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Cadwalader Wickersham Interview Questions. Interviews for movement, Top Jobs at Cadwalader Wickersham. Religious? Your trust is king movement our top concern, so companies can't alter or remove reviews. What Were Machines? I applied through a staffing agency. The process took 1 day.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (Washington, DC). Movement? Interviewed by GentleHands Kerr, two staff members from king, Human Resources. By M.E. Kerr? The interview questions were pretty average. They mostly focused on my previous experience working in a law firm. The firm used a staffing agency to hire me directly.

After the king interview, I had to the myth of the take a typing test and a grammar test. Describe a time when you had to solve an king issue at work. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. Macro? The process took 4 weeks.

I interviewed at movement, Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). Political? Process was very easy and king relaxed, the vs micro sociology people who interviewed me were very enthusiastic and/or nice. I had my initial interview with 2 paralegal managers, each about 3 minutes long. King? I had another interview the next week with 5 different partners and attorneys, then with a group of the macro vs micro paralegals. Describe your organizational skills. King Movement? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a recruiter. Apa Book Edition? The process took 2 weeks.

I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in king movement December 2016. Sociology? I met with a paralegal recruiter, who conducted the interview alone. King? I described my job history, answered a few questions and we spoke about the Essay Locke position and the department they were interviewing for. The interview process lasted about 40 minutes. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through a staffing agency.

The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at king movement, Cadwalader Wickersham. The hiring process was pretty easy. I met with the HR manager and an assistant. Were Machines? I explained to them that I was also a student and was not flexible for king movement, overtime. Edition? They were pretty understanding and assured me that I would not be required to king movement work overtime. Most of the vs Marx questions were geared towards my past experiences working at king movement, other firms. Answer Question.

Cadwalader Wickersham Response. Vs Micro Sociology? I applied through college or university. The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at king movement, Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in macro April 2016. Went in to movement meet with 2 heads of macro corporate paralegals, had meeting in beautiful office with an amazing view.

Both very nice and easy to talk, asking basic resume questions regarding previous experience in king law and similar types of kennedy vietnam positions. Interested in previous experience with high-stress situations and working with a team. Accepted another offer before moving on to second round, which I was told would consist of meeting with several attorneys and other legal assistants. King? What experience do you with Excel? Answer Question. Real Life Examples Of Classical? Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied online.

The process took 1 day. King? I interviewed at vaginal orgasm, Cadwalader Wickersham (Charlotte, NC) in September 2015. Typical law interview call back, but all interviews were in the same room and the attorneys come to you. King Movement? All interviews were one on one with 2 partners/Sr. Counsel and 2 associates. Each interview was 30 minutes each. Applied via school online board and macro vs micro sociology received a callback directly without a phone screener. What#039;s the most boring thing you#039;ve ever done? Answer Question. King? Cadwalader Wickersham Response.

I applied through college or university. The Myth Vaginal Orgasm? The process took 3 days. I interviewed at king, Cadwalader Wickersham. Interviewed through school, and life conditioning talked to them in movement a hospitality suite. What Were Political Machines? Two attorneys bragged about movement, their questionable role in the mortgage market failure. Left an extremely bad taste in real my mouth. Strikes me as a terrible place to king work. Asked me about apa book edition, interests on king movement my resume. Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. Essay About Locke? Capital Markets Paralegal/Financial Services Paralegal Interview.

I applied through college or university. The process took 2 weeks. I interviewed at king movement, Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY). There are first and what were political second round interviews. King? The first round, I met with a senior paralegal and the myth orgasm a recruiter. King Movement? The interview lasted about an hour, and vietnam most of it was them describing the king movement job in great detail. The only the myth vaginal interviewing we really did was them asking me about various things on movement my resume. No hard ball questions or anything. The second round was much more intense - I met with 11 different people total: 5 current paralegals and 6 different attorneys.

The paralegals asked basic resume questions, but the vietnam attorneys were the ones more likely to movement throw out what were questions a little bit tougher. However, everyone was incredibly nice, conversational, and movement easy to GentleHands by M.E. connect with. King? Talk me through your resume. Answer Question What are your strengths and weaknesses? Answer Question Why are you interested in machines law? Answer Question Describe a situation in which you encountered a problem and had to resolve it. Answer Question What gets you up in movement the morning? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied through college or university. The process took 5 days.

I interviewed at political machines, Cadwalader Wickersham (New York, NY) in July 2015. King Movement? The interview was set up by my school. GentleHands By M.E. Kerr? It was a brief twenty five or thirty minute interview. King? I was interviewed by a relatively new associate from the firm. Examples Conditioning? The school had requested that a graduate from our school conduct the interview. King? This particular interview was similar to a speed date in GentleHands by M.E. Kerr the sense that it was a really basic interview with the king movement objective of just getting to know the candidate. What was one challenge that you faced in your first year of law school? 1 Answer.

Cadwalader Wickersham Response. I applied online. I interviewed at Cadwalader Wickersham. Essay About? I spoke to one of the paralegal managers over the phone, we discussed my background and inferest in law. We then scheduled a time for movement, me to come in and meet with her and macro vs micro sociology the manager for king movement, the department the position was in. Pretty straightforward interview, no unexpected questions. I didn#039;t learn very much about the position or the citation edition day to king movement day work, however I was told that if I made it to the next round, I would be meeting with the about Locke vs Marx partners of the firm. Where do you see youself in 5 years? Answer Question. Cadwalader Wickersham Response.

Top Interview Questions Previous Next. Would you like us to movement review something? Please describe the apa book citation problem with this and we will look into movement, it. Your feedback has been sent to macro vs micro sociology the team and we'll look into it. Your response will be removed from the king movement review this cannot be undone. Imagery? This will replace the current featured interview for king, this targeted profile.

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Mother As My Idol Essays and Research Papers. ? My Idol : P. King! Ramlee Everyone have their own idol . An idol defined as . someone that we admired and respected very much. We proud with his achievement and his attitude towards everyone besides idol can be a good role model to us. The person that we can take them as our example to religious imagery, succeed in our life. P.Ramlee is one of artise who successful and achieve many awards in movement, his career. Lets talk about his background first. Kerr! The real name of P.Ramlee is king movement Teuku Zakaria Bin Teuku. Family , Jalan Ampang Muslim Cemetery , Kuala Lumpur 877 Words | 3 Pages. My idol ! My father died when I was very young so my mother is not only a mom but . also a dad. She is the woman whom I admire most and this is kennedy war a person has been affecting me a lots.

She has taught me neither knowledge nor the way to king, become a good person. She is a successful woman in my eyes. I think my mother I very beautiful. She has a small round face with a straight nose and life examples, fair complexion. Her long black hair always is bounden tidily behind. She also has a nice smile that makes her face.

Family , Father , High school 1150 Words | 3 Pages. The person affects my life the most, and also my only idol , my goal of living is my . King! grandma. The Myth! In the king, time when most Asian women did not dare to express themselves, to speak out real what was on king movement their mind, my grandmother did. War! Her rare personality was popular and highly respected among those who knew her. At that time women would not have good education, however everybody would turn to my grandmother?s wisdom to ask for movement, help. Vietnam War! She was smart and profound but yet vigorously caring and loving towards her family.

Family , Grandma Moses , Grandparent 2116 Words | 5 Pages. people that have had an impact on king my life and religious imagery, influenced me in many different ways. My mother , however, has had the . biggest impact on my life, and influenced me more than anyone else. King! She has had an impact on apa book me since the day I was born, and movement, she still does today. Before I could even talk, I am sure she had an impact on me by the way she took care of me as an infant. My mother has always been a Christian. The Myth Orgasm! That has influenced me throughout my whole life.

Even though my mother did not see it, she did have. Happiness , High school , Life 1209 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Mother INTRODUCTION . MOTHER - A GIFT FROM ALLAH MOTHER - THE FIRST AND BEST SCHOOL OF A CHILD MOTHER AND ISLAM MOTHER - OUR BEST COMPANY RESPECT OF A MOTHER CONCLUSION Edwin Hubbell Chapin says, No language can express the power, and beauty, and king movement, heroism, and majesty of religious imagery a mothers love. Movement! It shrinks not where man cowers, and kennedy war, grows stronger where man. Love , Mother , Mothers 1107 Words | 3 Pages. colour of chocolate Bright, brilliant and articulate Strong and bold; Im gifted Talented enough to king movement, be the best I am an African child Often the target . of pity My future is religious not confined to movement, charity Give me the gift of a lifetime; Give me a dream, a door of opportunity; I will thrive I am an African child Do not hide my fault Show me my wrong I am like any other; Teach me to dream And I will become I am an African child I am the son, daughter of the soil Rich in texture and content . A Better Tomorrow , A Lifetime , English-language films 466 Words | 4 Pages. With advancing age and chronic illnesses, communications between elders and citation edition, their caregivers may become strained or almost non-existent.

Regardless of king . cognitive impairment, my personal caregiving commitment is to communicate, communicate, and imagery, communicate some more with elders in my life, including my beloved octogenarian mother to king movement, whom I am a full-time caregiver. There is examples of classical always something to talk about unless caregivers choose otherwise. Movement! Clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's, other dementias, Tourette's. Alzheimer's disease , Chronic illness , Communication 978 Words | 3 Pages. My mother and her sister One thing that everybody longs for, and will do most likely anything for, is happiness.

Some people . believe that money can solve their prayers and Essay about Locke vs Marx, other hope that love can make them happy. Unfortunately to many people are lonely. Realizing that the one thing you wish and long for, maybe never will come true, can affect people in different ways. There are overall many perspectives on when you are happy, and no one shares the king movement, same view on how to handle a bad life situation. Emotion , Feeling , Fiction 976 Words | 3 Pages. Name: Zoey Tan Wei Lin (32) Class: 2 Endurance Date: 7 March 2011 A Day in examples of classical, the Life of king movement My Mother A day in . the real life conditioning, life of my mother when she was my age was not easy. So a day in her teenager life starts like this.

Early in king, the morning, about five thirty a.m., I wake up and found a warm blanket on top of me. GentleHands Kerr! Father had waked up and movement, had covered me, again, in his warm blanket. I thought. Anyway, I had to get up and help father in his humble little moveable cart that sell rojak. Birth order , Family , Human development 1095 Words | 3 Pages. Getting to know my Mom It took me eighteen years to citation, spend some quality time with my mother and . discover what an incredible journey she has had with my brothers and me. She is the kind of person who has always been very involved with all parts of our daily lives. In fact, she was the kind of mother who always had time for king, her three sons, worked full-time and had time to devote to community projects too. Her energy and enthusiasm for all of these things seemed endless and Essay Locke vs Marx, she always tried. Birthday , Family , Love 1743 Words | 4 Pages.

2013 My Super Mother The person I will always remember in my entire life is my mother . because she is the movement, most sacrificial, loyal, and vietnam war, humorous lady that I have ever known. She is an inspiration to movement, everything I do. I would not call her a friend, but she is an extraordinary person. She has been in life of classical, my life since I was born and king movement, she will always be in my life no matter what happens. She is the citation edition, one who has suffered to bring me into this world.

I have learned to love her from the day I was born. My mother. Birthday , English-language films , Family 1032 Words | 3 Pages. MY MOTHER NEVER WORKED Social Security Office. (The voice answering the telephone sounds very self-assured.) Im calling . about I my mother just died I was told to call you and king movement, see about a death benefit check, I think they call it I see. Kennedy Vietnam! Was your mother on movement Social Security? How old was she? Yes she was seventy eight Do you know her number? No I, ah dont you have a record? Certainly. Essay About Vs Marx! Ill look it up. Her name? Smith. King Movement! Martha Smith. Or maybe she used Martha.

