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Orwell and criticisms Sport, by Peter Davison. ORWELL AND SPORT – Peter Davison. Published by Finlay Publisher March–May 2009. ‘I had to be jolly quick to Vivid Recollections pick them up [shots at goal] and kick them, because most of the chaps [on] the other side were in aufel [sic] rats and they were runing [sic] at me like angry dogs’. So Eric Blair, aged eight, writing to criticisms of freud his mother on 3 March 1912 ( CW , X, 13-14). Sociology? He had, he told her, lost his place in criticisms the six-a-side team to a much older boy but had played goal in ‘ordinary football’ his side winning 5-1. Orwell’s excitement shines through but one could not gauge from this whether he would become internationally famous as a goalkeeper or a writer. Orwell’s letters from St Cyprian’s Preparatory School show how much he enjoyed football and as a Student Essay cricket – and criticisms theory nature walks. Emh Finance? Despite making no claim to sporting ability it is clear from his time at criticisms Eton that he was not without talent. Between September 1918 and December 1920 he played in the Wall Game on model eighteen occasions, sixty times ‘in the field’, and in three unspecified games; he missed thirteen games. Goals are very rarely scored in the Wall Game but The Annals of Lower College Foot-Ball , vol.
13, 1916-1921, states that for the Wall Game on of freud theory 6 October 1920 the ‘feature of the first half was a superb goal neatly shot by Blair from the halfway line’. His prowess culminated in the St Andrew’s Day game (the annual needle match between King’s Scholars – of which Orwell was one – and fee-paying boys) on Recollections in Poetry Essay 4 December when the report states, ‘Blair kept and kicked very competently under considerable difficulties’ (see CW, X, p. 57). Orwell and Denys King-Farlow inherited the periodical College Days and are said to have made handsome profits from its sale (?86 in 1920 and ?128 at Lord’s in 1921). Contributions were unsigned but it is probable that among the contributions made by Orwell was a parody of Kipling’s ‘If’ on the Wall Game, and two cricket items, a parody of Walt Whitman, ‘The Wounded Cricketer’, and quite a neat short story, ‘The Cricket Enthusiast’. (See CW, X, 53-4 for attributions, and 56 and 70-2 for these three items.) Of course, writing a jeu d’esprit does not entail participation in its subject. Orwell’s sporting recreations were not limited to of freud theory football and anomie sociology definition cricket though some today might not regard his skill at shooting and in firing a catapult as ‘sport’. However, despite his frequent protestations that he was not a good shot, he certainly seems to have had a good eye and a steady aim. In his letters to Prosper Buddicom in 1921 he describes catching a rat, putting it into ‘one of those big cage-rat traps’ (a foreshadowing of Nineteen Eighty-Four ?), letting it out and trying to ‘shoot at it as it runs’.
Then a sign of his sense of fair play: ‘If it gets away I think one ought to let it go not chase it’ (X, p. 78). Orwell’s friend, Roger Mynors (later Sir Roger and Professor of criticisms theory, Latin at, successively, Cambridge and Oxford Universities), who shared a great passion for biology with him, described Orwell’s prowess with a catapult when they were at Eton. ‘One day Eric Blair killed a jackdaw with a catapult on the roof of the college chapel, which was entirely illegal, and we took it round to the biology lab and dissected it. Sociology? . . . the bird met a messy and rather smelly end because we did it all wrong. We made the great mistake of slitting the theory gall bladder and therefore flooding the romeo and juliet place with, er . . Criticisms Of Freud Theory? . Well, it was an awful mess’ (Stephen Wadhams, Remembering Orwell , pp. 18-19). His fascination with catapults continued when he was in Student Athlete Morocco. He records in his diary on 2nd December 1938: ‘Find that the weaker of the two catapults will throw a stone (less satisfactory than buckshot) 90 yards at most. So a powerful catapult ought to throw a buckshot about 150 yards’. In The Lost Orwell there is an illustration of Orwell aiming a catapult when at criticisms of freud theory Marrakech (plate 10). We can also gather from a later diary entry (11 January 1940) that he evidently enjoyed ice skating.
The church pond at as a Athlete Essay Wallington had frozen sufficiently to bear skaters but, alas, he had no skates with him. Undoubtedly one of the best-known incidents in Orwell’s life is his shooting of an elephant in Burma, described in an important essay (often said to foreshadow the of freud theory fall of the Raj) published in 1936 (X, 501-6). It is model of health, worth repeating the start of this essay: in of freud Moulmein he ‘was hated by a large number of ecological of health, people – the only time in my life that I have been important enough for this to happen to me’. He goes on criticisms theory to describe how, as a police officer, he was an obvious target on Recollections in Poetry the football field – so football still played a part of his life – and criticisms theory ‘When some nimble Burman tripped me up . . . the referee (another Burman) looked the other way [and] the metaphor from crowd yelled with hideous laughter’. Although shooting tigers and criticisms of freud theory elephants could then be regarded as sport, Orwell’s shooting an elephant was not sport. It is unnecessary to Vivid Recollections repeat the criticisms of freud theory account given by his colleague, George Stuart, of how Orwell came to be called upon to emh finance deal with a rampaging elephant which had killed a man. However, it might be worth contrasting what happened to Orwell and the much less well-known account of the treatment of a fellow officer who had shot an elephant a few months earlier. Orwell’s superior, Colonel Welbourne was furious with Orwell and he was despatched on 23 December 1926 to Katha (the Kyauktada of criticisms of freud theory, Burmese Days ; see X, 506, n. 2).
Major E. C. Kenny, the sociology subdivisional officer of Yamethin was treated very differently. According to the Rangoon Gazette for 22 March 1926 Kenny was on tour in the Takton township and criticisms of freud theory came across an elephant that had killed a villager and caused great havoc to model of health the plantations. He ‘brought it down to the delight of the of freud villagers’ (contrast Orwell’s ‘I heard the emh finance devilish glee that went up from the crowd’, X, p. Criticisms Of Freud Theory? 505). Unlike Orwell, Kenny was not punished but on 13 December 1926 promoted to Deputy Commissioner (see The Lost Orwell , p. 166). Had this news item in the Rangoon Gazette been known much earlier it is Vivid, interesting to ponder how ‘Shooting an Elephant’ might have been interpreted. One line in the essay that needs to be taken with a pinch of of freud, salt is Orwell’s statement, ‘I was a poor shot with a rifle’. He may have mistaken the elephant’s most vulnerable point, but he was not a poor shot: this is an example of Orwell’s creativity and self-deprecation. Orwell never lost his interest in rifles. In Homage to Catalonia he offers a mini-disquisition on the variety of pragmatism of education, rifles used on the front line in his section of Spain (VI, pp. 33-4).
In ‘As I Please’, 7, he discusses the formation of volunteer rifle clubs in the 1860s to face French armies if they invaded, so that ‘peaceful citizens cowered in ditches while bullets of the Rifle Clubs (the then equivalent of the Home Guard) ricocheted in all directions’ (XVI, p. 60). In ‘Bare Christmas for the Children’, 1 December 1945, he talks of ‘One of the advantages of being a child 30 years ago was the lighter-hearted attitude that then prevailed towards firearms’ and he describes his purchase for criticisms of freud, 7s 6d (37?d in today’s currency, the Recollections Essay equivalent of about ?12) of ‘a fairly lethal weapon known as a Saloon Rifle. I bought my first Saloon Rifle at the age of 10, with no questions asked’ (XVII, p. 411). Given the damage he could wreak on theory his comrades in the Home Guard with a Spigot Mortar (see XII, p. 328), one hopes he was safer with a rifle. The use of a rifle to shoot an elephant and ecological as a weapon of war is anything but sport but Orwell’s not pulling the trigger to shoot a man when in the front line in of freud Catalonia says much about Life Essay, Orwell and is perhaps worth quoting in full even in the context of Orwell and sport: Early one morning another man and I had gone out to theory snipe at the Fascists in the trenches outside Huesca. Student Athlete? . . . Some of our aeroplanes were coming over. At this moment a man, presumably carrying a message to an officer, jumped out of freud of the Vivid Recollections in Poetry trench and ran along the top of the parapet in full view. He was half-dressed and theory was holding up his trousers with both hands as he ran. I refrained from shooting at him. It is true that I am a poor shot [again!] and unlikely to hit a running man at a hundred yards, and also that I was thinking chiefly about getting back to our trench while the Fascists had their attention fixed on the aeroplanes. Still, I did not shoot partly because of ecological, that detail about the trousers.
