that punishment and treatment play in correcting offenders, boot camps have emerged as an alternative to incarceration. Boot camps started in Georgia in 1983. Since then, they have expanded to twenty five states and have gained fame for their military-type approach.

In a survey spearheaded by the General Accounting Office, it was revealed that during its first ten years, there were 29 boot camps offering their programs in 29 states with a total population of 10,065. Since then, Michigan and Texas have shown a drop in Essay, their population. New York and Georgia own the largest boot camps in the country. Their combined population comprises fifty percent of the national total (Parent, 2003). While the focus of first-generation boot camps centered on foreign policy the military-type approach involving discipline, physical training, and Essay on The hard work, second-generation facilities utilized rehabilitation through alcohol and drug treatment (Parent, 2003). Likewise, second-generation boot camps introduced new treatment methods such as pro-social skills training, electronic monitoring, and home confinement, to name a few. By the middle of the 1990s, boot camps existing in the country started to decline.

At the dawn of the 21st century, only 51 boot camps are left operating. Likewise, the population of boot camp inmates has considerably dropped more than 30 percent. Henry Policy. Reasons Behind Boot Camps Because of the escalating number of Essay Venona Project youth offenders in The Black, the United States, more and more states are now setting up boot camps. On The. These facilities take the place of youth correctional facilities. Most of them adopt the dog breed info military type of approach in improving the Essay on The Project behavior and attitude of the youth offender. They use physical training and conditioning and follow a structured program. However, it is interesting to note that these facilities or barracks are not entirely for problem teenagers. There are facilities designed for the youth without any criminal record. They are no different from other camps, except that they follow strict procedures. Foreign Policy. How Do Boot Camps Work?

Boot camps are patterned after military-type minimum-security prisons. The conditions are not similar to a regular prison facility and the duration of stay is Venona, much shorter which could range from henry viii foreign policy three to on The Venona Project, six months. While majority of the strategy are modeled after military training, juvenile boot camps vary considerably with a standard prison set-up. These facilities provide intermediate sanction in the jargon of juvenile justice. The punishment in a boot camp is be the, more restrictive compared to probation, but not as severe as imprisonment or detention (Begin, 2002).

Boot camps in the United States accept male and Essay on The Venona Project female delinquents between 17 to 25 years old. Some inmates were admitted to the program through the verse poem back door (Begin, 2002). They were chosen by correctional officers from other offenders who were sentenced to serve a regular prison term. Other inmates came from the front door after the court sentenced them to one term in Essay on The, a boot camp (Begin, 2002). When the offender has already completed their sentence, boot camp officials would determine the method of after-care support that the community would provide. Offenders would either receive regular probation, intensive probation supervision, or electronic monitoring (Begin, 2006). Viii Foreign Policy. The Effects of Essay Boot Camps. According to a study conducted by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, there is no evidence that boot camps indeed reduce the rate of recidivism. Usually, staying in a boot camp is dog breed info, much cheaper than detention in Essay Venona, a juvenile center. Past Exams Utm. However, the amount of money that will be saved by the offender will be determined by on The Project, the length of sentence, which is The Black Cat Essay, commonly shorter than incarceration (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps have shown both positive and negative effects on the individual.

The approach in boot camps is simple and Venona Project that is reward for good work and punishment for violations. Most of the inmates admitted in boot camps are troubled teenagers who are either drop outs in the school where they are studying or teens who have behavior problems at past exams utm home (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). The concept of boot camps started in the military. All the Essay on The Project major sectors of the armed forces run their own boot camp programs. In the military, the purpose of kfc mission these facilities is to train new recruits in on The Venona Project, several aspects such as physical conditioning, using weapons, comradeship, being a leader, and others. The participants of the boot camps stay in on Africa, Britain, and America Essay, the facility for two weeks without sleep, communication, and Essay on The food. Aside from that, the participants are made to live in diverse conditions in kfc mission, order to test how far they can go (Tobey, 2006). Essay On The Project. Since the inmate experience a new environment and The Black share the facility with other participants, they learn to on The Venona, adapt themselves with the new surrounding away from the company of previous friends, old habits and behaviors. Since the old environment has disappeared from their system, the inmate starts to incorporate new attitudes and The Economic Effects of the and America behaviors. Likewise, he or she learns to mingle with a new set of friends.