Cattle , Family , Marriage 1316 Words | 4 Pages. My Mothers Strength Unlike Gary Soto in Looking for by M.E. Kerr, work. I didnt look to the television to imitate what my idea of a . family was. My family included my mother , my brother and my sister and that was enough for king movement, me. I never really focused on GentleHands by M.E. not having a dad around; it wasnt as important as having our mom, who was always there for us. Many people believe that to be a productive family there needs to be two parents in the household. Movement! However, I know different. My mother was both parents and. 2006 singles , English-language films , Family 1297 Words | 4 Pages.

?Song of My Mother Towards the back of a closet, in the corner where the dust tends to linger and the light shies away, . hangs a brown suede leather jacket right next to a pair of old jeans. A jacket that--in its newer days, when the zipper still worked and both pockets were hole-less--a young woman wore on occasion. But, both the jeans and jacket are a bit faded now, the religious, threads have turned awry, and the zippers have lost their shine. The woman has now passed it down to king movement, her daughter, but. Carpe diem , Denim , Incandescent light bulb 2239 Words | 7 Pages. A Gift for My Mother The story A Gift for GentleHands by M.E., My Mother is a short story written by king, Viv McDade which . deals with a family of three; a set of parents and their daughter. The mother envies the beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on the other side of the railway, and she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and the myth of the vaginal, their property compared to the house on other side of the railway. The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages.

My Mother at SixtySix / KAMALA DAS / Page 1 My Mother at SixtySix Kamala Das as a poet of the . first water Kamala Das is a tale weaver weaving the king movement, rhythm of real life conditioning life into a tale of soul a poet who loves to be loved in silence. She says, I wanted to fill my life with as many experiences as I can manage to garner because I do not believe that one can get born again. This poem is an example of movement such experience with oozing agony and GentleHands by M.E., melancholy beleaguered with modern economic system. Summary. Child , Filial piety , Linguistics 1214 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tribute to my Mother Claribel Brizuela Rivera I believe in love at first sight, because I love my . King Movement! mother since I opened my eyes. I admire this woman with all my soul.

We have been together through thick and thin. She has giving me the reasons to real of classical, consider her a strong, supportive, determined and loving woman. Who has showed me values, respect and how to face situations without giving-up. My family was raised in Cuba; we were a poor family, but a hard working family who never went to bed. Cuba , Family , Father 1346 Words | 5 Pages. of great admiration for and love of his mother are evident throughout the poem. The opening line with its succession of superlatives, 'most . near', 'most dear' and 'most loved', and straight way attests strongly to these feelings.

His exuberant exclamation near the end of the poem, 'and so I send O all my faith and all my love to her. 'confirms the strength of these feelings. The warm, humorous, delightfully frank way Baker describes his 'irresistible' mother in king movement, the intervening lines also convinces. Bismuth-209 , Comedy , Humour 1152 Words | 3 Pages. My Mother and her Sister Happiness is citation edition a key factor in king movement, life. GentleHands! Weather happiness is found in love, in career, in family - . everybody deserves to experience true happiness sometime in life. Life is not complete without this key factor. This is true in the case of the mother in the short story My Mother and her Sister who does not seem to find true happiness in life before her days are over.

This assignment will begin with an analysis and movement, interpretation of the short story My Mother and her Sister. Family , Fiction , Gustav Klimt 1352 Words | 4 Pages. A Gift for My Mother is a short story written by Viv McDade. . Life Of Classical Conditioning! Its chronicling the king movement, course of a young girls best intentions. . The main character in the story is a little, juvenile girl called Lucy. ..a bunch of wild flowers in the bushveld.. (p. 8, l. 1) The story takes place in South Africa, because a bushveld is apa book citation edition a well-grassed plain area in South Africa. Throughout the king, entire story Lucy wants to give her mother a gift. She decides to collect bunches of flowers, sell them and earn some cash. A Good Thing , Family , Father 1122 Words | 3 Pages. My Mother and her Sister The short story My Mother and GentleHands by M.E. Kerr, her Sister by Jane Rogers, is about . Dorothy, her daughter who is our narrator and king movement, her sister, Lucy who is now 75 years old. We never hear that the imagery, narrator is king movement a woman, but I assume she is GentleHands by M.E. because she is feeling guilty and gratitude in connection with aunt Lucy, her view on movement happiness with a happy marriage, seems to be feminine. Normally a man wouldnt care that much about serving a good dinner, but she gets sad because she cant make a.

Family , Happiness , Marriage 991 Words | 3 Pages. ? A Gift for My Mother Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over the world today. It is an Essay Locke vs Marx issue, which affects many . people and families. Many people have to movement, struggle everyday just to apa book citation edition, survive. Movement! They starve and struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about Essay about Locke, if there are enough food or money to survive another day. This is an example of the big distinction between the rich and the poor all over the world. In Africa for instance poverty is very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. remember very clearly the movement, moment I received a phone call from my cousin, Michelle telling me that my mom was in GentleHands by M.E. Kerr, the hospital and . things werent looking good.

She said, Hannah, your mom is in the hospital, and shes not doing very well. I dont know many details, but you should come down right away. It took me a few minutes - maybe longer for that to set in. I never had a relationship with my mom other than her being my biological mother . I stopped everything I was doing and sat there debating whether. Debut albums , English-language films , Mother 1350 Words | 3 Pages. Mother Teresa: A Biography Mother Teresa was born as Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Macedonia, on king August 26, 1910. Agness . GentleHands By M.E. Kerr! mother raised her as a Roman Catholic. Movement! At the age of twelve, Agnes had a strong calling towards God. She knew that she wanted to spread the love of GentleHands by M.E. Kerr Christ and king movement, become a missionary. When she was eighteen, she left the home of her parents and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns, who had missions in imagery, India.

Agnes was trained in king movement, Dublin until May, 24, 1931. Canonization , Heart , Missionaries of Charity 944 Words | 3 Pages. Sir Francis Bacon's, The Four Idols , and Steven Jay Gould's, Nonmoral Nature, are quite compatible as comparisons. I would say more so than . comparing Gould's work with Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, from a literary standpoint. I think Bacon and Gould would have shared some similar ideas and agreed with one another on several issues. When describing Bacon's Idols of the Tribe, Bacon states,have their foundation in the myth orgasm, human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of men.

For it is a false assertion. Aesthetics , Charles Darwin , Human 935 Words | 3 Pages. experience to hear my director said Cut! Scene 1 Take 5, good take. I dont know if it will be a disadvantage to say that I considered . myself as Jane-of-all-trades but master of none. I have this habit of king movement doing my extreme best to vaginal orgasm, any task that I find so interesting.

Well, be it interesting or not, I still tried to perform anything to the best of my abilities. Sometimes, I gave up and sometimes I got bored with it. But the movement, experience that I have always stays with me as long as my memory bank can. Colonialism , Filipino people , Han Chinese 863 Words | 3 Pages. MOTHER.THE PAIN OF LOSS.Now I can say with certainty that I had never understood others suffering from about vs Marx unbearable loss of a dear person. For . my part it used to be pity, compassion. When this happened to me, when my dear mother died, I started to king, understand all those people who lost someone they loved. There are perhaps no proper words to religious imagery, describe this pain, at least none used on this planet. Movement! This intolerable pain which tears you apart, which is like a stone on your heart, and which make tears run.

Debut albums , Feeling , First-person narrative 1279 Words | 3 Pages. my idol is my mother In our lives , we came across many people . We see new faces everyday. Many of . them remain anonymous , some may be acquitances, some will become our friends but from that , only one person will become our idol . What makes an idol ? In the words of Oxford Learner's Dictionary, idol is person or thing that is loved and admired very much. I supposed that everyone of Essay Locke us have their own idol either a pop, singer , Prime Minister , or football players. For me, my mother , or 'mak' as. 669 Words | 2 Pages. inspired me, my mother is the first person that comes to king movement, mind.

My mother has been the biggest . inspiration in real conditioning, my life. Everything that I am today is a result of the influence and the life lessons that she has taught me. She has made so many opportunities available for me, without her I do not know where I would be. My mother is a very inspiring person; the reasons for king movement, this are countless. For example, when I decided to run for apa book citation edition, Student Council and king movement, I didn't think I could make it, but my mother was my biggest. English-language films , Family , Father 1084 Words | 2 Pages. The Difference Between My Grandmother and Mother. Difference between my Grandmother and Mother During my child hood, I had to go live with my . grandmother who I consider as my mom.

I use to wonder what it will be like if I go stay with my mother . My grandma always told me her rules are not the same as my mom and I am going to wish I had stayed home with her. I thought to myself what will be the difference between them is. The Myth Of The Vaginal Orgasm! Until one day, I decided to go live with my mother to experience the differences. I found out that my grandmother is totally. Coming out , Family , Grandma Moses 966 Words | 3 Pages. English 1301 15 October 2012 Mothers It is no question that mothers are utterly important in every childs life. As far as I . could remember my mother has always been there for me.

For example one of the many times she has been there for king, me was when she taught me the difference between healthy food and junk food. Making sure that her children are always healthy has been my mommys top priority. When I was six, or seven I can recall going to the corner store with my parents and kennedy, like most kids I. August Strindberg , Family , Father 1139 Words | 3 Pages. worst plagues that could devastate humankind with dirty mutation caused by these extreme imbalances in nature. Are we going to let this special planet . die? Are we not going to try to save mother Earth from absolute destruction and preserve mankind? I love this wonderful planet so much and I will start my campaign in king movement, saving this world at this very moment. May those who are concerned about our world would start caring by doing simple things like taking care of household garbage, by minimizing the.

Air pollution , Earth , Industrial Revolution 844 Words | 3 Pages. Idols of the Tribe The idol of the Tribe is a look into nature of humanity in apa book citation edition, general: common sense tendencies to rely upon . little assumptions without confirming them as established truths and movement, beliefs in religious, which humans have a tendency to support their personal beliefs. In some cases wishful thinking leads people to believe what one wishes to believe, a tendency that is difficult to king, understand. Human beings have over generalized and to jump to conclusions on the basis of first impressions. These. Conclusion , Human , Perception 925 Words | 3 Pages. Agatha Christie says, A mothers love for her child is like nothing else in the world. It knows no law, no pity. It dares all things and citation, crushes down . remorselessly all that stands in its path. . King Movement! Mother being the supreme lover, loves her child like nothing. A mother dissipates the GentleHands Kerr, clouds of darkness, and cause peace to return to our hearts when we are helpless in the wilderness life with her kind precepts and counsels. From the moment we are born till we are cradled in the chariot of death, we.

Islam , Love , Mother 1224 Words | 3 Pages. Who is your idol ? Almost everyone has their idols , including me, I also have my own favourite idol . King Movement! . That person whose qualifies I particular admire is about my father. He is forty-eight years old now. For me, I think my father is the most industrious man in king, the world. About Locke Vs Marx! He is very fair and tall.

He is still very healthy because he always takes balanced diet. He dislikes to king movement, consume alcoholic drinks and does not smoke at all. He is really a great husband and a great father too. He was not born with a silver. Debut albums , Family , Father 563 Words | 2 Pages. ? MY IDOL Who has an idol ? I have one. I idol is someone who gave you inspiration based on his/her . personalities and contribution. Everyone has his/her own idol . It can be your mom, your dad, your senior, artist or anyone that inspires you. My idol is an artist.

He is a member of a Korean band named SHINee. Essay Locke! His name is king Choi Min Ho or generally known as Minho. He and his band is well-known in the whole Asia. The Myth Of The Orgasm! In my eyes, he is very unique in king movement, his own way. First of all, I want to talk about kennedy war, his appearance. Human height , Incheon , Member of Parliament 476 Words | 1 Pages. ? Idols and Francis Bacon By: Bailey Gray Soc 101-099 TR 11:10 To Francis Bacon the four . idols , tribe, cave, market place, and theater, beset the minds of king movement men (Bacon). To him, the human race has four prejudices that haze our scientific thoughts: 1) Our perceptions are true and trust worthy,2) Experience make us wise, 3) Language provides us to be superior beings, and 4) We believe previous scientific theories and philosophical assertions (Bacon). Because. Francis Bacon , Human , Middle East 1295 Words | 6 Pages. My idol would be Beck Weathers.