I had come here to shoot at criticisms of freud “Fascists”; but a man who is holding up his trousers isn’t a “Fascist”, he is visibly a fellow creature, similar to Recollections yourself, and you don’t feel like shooting at him. [‘Looking Back on the Spanish War’, 1942?, XIII, p. 501] Water had two attractions for Orwell: pre-eminently fishing but also, at least at school, swimming. There are two well-known pictures showing Orwell at criticisms theory Eton, one in swimming trunks with four friends (one of whom is anomie sociology, Steven Runciman) posing in pre-Goodies’ silly postures and another showing Orwell, cigarette in mouth, wearing a floppy white hat and carrying under one arm a rolled-up towel with, perhaps inside it, swimming trunks (see Sir Bernard Crick, George Orwell: A Life , plates 7 and 8). Of Freud? Sir Bernard correctly identifies the first of these illustrations as taking place at a favourite Eton swimming hole on the Thames half a mile up-stream from emh finance, Windsor called ‘Athens’. The second he descriptively captions, ‘Asking for trouble’. This second picture is reproduced in Simon Schama’s A History of criticisms theory, Britain , vol. Vivid Essay? 3 (BBC, 2002) on p. 458.
Here the caption – not written by of freud theory Simon Schama – states ‘Eric Blair on Recollections in Poetry Essay vacation in Athens, 1919’. Orwell, of course, never got to Greece. Though a novel, Coming Up for Air clearly demonstrates Orwell’s passion for criticisms, fishing. It is not only George Bowling who is confessing to ‘that peculiar feeling for fishing’ and who so delights in the pool at as a Student Binfield House, ‘swarming with bream’ and with an enormous fish – ‘the biggest fish I’d ever seen, dead or alive’. As both Georges put it so evocatively, ‘There’s a kind of peacefulness even in the names of English coarse fish. Criticisms Theory? Roach, rudd, dace, bleak, barbel, bream, gudgeon, pike, chub, carp, tench.
They’re solid kind of metaphor from romeo and juliet, names. The people who made them up hadn’t heard of machine guns . . .’ (VII, pp. 76-81). Orwell had very little time away from the BBC when working for its Eastern Service, but he was able to spend a few days fishing at Callow End, Worcestershire, at of freud theory the beginning of Vivid, July, 1942. The local pubs, the Blue Bell and theory the Red Lion, either ran out of Life as a Student Athlete Essay, beer or kept it back for locals, and of freud the fishing was hardly exciting. Orwell recorded his catch for his 14 days at the farm: 18 dace (though one might have been a roach), 1 perch and Vivid Recollections Essay 2 eels.
On five days he caught nothing (XIII, 384-5). When he died, his fishing rods stood in the corner of his room at University College Hospital in the hope that, if he recovered, he might be able to take them with him to Switzerland where it was hoped he could recuperate. It might be useful to interject here something about the way sport and attitudes to criticisms theory sport have changed over Life Student Athlete Essay the past hundred-plus years. Recently the President of Fifa, Herr Sepp Blatter, referring to Cristiano Ronaldo’s wish to break his freely-entered-into contract and move to Real Madrid from criticisms of freud theory, Manchester United, said that there was ‘too much modern slavery in transferring players’. It was quickly pointed out that Herr Blatter, though a lawyer, seemed to have a tenuous grasp of the terrible things inherent in ‘slavery’ and Ronaldo was damned in language I shall not repeat here for agreeing with Herr Blatter about his ‘slavery’ (Brian Moore, Daily Telegraph , 12 July 2008). I do not have space, nor competence, to outline the history of sport since say, the Powderhall New Year Sprint Handicap at romeo Jedbergh in 1870 which offered monetary prizes (won by D. Wright in that year with a 12-yard handicap over 160 yards).
Two fine recent books sketch changes between then and contemporary ‘football slavery’. The professional foul is theory, now de rigeur (so much so that it became the title of Tom Stoppard’s TV play of 1977 which brilliantly simultaneously dramatises the worlds of politics and soccer). Orwell’s biographer, D.J. Taylor, gives an excellent account of how this has come about in as a Athlete Essay On the criticisms theory Corinthian Spirit: The Decline of Amateurism in Sport (2006). Pragmatism Philosophy? It is refreshing to criticisms of freud read how the Corinthian’s goalkeeper would vacate the space between the goalposts rather than attempt to save a penalty on the assumption that his team was at Life as a fault and criticisms theory should not benefit therefrom.
In 1901 footballers’ pay was limited to ?4 a week; two years after Orwell wrote ‘The Sporting Spirit’ (14 December 1945, XVII, pp. 440-3 with follow-up letters, pp. Emh Finance? 443-6, one of which based its argument by claiming that ‘It is obvious . . . George has never played football for the love of it’), the criticisms of freud maximum was raised to ?12 and Student Essay later to ?20; a maximum was abolished in 1961. Now the average wage of criticisms theory, a Premier League footballer is ?1,100,000 per week ( Daily Telegraph , 12 July, 2008). The ratio between what a footballer and the average spectator earned in 1901 was about double; it is now roughly 2,800 times. Who is the slave, one might ask? The second book is Vivid Recollections, a stunning account of a stunning occasion: Janie Hampton’s The Austerity Olympics: When the Games came to criticisms of freud London in 1948 (2008), an Olympics totally different in spirit despite (because of?) austere times from the Nazi-inspired Games of 1936.
As Laura Thompson in Vivid Recollections her review in the Telegraph wrote, ‘It is hard not to feel that there is criticisms of freud, a vast gulf between 2012 and 1948 . . . This book made me envy anyone who attended them’ in 1948. My wife and I, who visited Wembley and saw Fanny Blankers-Koen, Emil Zatopek, and the hockey (in which Great Britain took the silver medal – games we both played) would heartily concur. Pragmatism Of Education? In 1948 there seem to have been no drugs – though one could chew Horlicks tablets, which were not rationed. Three extracts will succinctly sum up the difference between the time when Orwell wrote about sport and today. Dennis Watts, the theory AAA champion in long jump and hop-step-and jump was selected for Athlete, the British team – until it was discovered he had applied for a job as a sports teacher: he had yet to be interviewed. He was immediately dropped because he was considered to be a professional (p.
43). Criticisms Of Freud Theory? The New Zealand wrestling champion, Charlie ‘Croga’ Adams, was caught cycling on a public footpath and fined five shillings (25p). The NZ Olympic Committee decided that made him a convicted criminal and he was dropped (p. 213). My favourite example relates to the Olympic Bond signed by the seven members of the New Zealand team in which they agreed to ‘win without swank and lose without grousing’ (pp. 46-7). The cost in 1948 for the whole Games was ?732,268 (equivalent to about ?20,000,000 today). There was a profit of ?29,420 (having deducted the Argentine cheque for Athlete, ?280 which bounced, p. 7), and the Labour Government, which had played no part in organising the Games (doubtless ensuring their success), took a tax cut of criticisms of freud, ?9,000 from that profit (p. 322). Orwell was prompted to write ‘The Sporting Spirit’ following the ill-starred visit of anomie sociology, Moscow Dynamos in late 1945.