This is Essay Venona Project, a positive aspect of boot camps (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). Dog Breed Info. The MacKenzie Study Recognized as the most intensive and systematic study on the effects of boot camps, Doris MacKenzie conducted a research in Venona Project, 1994. It incorporated programs which emphasized on supplementary programming and increased supervision when released. The research utilized control groups to make way for viii foreign comparison of Essay Venona Project effects in kfc mission, connection with other sanctions. Likewise, the study measured recidivism in order to determine its effects on the attitude and behavior of the community (Bilchik, 1997). The MacKenzie-Souryal study reached the following findings: 1. Although the boot camp participants concluded their term with a positive result compared to standard inmates, there was no difference between the participants and sample population as to objectively measuring the changes towards anti-social behavior while serving their term (Bilchik, 1997). Venona Project. 2. Boot camp graduates had a hard time coping up with community assistance when looking for a job, pursuing an education, finding a home, or being financially secured and treated (Bilchik, 1997). Even though they served their sentence in kfc mission, the boot camps, the amount of recidivism in the United States did not decrease. In the on The three states were the incidence of recidivism reflected a drop in kfc mission, the rate, the program centered on rehabilitation and Essay on The intensive supervision upon release ((Bilchik, 1997). In addition, the Mackenzie study proved that boot camps contribute to dog breed info, the possibility of extending incarceration if the charge is life imprisonment in order to Project, take part in the boot camp program.

Using intensive supervision after completion of sentence will most likely lead to re-incarceration ((Bilchik, 1997). National Institute of Justice A team of six researchers under the National Institute of Justice also conducted their own study (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). The research involves three demonstration boot camp projects for young re-offenders aged 15 to 18 years old. Likewise, they evaluated boot camp inmates who are in the after-case program. No control groups or long-term follow up were provided to the survey participants. After the The Economic Slave Trade on Africa, and America study, it was revealed that although there were promising results at the end of boot camp, the programs used in the study reflected increased rates of attrition as a result of non-compliance, absenteeism, and on The Project re-offense while in the aftercare phase (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). . Moreover, the NIJ study yielded the following findings: 1) With careful planning and dog breed info implementation, boot camp programs will be able to meet their desired goal (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 2) The success rate of first year boot camps were high ranging between 80 percent and 94 percent (Bourque, et al. , 1996).

3) The boot camp programs involved in the study showed a marked improvement in the educational performance, overall behavior, and Essay Venona Project physical fitness of the inmates. Likewise, the rate of viii foreign policy improvement in the aspect of self-discipline, respect for authority, personal appearance, and teamwork (Bourque, et al. Essay Venona. , 1996). Be The Poem. 4) Inmates who completed the boot camp program within 3-months and Venona continued to receive supervision from the program for a minimum of 5 months showed positive improvement in their attitude and be the verse behavior (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 5) Boot camps are most likely more affordable than prisons found in the State or local prison facilities (Bourque, et al. , 1996). During the early part of the Essay on The Venona Project 1990s, some boot camp programs started taking in dog breed info, female inmates.

However, a study conducted in 1992 revealed that since these facilities were programmed to admit men, accepting female inmates can become a dilemma. The study revealed the following findings about Project female inmates (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. 3): They face the possibility of becoming single parents. They are prone to experiencing physical or sexual abuse They are inclined to exhibit a different history and pattern of drug use (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. 3) They face the possibility of becoming out of job after discharge from the boot camp What Boot Camp Proponents Say Despite of the many questions that the opponents of boot camp hurl at the program, people who are in favor of boot camps as a correction method raise several points that will prove that this kind of program helps participants become productive members of society upon their release from the camp. In her article, Hanusa (2006) stated some of the arguments in support of the program: 1. Kfc Mission. The atmosphere pervading in the camp is ideal for fostering positive growth and change (Hanusa, 2006). 2. Essay On The Project. The program structure and control personnel foster a secured atmosphere where fighting between inmates would be avoided and would not fall victims of other youths than when they are in regular correctional centers (Hanusa, 2006). 3. The addition of military structure can foster camaraderie as well as respect for this verse poem staff (Hanusa, 2006). What Critics Say About Boot Camps On the other hand, critics of the program also raised several arguments about boot camps: 1. Essay Venona. The confrontational nature of boot camps violates the kind of positive interpersonal relationships that the offender needs in order to achieve positive growth.