He was the incredible person that managed to survive the 1996 Everest disaster. Beck went . snow-blind in the Death-Zone of Everest and spent a night there out in the open during a blizzard that took away the lives of his nine colleagues. He had frostbites so extreme that it seems impossible for religious, him to ever have survived, but with sheer will power he staggered his way back to king movement, camp. I belief Beck Weathers courage and tenacity deserves to be applaud. Under those. 1996 Everest disaster , Beck Weathers , Debut albums 367 Words | 2 Pages. The Exploration of Womanhood in All About My Mother. Adi Radia The Exploration of Womanhood in All About My Mother In his critically acclaimed 1999 character-driven drama film . All About My Mother (1999); writer-director Pedro Almodovar cements his reputation as an the myth expert on the complexities and intricacies of womanhood.

The film features several complex and multi-layered female characters that are portrayed with great emotional depth. King Movement! Throughout the course of the religious imagery, film, these characters are forced to struggle with impediments such as loss, betrayal. All About My Mother , Bette Davis , Gender 1807 Words | 5 Pages. Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idols. ? CONTENT PAGES NUMBER Table of content 1 Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idol 2 Player Profile 3 Kobe Bryant 4 . King Movement! International Career 5 Kobe Bryant In My Life 6 References 7 Why I Select Kobe Bryant As My Idols All my jokes about about vs Marx, loving Kobe aside, I really admire the man. To me Kobe is more than a basketball player. Kobe Bryant is the first person I ever looked up to and probably the person who has had the king, greatest impact on me who i havent met in real life. When I first watch. Basketball , Dirk Nowitzki , International Basketball Federation 1771 Words | 8 Pages. The Importance of My Language. Amy Tan's Mother Tongue.

Based on Amy Tans Mother Tongue it is evident that language has an by M.E. Kerr affect on our lives. Language defines the king movement, type of person I am generally . and it has had an affect on my choices as well as my lifestyle. Depending on Essay about vs Marx my friends, family, and movement, others I talk to my choice on language tends to vary. My decisions in life, sometimes, are influenced by the language I use and my surroundings. Language has become my way of seeing life in a different perspective. In Amy Tans Mother Tongue she discusses. Affect , Debut albums , Dysfunctional family 898 Words | 3 Pages. ? MY MOTHER Of all the Kerr, persons in king movement, the world, my mother loves me most, and I also love her from the . Religious! core of my heart. To me, she is king like a living goddess who takes all kinds of pain and imagery, care for my sake.

When I am sick, she spends sleepless nights by my sick-bed. When I come first in king movement, my class examination, she becomes perhaps the happiest person on Essay earth. Movement! From my childhood, I have been greatly influenced by my mother . She has always guided me in the right path in every step of kennedy war my life. She has taught. 2006 singles , Child , English-language films 544 Words | 1 Pages. aspect of my life -- be it business, education, beliefs, tennis, values, attitudes, and king movement, mindset. My mother is the . most inspiring person in GentleHands by M.E., my life.

I have learned so much from her, just from seeing her care for my siblings and myself. Movement! My mother has taught me that strength and independence are important in real life examples conditioning, life and that I can never stop at what I want to do. I am very thankful for the love and life I receive from my mother . I have always thought of my mom as strong and independent. My mom is the. 2006 albums , 2007 albums , 2007 singles 412 Words | 2 Pages. 1 MY MOTHER Of all the persons in king, the world, my mother loves me most, and I also love her from the . core of my heart. To me, she is like a living goddess who takes all kinds of pain and care for my sake. When I am sick, she spends sleepless nights by my sick-bed.

When I come first in my class exami-nation, she becomes perhaps the happiest person on earth. By M.E.! From my childhood, I have been greatly influenced by movement, my mother . She has always guided me in citation, the right path in king, every step of my life. She has. Affection , Anxiety , English-language films 429 Words | 2 Pages. ? MY MOTHER My mother is the Essay about, best person that I know.

She is a very special person who has always . been with me to support me. She is hardworking, cheerful and simple woman; she is king a woman that despite all the complications she always has a big smile. She is a very mature person but she knows how to religious imagery, be a girl and share great moments with her family, rather a monument of king woman. I know at real conditioning times she yells at me and corrects me, but I know she does not do because she is evil, but because she loves me;. English-language films , Family , Father 471 Words | 2 Pages. My Mother Marilyn Many of king people have been a great influence in my life, but, most importantly, . my mother is the person who has had the greatest impact. I admire my mother because of life examples of classical conditioning how she faces her struggles, how she respects herself, how she has accomplished so much, and for everything shes done for me in my life. My mother is the most helpful, smartest, and most generous woman I know, who has accomplished so much.

My mother , Marilyn, is so generous. She definitely goes out. Example , Life , Rubber Soul 516 Words | 2 Pages. My Experience with Mother Hens and Their Families. were foraging. King Movement! With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the dog, she rushed at him over and over, cackling loudly, all the while continuing to . Imagery! push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and king, soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for several minutes after he was gone. Locke! Evas behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior. A Hen in king movement, the Wind , Bird , Buffalo wings 1357 Words | 4 Pages.

My Mother A mother is the person that brings you into this world. Kennedy Vietnam War! When you are an king movement infant, she is the kennedy war, one that . King Movement! makes certain you are always fed, dry, and war, happy. After a few years, she teaches you how to walk, how to dress yourself, and king movement, how to sing your ABCs. She is the one that pays attention to Kerr, your favorite snacks and surprises you with them in your lunch box. She is the one waiting at movement your bus stop with open arms ready to hug you and take you home.

She teaches you how to share and most importantly. Certified teacher , Christina Aguilera , Education 815 Words | 2 Pages. An Explication on I Ask My Mother How to Sing An explication of I ask My Mother to Sing In Li-Young Lees, I Ask My Mother to real life of classical, Sing, four . King Movement! main stanzas are found; they are elaborated with memory, joyfulness, grief, and pleasant remembrances. Kennedy Vietnam War! The speaker implies tones of nostalgia as he remembers his father. The title I Ask My Mother to movement, Sing is clearly a song that the speaker begs for GentleHands by M.E. Kerr, his mother to sing and the happiness of that songs also make the king movement, speakers grandmother to sing along. The most important part is by M.E. Kerr what. Family , Line , Mother 379 Words | 3 Pages.

of people assume that ones daughter is a lot like their mother , and a lot of times that is true, in some aspects. I can tell you that . King! my wisdom and citation edition, common sense came from my mom. My sense of humor, my laugh, my eyes, and my strength also came from my mom. Movement! My mom is the kennedy vietnam, reason I have chosen the career path I have chosen. King Movement! So, I have a lot of GentleHands by M.E. traits in movement, resemblance of my mom, the only trait I lack is her addiction.

Growing up I imagined my life to be perfect, as I guess all children usually do. But. Family , Friends , Grandparent 1567 Words | 4 Pages. My mother is an affectionate and the myth, pious lady. She loves me very much. I love her, too. She takes care of all of us. She gets up . early in king, the morning, makes our breakfast, lunch and dinner with her own hands. The Myth Vaginal Orgasm! She looks after the cleanliness of the king movement, house and furniture, and also our clothes and vietnam, health.

When I fall sick, my mother passes sleepless nights by the side of my sick bed. Movement! Her anxiety and vietnam war, her fear disappear after my recovery from movement illness. In my eyes, she is really an ideal mother . My mother. English-language films , Friendship , In My Eyes 422 Words | 2 Pages. only guess my mother by the myth vaginal orgasm, this point, because I mean who else would feed me before birth? She has and always will be . my role model. King Movement! My mother is a wonderful woman because she is strong, kind, and would do anything for Essay vs Marx, me. Without my mom I do not know where I would be today. She has taught me so much and movement, has helped shape me into the young lady I am. She has proven her strength through everything she has been through she puts me and my siblings well-being before her own. She had to drive my siblings.

2002 albums , Debut albums , English-language films 831 Words | 2 Pages. has had the most significant influence on me, I began to think about all the apa book edition, people that were part of my academic career. Then I realized that . I was looking at the wrong part of my life. I should not have focused on king the people that have influenced me in the academic aspect, but the one person who has influenced me the most every day. Of The Vaginal Orgasm! My mother has the movement, greatest impact on about Locke my life as a whole. My mothers loving, caring, thoughtful, gentle, and persistent nature has shaped me as the person I am today. Cancer , Family , Father 543 Words | 2 Pages. MY MOTHER One should never be satisfied with oneself because the moment of king movement satisfaction marks a halt in progress. The Myth Of The Orgasm! This is one . of my mothers sayings that has been staying in movement, my mind for years, and maybe forever. My mother , who has had a significant influence in vietnam war, my life, is my greatest love and the one that I am always proud of. King Movement! My mother is a very good looking woman even though she dresses very simple.

She has a long, black hair with the Essay, same hair-style for forty years. She owns a very warm and. Family , Gloria Jones 915 Words | 2 Pages. My Teacher, My Mentor, My Best Friend My Mother Each one of us had had that one . person in our lives who changed our lives; that person without whom we could never have achieved all the things we have achieved. King Movement! This is the kennedy vietnam, person in our life who teaches us, how to tell the difference between right and king movement, wrong, make better life decisions, and get on the path of righteousness.

Some might find that person in the form of their friends, parents, life partners and some might put God in vietnam war, place of that person. 2005 singles , Debut albums , English-language films 550 Words | 2 Pages. ?I had the meanest mother in the whole world. While other kids ate Candy for breakfast, I had to have cereal, eggs or toast. When others Had . Movement! cokes and candy for lunch, I had to eat a sandwich. As you can Guess, my supper was different than the other kids' also. But at least, I wasn't alone in religious imagery, my sufferings.

My sister and king movement, two Brothers had the same mean mother as I did. My mother insisted upon knowing where we were at all times. You'd Think we were on a chain gang. She had to. High school , Shame , Suffering 780 Words | 2 Pages.

My Mother Jennifer LaMorte ENG 121 Dwight Paulsen July 6, 2013 This essay is Essay vs Marx about how a perfect . mother looks like to movement, me. People say that the perfect mother does not exist, I actually dont know if that is true, but what I do know is that my mother is perfect for religious, me. Everything in my mother is special; the way she dresses, the way she speaks, the way she behaves etc. Somehow they are a part of you, a part of king your world, your heart. For me that is religious my mother . Her. 2006 singles , 2007 singles , Emotion 691 Words | 2 Pages. My mother's optimism and pure heart has enlightened and enriched me throughout the entirety of my life. Even in king movement, my . darkest of times my mother has guided me.

Were it not for my mother I could not even dream of the person I have become. At two years old, my family divided itself. My brother and I were forced to live out of our duffle bags and travel back and forth from imagery our mom and dads house. This division created confusion for my brother and me. Movement! Both my father and mother were always. Debut albums , English-language films , Family 477 Words | 2 Pages. My Mother and Her Sister - by Jane Roger. A. Edition! My Mother and her Sister It is heartbreaking when you lose a person who meant a lot to you, and movement, it can be very difficult to . move on real in life and movement, be happy. Since happiness is a very important factor in the myth vaginal orgasm, life for the individually person everybody deserves to king movement, find happiness, weather whether you find it in GentleHands by M.E., love, friends or family. But happiness is not something everybody can achieve, and that is the case in king, this short story, My mother and examples of classical conditioning, her Sister.

But who can really define happiness, because. Family , Fiction , First-person narrative 1135 Words | 3 Pages. The Black Lace Fan My Mother Gave Me. Practice Commentary: The Black Lace Fan My Mother Gave Me Eavan Bollands The Black Lace Fan my . Mother Gave me from her book, Outside History (1990) gives readers the first impression that the movement, poem is about the value of GentleHands by M.E. Kerr a fan that has been passed down to king, her. However, based on the title, the term black lace raises a sense of mystery and darkness as black lace is not completely see-through, there are spots that need to be filled in.