As he makes plain, he didn’t see any of the games and I am not sure that I would agree with whoever informed him that the match between the criticisms Russians and anomie sociology definition Glasgow Rangers ‘was simply a free-for-all from the start’. By a lucky chance a friend of mine and I managed to obtain tickets (costing 1s 9d, about 9p) by of freud looking like real sailors just ashore. That is not how we recall the game nor do the two minutes of extracts from the Pathe newsreel which can be seen on Life as a Athlete the web (go to ‘Glasgow Rangers v. Of Freud? Moscow Dynamos, 3 December 1945’), but that is hardly the Vivid Recollections Essay point. Where Orwell’s analysis is correct is that as international sport has developed, ‘the most savage combative instincts are aroused . . . At the international level sport is frankly mimic warfare’ (p. 441). The 1948 Games showed the better, more Corinthian, style of sport for its own sake, but, in general, Orwell correctly divined the future.
The very idea of ‘play’ in ‘The Great Game’ was past. I am inclined to think that booting a football to initiate ‘The Great European Cup Final’ at the Battle of the Somme saw more than a tragic loss of life: it marked, bloodily and finally, the end of innocence, of sport for fun by ‘muddied oafs’, amateur or professional. 1. What of Orwell and cricket? Orwell played cricket at criticisms of freud theory St Cyprian’s and emh finance seems to have had an abiding affection for the Eton v Harrow annual fixtures at Lord’s (see X, pp. Of Freud Theory? 53; XI, 175-6, 372-3; XII, 183, 379; XIII, 154). If one was slightly cynical one might suggest that was because they reminded him of the Student killing he and Denys King-Farlow made selling College Days but cricket went deeper. His review of Edmund Blunden’s Cricket Country (XVI, 161-3) shows a real affection for the game and he is able to criticisms theory correct and philosophy amplify Blunden’s ‘team’ of theory, poets and writers (headed by Byron, who played for Harrow). He quotes his line, ‘And I have seen the righteous man forsaken’ from ‘Report on Experience’, which refers to the 1914-18 War, since, ‘as he sadly perceives, cricket has never been quite the same since’ (XVI, p. 162). Orwell also refers to Sir Henry Newbolt’s ‘Vitai Lampada’ (as relay runners passing on ‘the torch of life’ – Lucretius) with its evocative lines, ‘There’s a breathless hush in of health the Close to-night – / Ten to make and the match to win’, and especially its ‘Play up! play up! And play the game!’.
Despite being cut in criticisms of freud theory stone by Gilbert Bayes on pragmatism of education the wall of theory, Lord’s facing Wellington Road in 1934, these lines are today easily mocked. Orwell seems to do that for Newbolt when he has a fellow Old Cliftonian taking inspiration from Vivid in Poetry Essay, such a game to the North-West Frontier (XIX, p. 69) Nevertheless, he tellingly suggests that the sentiment be compared with ‘Full Moon at Tierz: Before the Storming of Huesca’ by the Communist poet, John Cornford: the ‘emotional content of the theory two poems is almost exactly the same’. He concludes this essay (‘My Country Right or Left’, Autumn 1940) by pointing to model ‘the spiritual need for patriotism and the military virtue, for which, however little the criticisms boiled rabbits of the Left may like them, no substitute has yet been found’ (XII, p. 272). Cornford was killed at Cordoba. It is, however, a short reference to emh finance an incident at theory a village cricket match recalled in ‘As I Please’, 20 (14 April 1944), with which I should like to conclude because it links the Student Essay sporting and the political to criticisms of freud theory perfection. A batsmen had been given out and as he walked back, the squire’s face ‘turned several shades redder’; furiously he shouted to the umpire, ‘Hi, what did you give that man out as a Student Essay for?
He wasn’t out at all!’ The umpire dutifully recalled the batsmen and the game continued. Orwell, only a boy at the time, says it struck him as ‘about the most shocking thing I had even seen. Now, so much do we coarsen with the passage of of freud, time, my reaction would merely be to inquire whether the umpire was the squire’s tenant as well’. But it is what reminded Orwell of this boyhood occasion that links old-fashioned sport, politics, and right behaviour for Orwell. He likens this incident to ‘the goings-on in the House of Commons the anomie sociology week before last’ (XVI, p. 152). Criticisms? And what were those? On 28 March 1944 MPs voted 117 to 116 against of education Government advice for equal pay for women teachers. The next day, Churchill furiously demanded a vote of confidence on his conduct of the war and that he won.
That coincidentally had the effect of nullifying the vote for equal pay. Churchill explained, ‘We had to show the government is in control. The German wireless was scoffing at us’. It would not be until 4 March 1955 that the Burnham Committee decided that equal pay for women teachers should be introduced – by criticisms theory stages. To Orwell, Churchill’s action was as shocking as that squire’s. Alas, I doubt if there is such a thing as a ‘Corinthian Spirit’ in any field of life nowadays, not sport and certainly not politics, so much have we coarsened with the passage of time. 1. Vivid? Captain W.P. Nevill of the 8th Surreys bought four footballs, one for each of his platoons, to kick across No-Man’s-Land on the first day of the Battle of the Somme, 1 July 1916.
One platoon painted on its ball: ‘The Great European Cup / The Final / East Surreys v Bavarians / Kick Off at Zero’. They did valiantly kick off but were slaughtered. Two footballs survive (they are in Army museums) but Captain Nevill, who kicked off first, did not. He is buried at Carnoy Cemetery (Martin Middlebrook, The First Day of the Somme (1971), pp. Theory? 87, 124, 254, 335, and 340). Hansard links added 8 April 2017.
Sub-headings added 9 April 2017. ‘Not-Cricket’ re-paragraphed 8 July 2017.
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Nov 17, 2017 Criticisms of freud theory,
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Chapter 16 — Testing .NET Application Performance. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. Of Freud Theory! It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies. Anomie Definition! This page may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to of freud, sites or pages that no longer exist. Improving .NET Application Performance and Scalability. J.D. Meier, Srinath Vasireddy, Ashish Babbar, and Alex Mackman. Home Page for Recollections Improving .NET Application Performance and of freud, Scalability.
Summary: This chapter provides a step-by-step process that helps you to pragmatism, load test, stress test, and of freud, capacity test your Web application. The chapter presents testing best practices and highlights the common issues to emh finance, avoid. Criticisms Theory! It also shows how to simulate workload, and then measure and analyze results. Learn performance testing fundamentals. Vivid In Poetry Essay! Perform load testing. Perform stress testing. Perform workload modeling. Identify testing best and worst practices.
Performance testing is used to verify that an application is able to perform under expected and peak load conditions, and that it can scale sufficiently to handle increased capacity. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! There are three types of performance tests that share similarities yet accomplish different goals: Load testing . Pragmatism Of Education! Use load testing to criticisms of freud, verify application behavior under normal and peak load conditions. This allows you to verify that your application can meet your desired performance objectives; these performance objectives are often specified in a service level agreement. It enables you to Essay, measure response times, throughput rates, resource utilization levels, and to identify your application's breaking point, assuming that breaking point occurs below the peak load condition. Stress testing . Of Freud Theory! Use stress testing to evaluate your application's behavior when it is pushed beyond the normal or peak load conditions. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only under high load conditions. Ecological Model Of Health! These can include such things as synchronization issues, race conditions, and criticisms, memory leaks. Stress testing enables you to anomie sociology, identify your application's weak points, and how it behaves under extreme load conditions. Capacity testing . Capacity testing is complementary to load testing and it determines your server's ultimate failure point, whereas load testing monitors results at various levels of load and of freud, traffic patterns. You perform capacity testing in conjunction with capacity planning.
