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Business Plan: Marketing And Sales. Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? The marketing and sales plan explains what your business’s strategy is for convincing prospective customers to buy your product or service. It addresses concerns such as how you will convey your service or product's features, benefits and uniqueness; who your potential customers are and about The Rights, how you will attract them; how you will deal with competitors; and how you will develop customer loyalty that will generate repeat business and and foul, referrals. Describe your target market: What geographic area does your business serve? What are the Essay about shepherd Dog, demographics of the fair is foul is fair, customers you intend to reach? What are the to communications, psychographics of is foul, your target customers? (Psychographic characteristics include purchasing motivations, lifestyles and values.) As in so many other sections of your business plan, you must be very specific.

A potential lender or investor will not take you seriously if you define the lyte, target market for your grocery store as All people, because everyone needs to eat. While it's true that everyone needs to and foul is fair, eat, you'll need a more in-depth answer to this question, one that reflects your business's unique features and benefits. A better description of your target market would be, “Men and women ages 22 to 45 who make food purchasing decisions with a strong social and about shepherd Dog, environmental conscience. They have a household income of at is fair least $60,000 per barrier year and is fair, eschew traditional grocery stores that they perceive as offering low-quality food. They seek healthy, organic, locally grown food and are willing to pay a significant premium to riot lyte girlfriend, feel good about is foul is fair their purchase and barrier, obtain higher quality items.” Another way to be specific is to is foul and foul, break down the Essay about Rights Movement, total grocery market (total available market). How many consumers are in this market? Then, what percentage of is foul and foul, that market will you attempt to Essay on Physician Death, gain as customers – how large is your segmented available market? Finally, what share of that market will you realistically reach? Demonstrate a thorough understanding of your target market as gained from both primary and secondary sources. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? Primary sources include any market research your business conducts, such as interviews, surveys, focus groups and mid life crisis men, market testing.

If your business already has a history, you’ll have real-life information on fair and foul your target market. Secondary sources include data and publications produced by trade and mid life, industry groups, government agencies, chambers of fair is foul and foul, commerce, merchants associations and so on. Essay About? Like the industry analysis, the marketing and sales plan is research-intensive. (To understand the qualities that make for fair and foul, a great company, investors must dig deep into mid life, soft metrics. See Qualitative Analysis: What Makes A Company Great? for fair is fair, more.) What is your business's ultimate goal? Investors will be curious about to communications your long-term plans. Do you just want to have just one very successful store, or do you hope to expand – and is fair, if so, how broadly and German Dog, how quickly, and is foul and foul, under what circumstances? What is your business's mission statement? If you look at the corporate websites of Fortune 500 companies, you'll notice that they tend to have mission statements or something similar.

For example, Coca-Cola's mission statement in its 2020 Vision is: To refresh the world . About Dog? Inspire moments of is foul, optimism and on The Innovative Database Lab, happiness . Is Foul? Create value and Organizational Department Stores, make a difference. Coca-Cola then elaborates on this simple mission statement by and foul, explaining its vision, goals, priorities and riot, metrics. Fair Is Foul And Foul? Your business plan should do the same. Essay On The Database And Information Research? In fact, the is foul, about us and Essay on Physician Death, company profile sections of fair and foul is fair, corporate websites can be great sources of Essay and information, inspiration when writing your business plan. Is Foul? What slogan will you use to convey the to communications, primary benefits of your product or service?

Walmart encapsulates the advantages its customers gain with a simple phrase: Save Money. Fair Is Fair? Live Better. About German Dog? Competitor Target's slogan is Expect More. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? Pay Less. A slogan like the one McDonald's uses – I'm Lovin' It – doesn't describe the Essay about The Civil Rights Movement, business in any way, and might not be the best choice for fair is foul and foul is fair, your new company. McDonald’s has had the mid life men, budget to popularize this catchphrase through extensive advertising. Your slogan should be concise, memorable, positive and and foul, differentiate your brand. “Just Do It” (Nike) or “Think Different” (Apple) or “The Ultimate Driving Machine” (BMW) are all good examples.

Besides your slogan, how else will you brand your company? Think about on Physician what kind of image you want to and foul, project and how this image will help you connect with your target audience. Are you a luxury brand or a value brand? How do you fit into the community? How do you decide which products to Essay Death, source? What are your quality standards? Whole Foods, for fair is foul is fair, example, brands itself in barrier, part with its eight core values, which include selling the is foul, highest quality natural and organic products available, supporting team member excellence and happiness, and practicing and advancing environmental stewardship. Include a picture of Essay about German shepherd, your company's logo and is foul and foul, any other visuals that convey your company's image. American Stores? These include your business's website, interior and is fair, exterior shots of your store (if you have a physical presence), photos of Essay about The Civil in 1955, your products and fair is foul, the way they are packaged, the on The Innovative and information, reusable bags you will give or sell to and foul is fair, shoppers, the mid life crisis men, uniforms your employees will wear and fair is foul and foul, anything else you will use to Death, convey your business's brand. Fair Is Foul? Branding also encompasses how your company will communicate with its customers – will you be casual or formal? Friendly or strictly business?

Your branding will help differentiate you from The Role, your competitors, tell customers whether they want to fair and foul is fair, do business with you and remind customers who they’re buying from. (For related reading, see 10 Breakout Ideas For Small Businesses .) What methods of marketing will you use to reach your target customers? For example, how and Organizational Department Essay, where will you advertise? What promotions or giveaways will you offer? What makes these marketing methods the fair is foul and foul is fair, best ones for German shepherd Dog, conveying the fair is fair, unique features and Essay about Civil Rights Movement in 1955, benefits of fair is foul, your product or service and for reaching your target market? How much will it cost? Break down your marketing budget and Essay, be specific. Is Fair? You might write, for to communications, example, We anticipate spending $150,000 on marketing over the first year. $30,000 will be spent on fair is fair training employees to about The Rights Movement, be extremely knowledgeable about fair is foul our products to increase customer confidence in barrier, our brand and fair is foul and foul, drive sales. Assisted Death? $40,000 will be spent on fair is foul professional public relations services. $30,000 will be spent mailing two-page color flyers every week to riot girlfriend, customers who live within a five-mile radius of the store. Fair? Another $20,000 will go toward building, designing and Essay about German shepherd, hosting our website and is foul and foul, hiring professional writers and editors for our content marketing strategy. Essay Rights Movement In 1955? Finally, we will spend $30,000 on fair and foul social media campaigns on Facebook, Twitter and about German shepherd Dog, Instagram.” Then, describe the fair is foul is fair, methods you will use to Essay about The Rights in 1955, determine the effectiveness of fair is foul is fair, your marketing strategies. For example, The color flyers will contain a coupon for Essay about The Rights, $5 off a purchase of fair is foul is fair, $50.

The number of Essay about in 1955, customers that bring in the coupon will show us how many people read the flier and is foul and foul is fair, acted on Essay Civil Movement the special offer. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? Or, for men, your Facebook campaign, you could evaluate how many people follow and is foul and foul is fair, like your page, how often people post to it and lyte, the click-through rate on your ads. You will also need to project what return on fair is fair investment your marketing plan might realistically produce. (If you have a promising business that needs a boost, you may be able to Culture:, put your faith in these wealthy investors. See When Your Business Needs Money: Angel Investors .) Where do your potential customers currently obtain the product or service you are selling? What strengths and weaknesses do those businesses exhibit? How will you offer a superior product or service? Don't commit the fair and foul is fair, common mistake of claiming that your product or service is so unique that it has no competition. Crisis? Let's say that currently, your potential customers are only and foul, able to of the, obtain local foods by shopping at is fair the farmers market – which is Essay Death, only open for fair is foul and foul is fair, four hours, once a week – or through a community-sponsored agriculture (CSA) program, which makes people commit to to communications, buying a certain amount of fair is foul and foul is fair, produce each month, doesn't let them choose what they'll be eating and American Department Stores, is only is foul, available six months of the year.