To illustrate the value of the Essay, black lace fan, the speaker. Emotion , Grammatical mood , Poetry 1520 Words | 4 Pages.

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12 Classic Essays on movement English Prose Style. Despite the changes in English prose over the past few centuries, we may still benefit from the stylistic observations of the old masters. Here, chronologically arranged, are 12 key passages from our collection of apa book citation edition, Classic Essays on English Prose Style. (To read the complete essays, click on the highlighted titles.) There is a mode of style for which I know not that the masters of oratory have yet found a name; a style by which the most evident truths are so obscured, that they can no longer be perceived, and the most familiar propositions so disguised that they cannot be known. . . . This style may be called the terrifick , for its chief intention is, to terrify and amaze; it may be termed the repulsive , for king its natural effect is to religious imagery, drive away the reader; or it may be distinguished, in plain English, by the denomination of the bugbear style , for it has more terror than danger. Eloquence is not in the words but in the subject, and in great concerns the more simply anything is expressed, it is generally the king movement more sublime. True eloquence does not consist, as the rhetoricians assure us, in saying great things in a sublime style, but in a simple style, for there is, properly speaking, no such thing as a sublime style; the sublimity lies only in the things; and when they are not so, the kennedy war language may be turgid, affected, metaphorical--but not affecting. About this time I met with an odd volume of the Spectator . I had never before seen any of them.

I bought it, read it over king and over, and was much delighted with it. I thought the writing excellent, and vietnam wished, if possible, to imitate it. With that view, I took some of the papers, and king making short hints of the sentiment in each sentence, laid them by for a few days, and then, without looking at the book, tried to complete the papers again, by expressing each hinted sentiment at length and as fully as it had been expressed before, in any suitable words that should come to hand. Essay About Locke Vs Marx. It is king not easy to write a familiar style. Many people mistake a familiar for a vulgar style, and suppose that to write without affectation is to write at random. Kennedy Vietnam War. On the contrary, there is nothing that requires more precision, and, if I may so say, purity of expression, than the style I am speaking of. It utterly rejects not only king, all unmeaning pomp, but all low, cant phrases, and loose, unconnected, slipshod allusions. It is not to take the first word that offers, but the best word in common use. [Michael Sadler#39;s style is] everything which it ought not to be. Instead of saying what he has to vaginal orgasm, say with the movement perspicuity, the precision, and the simplicity in real life examples of classical, which consists the eloquence proper to scientific writing, he indulges without measure in vague, bombastic declamation, made up of those fine things which boys of fifteen admire, and which everybody, who is king movement not destined to be a boy all his life, weeds vigorously out of his compositions after five-and-twenty. That portion of his two thick volumes which is Essay Locke vs Marx not made up of statistical tables, consists principally of movement, ejaculations, apostrophes, metaphors, similes--all the worst of their respective kinds. The scholar might frequently emulate the vaginal propriety and emphasis of the farmer#39;s call to his team, and confess that if that were written it would surpass his labored sentences.

Whose are the king truly labored sentences? From the weak and flimsy periods of the religious politician and literary man, we are glad to turn even to the description of work, the simple record of the month#39;s labor in the farmer#39;s almanac, to restore our tone and spirits. A sentence should read as if its author, had he held a plow instead of a pen, could have drawn a furrow deep and straight to the end. Movement. Cardinal John Newman on the Inseparability of Style and apa book edition Substance. Thought and speech are inseparable from each other. Matter and expression are parts of one; style is a thinking out into language. This is king movement what I have been laying down, and by M.E. Kerr this is literature: not things , not the verbal symbols of things; not on the other hand mere words; but thoughts expressed in king, language. . . Religious Imagery. . King Movement. A great author, Gentlemen, is not one who merely has a copia verborum , whether in prose or verse, and can, as it were, turn on at his will any number of splendid phrases and swelling sentences; but he is one who has something to of the, say and knows how to say it. (John Henry Newman, The Idea of king movement, a University, 1852) Cooper#39;s word-sense was singularly dull. When a person has a poor ear for GentleHands by M.E. Kerr music he will flat and sharp right along without knowing it.

He keeps near the tune, but it is not the tune. When a person has a poor ear for words, the result is a literary flatting and sharping; you perceive what he is intending to say, but you also perceive that he does not say it. This is Cooper. He was not a word-musician. His ear was satisfied with the approximate words. . . . King. There have been daring people in the world who claimed that Cooper could write English, but they are all dead now.

Agnes Repplier on the Right Words. Musicians know the value of chords; painters know the value of colors; writers are often so blind to the value of words that they are content with a bare expression of their thoughts . . Apa Book. .. For every sentence that may be penned or spoken the king right words exist. They lie concealed in the inexhaustible wealth of a vocabulary enriched by of the vaginal, centuries of noble thought and delicate manipulation. He who does not find them and movement fit them into place, who accepts the first term which presents itself rather than search for the expression which accurately and beautifully embodies his meaning, aspires to mediocrity, and is content with failure. (Agnes Repplier, #34;Words,#34; 1896) [L]et me plead that you have been told of one or two things which Style is Essay Locke not ; which have little or nothing to do with Style, though sometimes vulgarly mistaken for it. Style, for example, is movement notcan never beextraneous Ornament. Real Conditioning. . . King. . [I]f you here require a practical rule of me, I will present you with this: #34;Whenever you feel an impulse to perpetrate a piece of exceptionally fine writing, obey itwholeheartedlyand delete it before sending your manuscript to press. Murder your darlings .#34; Woodrow knew how to conjure up such words. He knew how to make them glow, and weep. He wasted no time upon the heads of his dupes, but aimed directly at their ears, diaphragms and hearts. . . . When Wilson got upon his legs in those days he seems to have gone into a sort of trance, with all the peculiar illusions and of the vaginal orgasm delusions that belong to a frenzied pedagogue. He heard words giving three cheers; he saw them race across a blackboard like Socialists pursued by the Polizei ; he felt them rush up and kiss him. King Movement. (H.L.

Mencken, #34;The Style of Woodrow,#34; 1921) As the police put it, anything you say may be used as evidence against you. If handwriting reveals character, writing reveals it still more. . . . Essay. Most style is not honest enough. Easy to say, but hard to practice. King Movement. A writer may take to long words, as young men to beardsto impress. But long words, like long beards, are often the badge of charlatans. Or a writer may cultivate the vietnam obscure, to seem profound. But even carefully muddied puddles are soon fathomed. Or he may cultivate eccentricity, to seem original.

But really original people do not have to think about being originalthey can no more help it than they can help breathing. They do not need to dye their hair green.

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combat medic resume For the References cited in king movement footnotes, click here. The question of women soldiers has generated substantial historical research, but of mixed quality. This paper -- from a chapter of War and kennedy vietnam Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa (Cambridge, 2001) -- comprehensively reviews the historical performance of women combatants in war, across history and cultures. Women's participation in combat, although rare, demonstrates potential capability roughly equal to king movement, men's though women on average may fight less well than men. Women have proven to religious, be capable fighters in female combat units, in mixed-gender units, as individuals in groups of king men, and of the vaginal orgasm as leaders of male armies.

Notably, the 19th-century Dahomey Kingdom and king movement the Soviet Union in vietnam war WWII both mobilized substantial numbers of women combatants, and thereby clearly increased their military effectiveness. Yet these successes were not copied elsewhere. King? Domestic political structures and ideologies appear central to the Dahomey and Soviet deployments of about vs Marx women soldiers. These factors may explain why so few states employ women combatants despite states' recurring need to maximize military capabilities. The question of movement women combatants has generated substantial historical research in recent years, sparked by feminist scholarship#146;s interest in uncovering the kennedy, previously ignored roles of women in social and political history. Several accounts chronicle the role of individual women soldiers in king a variety of societies and time periods. The Myth Of The Orgasm? Historian Linda Grant De Pauw writes, #147;Women have always and king movement everywhere been inextricably involved in Essay war, [but] hidden from history#133;. During wars, women are ubiquitous and highly visible; when wars are over and the war songs are sung, women disappear.#148; 1. Unfortunately, several recent overviews mix well-documented cases with legends, so the subject requires some sorting out. In particular, John Laffin#146;s 1967 Women in Battle contains almost no documentation, and the caveat that the movement, stories therein were #147;difficult to acquire and even more difficult to verify.#148; (Laffin#146;s own opinion is the myth of the orgasm that a #147;woman#146;s place should be in king movement the bed and not the battlefield.#148;) Yet Laffin#146;s stories turn up as fact in Jessica Amanda Salmonson#146;s 1991 Encyclopedia of Amazons #150; a confusing mix of historical and about vs Marx mythical cases #150; and David Jones#146;s 1997 Women Warriors , among others.

Linda Grant De Pauw is more reliable and king movement provides good documentation on US and European history, despite accepting too uncritically some unsupported claims concerning prehistory, anthropology, and non-Western countries. De Pauw groups women#146;s roles in war into four categories: (1) the classic roles of victim and of instigator; (2) combat support roles; (3) #147;virago#148; roles that perform masculine functions without changing feminine appearance (such as warrior queens, women members of home militias, or all-female combat units); and (4) warrior roles in which women become like men, often changing clothing and other gender markers. 2. The evidence on women soldiers and that on apa book edition women political leaders in wartime seems to movement, support liberal feminists; women can perform these roles effectively. Kennedy Vietnam? I review women#146;s participation in each of several settings in turn #150; female combat units, mixed-gender units, individual women in groups of men, and women military leaders of male armies. Is it workable to organize sizable military combat units with only female participants? The answer is king movement a qualified yes #150; it has been tried only a handful of times in all of history, but the results show the possibility of success, defined as strengthening the Locke, military#146;s effectiveness in war. These cases, although few, demonstrate the possibility of effective women combatants. Dahomey in the slave-trading era. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom of West Africa (present-day Benin) is the only documented case of a large-scale female combat unit that functioned over movement, a long period as part of a standing army.

The Dahomey Kingdom arose in the late sixteenth century when an aggressive clan conquered its neighbors and expanded its territory. The economy of GentleHands by M.E. Kerr Dahomey was fundamentally based on the slave trade #150; go to war against neighboring societies to capture slaves; trade the king, slaves to Europeans for religious, guns; use the king, guns to go to war. Interwoven with these wars were extreme acts of large-scale human sacrifice, torture, and cannibalism, practiced on prisoners captured in war. Dahomey was one of the most successful military organizations ever in its region, and was rightly feared by kennedy war, its neighbors. It grew up with the slave trade #150; which expanded after 1670 and eventually exported 2 million people from the movement, area #150; and GentleHands by M.E. ended when France conquered it in 1892, at the end of the slaving era. The kings of Dahomey enjoyed showing off the movement, Amazon corps to citation, visiting Europeans (Dahomey#146;s slave-export customers) who were always interested in the phenomenon, and thus we have direct reports from English visitors in 1793, 1847, and 1851. Stanley Alpern has documented the case well. 3. The #147;Amazon corps#148; appears to have originated in 1727 when Dahomey faced a grave military situation. King Agadja armed a regiment of movement females at the rear, apparently just to make his forces appear larger, and discovered that they actually fought well.

Subsequently, the king organized the Amazon corps as a kind of palace guard. The corps#146; size, which varied over time and is in some dispute, apparently ranged from about 800 women early in GentleHands the nineteenth century to over 5,000 at the mid-century peak, several thousand being combat forces. Women comprised a substantial minority of the Dahomean army, varying from movement, under one-tenth to over one-third of the edition, total. Some of the women were native-born, while others were captured in war and showed surprising loyalty. In one instance, a girl who had been captured young and raised in Dahomey was recaptured while fighting in the Amazon corps but refused to go back to her parents, insisting on returning to Dahomey instead.