You use capacity planning to pragmatism philosophy, plan for future growth, such as an increased user base or increased volume of data. For example, to accommodate future loads you need to know how many additional resources (such as CPU, RAM, disk space, or network bandwidth) are necessary to support future usage levels. Capacity testing helps you identify a scaling strategy to determine whether you should scale up or scale out. For more information, refer to How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Applications in the How To section of this guide. This chapter demonstrates an approach to performance testing that is particularly effective when combined with the other principles in this guide. To gain the most from this chapter: Jump to topics or read from beginning to end . The main headings in this chapter help you locate the topics that interest you. Alternatively, you can read the chapter from beginning to end to gain a thorough appreciation of the issues around performance testing. Identify your stress test tool . Of Freud! To execute the performance test processes defined in from romeo and juliet this chapter, you need a stress test tool to theory, simulate user load. For example, you could use Microsoft® Application Center Test (ACT) tool, Microsoft Web Application Stress tool, or any other tool of your own choice. ACT is included with Enterprise editions of the Microsoft Visual Studio® .NET development system.
You can download the in Poetry Microsoft Web Application Stress tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. Identify your scenarios . Various sections in this chapter refer to a fictitious application that sells products online. For example, the theory user can browse and search through products, add them to Student, a shopping cart, and purchase them with a credit card. When you performance test your own application, make sure you know your application's key scenarios. Use the How To section . The How To section of this guide includes the criticisms theory following instructional articles referenced by this chapter: How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability How To: Use ACT to Test Web Services Performance How To: Perform Capacity Planning for pragmatism of education .NET Framework Applications Performance testing is the criticisms process of identifying how an ecological application responds to a specified set of conditions and input. Multiple individual performance test scenarios (suites, cases, scripts) are often needed to cover all of the of freud theory conditions and/or input of pragmatism interest. Criticisms! For testing purposes, if possible, the application should be hosted on a hardware infrastructure that is representative of the live environment. By examining your application's behavior under simulated load conditions, you identify whether your application is trending toward or away from its defined performance objectives. The main goal of performance testing is to identify how well your application performs in relation to your performance objectives.
Some of the ecological of health other goals of performance testing include the following: Identify bottlenecks and criticisms theory, their causes. Optimize and tune the platform configuration (both the hardware and software) for maximum performance. Verify the reliability of your application under stress. You may not be able to identify all the characteristics by running a single type of performance test. The following are some of the application characteristics that performance testing helps you identify: Response time. Throughput. Emh Finance! Maximum concurrent users supported. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Theory! Resource utilization in terms of the amount of CPU, RAM, network I/O, and disk I/O resources your application consumes during the test.
Behavior under various workload patterns including normal load conditions, excessive load conditions, and conditions in between. Application breaking point. The application breaking point means a condition where the application stops responding to requests. Some of the symptoms of breaking point include 503 errors with a Server Too Busy message, and errors in the application event log that indicate that the ASPNET worker process recycled because of Vivid Recollections Essay potential deadlocks. Of Freud! Symptoms and causes of application failure under stress conditions. Weak points in your application. What is required to of health, support a projected increase in criticisms load. For example, an increase in Life as a Athlete the number of users, amount of criticisms theory data, or application activity might cause an increase in of health load. Most of the performance tests depend on a set of predefined, documented, and agreed-upon performance objectives. Knowing the objectives from the beginning helps make the testing process more efficient.
You can evaluate your application's performance by comparing it with your performance objectives. You may run tests that are exploratory in nature to know more about the criticisms theory system without having any performance objective. But even these eventually serve as input to the tests that are conducted for evaluating performance against performance objectives. Performance objectives often include the following: Response time is the amount of emh finance time taken to respond to a request. You can measure response time at of freud, the server or client as follows: Latency measured at the server . Vivid Recollections In Poetry! This is the time taken by criticisms of freud theory the server to complete the execution of a request. This does not include the client-to-server latency, which includes additional time for the request and Vivid Recollections in Poetry, response to cross the network. Latency measured at the client . The latency measured at the client includes the request queue, plus the criticisms theory time taken by the server to complete the ecological model of health execution of the request and criticisms of freud theory, the network latency.
You can measure the latency in various ways. As A! Two common approaches are time taken by the first byte to reach the of freud client ( time to first byte , TTFB), or the emh finance time taken by the last byte of the response to criticisms theory, reach the client ( time to last byte , TTLB). Vivid Recollections Essay! Generally, you should test this using various network bandwidths between the client and the server. By measuring latency, you can gauge whether your application takes too long to respond to client requests. Throughput is the number of requests that can be served by your application per unit time. It can vary depending upon the load (number of users) and the type of user activity applied to the server. For example, downloading files requires higher throughput than browsing text-based Web pages. Throughput is criticisms of freud usually measured in terms of requests per Student Athlete Essay second. Criticisms! There are other units for measurement, such as transactions per second or orders per second. Identify resource utilization costs in terms of server and network resources. The primary resources are:
You can identify the metaphor romeo and juliet resource cost on a per operation basis. Operations might include browsing a product catalog, adding items to a shopping cart, or placing an order. You can measure resource costs for a given user load, or you can average resource costs when the application is theory tested using a given workload profile . A workload profile consists of an aggregate mix of users performing various operations. For example, for a load of 200 concurrent users (as defined below), the profile might indicate that 20 percent of users perform order placement, 30 percent add items to emh finance, a shopping cart, while 50 percent browse the product catalog. This helps you identify and theory, optimize areas that consume an unusually large proportion of server resources and Essay, response time. In this chapter, we have defined the load on theory, the application as simultaneous users or concurrent users. Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users hit the site at exactly the same moment. Concurrent access is likely to occur at infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to from romeo, 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. When load testing your application, you can simulate simultaneous users by criticisms including a random think time in your script such that not all the user threads from the load generator are firing requests at the same moment.
In addition to generating load, these tools can also help you gather performance-related metrics such as response time, requests per second, and performance counters from remote server computers. Microsoft Application Center Test (ACT) and the Microsoft Web Application Stress tool are examples of such load generating tools. The ACT tool is included with Enterprise editions of Visual Studio .NET. You can download the Microsoft Web Application Stress Tool at http://www.iis.net/downloads/default.aspx?tabid=34g;=6i;=1298. You can also use various third party tools such as Mercury LoadRunner, Compuware's QALoad, Rational's Performance Tester, or custom tools developed for your application.
You use load testing to criticisms, verify application behavior under normal and emh finance, peak load conditions. You incrementally increase the load from normal to peak load to see how your application performs with varying load conditions. You continue to of freud, increase the load until you cross the threshold limit for your performance objectives. Romeo! For example, you might continue to increase the criticisms of freud theory load until the server CPU utilization reaches 75 percent, which is metaphor from romeo and juliet your specified threshold. The load testing process lets you identify application bottlenecks and the maximum operating capacity of the application. Input may include the following: Performance objectives from your performance model. For more information about Performance Modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Theory! Application characteristics (scenarios). Life As A Athlete Essay! Workload characteristics. Performance objectives for each scenario.
Test plans. The load testing process is criticisms a six step process as shown in Figure 16.1. Figure 16.1: The load testing process. The load testing process involves the following steps: Identify key scenarios . Identify application scenarios that are critical for performance. Identify workload . Distribute the total application load among the key scenarios identified in Life as a Student step 1. Identify metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the criticisms of freud application when running the test. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for executing a single test along with the expected results. Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate load according to the test cases and to as a Essay, capture the of freud theory result metrics. Analyze the results . Analyze the Recollections metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of criticisms of freud theory these steps. Start by identifying your application's key scenarios.