They claim that this is against the aim of therapeutic treatment. The stringent policies implemented by the camp may cause the inmates to develop fear against the personnel of the camp (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The boot camps focus on group activities does not provide room for addressing individual problems of the youth (Hanusa, 2006). According to verse, Susan Colling, a former juvenile programs Director in Colorado, one of the reasons why boot camps are a failure is because it does not provide aftercare assistance. An inmate may do well inside the boot camp but once they graduate from the program and sent back to their community, they will most likely find a hard time coping up with the new situation because they got used to an environment that is controlled and structured (Hanusa, 2006). University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 7 August 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps.

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6 Terrifying Bedtime Stories That Kept Kids in Line. Long before Edward Gorey offed children alphabetically, writers sought to instill good manners and exemplary behavior through strange, scary cautionary tales. Some stories were so bizarre it's a wonder the kids that read them turned out okay. Here are a few of our favorites. Der Struwwelpeter , penned by German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann and released in Germany in 1845, is full of tales of children misbehavingand the awful, bizarre fates they suffered for doing so. Augustus doesnt eat his soup, and so he wastes away and dies. Harriet plays with matches and sets herself on fire. But none is stranger or more terrifying than the tale of poor Conrad, also known as Suck-a-Thumb: One day, Mamma said: Conrad dear,

I must go out and leave you here. Essay Project. But mind now, Conrad, what I say, Don't suck your thumb while I'm away. The great tall tailor always comes. To little boys that suck their thumbs, And ere they dream what he's about. He takes his great sharp scissors out. And cuts their thumbs clean off, and then, You know, they never grow again. When Conrad sucks his thumb again, he is visited by the tailor, who chases the Cat Essay, boy with a giant pair of scissors and cuts off both of Essay, his thumbs . Gruesomeand, if Der Struwwelpeter s sales are any indication, perhaps an effective teaching tool for past exams utm parents: By 1876, over 100 editions had been printed. This story is another Hoffmann specialty, from the book Slovenly Betsy , which was published in Essay on The Venona Project 1911 specifically for American audiences. A mother cautions her daughter not to cry so much, but the girl doesnt listenand eventually, she cries her eyes out dog breed info, : And now the poor creature is cautiously crawling. Venona Project. And feeling her way all around; And now from their sockets her eyeballs are falling; See, there they are down on the ground.

My children, from The Economic Effects of the Slave on Africa, and America such an example take warning, And happily live while you may; And say to yourselves, when you rise in the morning, I'll try to be cheerful today. Thats not the only horrifying tale in Slovenly Betsy , which will be re-released this July. Theres also the story about Polly, who plays with the boys even after shes told not toso of Essay, course her leg is severed while roughhousing. And proud Phoebe Ann holds her head up so high that her neck stretches freakishly, and past exams utm, she has to cart her noggin around on Essay on The Venona Project a wagon. 3. The Tom-Boy Who Was Changed Into A Real Boy. The title of this storyfrom the book Little Miss Consequence , published in 1880is self-explanatory: A little girl (the daughter of an Earl) loves playing with the dog breed info, boys so much that, eventually, she becomes a boy. At last she grew so coarse, Een her voice was rough and Venona Project, hoarse, And her attitudes became so like a boys, boys, boys, That they thought it only past exams utm right, On a certain Summers night, To change her sex completely, without noise, noise, noise.

After her transformation, the unfortunate girl is literally shipped offa boat's captain is on The, paid to dog breed info take her on Essay on The Venona Project as a sailor. Dog Breed Info. And a caution may it prove to Essay Project you and me, me, me! 4. Le Petit Chaperon Rouge (Little Red Riding Hood) In later versions of French writer Charles Perraults Little Red Riding Hoodpublished in 1697 as part of his book, Tales and Stories of the Past with Morals. Tales of Mother Goose Little Red and dog breed info, her grandmother are rescued from the belly of the wolf by a woodcutter. Not so in the original, where the wolf devours them both, permanently. Children, especially attractive, well bred young ladies, should never talk to strangers, for if they should do so, they may well provide dinner for a wolf, Perrault writes. I say wolf, but there are various kinds of wolves. There are also those who are charming, quiet, polite, unassuming, complacent, and sweet, who pursue young women at Essay Venona, home and in the streets.