4. The women soldiers were armed with muskets and swords. They drilled regularly and resembled the men in movement dress and activities (see Figure 2.1). Edition? They stayed in top physical condition and were fast and strong. In the field, the Amazon corps carried mats and bedding on their heads, along with powder, shot, and food for king, a week or two. Life Conditioning? Some writers describe the king movement, women as rather large and strong. GentleHands By M.E. Kerr? However, this physique is common to the other countries of king West Africa, none of which used women as soldiers. 5. Figure 2.1 Dahomean Amazon, as drawn by apa book, English visitor, 1850. [Forbes 1851, plate 2. Smithsonian Institution Libraries. Frank Cass #038; Co.]

The women showed at least as much courage as the men #150; more, by several accounts #150; and had a reputation for cruelty. There was no known case of king women warriors fleeing combat, although men often did so. One European observer concluded that, #147;if undertaking a campaign, I should prefer the females to the male soldiers.#148; 6. The women of the Amazon corps said: #147;We are men, not women!#133; Our nature is changed.#148; They dressed, ate, and examples of classical behaved as the men did. The Amazon corps members were technically married to the King (but did not have sex with him), were extremely loyal to him, and were forbidden to have sex with men (at the risk of death for both, although some observers thought the rule was frequently broken anyway). Several thousand lived in the palace, along with civilian wives (perhaps 2,000 of them) and female slaves. King Movement? According to one report, female prostitutes were employed in the palace to serve the Amazon corps, although this is unclear. GentleHands By M.E.? The Amazon corps was totally segregated from men. Outside the palace, its approach was announced by a ringing bell.

Everyone had to turn their backs, and males had to move away. 7. The Dahomean army was not primarily female. King Movement? Males were counted and mobilized first, then females were counted, and military service was required of men but voluntary for women. A village could send women in place of Essay vs Marx men who did not want to serve. The army was divided into two parts, the left and the right, and each was in turn divided into movement, a male and female component #150; a division which somewhat reflected the organization of Dahomey political administration. 8. Although not in the majority, the women soldiers played a key role in the Dahomey army, and of the orgasm performed admirably in combat. In a battle in 1840, an enemy force routed the male Dahomean soldiers and only a rally of the Amazon corps prevented disaster.

Using female soldiers had some drawbacks, however. Movement? In 1851, 10,000 males and 6,000 females faced 15,000 defenders in Essay about Locke a neighboring society. The defenders were #147;infuriated#148; by the discovery #150; as they were preparing to castrate a prisoner of war #150; that some of the Dahomean soldiers were women. Movement? They redoubled their efforts, with their own women acting as supply troops, and repulsed the Dahomey attack with 2,000 to 3,000 Dahomey killed. Essay Locke Vs Marx? In 1890#150;92, France conquered Dahomey, but it required several bloody attempts (showing that Dahomey was the strongest military power in West Africa at king, the time). Edition? In the first major battle, in 1890, Dahomey women soldiers took part and several were found dead on the battlefield, to the surprise of the French soldiers.

In a later battle, the king movement, French commander noted that the Amazon corps, about 2,000 strong, led the attack in the presence of the king and showed remarkable speed and boldness. 9. Dahomey probably turned to women soldiers in religious part because, unlike its neighbors, it faced a severe military manpower shortage for three reasons. It was exceptionally warlike and lost men in war. It depended on a slave trade that gave preference to selling off able-bodied men. And it faced a hostile neighbor ten times larger than itself. Firearms had only king movement, recently been introduced to the region, but this does not explain the Amazons (by equalizing men#146;s and women#146;s strength) as Marvin Harris claims. Although muskets were basic weapons, they were crude and often ineffective.

A machete-like sword was decisive. Women effectively used this and a variety of apa book weapons including daggers, bayonets, battle-axes, bows and movement arrows, clubs, and a giant folding razor (with a blade over 2 feet long) apparently used mainly for kennedy vietnam, decapitation but possibly for movement, castrating enemies as well. 10. Dahomey is a critical case because it shows that women can be physically and emotionally capable of of the vaginal orgasm participating in war on a large-scale, long-term, and well-organized basis. Far from being weakened by the participation of women, the army of Dahomey was clearly strengthened. Women soldiers helped make Dahomey the king movement, preeminent regional military power that it became in of the vaginal orgasm the nineteenth century. Yet Dahomey is virtually the king movement, only case of its kind.

The puzzle is why this successful case was not emulated elsewhere. 11. The Soviet Union in World War II. Among modern great-power armies, the most substantial participation of women in combat has occurred in the Soviet Union during World War II. Religious Imagery? Following a rapid, forced industrialization of the Soviet economy in the 1930s under Stalin, in which women were drawn into nontraditional labor roles, the Soviet Union faced a dire emergency when it was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941. King? Over the next three years, the Soviets would count tens of millions of apa book citation edition war dead, and large parts of their country would be left in king movement ruins. In this extreme situation, the Soviet Union mobilized every possible resource for kennedy vietnam war, the war effort, eventually including women for combat duty. In the king, first year of the war, women were mobilized into industrial and examples other support tasks, not into the military.

These tasks included those women were already doing #150; they were already 40 percent of the industrial labor force at the outset #150; as well as new occupations that had been all male, such as mining. Women also dug trenches and built fortifications for the Soviet military. 12. Beginning in king movement 1942, faced with manpower shortages, the Soviet Union drafted into the military childless women not already employed in vs Marx war work. By 1943 women reached their peak level of participation throughout the Soviet military. Their main areas of involvement were in medical specialties (especially nursing) #150; these were often front-line positions #150; and king movement antiaircraft units which #147;became virtually a feminized military specialty.#148; 13. Clearly, hundreds of thousands of women participated in the Soviet military during World War II. However, sources #147;are distressingly vague#148; on the actual number. By M.E. Kerr? The official figures state that about 800,000 women participated in the Red Army and about another 200,000 in partisan (irregular) forces. These figures put women at about 8 percent of overall forces (with 12 million men).

Of the movement, total of 800,000, about 500,000 reportedly served at real life examples of classical, the front, and about 250,000 received military training in king Komsomol schools. Religious Imagery? Most were in their late teens. 14. All the information regarding Soviet women#146;s participation in World War II comes to us through #147;a mass of hyperbolic and patriotic press accounts and memoirs.#148; Playing up the contributions of movement women helped the formidable Soviet propaganda machine to about Locke, raise morale in a dispirited population, and spur greater sacrifices by the male soldiers. King Movement? These data problems mean that we should treat both quantitative data and particular heroic narratives with a certain skepticism. Kennedy Vietnam War? The #147;majority of women did not serve in direct combat.#148; 15. Despite all that, clearly women participated on a substantial scale #150; hundreds of thousands of movement individuals, a nontrivial minority of the war, total forces. Even if we reduce the king, extent and heroism of female participation from the official version, we are left with an life of classical important historic case of large-scale women#146;s participation in king movement combat #150; probably the largest such case in Kerr modern history.

The overriding impression left by the case is that women performed a very wide range of movement combat tasks and #147;proved themselves#148; in religious those tasks, eventually gaining the #147;acceptance and even admiration#148; of Soviet military men who had been #147;initially skeptical or hostile.#148; I will summarize each of the main areas in which women took part, in rough order of the importance of female participation to that area #150; front-line medical support, antiaircraft, combat aviation, partisan forces, infantry, and armor. 16. Medical support tasks in the Soviet military were integrated with combat to an unusual degree. Doctors and nurses served at king, the front lines under intense fire. All nurses and over 40 percent of about vs Marx doctors in the Soviet military were women. Many of the heroic stories about these women #150; some of king which appear to be true even if some are exaggerated #150; revolve around their actions in dragging and examples conditioning carrying wounded male soldiers to safety on movement the battlefield, sometimes by real examples of classical conditioning, the dozen. In other cases, women medical soldiers joined and even commanded infantry units when the king, male ranks were decimated. Reportedly, Vera Krylova enlisted as a student nurse in GentleHands by M.E. 1941, was sent to the front, and dragged hundreds of wounded comrades to safety under fire.

When her isolated unit was ambushed and king its leaders killed, in the chaos of the German advance of August 1941, the wounded Krylova jumped on Kerr a horse, took command of the movement, company, and led a two-week battle through encircling enemy forces to by M.E., rejoin Russian forces. The next year, fighting with a different unit which was retreating from king movement, a tank battle, Krylova moved forward to collect hand grenades from wounded comrades being left behind, then single-handedly charged the apa book citation, German tanks with grenades, slowing the advance enough for the Russians to evacuate their wounded. King? Such tales, although not verifiable in particular cases, reflect an overall reality #150; that many thousands of Soviet women served as front-line medical workers and some also participated directly (and effectively) in combat. 17. Antiaircraft units were staffed and commanded entirely by women #150; apparently hundreds of thousands in all. (British forces in World War II included women in life of classical antiaircraft units but had men fire the guns. US home-territory antiaircraft defense, though not needed in king movement the end, also relied on women.) One German pilot is quoted as saying that he would rather fly ten times over hostile Libya than #147;pass once through the fire of Russian flak sent up by female gunners.#148; One reason cited for real examples, the women#146;s success was that, in these all-female military units, a #147;military female subculture#148; emerged which did its work in a warmer and more casual way than in men#146;s units. 18.

In the Soviet air force, three women#146;s regiments were formed #150; a small fraction of the total force but a useful test of all-female combat units. The women pilots were organized by king movement, Marina Raskova, a kind of Amelia Earhart celebrity in the Soviet Union in the 1930s, who was flooded with offers by women pilots to volunteer in real life of classical conditioning World War II. She convinced Stalin of their potential value in king movement the war effort, and went on to organize the regiments and lead one of them until her death (at age 31) in a crash en route to their first deployment in 1943. 19. The most famous was the 588th Night Bomber Air Regiment (46th Guards Bomber Regiment), sometimes called the #147;night witches.#148; It had over 4,000 members, and at its peak carried out hundreds of sorties per night (officially, 24,000 missions in all). These pilots flew cheap, combustible biplanes (see Figure 2.2) #150; often unarmed, sometimes armed with a light machine-gun in back, to drop bombs on German positions at night (they could not have survived in daytime). They suffered substantial losses. Although the plane could land almost anywhere, the crew did not have parachutes, so a fire was often fatal.

At dusk the women would fly from of the vaginal, a rear base to a temporary airfield near the front, then send one plane every three minutes out to and back from the target all night long, with each plane completing up to three missions in one night. Movement? The system provided the Germans with no rest at night, but also let them anticipate the apa book, arrival of a plane and catch it in spotlights, making it an easy target. King Movement? The pilots learned to real life examples, slip-slide out of the spotlights and make their bombing runs with engines turned off until after they had dropped their six to eight bombs. King Movement? Especially in winter, when nights were longest, #147;[t]he women #150; pilots and ground crews alike #150; lived on GentleHands the verge of movement physical collapse, managing a bit of sleep or a meal whenever they could.#148; 20. Figure 2.2 Soviet night-bomber flown by women pilots, World War II. [Photo by apa book citation, Yevgeny Khaldei, courtesy of Anne Noggle.] The unit was the only truly all-female one #150; not only pilots and navigators but also most of the king, ground crew (e.g., mechanics and kennedy vietnam war bomb-loaders) were women. (The other two regiments were commanded by males who replaced the original women leaders, when Raskova died and another commander was recalled for king movement, ill health. The appointment of male commanders seems to by M.E., have been an king expedient measure under time pressure to religious, get the regiments into service.) The night bomber regiment was famous during the king, war, receiving extensive domestic and international press. A second bomber regiment undertook tactical missions, bombing and strafing enemy positions by day. Vs Marx? Led by Raskova until her death, the regiment flew difficult, high-performance dive-bombers.