Scenarios are anticipated user paths that generally incorporate multiple application activities. Key scenarios are those for Life as a Student which you have specific performance goals or those that have a significant performance impact, either because they are commonly executed or because they are resource intensive. The key scenarios for the sample application include the following: Log on to the application. Browse a product catalog. Search for a specific product. Add items to the shopping cart. Validate credit card details and place an order. Identify the performance characteristics or workload associated with each of the defined scenarios. For each scenario you must identify the criticisms following:
Numbers of users . Life As A Student Athlete Essay! The total number of concurrent and simultaneous users who access the application in a given time frame. For a definition of concurrent users, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. Rate of requests . The requests received from the concurrent load of users per unit time. Patterns of requests . Of Freud! A given load of concurrent users may be performing different tasks using the philosophy of education application. Patterns of requests identify the average load of users, and the rate of requests for a given functionality of an application. For more information about how to create a workload model for your application, see Workload Modeling, later in this chapter.
After you create a workload model, begin load testing with a total number of criticisms of freud theory users distributed against your user profile, and then start to incrementally increase the load for each test cycle. Continue to increase the load, and record the behavior until you reach the threshold for the resources identified in your performance objectives. You can also continue to increase the number of users until you hit your service level limits, beyond which you would be violating your service level agreements for throughput, response time, and emh finance, resource utilization. Identify the metrics that you need to measure when you run your tests. When you simulate load, you need to know which metrics to look for criticisms and where to gauge the performance of ecological of health your application. Identify the of freud theory metrics that are relevant to philosophy, your performance objectives, as well as those that help you identify bottlenecks. Metrics allow you to evaluate how your application performs in criticisms of freud relation to performance objectives — such as throughput, response time, and resource utilization. As you progress through multiple iterations of the tests, you can add metrics based upon your analysis of the previous test cycles. For example, if you observe that that your ASP.NET worker process is emh finance showing a marked increase in the ProcessPrivate Bytes counter during a test cycle, during the second test iteration you might add additional memory-related counters (counters related to garbage collection generations) to do further precision monitoring of the memory usage by the worker process. For more information about the types of metrics to capture for an ASP.NET application, see Metrics, later in this chapter. To evaluate the performance of your application in criticisms of freud theory more detail and to identify the Athlete potential bottlenecks, monitor metrics under the following categories:
Network-specific metrics . Of Freud! This set of metrics provides information about the overall health and efficiency of your network, including routers, switches, and gateways. Anomie Sociology! System-related metrics . This set of metrics helps you identify the resource utilization on your server. The resources are CPU, memory, disk I/O, and theory, network I/O. Platform-specific metrics . Philosophy! Platform-specific metrics are related to software that is used to host your application, such as the .NET Framework common language runtime and ASP.NET-related metrics. Application-specific metrics . Criticisms Of Freud Theory! These include custom performance counters inserted in your application code to monitor application health and identify performance issues.
You might use custom counters to determine the number of concurrent threads waiting to acquire a particular lock or the emh finance number of of freud requests queued to make an outbound call to a Web service. Service level metrics . Service level metrics can help to measure overall application throughput and latency, or they might be tied to metaphor from romeo, specific business scenarios as shown in Table 16.1. Table 16.1: Sample Service Level Metrics for the Sample Application. For a complete list of the counters that you need to measure, see Metrics, later in this chapter. After identifying metrics, you should determine a baseline for them under normal load conditions. This helps you decide on criticisms of freud theory, the acceptable load levels for your application. Sociology Definition! Baseline values help you analyze your application performance at of freud, varying load levels. Model! An example is showed in Table 16.2.
Table 16.2: Acceptable Load Levels. Document your various test cases in test plans for the workload patterns identified in Step 2. Two examples are shown in this section. Test Case for the Sample E-Commerce Application. The test case for the sample e-commerce application used for illustration purposes in this chapter might define the following: Number of users : 500 simultaneous users Test duration : 2 hours Think time : Random think time between 1 and criticisms of freud theory, 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Divide the users into various user profiles based on the workload identified in step 2. For the sample application, the distribution of load for various profiles could be similar to anomie sociology definition, that shown in Table 16.3. Table 16.3: Load Distribution. The expected results for the sample application might be defined as the following:
Throughput : 100 requests per second (ASP.NETRequests/sec performance counter) Requests Executing : 45 requests executing (ASP.NETRequests Executing performance counter) Avg. Response Time : 2.5 second response time (TTLB on 100 megabits per second [Mbps] LAN) Resource utilization thresholds : Processor% Processor Time : 75 percent. MemoryAvailable MBytes : 25 percent of total physical RAM. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. In addition to handling common client requirements such as authentication, cookies, and criticisms of freud theory, view state, ACT allows you to run multiple instances of the test at the same time to match the test case. Note Make sure the client computers you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization such as processor and memory should be well below the utilization threshold values. For more information about from using ACT for performance testing, see How To: Use ACT to Test Performance and Scalability in the How To section of criticisms of freud this guide.
Analyze the captured data and compare the results against philosophy of education the metric's accepted level. The data you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: Throughput versus user load. Response time versus user load. Resource utilization versus user load.
Other important metrics can help you identify and diagnose potential bottlenecks that limit your application's scalability. To generate the theory test data, continue to increase load incrementally for multiple test iterations until you cross the romeo and juliet threshold limits set for your application. Threshold limits may include service level agreements for throughput, response time, and resource utilization. Of Freud! For example, the threshold limit set for CPU utilization may be set to 75 percent; therefore, you can continue to increase the sociology definition load and perform tests until the processor utilization reaches around 80 percent. The analysis report that you generate at the end of various test iterations identifies your application behavior at various load levels. For a sample report, see the Reporting section later in this chapter.
If you continue to criticisms, increase load during the testing process, you are likely to ultimately cause your application to fail. If you start to receive HTTP 500 (server busy) responses from the server, it means that your server's queue is full and that it has started to reject requests. These responses correspond to the 503 error code in the ACT stress tool. Another example of application failure is a situation where the ASP.NET worker process recycles on the server because memory consumption has reached the limit defined in the Machine.config file or the worker process has deadlocked and sociology, has exceeded the time duration specified through the responseDeadlockInterval attribute in the Machine.config file. You can identify bottlenecks in the application by of freud theory analyzing the metaphor from and juliet metrics data.
At this point, you need to investigate the cause, fix or tune your application, and then run the tests again. Based upon your test analysis, you may need to create and run special tests that are very focused. For more information about identifying architecture and design related issues in your application, see Chapter 4, Architecture and Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability For more information about identifying architecture and design-related issues in your application, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance For more information about tuning, refer to Chapter 17, Tuning .NET Application Performance The various outputs of the load testing process are the following: Updated test plans. Behavior of your application at various load levels. Maximum operating capacity. Criticisms Theory! Potential bottlenecks. Recommendations for fixing the bottlenecks.
Stress test your application by Recollections in Poetry Essay subjecting it to very high loads that are beyond the capacity of the application, while denying it the resources required to criticisms of freud theory, process that load. For example, you can deploy your application on a server that is anomie definition running a processor-intensive application already. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! In this way, your application is immediately starved of processor resources and must compete with the other application for CPU cycles. The goal of stress testing is to unearth application bugs that surface only anomie definition under high load conditions. These bugs can include: Synchronization issues Race conditions Memory leaks Loss of data during network congestion. Unlike load testing, where you have a list of prioritized scenarios, with stress testing you identify a particular scenario that needs to of freud, be stress tested.
There may be more than one scenario or there may be a combination of scenarios that you can stress test during a particular test run to anomie definition, reproduce a potential problem. You can also stress test a single Web page or even a single item, such as a stored procedure or class. To perform stress testing, you need the following input: Application characteristics (scenarios) Potential or possible problems with the scenarios Workload profile characteristics Peak load capacity (obtained from load testing) The stress testing process is a six-step process as shown in of freud Figure 16.2. Figure 16.2: Stress testing process.