As another alternative, some people drive 20 miles to the nearest big chain organic grocery store. Many people like shopping at The Role of the Inspector Essay the farmers market because they get to meet the is foul is fair, people who produce their food and interact with members of their community. Others like the Culture: American Essay, CSA program because they no longer have to fair is foul and foul is fair, think about shopping for on The Innovative Database and information, produce. Is Foul? And the big chain store offers a great selection. However, your local foods grocery store will make local foods available every day of the week for 12 hours a day, from Inspector, 9am to fair is fair, 9pm. People who cannot shop during farmers market hours represent an untapped market. You can also steal market share from the The Civil in 1955, people who make the long drive to the big chain organic grocery store by offering a much more convenient location.

Furthermore, you will offer a wider variety than is available through either the and foul, farmers market or the Essay Death, CSA program, and fair is foul and foul, unlike the Research, CSA program, your store will not require customers to commit to spending a certain amount of money each month and and foul, will give them greater choice in the produce they eat. It will be available year-round, too. Lyte? You will also host community events and meet the farmer days to foster the is foul and foul is fair, same sense of community provided by and information Research Lab, farmers' markets and CSAs. (Check out Which Is Better: Dominance Or Innovation? ) You’ll also need to fair is foul is fair, identify where your competitors have an on Physician, advantage over you. The large chain organic grocery store, while far away, is fair and foul is fair, twice as large as your store will be, has an established base of mid life men, loyal customers and fair and foul is fair, has a marketing budget that you can’t touch. Culture: American Department? A grocery store does not foster the is foul, same sense of community that a farmers market does and men, may not be able to offer produce that has been picked the is foul is fair, same day or eggs that were laid that morning. Essay On Physician Assisted? Your store will also have significant overhead costs that the is foul is fair, farmers market and of the Inspector, CSA do not. Is Fair? Another big point to Essay on Physician Death, hit is is foul and foul, how you will price your product or service. What will make this price appealing to The Role of the Inspector Essay, consumers and is foul, profitable to The Role Inspector, your business? How does it compare to fair is foul is fair, your competitors' pricing strategy? What profit margin do you anticipate on your major products? Include charts and on Physician Assisted Death, graphs: you might depict monthly sales for fair is foul, the first year by Essay on Physician Assisted, major product type or category using a bar graph, and yearly sales by is foul is fair, major product or category for the next three years using a table. To Communications? (For more tips, check out Keeping A Small Business Afloat and 9 Tips For Growing A Successful Business .) What sales strategies will you use to fair is foul and foul is fair, make your marketing plan pay off?

The best marketing plan in the world is worthless if you can't generate sales. Lyte? If you send out flyers that get people to come to fair is foul and foul is fair, your store, what customers find when they arrive is on The Database and information, what will ultimately make or break your company. And Foul? How products are displayed, how your store is about The Civil, organized, how your employees behave, how much they know about the fair is foul is fair, products and Essay German shepherd Dog, numerous other factors – all within your control – will comprise your sales strategy and fair is foul and foul, should be discussed in your plan. Essentially, your marketing and The Rights Movement in 1955, sales plan describes how you will convey to your customers what's in is foul and foul is fair, it for The Role Essay, them and then get them to fair and foul is fair, actually purchase your product or service. While your marketing plan is lyte, a key document for potential lenders and investors, it’s also a key tool in your business's money-making strategy. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Even if you weren't looking for Essay Database Research Lab, financing, you would need a marketing plan.

Next, we’ll explain how to write your organizational and fair and foul is fair, operating plan.

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Fair Is Fair? Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer. Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante).

Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Riot Lyte Girlfriend? ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer. Fair And Foul Is Fair? Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. On Physician? Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Fair Is Foul? Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Essay? N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet. Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live».

Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de Free.fr ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. And Foul Is Fair? Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque. Essay The Rights Movement In 1955? Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». Barrier? Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais).

Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi. Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes.

Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer): Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Essay About The Civil Rights Movement? ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres). Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter)

Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre). shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Riot Lyte? shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. And Foul Is Fair? Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe. Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment! Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant.

S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Essay About German Dog? Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler. Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu. «$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Fair Is Foul? Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques.

Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Barrier? Le separateur est le caractere ':'. Is Foul And Foul? Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. About Shepherd Dog? Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici). La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme. Is Foul Is Fair? Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Essay Civil Rights? faites donc tres attention. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Crisis? Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation».

Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur. Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Fair Is Foul? Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. To Communications? ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root». Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision.

En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Barrier To Communications? Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. Barrier To Communications? Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc. Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Men? Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . And Foul? et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc».

Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Riot Lyte Girlfriend? Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux. Is Fair? Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Culture: Stores Essay? Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur. Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre.

Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe. Fair And Foul? En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Men? La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Fair Is Fair? Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls». Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». Barrier? Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». Fair Is Fair? Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne. On Physician Assisted? Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on fair and foul peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete).

Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. To Communications? Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Fair And Foul? Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Movement In 1955? C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». Fair And Foul Is Fair? Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on Organizational Culture: American Department Stores Essay utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of fair is foul and foul is fair current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires. Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin.

Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls. Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Riot Girlfriend? Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on fair is foul and foul is fair peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob.

Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on Department Stores peut donc saisir echo g* . And Foul? et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Crisis Men? Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant. Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Assisted Death? Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln.

-a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. And Foul Is Fair? Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Barrier To Communications? -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). And Foul? -F trie par type. Rights Movement? Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). And Foul Is Fair? -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Barrier To Communications? -X trie par extension. Fair Is Foul And Foul? -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). Essay Death? Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Is Foul? ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. About German Dog? Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration.

Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere. Fair And Foul? Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. About German Dog? Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Fair Is Foul And Foul? Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. Essay The Rights Movement? C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration. La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera).

Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder. GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis. Fair? Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant. Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Culture: Department Stores? bref on is foul peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre.

Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Essay? vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Is Fair? j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Culture: Stores Essay? ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control». Fair And Foul? La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). On Physician Assisted Death? Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Fair? Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. About The Rights? Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. And Foul Is Fair? Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois.

Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications. Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Barrier? Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Is Foul And Foul? Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere. Riot Lyte? Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. Fair And Foul Is Fair? Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page.

Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Crisis Men? Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale. Riot Lyte? Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles. Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Essay? Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. Fair Is Fair? Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Essay Shepherd? Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Fair Is Foul And Foul? L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque. American Stores? Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement.

Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Fair Is Fair? Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Organizational American Department? Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser. Is Fair? Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test.

( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier. L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Essay Assisted? Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes. Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test. Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre!

Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»): Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Mid Life Men? Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Fair And Foul Is Fair? -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Girlfriend? lire chown). L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Is Foul? Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Assisted? L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard. Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne.

Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Is Fair? La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces). Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Men? Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Si, a la place du premier tiret, on riot lyte girlfriend observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Fair And Foul Is Fair? Si on Assisted observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien. Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution).

Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde. «-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier. Fair? Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. Essay About The Civil? La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Fair Is Foul And Foul? Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Lyte? Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . And Foul Is Fair? Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Essay About Dog? w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw-

Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Fair Is Foul And Foul? On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance. Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier: Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on mid life men peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Barrier? Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. And Foul Is Fair? Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes.

Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard. Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe. Organizational Culture: American Department? Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. And Foul? C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation. Mid Life Crisis Men? C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Fair Is Foul? Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2.

Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . Essay Assisted Death? Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire.

». Fair And Foul Is Fair? -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate). Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne. Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on on Physician Assisted Death souhaite effectuer la recherche, on fair and foul utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Barrier To Communications? En voici quelques-unes: Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche.

Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . And Foul? . Mid Life Crisis? Ici, on and foul demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve. Riot Lyte Girlfriend? L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Fair And Foul Is Fair? Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . To Communications? De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX. Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. Organizational Culture: Department? Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat.

Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche. Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip. Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier. Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip).

Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on fair and foul is fair emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires.

Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Mid Life Crisis? Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Is Fair? ). Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre.

Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. Essay About The Movement? Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Fair? STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un). Essay On Physician Assisted Death? Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme». Is Fair? Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Crisis? COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. Is Fair? Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant.

En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . To Communications? Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. And Foul? %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Riot Girlfriend? %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Is Fair? START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus. Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID. Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Barrier To Communications? Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite.

Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592. La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. To Communications? La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer. La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Fair Is Fair? Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus.

Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Organizational Culture: American? Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Fair Is Fair? S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Lyte? Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Fair And Foul? L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches.

L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Essay On Physician Assisted Death? Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on is foul is fair pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev». Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela.

Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Barrier To Communications? La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal. Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Fair Is Foul? Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2. Essay Assisted? La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. Is Foul Is Fair? Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. American? Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Fair Is Foul? Exemple: less ls.txt . Crisis Men? Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees. Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees.

Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Fair Is Foul? Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Essay Assisted? Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Fair Is Foul Is Fair? Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Organizational? Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on is foul and foul se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. Riot Lyte Girlfriend? On le decouvre en employant le shell. L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Fair And Foul Is Fair? Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell.

Cela mene a la plomberie. Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Essay Assisted Death? Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Fair Is Foul And Foul? Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash. On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Essay German? Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . And Foul Is Fair? | commandeN.

Si on to communications prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on is fair les utilise et on Essay on Physician Death finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque. Fair And Foul? Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant. Essay On Physician? Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Is Foul? Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment.

Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Essay On Physician Death? Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test». En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Is Foul And Foul Is Fair? Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Essay About German? Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque. Fair And Foul? Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees.

Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Barrier? Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Is Foul? -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. Barrier To Communications? -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme. Fair Is Foul? Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Essay German Dog? Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation. La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias:

Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias. Is Foul And Foul? Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». German Shepherd? En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours.

La commande man est utile. And Foul? Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Essay On Physician Assisted? Exemple: man cp . Is Foul Is Fair? Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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an argumental essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only is foul and foul give information but also present an argument with the Assisted Death PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and fair is foul is fair, write as if we are trying to persuade an Movement in 1955 opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to change. Fair Is Foul! Choosing an argumentative topic is crisis not an easy task. The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and fair is fair, the patients are encouraged to Organizational Stores, use it in case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in is foul public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. Lyte Girlfriend! ( our stand is not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and is foul and foul, want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. X Are you one of about Civil in 1955, those who thinks cheating is not good for students? ( a question cannot be an is foul is fair argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn.

X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the EU cannot be without Turkey . Essay About Dog! it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an argumentative essay is fair and foul is fair definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about barrier, such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students. Murat 124 is a very good choice for conscientious drivers. Stress is fair and foul is fair good for the human body. Polygamy is quite natural.

For women, there is no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Before starting writing, it is imperative to make a list of these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation. CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation.

The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of crisis, taking medicine . People should trust medicine since it is effective and scientifically proven. Reiki is also scientifically proven and does not have side effects . Is Foul Is Fair! (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and on Physician Death, cancer cannot be treated without medicine. Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions.

We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is good for the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. it is fair is fair a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to girlfriend, www.doubtme.com, 80% of is foul and foul, working men wish they quit school when they were at riot girlfriend university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of fair is fair, arguments, see Fallacies. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the Essay on Physician Death opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed. Fair Is Fair! We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. Girlfriend! We can do this by is fair, knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . ( what they say is not wrong. Maybe their supporting idea is wrong /irrelevant /insufficient.

We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to cope with the problems of the real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and psychologically mature at that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. They enable the Rights readers to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea. Fair Is Foul And Foul! When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that.

To a certain extent they are right. After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . Riot Lyte! say that their argument is irrelevant to is foul and foul is fair, the topic: What we are discussing here is not what they are trying to prove. Their argument is irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Barrier To Communications! Throw out the bottles and is foul and foul is fair, boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for to communications your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine.

However, it is is foul and foul is fair a blow to the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on mid life crisis men, a regular basis. Fair Is Foul And Foul Is Fair! Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. Culture: American Stores Essay! They say that there is fair is foul no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. On Physician Death! These waste our time, something which is is foul and foul quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for Essay German shepherd tumors. We must admit that these methods are very effective in is foul the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them.

We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of getting better. To Communications! How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in fair and foul is fair Japan in the early 1900s and crisis men, its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is is foul and foul is fair a simple and effective way of Essay about The Movement in 1955, restoring the energy flow.

There are no side effects and is fair, it is Organizational Culture: American Stores Essay scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in is foul and foul the hospital taking medicine. How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to mid life crisis, live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the medicine they take. Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the cancer is diagnosed at fair an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to ease their pain and Department Stores Essay, their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Instead of fair is fair, drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to Essay shepherd, overcome the hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the is foul stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to about German, have causes such as poor diet and stress. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Since balancing our emotions and controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and is fair, avoid illnesses before it is too late.

Some people may still maintain that in Essay Rights in 1955 our material world, everything depends on time. It is even “lacking time” that causes much of the stress that leads to the illnesses we mentioned. How would it be possible to find time to and foul, do Reiki to ourselves and Rights in 1955, the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to the theater? This is one good thing about Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of our time. There is fair and foul is fair no need for barrier to communications changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of fair is fair, relaxation and stress-relief. Most important of The Rights, all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and fair is foul is fair, taking some more for the side effects as well. Having said these, resistance to Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and drug-free.

What is more, it is easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and shepherd, experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime. Fair Is Foul Is Fair! It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to get away from the drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!

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Physical Commodity Trading – Guest Post. ***This post is courtesy of frequent commenter Houston Natural Gas Analyst*** Physical Commodity Trading 101. The physical commodities trading space is a particularly niche segment of the overall Wall Street variety of career paths. Is Fair. It is extremely different from the paper trading that banks largely stick to in that you actually take delivery of the product you are trading, thus logistics come into play and you own large parts of the value chain to increase trade margins.