Some of the ground crew, and some tail-gunners, were men, but all the pilots and king movement navigators were women. Essay About Vs Marx? Unlike the night bombers, this regiment received very little publicity during the war and operated under virtually the same conditions as the equivalent male bomber regiments. The commander said: #147;During the war there was no difference between this regiment and any male regiments. We lived in dugouts, as did the movement, other regiments, and flew on the same missions, not more or less dangerous.#148; 21. The third regiment was an interceptor unit (the 586th). Also commanded by a man, it eventually incorporated a male squadron (ten planes) to citation edition, join the two female squadrons.

Some of the ground crew were men, mainly because the sophisticated aircraft required skills beyond the rudimentary training of most women mechanics at that time. The regiment was assigned mostly to defense of Soviet targets against German air attack. King? Its role was to drive away attacking planes rather than pursue them. Therefore it recorded relatively few #147;kills.#148; In one episode recounted first-hand, two women pilots of this regiment (in two planes) boldly attacked straight into the middle of 42 German bombers defended with machine guns, shooting down four and turning back the rest before being forced down. Imagery? Reportedly, by the end of the war women (including those in mixed-gender units) made up 12 percent of the Soviet air fighter strength. 22.

Some individual women pilots also served in mostly male units. Raskova#146;s attempt to gather women aviators together did not entirely succeed. In 1942, eight women from the interceptor regiment were detached and assigned to male interceptor regiments to help in the Battle of movement Stalingrad. Essay Vs Marx? In contrast to the defensive mission of the king movement, all-female interceptor regiment, these pilots aggressively sought out enemy planes. Two of Essay about vs Marx these women became #147;aces,#148; each credited with about a dozen kills. One of them, Lilya Litvyak, was known as the #147;White Rose of Stalingrad.#148; In her perhaps-too-perfect story, the heroine starts as the #147;wingman#148; (supporting plane) to king movement, a male pilot, falls in love with him, is life of classical filled with fervor after his death, gets shot down multiple times, and is ultimately ambushed by king movement, eight German fighters at once, with her wreckage lost (it was reported found in 1989). 23. In the partisan forces #150; irregular guerrillas who operated in and around areas under German occupation #150; women played an Essay about Locke important role, though not in all-female units.

By one estimate, about 27,000 women participated, making up over king, 8 percent of the total partisan forces (and 16 percent in the partisan stronghold of the Belorussian forests). The women performed various tasks, mostly #147;medical, communications, and real life conditioning domestic chores; but all were armed, and many fought.#148; The extent of women#146;s participation, and the degree of (#147;clearly romanticized#148;) gender equality within the king movement, partisans, seem to have varied from place to place. One woman planted a bomb that killed the German governor of Belorussia, but more typically women secretly distributed leaflets written by men. 24. No all-female infantry units were formed, but women served in kennedy vietnam war integrated infantry units. Several hundred thousand received training in firing mortars, machine-guns, and rifles. King? A special school was established in 1943 which trained hundreds of women snipers. They #147;performed well#148; (except in throwing hand grenades and climbing trees).

One woman killed off an the myth of the entire German company over 25 days, and movement another was decorated for killing over 300 German soldiers. Although sniping takes place at a distance, it is a personalized form of killing. The sniper targets a specific individual, shoots, and sees that person fall. Judging from the extensive use of Soviet female snipers, some women are quite capable of such cold-blooded killing in war. 25. A few women participated in tank warfare, but seemingly not on an organized basis. By M.E. Kerr? In one case, a woman commanded a tank and king her husband served as driver and mechanic. In another famous case, a woman whose husband was killed in action bought her own tank, named it the religious imagery, #147;Front-line Female Comrade,#148; and king was killed in a tank battle. 26. Overall, in Soviet forces during World War II, #147;women proved of Essay equal competence in those few moments when a fluid situation and the force of circumstances threw them into king movement, a central role.#148; They performed a wide variety of of the vaginal orgasm combat tasks effectively. It is difficult to king, discern the overall picture amidst the romantic propaganda, and the record is by M.E. complex.

For example, German sources sometimes were contemptuous of Soviet women#146;s ability and willingness to fight, while at other times they gave grudging respect to Soviet women fighters they had faced. The Soviet Union, faced with a dire emergency, mobilized women extensively into king movement, military tasks for which the culture had afforded them little experience and few scripts to follow. Some of the life examples of classical, women floundered (as did some men), but clearly many rose to king movement, the challenge. In gender-integrated units, the women soldiers added to, more than they detracted from, combat effectiveness. This is why women kept being sent to those units. In all-female units such as the antiaircraft and combat aviation regiments, women performed their assigned tasks well. 27.

The Soviet case, thus, underscores the lesson of the Dahomey Kingdom, that women can be organized into imagery, effective large-scale military units. King? In neither case were women the apa book citation edition, majority, but in both cases the mobilization of a substantial minority of women soldiers increased the state#146;s military power. However, the movement, Soviet case also underscores how extreme the threat to a society must be before it will use women in Essay about combat (see pp. 10#150;22). The Soviet Union of World War II #150; invaded, occupied, its cities decimated and besieged, its people starving #150; still mobilized over 90 percent men. Its women soldiers were rarely assigned to ground combat roles and, like today#146;s American women soldiers, fought mainly when circumstances thrust them into the line of fire. The Soviet level of participation was probably exaggerated somewhat for propaganda purposes, possibly reducing the female share of Soviet forces from the official 8 percent. Even that level of participation occurred only in king the Soviet Union, of all World War II belligerents #150; a society that preached (albeit, hardly practiced) gender equality, and which had already integrated women into many traditionally male industrial jobs. None of GentleHands that takes away from the main conclusion of the case, however: women participated in movement combat in large numbers, and their participation added to apa book edition, the Soviet Union#146;s military strength. Hundreds of thousands of women made good soldiers. Contrast with Nazi Germany Despite the king movement, cases of of classical conditioning Dahomey and the Soviet Union, not every society obsessed with war, or even desperately fighting for its survival, allows women into combat.

For example, Germany in movement World War II contrasts with the Soviet Union. Germany#146;s position in both World Wars would seem to favor reliance on women, since Germany faced chronic shortages of #147;manpower#148; (lacking, among other things, the the myth of the vaginal orgasm, colonial populations of Britain and king France). In World War I, when the expected quick victory turned to protracted war, German women entered industrial jobs (about 700,000 in munitions industries by the end of the religious imagery, war), and served as civilian employees in military jobs in rear areas (medical, clerical, and king movement manual labor; women trained for real examples of classical conditioning, jobs in the signal corps late in the war but never deployed). German women won the vote after World War I, and movement some kept their jobs in apa book industry. 28. However, the Nazi ideology promoted a gender division, with women assigned to the home and the production of German children, while the king movement, men engaged in religious politics and war. Therefore Germany went into World War II with a different gender ideology than the movement, Soviet Union, one much less conducive to imagery, the participation of king women in war. Given a labor shortage, which became more severe during the war, Nazi Germany did draw on the work of women, but in of the ways that kept them away from combat, at least until the final collapse. At the outset of the war, women were employed (as during World War I) as civilians performing various tasks at military bases. However, these civilians were to be left behind when the forces deployed in wartime. 29.

The labor needs created by the war, especially as Germany found itself administering a large territory that it had rapidly conquered, led to the creation of a women#146;s Signal Auxiliary of king radio and telephone operators (picking up from the underused World War I signal corps women). It had about 8,000 members in the second half of the war. A Staff Auxiliary allowed about kennedy war, 12,000 women to king, carry out about one-third of the higher-level clerical jobs in real examples conditioning rear areas throughout occupied Europe. The air force made most extensive use of women in an Auxiliary role #150; 100,000 by the end of the movement, war. Most performed clerical, communications, and weather-related tasks, but many worked in antiaircraft units #150; not working with guns but staffing searchlight batteries (15,000 women running 350 batteries) and similar functions. 30. All these uses of women by the Nazi military aimed to apa book citation, free men soldiers for combat while rigidly separating women from movement, combat.

Even the women#146;s auxiliaries #150; who served in uniform, with rank, and under military discipline #150; #147;were neither trained in the use of arms nor were they allowed, under any conditions, to use them,#148; even as a last resort to prevent capture. (In practice, however, these women sometimes took up arms as fronts collapsed. Lacking official status as soldiers, they could be executed as guerrillas under international law if they fought.) German military leaders were #147;horrified#148; at the Soviets#146; use of women soldiers, and resisted arming women even late in the war as manpower demands became extreme. In the last months of the war, Hitler reluctantly authorized creation of an experimental women#146;s combat battalion, and later a mixed-gender guerrilla organization, but neither unit was deployed before the end of the war. 31. The key factors that apparently opened the door for Soviet women in combat were desperation, total militarization of society, and an ideology that promoted women#146;s participation outside of about vs Marx traditional feminine roles. Nazi Germany was equally militarized, and eventually desperate, but had a radically different ideology that prohibited arming women. Several other historical cases show the potential to movement, use women#146;s units in combat.

These cases generally are smaller scale and of shorter duration than the Dahomey and religious Soviet cases. Russia in World War I During World War I, some Russian women took part in combat even during the Czarist period. These women, motivated by a combination of patriotism and a desire to escape a drab existence, mostly joined up dressed as men. King Movement? A few, however, served openly as women. #147;The [Czarist] government had no consistent policy on female combatants.#148; Russia#146;s first woman aviator was turned down as a military pilot, and settled for driving and nursing. Another pilot was assigned to Kerr, active duty, however.

32. The most famous women soldiers were the #147;Battalion of Death.#148; Its leader, Maria Botchkareva, a 25-year-old peasant girl (with a history of abuse by men), began as an individual soldier in the Russian army. She managed (with the support of an king movement amused local commander) to of the orgasm, get permission from the Czar to king movement, enlist as a regular soldier. Religious? After fighting off the frequent sexual advances and ridicule of king her male comrades, she eventually won their respect #150; especially after serving with them in battle. Botchkareva#146;s autobiography describes several horrendous battle scenes in of the vaginal orgasm which most of her fellow soldiers were killed running towards German machine-gun positions, and one in which she bayoneted a German soldier to movement, death. The Myth? After two different failed attacks, she spent many hours crawling under German fire to drag her wounded comrades back to safety, evidently saving hundreds of lives in the course of movement her service at the front. She was seriously wounded several times but always returned to life, her unit at the front after recuperating. Clearly a strong bond of comradery existed between her and the male soldiers of her unit. King? 33. After the February 1917 revolution, Alexander Kerensky as Minister of War in the provisional government allowed Botchkareva to kennedy vietnam, organize a #147;Battalion of Death#148; composed of several hundred women. The history of movement this battalion is a bit murky because both anti- and pro-Bolshevik writers used it to make political points. Essay About Locke? (By contrast, the earlier phase of Botchkareva#146;s military career is more credible.) Botchkareva#146;s own 1919 account was #147;set down#148; by king movement, a leading anti-Bolshevik exile in the United States, who says he listened to her stories in Russian over several weeks and wrote them out simultaneously in English.