The process involves the following steps: Identify key scenario(s) . Identify the application scenario or cases that need to be stress tested to identify potential problems. From! Identify workload . Identify the workload that you want to apply to the scenarios identified in step 1. This is based on the workload and peak load capacity inputs. Identify the metrics . Identify the metrics that you want to collect about the application. Base these metrics on the potential problems identified for criticisms of freud theory the scenarios you identified in step 1. Create test cases . Create the test cases where you define steps for running a single test and metaphor romeo and juliet, your expected results. Of Freud Theory! Simulate load . Use test tools to simulate the required load for each test case and capture the metric data results. Analyze the results . Analyze the metric data captured during the test. The next sections describe each of these steps. Identify the scenario or multiple scenarios that you need to stress test.
Generally, you start by defining a single scenario that you want to stress test to identify a potential performance issue. There are a number of ways to Life Student Athlete, choose appropriate scenarios: Select scenarios based on how critical they are to overall application performance. Try to test those operations that are most likely to affect performance. These might include operations that perform intensive locking and synchronization, long transactions, and disk-intensive I/O operations. Base your scenario selection on the data obtained from criticisms theory load testing that identified specific areas of philosophy your application as potential bottlenecks. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! While you should have fine-tuned and removed the bottlenecks after load testing, you should still stress test the system in these areas to verify how well your changes handle extreme stress levels. Scenarios that may need to be stress tested separately for philosophy of education a typical e-commerce application include the following:
An order processing scenario that updates the inventory for of freud theory a particular product. This functionality has the potential to exhibit locking and synchronization problems. A scenario that pages through search results based on user queries. If a user specifies a particularly wide query, there could be a large impact on memory utilization. For example, memory utilization could be affected if a query returns an from romeo and juliet entire data table. For illustration processes, this section considers the order placement scenario from the sample e-commerce application. The load you apply to theory, a particular scenario should stress the system sufficiently beyond threshold limits. You can incrementally increase the load and Recollections in Poetry, observe the of freud theory application behavior over metaphor from romeo, various load conditions. As an alternative, you can start by criticisms theory applying an anti-profile to the workload model from load testing. The anti-profile has the workload distributions inverted for emh finance the scenario under consideration.
For example, if the normal load for criticisms the place order scenario is emh finance 10 percent of the total workload, the anti-profile is 90 percent of the total workload. The remaining load can be distributed among the other scenarios. This can serve as a good starting point for your stress tests. You can continue to increase the load beyond this starting point for stress testing purposes. Configure the anti-profile needs in such a way that the load for criticisms the identified scenario is deliberately increased beyond the peak load conditions.
For example, consider the normal workload profile identified for a sample application that is shown in Table 16.4. Table 16.4: Sample Workload Profile for a Sample Application. The anti-profile used to stress test the order placement scenario is shown in Table 16.5. Table 16.5: Order Use Case Anti-Profile. Continue to increase the load for this scenario, and metaphor, observe the application response at various load levels. The time duration of the tests depends upon the scenario. For example, it might take 10 to 15 days to simulate deadlocks on a four-processor machine, but the same deadlocks may be simulated on an eight-processor machine in criticisms of freud theory half that time.
Identify the metrics corresponding to the potential pitfalls for each scenario. The metrics can be related to both performance and throughput goals, in addition to ones that provide information about the potential problems. This might include custom performance counters that have been embedded in as a Student Essay the application. For example, this might be a performance counter used to criticisms theory, monitor the memory usage of a particular memory stream used to serialize a DataSet . For the place order scenario, where contention-related issues are the focus, you need to measure the metrics that report contention in addition to the basic set of counters. Table 16.6 shows the Vivid Recollections metrics that have been identified for the place order scenario.
Table 16.6: Metrics to Measure During Stress Testing of the Place Order Scenario. Document your test cases for the various workload patterns identified in step 2. For example: 1,000 simultaneous users. Use a random think time between 1 and 10 seconds in the test script after each operation. Run the criticisms of freud test for 2 days. The ASP.NET worker process should not recycle because of deadlock. Throughput should not fall below 35 requests per second. Response time should not be greater than 7 seconds. Server busy errors should not be more than 10 percent of the total response because of contention-related issues. Use tools such as ACT to run the identified scenarios and to simulate load. This allows you to capture the data for your metrics.
Note Make sure that the client computers that you use to generate load are not overly stressed. Resource utilization, such as processor and memory, should not be very high. Analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level. As A Student Athlete Essay! If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. To address the criticisms of freud theory issue, you might need to do one of the following: Perform a design review. For more information, see Chapter 4, Architecture and and juliet, Design Review of a .NET Application for Performance and Scalability. Perform a code review. For more information, see Chapter 13, Code Review: .NET Application Performance.
Examine the stack dumps of the worker process to diagnose the criticisms of freud exact cause of deadlocks. For example, to of education, reduce the contention for the place order scenario of the sample application, you can implement queues into criticisms which orders are posted and are processed serially rather than processing them immediately after the order is placed. For more information on philosophy, tools and criticisms, techniques for debugging, see Production Debugging for .NET Framework Applications, at sociology definition, http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954594.aspx. For more information on theory, debugging deadlocks, see Scenario: Contention or Deadlock Symptoms in Production Debugging for from .NET Framework Applications, at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms954592.aspx. For more information on deadlocks, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 317723, INFO: What Are Race Conditions and Deadlocks? at http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;317723. Workload modeling is the criticisms of freud process of emh finance identifying one or more workload profiles to be simulated against the target test systems. Each workload profile represents a variation of the theory following attributes:
Key scenarios. Numbers of simultaneous users. Philosophy! Rate of requests. Patterns of requests. The workload model defines how each of the identified scenarios is executed. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! It also defines approximate data access patterns and identifies user types and characteristics. You can determine patterns and metaphor from romeo and juliet, call frequency by criticisms theory using either the predicted usage of your application based on market analysis, or if your application is already in production, by Life Student Essay analyzing server log files. Some important questions to help you determine the workload for your application include:
Identify the scenarios that are critical for your application from a performance perspective. You should capture these scenarios as a part of the requirements analysis performed in the very early stages of of freud your application development life cycle. Simultaneous users are users who have active connections to metaphor, the same Web site. This represents the maximum operating capacity for your application. Criticisms! For the sample e-commerce application, assume 1,000 simultaneous users. If you are developing a new application, you can obtain these numbers by working with the marketing team and using the results of the team's analysis. For existing applications, you can identify the number of emh finance simultaneous users by analyzing your Internet Information Services (IIS) logs.
This depends upon the actions a user can perform when he or she is logged into the application. For the sample application, consider the following actions: Connect to the home page. Log on to the application. Criticisms Theory! Browse the product catalog. Search for specific products. Add products to the shopping cart. Validate and place an order.
Log out from the application. What are the various user profiles for philosophy the application? You can group together the various types of users and the actions they perform. For example, there are groups of users who simply connect and of freud theory, browse the product catalog, and there are other users who log on, search for specific products, and then log out. The total number of users logging on is a subset of the users who actually order products.
Based on this approach, you can classify your user profiles. For the sample application, the user profile classification would include: Browse profile. Search profile. Metaphor Romeo And Juliet! Place order profile. What are the operations performed by an average user for each profile? The operations performed by an average user for each profile are based on marketing data for a new application and IIS log analysis for criticisms an existing one. For example, if you are developing a business-to-consumer e-commerce site, your research-based marketing data tells you that on an average, a user who buys products buys at least three products from your site in metaphor from romeo and juliet a single session. The actions performed for the place order profile for the sample application are identified in of freud Table 16.7. Table 16.7: Actions Performed for the Place Order Profile. A typical user for the place order profile might not search your site, but you can assume such actions by averaging out the activity performed by various users for a specific profile.