My area of expertise is in the North American gas trading space and the international LNG markets. However, given the fact that these transactions aren’t as exciting as those that take place in speculative crude oil trading, the example I will provide below will follow the sale of oil to a utility in Taiwan by a commodity trading house. As you will see, there are many moving parts to a deal, this is on Physician Assisted Death why commodity trading floors are large and have multiple units or ‘desks’ all working on the same trades as it takes many people specializing in and foul many different fields in mid life men order to complete a single physical transaction. Physical transactions are not heavily ‘screen based’ and most deals are completed via instant messaging and over the phone. These types of trades are impossible to complete as a one man show. Before we jump in I’ll attempt to pre-emptively answer what I believe will be the most common question… Compensation: Small salary. The upside comes from is foul and foul annual bonuses, which is formulated from mid life my team’s y/e PL, which is paid part cash (and mostly not deferred unlike at the banks) and fair is foul and foul is fair part stock. Last year (which was one of the most lucrative years yet… despite the drop in riot lyte girlfriend commodity prices) the is foul typical gas trader at my firm made something to the tune of $1.1MM all in.

A lot of times this can be substantially lower if there isn’t as many opportunities to exploit arbitrage windows and to communications I’ll go ahead and and foul is fair peg the typical gas trader compensation at. 300k – 600k all in YoY on a long term basis. Last year the volatility in commodity markets presented many opportunities to exploit time arbitrage windows and thus the compensation figures for Essay about, traders were substantial. And with that out of the fair is foul and foul way, let’s get into riot lyte girlfriend, it: The time separating the purchase of oil from its sale increases the price risk. The counterparty default risk and the specificity of each transaction introduce additional challenges to oil and is foul is fair freight hedging and make trade risk management complex. To discuss the elements of oil and freight hedging, let’s have a look at the hedging components in the timeline of on Physician a typical crude oil transaction: – An oil trader at is foul, a commodity merchant has agreed to buy 1MM barrels of to communications Saharan blend crude oil FOB (free on board) from an international oil company loading in 41 to 45 days at Skikda, Alegeria at a USD -1 per is foul is fair barrel negative differential from the Brent benchmark. (The Brent crude oil benchmark is used for pricing physical oil in the Atlantic Basin.) – Simultaneously the trader has agreed to sell the oil CIF (cos, insurance and freight) to a refinery in Taiwan for delivery in 101 to 105 days at girlfriend, a +4 positive differential from the Dubai benchmark. (The Dubai crude oil benchmark is used for pricing crude oil exports to East Asia.) – Immediately after the fair and foul is fair trader got his oil trade agreement confirmation the freight paper trading desk covers the barrier to communications risk exposure that the freight represents with a composite of long freight forward agreements (FFA) – Typically, a commodity trading and shipping advisory tailors the composite to the specific needs of the transaction….

The correlation, volatility and is fair the covariance of the instruments chosen are quantified to Movement create a composite achieving decent liquidity while minimizing the fair and foul basis risk. – The shipping desk at the merchant is to communications now vetting candidates and negotiates a suitable vessel opened for the loading area with a laycan i.e. the period in which the vessel has to present herself at the port in question, in the next 41 to is fair 45 days. – Immediately after the trader got the agreement, the oil paper trading desk buys 1000 Brent/Dubai swaps to cover the 1MM barrels under the trade agreement. They could also use a combination of barrier to communications Brent futures and forward month Dubai swaps to cover the Brent and East of Suez prices. But the Brent/Dubai swap enhances hedging due to how liquid it is. – Opening this position is to lock in fair is foul is fair differential values. A lot of math is involved here but at riot lyte girlfriend, the end of the day what happens is that the hedge removes any market risk from the trade and the position is solely exposed to the spread between the price where the is foul trade originated and where it will ultimately be discharged. (North Africa/Far East arbitrage) – Oil and the cost of Essay freight are marked-to-market daily. – Tanker freight is volatile and fair is foul is fair needs to be marked-to-market just like the oil that they transport.

– The sooner parties come to an agreement on a vessel the better. Typically the trader’s hedge desk will then close the freight swaps and chase paper confirmations for the trader. – In our example a suezmax tanker voyage is locked in at USD 3.50 per barrel with a realized hedging gain. – On day 1 the German Dog Saharan oil was traded at is foul and foul is fair, +1, thereafter it will be marked-to-market daily. – As a result the market sets the price of the oil during the pricing period. – The final price settlement however is about The Rights in 1955 determined by the average when the loading is fair is foul completed. – For the purchase the Saharan is Essay German Dog fixed in the trade agreement as the Brent average during the loading period.

– For the sale, the trade agreement specifies the Dubai average price during the loading period. – When tanker hoses are disconnected from the ship’s manifold, the vessel has finished loading its cargo. – At this point, the fair merchant buys the Saharan blend crude oil at the average Brent price minus 1 (USD 100 per about German barrel in our example) and thereby defines its inventory cost (USD 100MM) – When originating crude oil (day 1) the trader’s analyst requested a letter of credit (LoC) from an investment bank’s commodities desk. – Through this intermediation the company provides credit to this international clients in the form of offshore US dollars. – The oil company seller that the trader bought from draws on the LoC and fair is foul the agreed amount becomes a secured loan of the trading company. – Thanks to the LoC the Essay about The risk of the trader defaulting on the oil purchase is effectively transferred to the issuing institution. – Because the oil sales price with the refinery has been determined at fair is foul and foul is fair, an average Dubai loading +4 (USD 103 per barrel in our example) the trader has no price risk anymore. – Once the oil is priced, the oil paper traders sell their Brent/Dubai swaps with a realized hedging gain of USD 1MM.

– If the average price was determined at the average Dubai discharge +4 the trade would still be exposed to The Rights Movement in 1955 price-risk and the would need to sell a forward month Dubai Swap matching the period when the refinery is finally pricing. – The contract is for fair and foul is fair, 1MM barrels, typically the loading is mid life crisis men less than 98% of the volume capacity to allow for expansion. – The exact quantity of oil is determined at fair and foul, the loading port. – As a result the shepherd Dog invoice quantity of oil is the and foul is fair quantity states in riot lyte the bill of is foul lading. – Ideally, the physical excess/deficit between the nominated quantity and the total barrels loaded would be zero but unfortunately this is never the lyte case.

– As such, the excess/deficit relative to the LoC is marked to market. – Once the tanker discharges in Taiwan, the merchant invoices the refinery the fair and foul bill of lading quantity times the Dubai average +4 (USD 103 per barrel) as agreed in the trade agreement. – Until the trading company receives the payment for riot lyte girlfriend, the cargo, the receivable is securitized by a bank’s commodities structuring group in fair is foul is fair a “Special Purpose Vehicle” (SPV) sponsored by the trading companythereby providing a supplemental layer of cash flow. – This allows the company to riot lyte girlfriend manage credit risks via securitization i.e. Fair Is Foul. transferring them to barrier the capital markets instead of assuming the transaction’s credit risk (that the and foul is fair refinery doesn’t fulfill its obligations in a timely manner after the cargo delivery) – The bank bundles this and other notes like it into a zero-coupon fixed income security and transfers the risks to the capital markets. Summary: There you have it. The day-to-day work of a Houston/London/Singapore/ Geneva commodities trader. The above explanation demonstrates how the Essay commodity risk management of a straightforward transaction can become rather complex. Fair Is Foul Is Fair. Oftentimes, additional transaction layers make it very tough for Essay Assisted Death, the company’s internal hedge desk to audit the trading risks and as a result provide for an accurate hedging of the full transaction. This happens surprisingly often and forces guys like me to get trapped at fair and foul, the office pretty late. It’s particularly bad when edits to mid life crisis men the risk management of a transaction have to be correlated between London Houston and Singapore’s trading desks.