The narrative is just a bit too politically correct (for an anti-Bolshevik); the stories of her heroic deeds are a bit too consistently dramatic. The language and analysis at times do not sound like the words of an illiterate peasant and of the vaginal orgasm soldier, and the book explicitly appeals for foreign help for Russian anti-Bolsheviks. (Louise Bryant#146;s pro -Bolshevik account is equally unconvincing.) 34. Botchkareva was aligned with Kornilov#146;s faction, which wanted to king, restore discipline in the army and resume the war against about vs Marx, Germany, contrary to the Bolshevik program of ending the war and carrying out immediate land reform and king movement seizure of GentleHands by M.E. factories at home. During mid-1917, army units elected #147;committees#148; to movement, discuss and decide on the unit#146;s actions. Botchkareva insisted on traditional military rule from above in her battalion, and got away with it (though with only 300 of the original 2,000 women) because the unit was unique in the whole army. This endeared Botchkareva to many army officers and orgasm anti-Bolsheviks. King? It also put her battalion at the center of the June 1917 offensive #150; she says that it was the only unit capable of taking offensive action. The battalion was formed in extraordinary circumstances, in response to a breakdown of morale and discipline in the Russian army after three horrible years of war and religious the fall of the Czarist government. By her own account, Botchkareva conceived of the king movement, battalion as a way to religious, shame the men into king movement, fighting (since nothing else was getting them to Essay about Locke vs Marx, fight). She argued that #147;numbers were immaterial, that what was important was to movement, shame the men and that a few women at one place could serve as an example to the entire front#133;.[T]he purpose of the plan would be to Essay about vs Marx, shame the men in the trenches by having the women go over the top first.#148; The battalion was thus exceptional and was essentially a propaganda tool.

As such it was heavily publicized: #147;Before I had time to king movement, realize it I was already in GentleHands Kerr a photographer#146;s studio#133;. The following day this picture topped big posters pasted all over the city.#148; Bryant wrote in 1918: #147;No other feature of the great war ever caught the king movement, public fancy like the Death Battalion, composed of Russian women. I heard so much about them before I left America#133;.#148; 35. The battalion began with about 2,000 women volunteers and was given equipment, a headquarters, and several dozen male officers as instructors. Botchkareva did not emphasize fighting strength but discipline (the purpose of the apa book citation edition, women soldiers was sacrificial). Physical standards for enlistment were lower than for men. King Movement? She told the the myth, women, #147;We are physically weak, but if we be strong morally and spiritually we will accomplish more than a large force.#148; She was preoccupied with upholding the moral standards and upright behavior of her #147;girls.#148; Mostly, she emphasized that the movement, soldiers in her battalion would have to follow traditional military discipline, not elect committees to rule as the rest of the Essay about Locke vs Marx, army was doing. #147;I did not organize this Battalion to be like the king movement, rest of the army. We were to religious, serve as an example, and king movement not merely to add a few babas [women] to the ineffective millions of soldiers now swarming over Russia.#148; When most of the women rebelled against her harsh rule, Botchkareva stubbornly rejected pleas from Kerensky and others #150; including direct orders from military superiors #150; to allow formation of a committee. Instead she reorganized the remaining 300 women who stayed loyal to her, and life examples brought them to the front, fighting off repeated attacks by Bolsheviks along the king movement, way. The battalion had new uniforms, a full array of war equipment, and 18 men to serve them (two instructors, eight cooks, six drivers, and two shoemakers). Real Of Classical Conditioning? 36.

The battalion was to king movement, open the offensive which Kerensky ordered in June 1917. (Since the February revolution, there had been little fighting and growing fraternization on the Russian#150;German front.) The Bolsheviks opposed the offensive, and the tired, demoralized soldiers were not motivated to participate in it. By sending 300 women over the top first, Botchkareva envisioned triggering an advance along the entire front #150; 14 million Russian soldiers #150; propelled by the men#146;s shame at GentleHands by M.E. Kerr, seeing #147;their sisters going into battle,#148; thus overcoming the men#146;s cowardice. When the appointed time for the attack came, however, the men on either side of the women#146;s battalion refused to king movement, move. The next day, about 100 male officers and 300 male soldiers who favored the offensive joined the ranks of the women#146;s battalion, and it was this mixed force of 700 that went over the top that night, hoping to goad the men on either side into advancing too. Kennedy War? Locally, the tactic worked, and movement the entire corps advanced and GentleHands by M.E. captured three German lines (the men stopping at the second, however, to make immediate use of alcohol found there). As the Russian line spread thin, however, another corps which was supposed to move forward to relieve them refused to advance. A costly retreat to king movement, the original lines ensued. The shame tactic had failed, except for imagery, a local effect, which anyway may have been caused as much by seeing comrades under fire as by feeling shame about king, women going first. Kennedy Vietnam? Ultimately, Botchkareva concludes about the Russian army, #147;the men knew no shame.#148; 37. The battalion that actually fought on that day was rather different from the all-female unit first organized. The battalion arrived at movement, the front with 300 women and two male instructors.

Before battle, it received 19 more male officers and war instructors, and a male #147;battle adjutant#148; was selected. During final preparations, a #147;detachment of eight machine guns and king movement a [male] crew to man them#148; were added. Lined up in the trenches for the first night#146;s offensive that did not materialize, six male officers were inserted at equal intervals, with Botchkareva herself at Essay about Locke vs Marx, one end and her male adjutant in the center. In the force that actually went over the top the king, next night with 400 male soldiers and officers added, the #147;line was so arranged that men and women alternated, a girl being flanked by two men.#148; Botchkareva notes that in advancing under withering fire, #147;my brave girls [were] encouraged by the presence of men on their sides.#148; Although the women fighters clearly were brave, and one-third of them were killed or wounded, their effect (and indeed their purpose) lay not in their military value #150; 300 soldiers could hardly make a difference among millions #150; but in kennedy war their propaganda value. However, this latter effect did not materialize as hoped. 38. Other women#146;s battalions were formed in several other cities #150; apparently less than 1,000 women in all #150; but they suffered from a variety of problems, ranging from poor discipline to a lack of shoes and uniforms. These other units never saw combat.

There was not another offensive before the Bolsheviks took power in October and sent most of the women soldiers home, telling them #147;to put on female attire.#148; 39. The Battalion of Death, then, never tested an all-female unit#146;s effectiveness in combat. Nonetheless, on one day in 1917, 300 women did go over the top side by side with 400 male comrades, advanced, and overran German trenches. King? The women apparently were able to keep functioning in the heat of real examples battle, and were able to adhere to military discipline. These women were, of course, an elite sample of the most war-capable women in all of Russia. Movement? Nonetheless, they did it #150; advanced under fire, retreated under fire, and helped provide that crucial element of of the orgasm leadership by movement, which other nearby units were spurred into action, overcoming the inertia of war fatigue and committee rule. The Battalion of Death did this not as scattered individual women but as a coherent military unit of 300 women #150; instructed by king movement, Botchkareva that #147;they were no longer women, but soldiers.#148; 40.

Taiping Rebellion and apa book citation edition other cases Very occasionally, all-female military units have cropped up elsewhere in the world for short periods of king movement time. In the nineteenth-century Taiping Rebellion in China, the about, rebels formed and then later disbanded female units in their army. These units did participate in battle but left little record of their combat effectiveness. The rebellion #150; a massive uprising led by a Christian cult leader, with roots in the Hakka ethnic group of southern China #150; became perhaps the bloodiest civil war in history (tens of millions killed). The rebels captured southern China and were then suppressed by the imperial government with the help of foreign mercenaries. King Movement? The Taipings#146; puritanical religious doctrine called for rigid gender separation, with men#146;s and by M.E. women#146;s quarters in cities, and even married couples faced execution if found together. This segregation was abandoned after several years owing to its bad effect on king movement morale (especially since it had never been followed by top leaders). Religious Imagery? 41. Rumors of female armies in ancient China are murky. I have been unable to movement, find any historically documented cases. In times of siege, units of GentleHands Kerr women, of children, and of old men were formed to help with defense, but in support rather than combat roles.

The Cambridge History of China makes a passing reference to China#146;s frontier region in the second century AD where #147;even Chinese women had been transformed into fierce warriors under the influence of the Ch#146;iang#148; ethnic group. The book#146;s description of the Ch#146;iang does not mention women fighters, however. The war participation of women in second-century China, whatever its extent, appears to king, reflect the Wild West character of the region rather than the incorporation of women en masse in kennedy a regular army. 42. Several other historical cases reportedly provide evidence of all-female military units, but are poorly documented. In ancient India and Persia (and several places in South Asia several centuries ago), female armed guards reportedly protected kings. A Chinese art historian states that the Hsi-hsia army #150; in king a non-Chinese state northwest of the Song dynasty in the eleventh to kennedy vietnam, thirteenth centuries #150; used female shock troops and had a tradition of female warriors going back hundreds of years. King? Reportedly, a female Danish unit fought against real life of classical conditioning, the Spanish army in the sixteenth century. King Movement? A battalion of Montenegrin women reportedly took part in a 1858 battle with Turkey, as did Serbian women in the 1804 independence uprising. In the Congo in 1640, the religious, Monomotapa confederacy supposedly had standing armies of women. The first army in postcolonial Malawi in 1964 reportedly included an elite unit of 5,000 women to guard the Tanganyikan border. (Shaka Zulu#146;s army by one erroneous account had an all-female front-line regiment.

Scholarship on Shaka#146;s military tactics makes clear that all the soldiers were men.) 43. In addition to the extremely rare cases of all-female military units, evidence of women#146;s combat potentials appears in cases where mixed-gender military units have engaged in combat. Although main combat-designated units are nearly always all-male, some units not designated primarily for combat have included women, in a variety of movement cultures and time periods. These units, trained in the use of arms, sometimes find themselves engaged in combat, with the the myth of the, women participating. We have evidence from guerrilla organizations, from the few NATO countries that currently allow women into combat positions, and from the present-day US experience with gender integration. Guerrilla warfare provides a rich source of data on mixed-gender combat units. Women fighters are not uncommon in guerrilla armies (see Figure 2.3). From the Cold War and post-Cold War eras alone, scholars have illuminated women#146;s crucial roles in a variety of wars, including in king Vietnam, South Africa, Argentina, Cyprus, Iran, Northern Ireland, Lebanon, Israel, Nicaragua, and others. 44.

Figure 2.3 Kurdish women guerrillas, 1991. [AP/Wide World Photos.] In World War II, in addition to the Soviet partisans (see pp. 000#150;000), women participated in Essay Locke vs Marx the partisan forces of other occupied countries as well #150; countries that did not allow women into regular military forces #150; including Italy, Greece, France, Poland, and Denmark. They took part in street fighting, carried out assassinations, and performed intelligence missions. King? In Italy, reportedly 35,000 women were partisans, of whom 650 were killed. In the French Resistance, women were much more excluded from of classical conditioning, combat roles (although they played many dangerous support roles). Only a few women were #147;full-time, gun-carrying women fighters.#148; Because of prejudice in France against women fighters, one of the movement, few women who had a leadership position in combat often pretended to be a representative of the myth of the vaginal orgasm a male leader when organizing the king movement, Resistance. Another was excluded from participating in armed attacks because the uniformed army of de Gaulle opposed giving guns to the myth orgasm, women, even though local Resistance men considered her an equal comrade.

45. Most notable among the World War II women partisans were those of king Yugoslavia, a country where centuries of tradition allowed some role for of the, women as fighters, and movement where conditions were nearly as desperate as in the Soviet Union. Most women#146;s work in the mass resistance to Nazi occupation was in traditionally feminine support roles. Nonetheless, just over apa book citation edition, 10 percent of the soldiers in the National Liberation Army were women. They received the king movement, same kinds of minimal basic training as men (but first aid or medical training more often than men), and the official communist ideology declared them equivalent. In practice, women tended to remain at low ranks and to Essay vs Marx, be concentrated in medical tasks. In one set of units studied, 42 percent of the women were #147;fighters#148; and 46 percent medics. #147;Clearly, the role of medic became #145;feminized#146;#133;[I]f there was a single woman in the [unit], she would be designated the medic.#148; Nonetheless, in guerrilla war even medics are usually fighters too. In one unit, casualty rates were roughly equivalent between medics and fighters. #147;Women partisans led the same life as men #150; they slept in the same quarters, ate the same food, and wore the same clothes.#148; The partisan force #147;severely discouraged#148; sexual relations in king movement the ranks, although arrangements were made for married couples. 46. Accounts of the effectiveness of the women soldiers, even taken in the same cautious vein as the Soviet case (with allowance for propaganda distortion), suggest that women made an important contribution overall.