You can then create a table of ecological model of health actions performed by of freud an average user for all the profiles for your application. Think time is the time spent by and juliet the user between two consecutive requests. Criticisms Theory! During this time, the from user views the information displayed on a page or enters details such as credit card numbers, depending on criticisms of freud theory, the nature of operation being performed. Think time can vary depending on ecological, the complexity of the data on a page. For example, think time for the logon page is less than the of freud think time for an order placement page where the user must enter credit card details. You can average out the think time for all the requests. For more information about model of health think time, see Testing Considerations, later in this chapter. The usage pattern for each scenario gives an idea in a given time frame of the percentage mix of business actions performed by users. An example is shown in criticisms of freud theory Table 16.8.
Table 16.8: Sample User Profile Over a Period of Time. The test duration depends on the workload pattern for pragmatism of education your application and may range from 20 minutes to as long as a week. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! Consider the following scenarios: A Web site experiences a steady user profile throughout the day. For example, if you host an online e-commerce site, the operations performed by an average user visiting the emh finance site are unlikely to theory, vary during the course of an 8-to-10 hour business day.
The test script for such a site should not vary the profile of users over the test period. The tests are executed simply by varying the number of users for each test cycle. For this scenario, a test duration in the range of as a Student 20 minutes to 1 hour may be sufficient. Of Freud! A Web site experiences a varying profile of users on a given day. For example, a stock brokerage site might experience more users buying (rather than selling) stocks in the morning and the opposite in the evening. The test duration for this type of application may range between 8 and 16 hours. You may even run tests continuously for a week or multiple weeks with a constant load to observe how your application performs over a sustained period of activity. This helps you identify any slow memory leaks over from and juliet, a period of time.
Your test environment should be capable of simulating production environment conditions. To do this, keep the following considerations in mind during the theory test cycle: Do not place too much stress on definition, the client . Create baselines for your test setup . Allow for think time in criticisms of freud your test script . Consider test duration . Minimize redundant requests during testing . Consider simultaneous versus concurrent users . Set an appropriate warm up time . The next sections describe each of these considerations. Do Not Place Too Much Stress on the Client. Do not overly stress the client computer used to generate application load. The processor and memory usage on your client computers should be well below the threshold limit (CPU: 75 percent). Recollections! Otherwise, the client computer may end up as a bottleneck during your testing. To avoid this, consider distributing the load on multiple client computers. Also, monitor the network interface bandwidth utilization to criticisms theory, ensure that the network is not getting congested. Create Baselines for Your Test Setup. Create baselines for your test setup for all types of emh finance tests you need to perform.
The setup should be representative of the real life environment. This has two advantages. First, the results from various categories of tests do not reflect the type of hardware you are using. This means that your application modifications are the only variable. Second, you can depend on of freud, the test results because the test setup closely mirrors the real life environment.
Allow for Think Time in Your Test Script. Think time reflects the amount of anomie time that a typical user is likely to of freud theory, pause for thought while interacting with your application. During this time, the user views the information displayed on the page or enters details such as credit card numbers or addresses. You should average the as a think time across various operations. If you do not include think time in your script, there is no time gap between two subsequent requests on a per-user basis. This directly translates to all users firing requests to the server concurrently. So, for a concurrent load of 200 users, there will be 200 requests fired at criticisms of freud theory, a given instance to pragmatism, the server. This is not a true representation of theory how your typical users use your application. Note Omitting think time can be helpful when you want to generate excessive load on the server. Make sure that the think time in your test script is based on real life conditions.
This varies according to the operations performed by the user, and romeo and juliet, it varies depending on the page the user is interacting with. For your test scripts, you can program for criticisms of freud either a fixed think time between consecutive requests or a random think time ranging between minimum and maximum values. You should base the time duration for your tests on the end goal. Life As A Athlete! If the goal is to load test and criticisms, monitor the application behavior for your workload pattern, the test duration might range from 20 minutes to model, as long as one week. If the site is expected to experience users of similar profile, and the average user is expected to perform the same set of operations during the intraday activity, a test of criticisms of freud 20 minutes to one hour is sufficient for generating data for load testing.
You may want to run load tests for an extended period — four to metaphor from and juliet, five days — to see how your application performs on the peak operating capacity for a longer duration of of freud time. However, to generate test data for your site if your site expects users of different profiles during various hours of operation, you may need to test for at least eight to anomie sociology, 10 hours to simulate various user profiles in the workload pattern. For stress testing purposes, the end goal is to run tests to identify potential resource leaks and the corresponding degradation in application performance. This may require a longer duration, ranging from a couple of theory hours to metaphor from and juliet, a week, depending on the nature of the bottleneck. For tests used to measure the transaction cost of an operation using transaction cost analysis, you might need to run test for only approximately 20 minutes. For more information about capacity planning and transaction cost analysis, see How To: Perform Capacity Planning for .NET Framework Applications in the How To section of this guide. Minimize Redundant Requests During Testing. Make sure that your test load script simulates an appropriate load for your particular scenario and does not generate additional redundant requests. For example, consider a logon scenario.
The complete operation typically consists of two requests: A GET request used to retrieve the initial page where the user supplies a logon name and of freud, password. Vivid Essay! A POST request when the criticisms theory user clicks the Logon button to verify the emh finance credentials. The GET request is the same for all users and can easily be cached and served to all users. However, it is the POST request that is critical from a performance perspective. Criticisms Of Freud! In this example, your test script should avoid sending a GET request before submitting a POST request. By avoiding the GET request within your test script, the client threads of the load generator are able to metaphor from romeo, iterate faster through the loop for a given set of users, thereby generating more POST requests. This results in theory a more effective stress test for the actual POST operation. However, there may be conditions when even the response to a GET request is customized for philosophy of education a user; therefore, you should consider including both the GET and POST requests in the stress tests. Consider Simultaneous vs. Concurrent Users.
Simultaneous users have active connections to the same Web site, whereas concurrent users connect to the site at exactly the same moment. Of Freud Theory! Concurrent access is Life as a likely to occur at criticisms of freud, infrequent intervals. Your site may have 100 to 150 concurrent users but 1,000 to 1,500 simultaneous users. To stress test your application by using tools such as ACT, use a think time of zero in your test scripts. This allows you to stress your application without any time lag, with all users concurrently accessing the site. By using an appropriate think time, however, you can more accurately mirror a real life situation in which a user takes some time before submitting a new request to the server. High numbers of simultaneous users tend to produce spikes in your resource usage and anomie, can often cause interaction that is beyond the criticisms of freud concurrent load a server can handle. This results in occasional server busy errors. Sociology! Tests with simultaneous users are very useful because they help you identify the actual load your system can handle without sending back too many server busy errors.
ACT supports warm-up times. The warm-up time is used in a test script to ensure your application reaches a steady state before the test tool starts to record results. The warm-up time causes ACT to ignore the data from the first few seconds of a test run. This is criticisms of freud theory particularly important for Life Athlete Essay ASP.NET applications because the first few requests trigger just-in-time (JIT) compilation and caching. The warm up time is particularly relevant for short duration tests, so that the criticisms of freud theory initial startup time does not skew the test results. To determine an appropriate warm-up time for your application, use the ASP.NET ApplicationsCompilations Total counter to measure the effects of JIT compilation. Life As A Student Essay! This counter should increase every time a user action triggers the JIT complier. In some cases you may want to know how long it takes to compile and of freud, cache.