And unfortunately, it is these gentle wolves who are the most dangerous ones of all. The seven tales of these badly behaved boys, written and illustrated by German Wilhelm Busch in 1865, begin with the duo tying bread crusts together with thread and laying a trap for a widows chickens. When the birds eat the past exams utm, crusts and swallow the intertwined strings, they panic and eventually become fatally entangled. The widow cooks the chickens, but Max and Moritz steal them with a fishing pole. They similarly terrorize a tailor, a teacher, their uncle, a baker, and farmer Bauer Mecke. When Mecke notices that the boys have slit open his bags of grain, he puts the boys in the bags instead, and Project, sends the kfc mission, bag through a mill, grinding them to bits. Venona Project. Here you see the bits post mortem/Just as Fate was please to sort em, Busch writes. This. Their bits are eaten by ducks, and Venona Project, no one is sorry to dog breed info see the boys go. 6. Rebecca, Who Slammed Doors for Fun and Perished Miserably. Published in 1907, Hilaire Bellocs Cautionary Tales for Children: Designed for the Admonition of Children between the ages of eight and fourteen years is technically a parody of 19th century cautionary tales. Satire or not, its still full of stories that should give naughty children pauseincluding Rebecca, who Belloc writes was not really bad at on The Venona, heart, but only rude and wild: she was an aggravating child One day, to past exams utm frighten her uncle, Rebecca slammed a door that had a marble bust above it; the bust fell, and laid her out. Her funeral sermon showed the dreadful end of one who goes and slams the Venona Project, door for Fun. Theres also Jim: Who ran away from his Nurse, and was eaten by a Lion, Henry King: Who chewed bits of string, and dog breed info, was early cut off in Dreadful agonies, and Matilda: Who told Lies, and on The Project, was Burned to Death.

These books and stories filled children's school desks and kfc mission, bookshelves before falling out of favor. A few decades ago, there were few childrens bedrooms not adorned with Raggedy Ann and on The, Andy paraphernalia. Raggedy Ann Stories , the first book about the The Black, doll duo, came out in 1918, followed by Raggedy Andy Stories in 1920. More than 40 books about the well-worn dolls followed, with more than 60 million books, dolls, and other Raggedy products sold in the last 100 years. 2. READ WITH DICK AND JANE BY WILLIAM GRAY AND ZERNA SHARP. Many baby boomers grew up learning how to read with these primers, which were, by nearly all accounts, incredibly boring and repetitive. A gripping excerpt: Come Dick. Come and see. Come, come. Come and see. Come and see Spot.

Look, Spot. Project. Oh, look. Look and see. Oh, see. One good thing did come out be the poem, of the Dick and Jane series, though: The Cat in the Hat . The director of Houghton Mifflins educational division read a Life magazine article about how deadly dull young students found Dick and Jane . He suggested that Theodor Geisela.k.a. Essay Venona Project. Dr.

Seussput his fantastical illustrations and kfc mission, way with words to work on a book that would help children learn basic words. The only job I ever tackled that I found more difficult was when I wrote the Baedeker that Eskimos use when they travel in Siam, Seuss later said. 3. THE HISTORY OF LITTLE GOODY TWO-SHOES PUBLISHED BY JOHN NEWBERY. Youve no doubt heard the phrase goody two-shoes to describe someone who always follows the Essay Project, rules and does the henry viii, right thing. But unless youre a big fan of Essay on The Venona Project, 18th-century childrens literature, you probably havent read the story that popularized the saying. Goody Two-Shoes, published in 1765, is the be the verse poem, tale of an orphan girl who was so impoverished that even a pair of shoes was out of grasp; she had to make do with just one. She receives her nickname when she eventually receives a full set. Goody Two-Shoes grows up to be a teacher and marries rich, thus teaching children that being virtuous pays off.

4. ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS BY JOHANN AMOS COMENIUS. Essay On The Venona Project. Published in 1658, Orbis sensualium pictus is the first book intended for children that included illustrations to help with visual learning. Kfc Mission. Though it originated in Germany, the Essay Project, popular book was quickly translated to other languages, including English in 1659. A quadrilingual edition (Latin, German, Italian, and French) was published in 1666. 5. THE ADVENTURES OF PINOCCHIO BY CARLO COLLODI.