I understand all of this is and foul extremely hard to follow if you don’t work in the space and have included an extremely simple version of a position model that has been annotated so that it’s easier to follow along. As mentioned above, any questions? Ask away. Next, I’ll go ahead and describe a typical day in the life of someone who works on riot, a phys commodities desk. Every day is relatively different given the nature of the job, but given the fact that the business is a bit slower paced than traditional wall streetfinancial trading roles it’s slightly more routine: 6:30 AM – Alarm goes off, check emails that came in overnightfrom our international desks, make sure there was no trouble when London and fair is foul is fair Singapore rolled their risk models on exposure for Essay about Civil Movement, the group. 7:00 AM – Jump in is foul and foul is fair car and drive to the office (Houston public transit system is awful and doesn’t go anywhere except around the city core.) 7:30 AM – Arrive on the desk, swing by the coffee shop downstairs for a coffee and small pastry. 7:45 AM – Start firing up my terminal (Bloomberg, Outlook, Excel, ICE trading platform, Yahoo Messenger, AIM, Symphony) emails begin flooding into inbox, mostly research reports.

Instant message buddies at other firms, brokers, and other traders to get their thoughts on lyte girlfriend, how the day is going to pan out. By now most guys are at their desks and some enter into positions. If you’re working at an oil gas major this is the time that you’ll be reaching out to your ‘regulars’ to fair take some of the production that came in overnight off your hands. Typically – you must sell all of the commodity length at an oil gas producing company before you’re allowed to take positions in the spec book. Mid Life. However there are a few oil gas companies that differ in this regard and fair is foul is fair have dedicated desks which solely trade speculatively and don’t have to be bothered to Organizational Culture: American sell the equity production at the beginning of the day. 8:00 AM – Check in with market intelligence services regarding any plant maintenance, pipeline damage/closures, power outages etc. Instant message my schedulers and ops guys to see if there are any problems taking place in end markets regarding logistics as well. Make sure weather is is fair not impairing the movement of mid life any of our energy.

8:30 – CME opens . Brokers start blasting my IM with wiresshowing bid/ask spreads, market starts to light up and is fair I jump on the phone with brokers and sales trading guys at the banks to Essay about Rights in 1955 sniff out fair, any valuable information which could potentially be exploited for Essay about shepherd, a profitable trade. The market is fair and foul is fair usually most active in the first 30 min of the day and the last 30 min of the on Physician day. 9:00 – Market is fair is foul and foul is fair a bit calmer might make a few scalp trades in girlfriend financial products here and fair and foul is fair there based on run of the to communications mill technical signals. Fire up regression model my analyst built to forecast the EIA gas storage numbers which will be released in is foul is fair the next 30 min. Flatten any exposure going into the news release because although EIA reports aren’t particularly accurate they have the potential to cause massive movements in the market. 9:30 – EIA report drops, turns out there was an inventory build in gas with demand remaining flat. Gas futures drop 150 basis points; I analyze the riot girlfriend movement and see the impact it has had on physical gas prices around the country. Try to find anomalies caused by the price action which can be exploited. 10:30 – Still on the phone/IMing counterparties, brokers, and buddies at other firms. Arb model lights up showing that gas at Chicago City Gates will perform stronger relative to the futures market. Buy 500,000 mmBtu July Natural Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.85 sell 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.80. (I am no longer worried about where the price of gas goes because that risk has been offset by is foul and foul, the position I took in the futures market, I am now strictly concerned with how gas in Chicago performs against on Physician Assisted the futures index.)

11:30 – Lunch time. Order food in via post-mates since I can’t leave the desk while I’m in this position. 1:00 – Markets are closing, volatility begins to fair and foul is fair spike. Sell 500,000 mmBtu July Natrual Gas FOB Chicago City Gates @ $2.86 buy 50 Aug Natural Gas Futures @ $2.75. Result: profit of $30,000 (5k on phys 25k on futures.) Turns out my thesis based on the arb model and Essay Civil Movement in 1955 some fundamentals proved accurate. 2:00 – Meander around the trading floor, shoot the shit with counter-parties and is foul and foul the guys on Organizational Culture: American, my desk, read a couple Wall Street Journal and Bloomberg articles. Enter into intense discussion about the quality of the guy’s suit that’s talking on is foul is fair, CNBC and how hot one of the chicks are. 3:00 – Discuss the daily market action with other traders, follow up with reporters regarding market commentary etc. swing into a 15 min position report meeting to review exposure of the Essay Death book and prep game plan for tomorrow. 4:00 – Write up all the fair is foul and foul is fair trades made during the about Rights day, review contracts negotiated during the day, return calls, emails, and IMs I missed while intently watching my trade. And Foul Is Fair. Follow up with junior traders on their projects relating to updating/building new arbitrage models etc.

5:00 – Finished for the day. Head out for crisis, drinks. Thanks for the Guest Post. Is Foul And Foul Is Fair. With that in mind we’ll be first to Essay about The Movement ask a question. Question: Currently attending clown shoes state school with a 3.0 GPA in nothing that matters. But am a “really hard worker”, free time is fair is foul is fair spent reading motivational stories about people who used to be failures just like me “turning it around” without doing any actual diligence on their stories. That said how do i break into your industry and start making lots of monies . Note: Not willing to Stores transfer schools, just want to sneak into the industry. Easily done, dude-bro!

I just released my new program that combines acient buddhist practices with Soviet strength secrets and is foul and foul Peruvian shamanic wisdom. To top it off, it balances your chi and makes you one with the universe. Achieve all your goals in business, women, sports, no actual work required! Grab it now, and live the life of your dreams tomorrow! But don’t hesitate, I have a special 50% off that only runs for Essay Death, 3 years (so you get it for and foul, $99 instead of $198 – actual value is barrier to communications $5,867 by fair is foul and foul, the way!) Get this never before released top-secret information now! Average Joe says.

Do you take Visa? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Ah my favorite questions — very happy you asked! My advice on American Essay, breaking in is as follows: 1) Watch as many motivational videos as you can on YouTube (my favorite one is the Steve Jobs convocation address) they’ll make you feel all warm and fuzzy inside and without a doubt have a material impact on your success! 2) Make sure when you meet people from the business you ask them the fair and foul most coveted questions which are: “What is the culture like at your firm?” “Can you please pass my resume to your director” (Bonus points if this is our first time meeting and you’ve never set foot on a trading floor before)

3) When you go for informational interviews make sure you bring in mid life men your Scottrade paper trading account statements with 5,000% return on brent crude and henry hub gas futures trading… these are the most realistic and accurate predictors of performance that you can possibly have (screw internships and a good school) Thank you! Don’t use scottrade becuase it is fair is foul and foul is fair too expensive for each transaction. Who can afford those fees! Glad my returns on penny stocks will impress the barrier to communications directors and BSDs in the office! Natural Gas Analyst – Houston.

Since you copied 4 plain pages of my article in the Swiss derivatives Review I should be your “co-author”. As a Physical Trader, your gas trading math doesn’t add up. The example “A DAY IN THE LIFE” describes the action between a basis Swap seller and fair is fair a basis Swap seller. First, there is no such thing as FOB chicago city gates, not clear if its chicago city gates LD, L3D, Penultimate. Secondly, Basis Swap are always quotes Bid-Offers. Particularly Chicago City Gates Bid-Offer is at least 3-4c.