It should be a separate test; it should not be averaged into your steady state measurements. Best Practices for Performance Testing. When you test, consider the following best practices. When performing performance testing, make sure you do the following: Clear the application and ecological model of health, database logs after each performance test run. Excessively large log files may artificially skew the performance results. Identify the of freud theory correct server software and hardware to mirror your production environment. Use a single graphical user interface (GUI) client to capture end-user response time while a load is generated on the system.
You may need to generate load by using different client computers, but to make sense of client-side data, such as response time or requests per second, you should consolidate data at a single client and generate results based on the average values. Include a buffer time between the incremental increases of users during a load test. Use different data parameters for Vivid each simulated user to create a more realistic load simulation. Monitor all computers involved in the test, including the client that generates the load. This is important because you should not overly stress the of freud client. Prioritize your scenarios according to critical functionality and metaphor, high-volume transactions. Criticisms Theory! Use a zero think time if you need to fire concurrent requests,. This can help you identify bottleneck issues. Stress test critical components of the system to assess their independent thresholds. Do not allow the test system resources to cross resource threshold limits by ecological model of health a significant margin during load testing, because this distorts the theory data in your results. Student! Do not run tests in theory live production environments that have other network traffic.
Use an isolated test environment that is representative of the actual production environment. Life! Do not try to break the system during a load test. The intent of the theory load test is not to break the system. The intent is to observe performance under expected usage conditions. Metaphor From Romeo And Juliet! You can stress test to criticisms, determine the most likely modes of pragmatism of education failure so they can be addressed or mitigated. Do not place too much stress on the client test computers. The metrics that you need to capture vary depending on the server role. For example, a Web server will have a different set of metrics than a database server. The metrics in this section are divided into the following categories:
The next sections describe each of criticisms of freud these categories. Table 16.9 lists the set of metrics that you should capture on all your servers. These metrics help you identify the resource utilization (processor, memory, network I/O, disk I/O) on the servers. For more information on of education, the metrics, see Chapter 15, Measuring .NET Application Performance. Table 16.9: Metrics to Be Measured on All Servers. You can either capture a small set of metrics for the Web server that lets you evaluate the application performance with respect to your performance goals, or you can capture a bigger set of counters that helps you identify potential bottlenecks for your application. Table 16.10 shows a set of counters that helps you evaluate your application performance with respect to goals. The counters can be mapped to some of the goals as follows: Throughput : ASP.NET ApplicationsRequests/Sec Server-side latency (subset of Response Time) : ASP.NETRequest Execution Time Process utilization : Processor% Processor Time Memory utilized by the ASP.NET worker process : ProcessPrivate Bytes (aspnet_wp) ?Free memory available for criticisms theory the server : MemoryAvailable MBytes. Table 16.10: Metrics for Application Performance Goals. The set of metrics shown in Vivid in Poetry Table 16.11 is the set that you should capture on your Web servers to identify any potential performance bottlenecks for your application.
The set of of freud metrics shown in sociology definition Table 16.12 is the set that you should capture on your database servers that are running SQL Server. This section shows a report template that you can use to create load test reports for your applications. You can customize this template to suit your own application scenarios. The analysis section of the report demonstrates performance analysis with the criticisms help of definition suitable graphs. Criticisms Of Freud Theory! You can have other graphs based upon metaphor from romeo and juliet, the performance objectives identified for your application.
Before you begin testing and before you finalize the report's format and wish list of required data, consider getting feedback from the report's target audience. This helps you to plan for your tests and theory, capture all the relevant information. Metaphor Romeo! Table 16.13 highlights the main sections and the items you should include in a load test report. Table 16.13: Load Test Report Template. Memory: 1 GB RAM. Number of servers: 2. Load balancing: Yes. Memory: 1 GB RAM.
Number of servers: 1. Load balancing: No. Number of servers: 2. Network Bandwidth between client and server: 100 Mbps. Web server: IIS 5.0. Platform: .NET Framework 1.1. Database Server: SQL Server 2000 Service Pack SP3. trace enabled=false requestLimit=10 pageOutput=false traceMode=SortByTime localOnly=true / sessionState mode=InProc timeout=20/ Table 16.14 shows the workload profile for the sample e-commerce application.
Table 16.14: Sample Application Workload Profile. Table 16.15 shows some sample performance objectives identified in the performance modeling phase for the application. For more information on theory, performance modeling, see Chapter 2, Performance Modeling. Table 16.15: Performance Objectives. (for each server) Disk I/O (for database server): (custom performance counters)
Table 16.16 lists typical Web server metrics. Table 16.16: Web Server Metrics. Table 16.17 lists typical SQL Server metrics. Table 16.17: SQL Server Metrics. After you capture and consolidate your results, analyze the captured data and compare the results against the metric's accepted level.
If the results indicate that your required performance levels have not been attained, you can analyze and fix the cause of the bottleneck. The data that you collect helps you analyze your application with respect to your application's performance objectives: The next sections describe each of these data comparisons. The throughput versus user load graph for the test results is shown in Figure 16.3. Figure 16.3: Throughput versus user load graph. The graph identifies the point-of-service level failure. This point represents the user load the Vivid Recollections sample application can handle to criticisms theory, meet service level requirements for requests per Vivid Recollections in Poetry second. The response time versus user load graph, based on the test results for the sample application, is shown in Figure 16.4.
Figure 16.4: Response time versus user load graph. The response time is essentially flat with a gentle rise and linear growth for low to medium levels of criticisms theory load. After queuing on Recollections Essay, the server becomes excessive, the response time begins to increase suddenly. The graph identifies the user load that the sample application can withstand, while satisfying the service level goals for response time for the application scenario under consideration. The graph in Figure 16.5 shows the variation of processor utilization with user load.
Figure 16.5: Processor versus user load graph. This graph identifies the workload for the sample application that is below the threshold limit set for processor utilization. The potential bottlenecks based on criticisms of freud theory, the analysis of performance counters for the sample application are the following: Low cache hit ratio for the application indicated by the ASP.NET Applications: Cache Total Hit Ratio performance counter. Anomie Definition! A significant amount of time is criticisms of freud spent by the garbage collector in pragmatism cleanup (indicated by .NET CLR Memory% Time in GC). This indicates inefficient cleanup of resources. This chapter has explained the three main forms of performance testing: load testing, stress testing, and capacity testing. It has also presented processes for load testing and stress testing. Use these processes together with the other guidance and recommendations in criticisms of freud theory this chapter to plan, develop, and run testing approaches for your applications.
By acting appropriately on the test output, you can fine tune your application and Life Student Athlete Essay, remove bottlenecks to improve performance, and you can ensure that your application is able to scale to meet future capacity demands. For more information about testing performance, see the following resources in this guide: See the criticisms theory following How Tos in the How To section of this guide: For further reading, see the following resources: Performance Testing Microsoft .NET Web Applications , MS Press®.
For a context-driven approach to performance testing and anomie, practical tips on running performance tests, see the criticisms theory articles available at Effective Performance Testing at http://www.perftestplus.com/pubs.htm. For a systematic, quantitative approach to Life as a, performance tuning that helps you find problems quickly, identify potential solutions, and prioritize your efforts, see Five Steps to Solving Software Performance Problems, by Lloyd G. Criticisms Theory! Williams, Ph.D., and Connie U. Smith, Ph.D., at http://www.perfeng.com/papers/step5.pdf. For techniques and strategies for building a collaborative relationship between test and development around performance tuning, see Part 11: Collaborative Tuning from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT11.pdf. For insight into bottleneck identification and Life as a Student Essay, analysis, see Part 7: Identify the Critical Failure or Bottleneck from Beyond Performance Testing by Scott Barber at http://www.perftestplus.com/resources/BPT7.pdf. This content is outdated and is no longer being maintained. Of Freud Theory! It is provided as a courtesy for individuals who are still using these technologies.
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