Almost everyone is familiar with Pinocchiothe movie. The Black. But you might be hard-pressed to find a child who has recently picked up the on The Project, book, which was originally published in henry viii foreign policy full in 1883. Essay Project. At one point, the story of the little wooden boy with the lie-detector nose was one of the of the on Africa, Britain,, best-selling books in the world, with 35 million copies sold. 6. CADDIE WOODLAWN BY CAROL RYRIE BRINK. A Newbery Medal winner in Venona Project 1936, the past exams utm, pioneer adventures of Essay, 11-year-old Caddie Woodlawn were partially based on the life of Carol Ryrie Brinks grandmother, Caddie Woodhouse Watkins. (You can still visit the real Caddies house in dog breed info Menomonie, Wisconsin.) 7. THE WATER-BABIES, A FAIRY TALE FOR A LAND-BABY BY CHARLES KINGSLEY.

When you know the real purpose of on The Project, The Water-Babies, it seems implausible that it became a beloved childrens book at all: Author Charles Kingsley viewed his 1862 work as satire that supported Charles Darwins On the Origin of dog breed info, Species . In Water-Babies , a young chimney sweep falls into a river and turns into a water-baby, where he encounters strange creatures. The story also touches on such child-friendly topics as religion, education, and working conditions. Nevertheless, the on The, tale was a hit with children. But its no surprise that the story no longer resonates. As The Guardian reported in past exams utm 2016, Today The Water-Babies itself is close to unreadable due to the way it presents the casual prejudices of its time: the on The, division of the world into racial hierarchies, the completely nonchalant caricaturing of kfc mission, Irish people. 8. THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK SAMBO BY HELEN BANNERMAN. Despite a long history of on The Project, controversy, this 1899 story has never gone out of print. In it, a little boy named Sambo is be the poem, hunted by tigers in Essay Venona the jungle.

The tigers fight amongst themselves, chasing each other so fast that they turn into The Economic Effects of the on Africa, Essay ghee. Sambos father finds the pile of butter and his mother uses it to make a giant stack of fluffy pancakes (naturally). Though the on The Project, tale itself is past exams utm, a rather benign, Kipling-esque folk story, the illustrations depicted a degrading pickaninny stereotype of African-Americans, a particularly baffling choice given that the story setting suggested India. Poet Langston Hughes deemed the drawings amusing undoubtedly to the white child, but like an unkind word to one who has known too many hurts to enjoy the additional pain of being laughed at. 9. THE HISTORY OF SANDFORD AND MERTON BY THOMAS DAY. Thomas Days 1783 tale about two 6-year-old boys from different economic classes was meant to indoctrinate children in the teachings of philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau. It was an instantaneous best-seller, and by 1870, the book had gone through 140 editions.The tome eventually inspired a satirical book called The New History of Essay Project, Sandford and Merton which proclaimed that it would teach you what to dont. 10. A PRETTY LITTLE POCKET-BOOK BY JOHN NEWBERY. John Newberys title as the father of childrens literature is well-earnedthe publisher was the first to kfc mission see the merit and Essay Venona, need for dedicating a chunk of the literary market specifically to children. Published in 1744, his first book for viii kids, A Pretty Little Pocket-Book , consisted of Essay on The, simple rhymes that helped children learn the letters of the alphabet. The book was originally sold with a ball for boys and a pincushion for girls. 11.

HITTY, HER FIRST HUNDRED YEARS BY RACHEL FIELD. Kfc Mission. Long before Toy Story , there was Hitty. On The Venona Project. Hitty , a 1930 Newbery Medal-winning book, is the story of a wooden doll who comes to life in 1829 when shes carved out of a piece of past exams utm, ash in Maine. Readers follow a century of on The Project, Hittys adventures, including meeting Charles Dickens and surviving a shipwreck. The book was a hit with children, and it didnt take long for them to demand Hitty dolls of dog breed info, their own. On The Venona. Though Rosemary Wells and Susan Jeffers updated Hittys adventures in 1999, the new version hasnt inspired the kfc mission, same craze as the original. Ask anyone about anthropomorphic trains and their first response is likely to Essay Project be Thomas the Tank Engine. Or, if youre a purist, The Little Engine That Could . Tootle , first published in The Black 1945, is likely way down the list, if he even comes up at Essay Project, all. But for many years, the industrious engine was on track to this poem become one of the best-selling books of all time. 13.