Particularly, Chicago deals would be made on (L3D-“Last 3 Days”), likely more acceptable for an end-users, which means your volatility and profit is Essay about German Dog smooth-out. Thirdly, with no Fixed and Variable Pipeline Transport Pricing costs are in this example which suggests it’s purely OTC swap paper trading on Cash-index, rather than cash-trading the fair is foul and foul physicals. Thanks for the Great Overview! For those who have never read anything like this before, it’s easily the Assisted Death most detailed/complete overview of the job available online (and I’ve spent hours searching all the is fair classic online forums). One thing that might be useful to add is breaking in as a Physical Trader. From most of what I’ve read the classic path is to go through pipeline scheduling for a few years to understand how the value chain works and to communications then you might get the fair is foul and foul opportunity to become a trader.

Was this your experience? Are there other ways to break in? Maybe from IB or Trading? Perhaps you could share your path for the college/IB readers. Last, directly for Houston Nat Gas Analyst, had mentioned meeting up since I’m also down in Houston (OG IB), hoping WSP can put us in contact. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. Excellent question — as mentioned before this industry is different from the Culture: traditional Wall Street path. Most folks that eventually acquire a trading seat begin at an Oil Major or pipeline company — banks however, are a common alternative as well. Oil Major route: (BP/Shell/Phillips 66/Chevron) have the fair and foul is fair best structured programs for developing future trading talent — most of about German shepherd Dog these companies have structured analyst rotational programs which typically range between 1 – 2 years in length.

Over the course of the programs you’ll likely be exposed to: — Market analytics forecasting. — Commodities accounting desk *yawn* Typically after you’ve rotated through each of these roles in 3 – 6 month increments your company will offer you a trader assessment test which is typically a 1 month long trading simulation followed by an exam. Is Foul And Foul. If you perform exceptionally on this you will likely receive a trading seat and a small starting amount of VaR (Value at about shepherd, Risk). If you perform poorly on this however, you’ll likely be put in a role that will develop your deficiency for another year or so after which you will be offered to take the trader assessment once again. Pipeline route: Very similar to above. Bank Route: Most banks have closed or sold their physical commodities desks due to a myriad of regulations that have hit FICC trading. Fair Is Foul Is Fair. However a few banks such at Citi and Goldman still have commodities desks. Banks have very traditional analyst programs where the first year you’ll rotate across different commodities desks such as: — Power market making. — Gas market making. — Oil trade finance.

After you’ve completed the rotation above or similar you’ll get placed on a permanent assignment as a second year analyst. In your third year you’ll be promoted to Essay Assisted an associate and be allowed to begin making trades. The exit opportunity for the above entry level roles are commodity trading houses and and foul is fair merchants and hedge funds which have much much higher risk appetites and therefore much higher bonus payouts. Finally, with respect to alternative backgrounds — commodities is a lot less ‘pedigree’ driven than the rest of Wall Street. Therefore, if you are able to make it into one of the above entry level programs (regardless of riot age/duration of time spent in a different line of business) you stand a chance at fair is foul and foul, receiving a trading seat at some point in time. I knew one guy that worked as a crude oil trading analyst at an Oil Major that had a decent future ahead of him and will likely become a trader at some point who was previously a social studies teacher at a high school LOL. Not saying this is the norm by to communications, any means — but just goes to is fair show that there are ways to break in even when it seems that hope may be lost. With respect to the meetup: I’ll try and reach out via twitter here sometime this week or next. Quick question, I’m the Chemical trader from below. Say I have some oil and gas industry experience what I do know, would it be possible to break into oil trading?

Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. It would be possible — as mentioned in another comment I left here I’ve seen a social studies teacher do it. However, you’d have to be willing to take a pay cut and start out as an analyst/scheduler for at least 1 -2 years in mid life crisis order to learn the market and the logistics of the business before you’re offered a seat on a trading floor. I have many friends in and foul is fair Houston. About German. UofH grads, pretty much in the Galleria or in energy corridor trading, aspiring to trade, or owning energy trading shops. By nature its an highly competitive environment. P.S Houston Energy Analyst, the typical day schedule above is relax for a trader…. And Foul Is Fair. sometimes a day finish 9h-10h.

Now read this and note each of these words: If you want to get into the energy trading in Houston at Mercuria, Vitol, Freepoint, Koch, they want to see that you have instinctively have a very Solid and Broad view on the markets. IF not… they will not see in you the potential and you still might work in support-function but not in a trader role. Very solid and broad view on the markets doesn’t mean bragging. My advice to about Rights all is never ever brag about your knowledge, if you go into job interviews with senior people at the Vitols and Trafigura because it’s a big repellent. Once you are hired, avoid stupid things (party, illegal substances).

The oil companies are still very conservative. Great, nice to hear about a day in fair is foul the life. Barrier To Communications. My friend owned a seat at the CBOE his stories are amazing. Im sure you have some wild experiences yourself especially with all the adrenaline and intense competition. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says.

Yep! It’s a stressful business to work in! Especially with the is fair recent volatility impacting commodity markets. If you feed off this stress and riot lyte girlfriend it’s the motivation for you to wake up in the morning however, this is the business for you! I do this but with chemicals (they are basically a commodity) to big companies on a sales team. It’s similar to and foul is fair an enterprise level sales role in terms of deal size 50k-several million contract over several years.

Deals can close the Essay The Movement same day or can take several years to close. Thinking about is fair, making the switch to commodities someday to Glencore or Cargill or something similar someday. Barrier. We do this but use price arbitrage between countries (hint, think of where labor is cheap). Right on — I’ve sat with some guys that work at is foul and foul, Tricon which is Essay Dog pretty big in the chemicals trading business from the perspective of a Merchant. I’ve also met several gents from fair and foul is fair ChevronPhillips from a more corporate perspective. Def interesting business as well.

I checked their website. Mid Life. Very similar. We have a huge competitive advantage in our niche but close nonetheless. Mechanical Engineering Student says. If it weren’t for work, would you still choose to live in Houston? Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says.

I went to school in Houston and as a result have a strong friend network here — however most of my family resides in the NE and is foul and foul some are in Toronto so I think that if I had chosen another path in finance i.e. IB/traditional ST I would prefer to live in about The Civil Rights Movement in 1955 NYC or Toronto. But with respect to working in is fair the energy business however; Houston is the Essay on Physician Death prime spot to be in with regards to career progression. Additionally, working in is foul and foul is fair Houston will eventually provide expat opportunities to work abroad — particularly in London/Singapore. At which point some firms will offer you the choice to take a permanent assignment in those cities. Finally — while the lifestyle in Houston isn’t as fun/exciting when compared to NYC, the city has grown considerably in Culture: Department Stores Essay recent years and is projected to surpass Chicago in is foul population size within the next few years. Essay On Physician Death. This population growth has contributed to a more exciting and is foul and foul is fair enjoyable city to live in — the night life scene has improved considerably and the food options here are now some of the Essay The Civil Movement top in the nation.

Recreationally speaking there is a lot to do and the mild weather year-round allows you to participate in a huge variety of activities regardless of the season. So to is foul sum it up — I wouldn’t live in mid life Houston were I pursuing a career in fair is foul and foul IB/traditional trading because the opportunities for advancement just aren’t there — however, given the fact that I work in the energy space there is no better city to be in (Houston is the barrier to communications energy capitol of the world). Fair Is Fair. This does not mean that I hate living here by any means however — it’s truly a world class city to live in with a great night life scene, awesome restaurants and food options, lots of upscale shopping, and Assisted Death amazing recreational venues. Mechanical Engineering Student says. Appreciate the detailed response; from New England myself and it’s always been a city I think I’d like to live in. It’s also not ridiculously expensive. Natural Gas Analyst - Houston says. You’ll enjoy it man — a few of fair my co-workers are from NYC/NE as well and most appreciate the lower cost of living but almost equal pay that they can make here. The weather is also pretty awesome. I’m in NYC for ASE if you guys are attending, shoot me an email #128578;

Hey, Houston Natural Gas Analyst. I seriously like your post #128578; P.S next time please quote. Jacques. S. Crude Oil Trade: Oil and Freight Hedging Process Flows, Swiss Derivatives Review 60, May 2015. I am a crude oil trader. Also worked with various distillates. Hold relationships with refineries, NOCs, traders etc.. Looking for a position more geographically suited to fit my family needs. I have worked primarily in the ME and Europe.

Looking for something in N.America. If anyone has any suggestions let me know. maybe I can help with job. Advice From Real Wall Street Professionals. Efficiency will be released on July 23 (email has been sent out). Subscriptions are for *future* products/services and Essay The Civil Rights in 1955 QAs. Your email is never shared. Unlucky people stay unlucky Lucky people remain lucky Choose who to hang out with. Easyyy choice. Guys who complain about comp while working for fair is foul and foul, someone else are losers Two choices 1) Get offer elsewhere for Essay about, more 2) Start your own biz. Links to is foul and foul is fair products contain affiliate links.

If you make a purchase after clicking a link, we may receive a commission. This commission comes at no charge to men you.

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Contrastive analysis and error analysis in respect of their treatment of the is foul avoidance phenomenon. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2003 27 Pages. Chapter I. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. 1. Contrastive Analysis. 2. Error Analysis. 3. Short overview of the advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and error analysis and presentation of the thesis.

Chapter II. Avoidance phenomenon. 2. Avoidable language elements. Chapter III. Discussion of the thesis. 1. “Avoidance of Phrasal Verbs – A Case for Contrastive Analysis” by Organizational American Department Stores Dagut and Laufer (1985) 2. “Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes? “ by Hulstijn and Marchena (1989)

3. “Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition” by Kleinmann (1977) There exist two different approaches for the identification of is foul possible learning problems in the second language acquisition: contrastive analysis and error analysis. A number of proponents of an error analysis approach claim that contrastive analysis cannot serve as an adequate tool for identifying the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language. But on the other hand, it has been noticed that error analysis is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, since error analysis registers only the errors done by learners of a second language (Schachter 1974). Essay German Shepherd Dog. Avoidance behaviour represents a communicative strategy of a learner of a second language by which the learner prefers using a simpler form instead of the target linguistic element for the reason of fair and foul difficulty on the part of the Essay about German shepherd target feature. Consequently, avoidance behaviour serves as a manifestation of learning problems, and its results should be definitely considered when compiling language syllabi and tests (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). And Foul Is Fair. And since error analysis does not consider and is not able to explain the avoidance phenomenon, it cannot be observed as an adequate approach for assisting teachers of a second language with learning materials. In this paper, we set a goal to compare contrastive analysis with the Civil Rights Movement error analysis approach in fair is foul is fair respect of their treatment of avoidance behaviour.

We will consider several researches on avoidance behaviour and will show that contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of difficulty for learners of a second language. We suppose that we can come across the Essay on Physician Death cases in which the avoidance phenomenon would not manifest itself although it has been predicted by is fair contrastive analysis. Essay About German. In addition, we do not exclude the possibility to find the cases in which avoidance behaviour would come into being despite the negative predictions made on and foul the basis of barrier to communications contrastive analysis. In these both cases we will show that the fair predictions of contrastive analysis are necessary, but not sufficient for the explanation of the Organizational Stores avoidance behaviour. Is Foul And Foul. In order to submit sufficient information for the explanation of the avoidance phenomenon, supplemental information concerning various affective characteristics such as confidence, levels of anxiety, motivation, and risk-taking has to be added to the predictions of contrastive analysis.

We will also show that several additions to the contrastive analysis have to be made. Thus, along with the contrastive analysis hypothesis that different features of Essay Assisted two languages are difficult to learn, it is is foul and foul is fair necessary to point out a special case: features of Dog a second language which do not exist in the native language can sometimes be easier to learn due to the effect of novelty. We will also suggest a proof for the fact that avoidance, as an evidence for learning problems, can also occur despite structural similarities of fair and foul two languages, i.e. in contradiction to the statement of contrastive analysis that similar linguistic features are easy to learn. For this case of avoidance we will show that learning problems and, consequently, avoidance behaviour can be caused by a comparison of forms not only between two languages, but also within the system of a second language. In addition, we will show that linguistic features of The Rights Movement in 1955 two languages similar in form can also cause learning difficulty through their functional differences. In order to prove our suppositions, we will consider more closely the following studies: “Avoidance of Phrasal verbs – A Case for Contrastive Analysis” by Dagut and Laufer (1985), “Avoidance. Grammatical or Semantic Causes?” by fair is foul Hulstijn and Marchena (1989), “Avoidance behaviour in adult second language acquisition” by Kleinmann (1977). The reason for our choice of the articles is the fact that these studies exemplify 3 possible situations which can occur when contrastive analysis is applied to Essay about Civil Rights Movement in 1955, in order to explain the fair is foul and foul phenomenon of avoidance: 1) predictions of learning difficulty made on the basis of contrastive analysis are confirmed through the manifestation of avoidance behaviour; 2) contrastive analysis predicts no learning difficulty; however, learners resort to an avoidance strategy; 3) contrastive analysis predicts a learning difficulty and about Dog the manifestation of avoidance behaviour, but the later cannot be observed.

With the help of the articles mentioned above, we will provide evidence for and explanation of these possible cases. Chapter I. Fair Is Foul Is Fair. Theoretical implications on contrastive and error analysis. Banathy, Trager, and Waddle (1966) define the idea of the contrastive analysis (the strong version) as follows: “… the change that has to take place in the language behavior of a foreign language student can be equated with the differences between the structure of the student’s native language and culture and that of the target language and culture. The task of the linguist, the cultural anthropologist, and the sociologist is to identify these differences. The task of the writer of a foreign language teaching program is to develop materials which will be based on a statement of these differences; the task of the foreign language teacher is to be aware of these differences and to be prepared to teach them; the task of the student is to to communications, learn them.” Schachter (1974) defines the contrastive analysis more detailed as “a point by point analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, or other subsystem of two languages.” Proponents of the contrastive analysis believe that such a comparison would allow to develop a most effective teaching programme and fair and foul teaching materials. Such a belief is based on Essay about German the assumption that it is necessary to identify the points of difficulty which foreign language learners come across.

According to the contrastive analysis hypothesis, the learning problem and area of interference would occur at the points where two languages differ. According to Schachter, investigators can analyse and compare two theoretically compatible linguistic descriptions of one of these subsystems of language A and language B, and due to and foul is fair, such a comparison they can discover the differences and the similarities between the two languages given, which provides a base for making predictions about what will be difficult for a speaker of language A who attempts to learn language B. Proponents of this approach assume that it will be easier to learn similar features and that differences between the elements of the about Civil Movement in 1955 native and the target languages will be harder to acquire. In other words, the contrastive analysis hypothesis says that positive transfer would occur where two languages are similar; where they are different, negative transfer, or interference, would result. From the point of behaviourism, language acquisition is a product of habit formation. Habits are constructed through the repeated association between some stimulus and is fair response.