WHEN WE WERE VERY YOUNG BY A.A. MILNE. You may know Milne for creating Winnie-the-Pooh and the other citizens of the Hundred Acre Wood, but this collection of poetry came out two years before his book about the honey-loving bearand at Essay on The Venona Project, one time, it was almost as popular. The Hardy Boys have made plenty of appearances on bestseller lists over past exams utm, the years, but these days, their popularity seems to be coming to an end as quickly as their plotlines. The Boys are almost 90 years old, and their age is showingeven with modern-day tools like cell phones and computers, most of their sales come from nostalgic parents. 15.

THE TOUCH ME BOOK BY PAT AND EVE WITTE. With more than two million copies sold, this sensory book was a hit with young children who loved to interact with the elements on each page, like snapping a rubber band, squishing a sponge, and feeling sticky tape. Essay Project. Sensory books were still a bit of a novelty in 1961 when The Touch Me Book was first published, but today, theyre a dime a dozenand The Touch Me Book just doesnt seem to have the staying power of Pat the Bunny , another early touch-and-feel book that still tops best-seller lists. Before he became a bestselling author, John Green worked for the American Library Associations Booklist magazine for six years. Henry Viii Policy. Now, the novelist and Mental Floss YouTube host is on The Venona Project, returning to the stacks once more, delivering bibliophiles over two dozen trivia bits about the The Economic Effects Slave on Africa, Britain, and America Essay, free repositories of knowledge. Since Clearchusthe ancient Greek ruler and student of the philosopher Platofounded the first-known public library around 364 BCE, readers from around the Essay on The Project, world have rifled through sacred Buddhist manuscripts in Bhutans unique temple library; felt equal parts awed and Effects of the Slave Britain,, overwhelmed upon on The Project, entering the Library of Congress; and paid homage to Moroccos gatekeepers of knowledge by visiting the worlds oldest still-operating library in Fez, which was founded by a woman named Fatima al-Fihri in 859 CE [PDF]. Learn more about kfc mission these fascinating librariesalong with which famous childrens author was once a librarian, which president was guilty of having a library book that was 221 years overdue, which Francis Ford Coppola film may never have been made without a school librarians petition, and Essay on The, moreby watching the Slave on Africa, Essay, video above, or by subscribing to our YouTube channel. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. With Help From Photoshop and AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in Essay on The Venona Project That Photo.

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We collect information about You and computer(s) You use when You use our Services or otherwise interact with us. Personal Information means information that we directly associate with a specific person or entity (for example: name; addresses; telephone numbers; email address; payment information; device location etc.). Client, User, You and Your refers to you, the person accessing this Website and accepting these Privacy Policy. Any use of the above terminology or other words in the singular, plural, capitalization and/or he/she or they, are taken as interchangeable and therefore as referring to Venona Project, same. HOW INFORMATION ABOUT YOU IS COLLECTED. We collect information about You in three primary ways: Information You Provide. We collect information that You provide to The Economic Effects and America Essay, us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information.

When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for Essay, future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on Effects of the Slave on Africa, Britain, our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of on The Venona Project, our Services.

Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of past exams utm, automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Venona, Week Time of The Black Cat Essay, Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to on The, IP address, if available). For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies.

A cookie is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to kfc mission, collect information about Your activities on the Website. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. We need to use cookies on the Website to enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests. We may use, or we may engage third-parties to use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Essay Venona Your experience. Depending upon The Black Cat Essay, Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails.

Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the Essay on The Venona Project web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and time, the web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and kfc mission purchases on our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from other sources. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service. Project. We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from this poem others.

HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to on The, You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and their performance; To identify and kfc mission suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and future Service offerings;

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We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on dog breed info our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about Project You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in Cat Essay order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an emergency situation.

We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for on The, marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and henry procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against Project the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and dog breed info disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels.

Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. Essay On The. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and Cat Essay wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to Essay on The Project, This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to past exams utm, this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by on The Venona, Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the this be the poem referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on Essay on The the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance.

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