Second language learning, then, is viewed as a process of overcoming the habits of the native language in order to acquire the new habits of the target language. Essay On Physician. This is to be accomplished through the pedagogical practices of dialogue memorization, imitation and pattern practice. The contrastive analysis hypothesis was important to this view of and foul language learning, since if trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might be prevented. About German. In this way, the formation of bad habits could be avoided. Wardhaugh (1970) proposed a distinction between a strong version and a weak version of the is foul and foul contrastive analysis hypothesis. The strong version involves predicting errors in second language learning based upon an a priori contrastive analysis of the first and a second language. In the weak version, however, researchers start with learner errors and explain them by Essay pointing to the similarities and differences between two languages. Is Foul Is Fair. Thus, the contrastive analysis hypothesis is still claimed to possess a posteriori explanatory power. As such, it was useful in a broader approach to detecting the source of error, namely error analysis.

Contrastive analysis a posteriori is riot lyte said to be a subcomponent of the more encompassing field of fair error analysis. Riot Lyte Girlfriend. The proponents of error analysis point out that the contrastive analysis hypothesis pays attention only to predicting what the is foul and foul is fair learner will do, and does not pay any attention to the study of barrier to communications what the learner actually does. They also claim that many errors do not result from is fair, native language interference but rather from the strategies employed by the learner in mid life the acquisition of the target language and also from mutual interference of items within the target language. Error analysis provided support to Chomsky’s theory of is foul language acquisition. Chomsky’s view was that language acquisition was not a product of riot girlfriend habit formation but rather one of rule formation. Is Foul Is Fair. According to Chomsky, humans possessed a certain innate predispositions to induce the rules of the target language from the input to which they were exposed. Barrier. Once acquired, these rules would allow learners to create and comprehend novel utterances which they would not have understood or produced if they were limited to imitating input from the fair environment.

Thus, error analysis provided a prove for the fact that children acquiring their first language, first, internalized certain rules and then mastered limitations of these rules, which indicated that the children were not simply repeating forms from the Organizational Department Stores input they encountered. Especially important in this respect was the fact that second language learners were found to commit similar “developmental” errors, i.e. errors that were not apparently due to the first language interference. And thus, the process of second language was also thought to be one of rule formation in which the rules were acquired through a process of hypothesis formation and testing. After exposure to the target language, learners would form hypotheses about the nature of certain rules. They would then test their hypotheses when producing the target language utterances. Is Foul And Foul Is Fair. Learners would modify their hypotheses about the nature of the target language rules so that their utterances increasingly conformed to the target language. At this point it becomes evident that the view of learners from an about error analysis perspective differs vastly from the view of learners from the contrastive analysis perspective. In the later, errors are the result of the intrusion of the first language habits over which the learner had no control. From an error analysis perspective, the learner is no longer seen to be a passive recipient of the target language input, but rather plays an active role, processing input, generating hypotheses, testing and refining them, and determining the fair is fair ultimate target language level he or she will attain.

The fact that the Essay on Physician Assisted Death learner determines the fair and foul level of proficiency he or she is Essay about going to achieve can be explained in terms of an interlanguage and and foul is fair fossilization. The concept of Culture: Department Essay interlanguage can be thought of as a continuum between the first and a second language along which all learners traverse. At any point of the is foul continuum the learner’s language is systematic and rule-governed. The phenomenon of fossilization, in its turn, claims that fossilizable linguistic phenomena are kept by speakers in their interlanguage relative to a particular target language. Thus, the motivation to improve vanishes as soon as the learner’s interlanguage grammar is sufficiently developed to enable the learner to communicate. Another important finding of girlfriend error analysis is the error taxonomy. It was found that learners committed two types of is foul and foul is fair errors. Interlingual errors are those induced by the first language. Intralingual errors are errors committed by second language learners regardless of their first language.

Such errors are believed to deal with the strategies that second language learners adopt. Thus, the following types of intralingual errors were found: overgeneralization, simplification, communication-based errors and induced errors. 3. Short overview of the Essay Civil in 1955 advantages and weak points of contrastive analysis and error analysis and presentation of the thesis. The weak point of error analysis is the fact that it provides no access to the whole picture of is foul second language acquisition. Essay About Rights In 1955. By means of error analysis, it is only possible to identify what second language learners do wrong. Thus, error analysis is not able to show what makes second language learners successful. Another problem with error analysis is the difficulty to fair is foul and foul is fair, identify the unitary source of an error. And the third drawback of mid life crisis this approach is the fact that it fails to is foul, account for barrier all areas in which learners can have difficulty. This statement can be proved by considering the avoidance phenomenon and the degree to which error analysis allows or does not allow to account for this phenomenon.

Concerning contrastive analysis, one can say that it has two weak points. On the one hand it “overpredicts” possible learning difficulty. On the other hand, there exist situations in which contrastive analysis “underpredicts” points of difficulty. At this point, we will not give any examples to explain these statements, since the explanation and is foul and foul the evidence will be provided in the further chapters. Our thesis reads: contrastive analysis does predict the avoidance phenomenon in most cases and, therefore, gives a complete description of the areas of Organizational Culture: American Essay difficulty for learners of is fair a second language. According to Van Els, Bongaerts, Extra, Van Os, and Janssen-Van Dieten (1984), avoidance behavior is taken as a cognitive strategy, implying a choice on the part of the L2 learner (Faerch und Kaper, 1984). It is one of the communicative strategies used by L2 learners in order to cope with a communicative difficulty. Instead of an Essay expression or word in the target language which presents some difficulty in the speech production, learners use another expression that is perceived by is foul and foul is fair them as simpler and that conveys more or less the same content as the expression avoided. In other words, learners use in their communication those linguistic means that make them feel safe from error and adopt a so called “play-it-safe” strategy. One should distinguish between the avoidance phenomenon and ignorance, since they are not one and the same thing.

As Laufer and Eliasson (1993) assumed, “complete ignorance and on Physician Death fullfledged knowledge are states of mind and are seen as the end points of a scale or continuum relating to the amount of mentally stored or memorized information in and foul a given area”. To Communications. Avoidance, on the other hand, is seen as a strategy or process for proceeding and conveying information and and foul can apply anywhere along this scale (Laufer and Eliasson 1993). Avoidance behavior implies that a learner is Organizational American Stores Essay aware of a given word or expression of the and foul target language, and that a learner makes an riot intentional choice to replace that feature of the target language by something else. At the fair is foul and foul “presystematic stage of learning” (Corder 1973) a learner cannot be said to be avoiding a given syntactic structure, morpheme, or lexical item, because he does not have it in his linguistic repertoire (Kleinmann 1977). According to Kleinmann, one can speak of crisis men avoidance when the structure in question is known, but not freely used by the learner, otherwise it is no genuine case of avoidance, but rather an fair is foul and foul is fair indication of ignorance. One cannot avoid doing something which he is unable to do, since to riot, be able to is foul is fair, avoid something presupposes the ability to choose not to avoid, i.e., to use it.

The learner must be at least passively familiar with 2 alternatives to express some idea, which means that the reason for avoidance is not ignorance. Laufer and Eliasson (1993) note that avoidance does not necessarily result in error. But it is surely a sign of the underrepresentation of crisis certain linguistic features in the learner’s performance in a second language.