By official count, 100,000 women were in vietnam the National Liberation Army and movement partisan units so thousands must have been fighters. Overall, women were killed at more than twice the rate of men (25 versus 11 percent). Despite the limits on their participation, the women of the Kerr, Yugoslavian resistance acquitted themselves well in combat, showing above-average bravery and king movement stamina. When World War II ended, newly communist Yugoslavia quickly barred women from military service (although both girls and boys still received arms training decades later). 47. The Vietnamese communists#146; war against the French and Americans shares several features with the Kerr, World War II Yugoslavia case #150; a communist-led #147;people#146;s war#148; in a country with some tradition of women warriors (see the Trung sisters, p. 121). This tradition was updated, in the #147;war of king movement liberation#148; (1946#150;75), to the picture of a Vietcong woman with a baby in one arm and real life a rifle in the other. As in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the image of women fighters symbolized the king, mobilization of the entire society for the cause. Kennedy Vietnam? Behind the image, propaganda aside, was a hard reality of women#146;s participation. One Vietnamese military historian estimates that 60,000 women were in king movement the regular forces, over Essay vs Marx, 100,000 in the volunteer youth corps, and over 1 million in king movement militias and other local forces. In the People#146;s Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF) in religious imagery the 1960s, a woman veteran of local uprisings was appointed deputy commander, and by one estimate 40 percent of all regimental commanders were women.

The women soldiers served in both all-female and mixed-gender units. Reportedly, the latter experienced some problems regarding male attitudes, and the men often considered the women inferior in combat. Thus, the PLAF increasingly directed women into separate areas of work, especially transport and espionage. 48. North Vietnamese women were mobilized into the war effort in the mid-1960s, for support tasks rather than combat. Even those within the army itself mainly worked on medical, liaison, antiaircraft, or bomb-defusing tasks. #147;It was general policy to discourage active combat for movement, women.#148; Women did serve in local militia units in the North #150; working in the fields with rifles slung over their shoulders #150; but these areas were far from the #147;front.#148; Nonetheless women in the North played an important part in shooting down US airplanes and capturing pilots. Apa Book? In the king movement, South, meanwhile, more women were recruited by the communist army, but mainly for support functions. Women did apparently participate in Essay about combat during the 1968 Tet offensive. But as guerrilla war gave way to king movement, conventional war, women were separated more from vaginal orgasm, combat. #147;In the end, the role of women in the Vietnamese revolution was a significant but somewhat restricted one.#148; (In the South Vietnamese government army, some women also fought.) 49.

Ideals of motherhood and feminine duty supported participation in the North Vietnamese war effort. Women participants in movement the war effort experienced it not in terms of glorious exploits but as a huge added burden on an already full basket of #147;women#146;s work.#148; Women carried most of the loads along the Ho Chi Minh trail to sustain the war effort. GentleHands Kerr? Although they might take part in fighting, especially in antiaircraft defense of their home communities, women#146;s main function in the war was to provide cheap labor. Women#146;s combat participation, although glorified during the war as a model of self-sacrifice for the nation, was downplayed and largely forgotten after the war, as in other countries. 50. The image of the woman holding a rifle and movement a baby is found in liberation movements across the third world. It combines the citation, roles of motherhood and war, harnessing women for king, war without altering fundamental gender relations. Of The? Cynthia Enloe finds in the image an expectation that, after the movement, war ends, mothers will put down the rifles while keeping the apa book, babies. King? She asks: #147;Where is the picture of the Essay Locke vs Marx, male guerrilla holding the rifle and king movement baby?#148; 51. The Sandinistas of Nicaragua resemble the other communist revolutionary guerrillas.

Women reportedly made up nearly one-third of the Sandinista front#146;s military. After victory, the front#146;s founder praised women for being #147;in the front line of the myth battle.#148; Women were particularly attracted to the Sandinista front because, as a movement that grew up in a feminist era, the front had a strong women#146;s organization which advocated policies that helped women. Nonetheless, after victory, the #147;defense of king movement women#146;s role in edition the military failed. After their victory in king movement July 1979, most women were demobilized, and the rest were placed in all-female battalions.#148; The director of real life examples of classical Nicaragua#146;s leading military school explained the #147;need to train women separately#148; as being #147;not because of movement any limitations the imagery, women have. King? In fact, you might say it#146;s because of failings on the part of some men#133;.[who] aren#146;t always able to relate to edition, a woman as just another soldier.#148; However, apparently exceptions were made for women of king superior military skill, who remained in apa book their male army units. Women were not subject to movement, the draft, although they still made up half of the militia units. 52. In some ways, the orgasm, Sandinistas left traditional gender roles firmly in place.

Women were mobilized around the image of mothers protecting their children as part of movement a divine order. One Sandinista official said in 1980, #147;give every woman a gun with which to defend her children.#148; In fact, however, good mothers were expected to be #147;Patriotic Wombs#148; that would provide soldiers for the revolution and kennedy vietnam war happily send them off to die for the cause. King? The Sandinistas limited abortion and sterilization, among other measures to life of classical conditioning, produce high birth rates, since a small nation at war needed more people. The FMLN guerrillas in next-door El Salvador in the 1980s also let women fight, but within a conceptual framework that upheld traditional gender roles. Movement? Cynthia Enloe highlights the story of real of classical a woman FMLN guerrilla in El Salvador who, with the end of the war there, is having her IUD removed #150; a transition from soldier to mother. 53. In Africa, women guerrillas also have fought and then been pushed aside. For example, Joice Nhongo was the #147;most famous#148; guerrilla in the ZANLA forces that overthrew white rule in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). Movement? She was known as #147;Mrs. Kerr? Spill-blood Nhongo,#148; and movement gave birth to a daughter at apa book, the camp she commanded, two days after an air raid against it. After ZANLA took power, she became Minister of Community Development and Women#146;s Affairs #150; safely removed from movement, military affairs. Citation? (Reportedly, 4,000 women combatants made up 6 percent of king movement ZANLA forces.

54 ) In South Africa in the 1980s, the armed wing of the African National Congress included women guerrillas. Thandi Modise was called the #147;knitting needles guerrilla#148; because she carried a handbag with a protruding pair of about vs Marx knitting needles while traveling incognito. She reports that in training camps, the king, women (under 10 percent of the trainees) received the same uniforms and Essay about vs Marx training, and were treated respectfully, as equals, by the men. She sees no contradiction in being a guerrilla and a mother, and argues that #147;Marriage and children are necessities, not luxuries.#148; Modise does, however, say that #147;As a woman I tried to avoid killing people.#148; Although male and female guerrillas received the same training, side by side, and women sometimes outdid men in discipline, sharpshooting, and running, women were excluded from king, traditional combat roles. As a male guerrilla put it, #147;Yes, a woman can be a soldier. Many women fight better than men. But I wouldn#146;t deploy women in the front line#133;. Kennedy Vietnam? Men go to movement, war to defend their women and children.#148; Manliness played an important role for South African black male guerrillas, and even Nelson Mandela once said that the #147;experience of military training made me a man.#148; 55. It is not only in of classical conditioning communist revolutionary movements, such as in king Yugoslavia, Vietnam, and Nicaragua, that women participate in local militias.

This phenomenon is widespread, because militias often constitute a last line of defense of apa book edition home and family against movement, external attack. For example, during the US Civil War, one town in Georgia formed a female militia unit when the men were all away at war. They drilled, practiced shooting, and in an #147;apocryphal story#148; supposedly faced down Sherman#146;s cavalry which had planned to burn the town. 56. In Sri Lanka currently, women apparently constitute about Essay about Locke vs Marx, one-third of the rebel Tamil Tigers#146; force of 15,000 fighters, and participate fully in both suicide bombings and massacres of civilians. King Movement? The Sri Lankan military reportedly believes half of the edition, core fighting force of king 5,000 are women. (A claim that women are two-thirds of the force appears to be overstated.) 57. In Iraq in apa book edition the late 1990s, one of the main guerrilla groups operating against king, next-door Iran #150; with 30,000 soldiers, Iraqi backing, and $2 billion worth of weapons #150; is led by a 43-year-old Iranian woman and her husband. She is the #147;symbol of the struggle#148; and their candidate for transitional President of Iran if they should ever seize power. Reportedly, the group is led by the myth orgasm, mainly female officers, and includes women among its fighters #150; although how many women is unclear. Members live in gender-segregated quarters and married couples suspend marriages to function as #147;sisters and brothers#148; in the group.

The force engaged in combat in king 1988, and 1991, and reportedly performed well. 58. The greater fluidity of gender roles in religious guerrilla as compared with conventional war is illustrated by the Republic of Congo war in 1997. Guerrilla militias included women fighters and commanders. Some male combatants dressed as women, both to enhance their magical powers and to disguise themselves in battle. 59. These examples of women in guerrilla warfare represent a fraction of the movement, historical cases. In guerrilla war, by contrast with conventional war, women#146;s participation is not rare.

One often finds combat units with a nontrivial minority of women in vaginal orgasm the ranks. King? These women, when they have participated in combat during guerrilla wars, have done so with good results. They have added to the military strength of their units, and apa book sometimes fought with greater skill and bravery than their male comrades. Yet whenever their forces have seized power and become regular armies, women have been excluded from king movement, combat. Evidently, this exclusion is not based on any lack of ability shown by the women soldiers when they participated in the guerrilla phase of war. 60. Present-day state armies. More than a dozen states #150; mostly industrialized countries that are US allies #150; currently allow women into religious imagery, official combat positions.

The exact number depends on how exactly one defines combat. A 1993 list includes Canada, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, and Britain. A 1997 work also includes Spain and Australia, but not Britain. By 1999, in addition, France, Japan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Israel, and Russia had at least one woman fighter-jet pilot, and women served in navies in Portugal, South Africa, and others. In 2000, an Israeli law and a German court ruling promised to integrate women into more military jobs, though implementation is unclear and ground combat will likely remain off-limits. 61. Eritrea and South Africa had women in movement the infantry, owing to the recent integration of former guerrilla forces into Essay Locke, state armies there.

Eritrean women combatants have seen extensive combat #150; uniquely among present-day state armies #150; owing to the highly lethal ground war with Ethiopia in the late 1990s. King Movement? Some reports put women at one-third of Eritrean combat forces. Eritrea, however, has existed as a state for only a few years, and Essay about vs Marx is still led by former guerrilla commanders, even though fighting a conventional, not guerrilla, war. 62. Women#146;s status in king movement NATO militaries is evolving year by kennedy war, year, with the policies and numbers shifting continually towards greater women#146;s participation. The different countries are generally moving along a common path in integrating women, though at different speeds #150; from combat aviation, to combat ships, to submarines, to ground combat.

At any point in time, far more women participate in air and sea combat than in ground combat. Women in all these positions total only movement, a few thousand (out of millions of combat soldiers today), but they provide further data points to assess the apa book edition, performance of women in movement combat. Apa Book? Also, other NATO countries such as Germany and Greece still completely exclude women from combat and generally limit their participation to movement, traditional areas such as typing and nursing. Examples Of Classical? Overall, women#146;s participation has been recent and the units in which they serve have seen little if any combat since being integrated. Women aviators did, however, participate in NATO#146;s 1999 air campaign against Serbia. 63. Canada is furthest along the spectrum of NATO countries. Canada#146;s military has opened all positions to women, in theory. Furthermore, the military is king movement actively recruiting women interested in serving in ground combat positions.

New submarines are being built to accommodate women. Unfortunately we have scant information on Locke the results of this policy because it is so new. Canadian units have not seen combat since women joined them, although they have deployed on movement at least ten peacekeeping missions around the world. In the Essay Locke vs Marx, Gulf War, women served on a Canadian supply ship, but only 3 percent of Canadian forces participating in king that war were women, compared with over 10 percent in the Canadian military overall at that time. Essay? In January 1998, women made up 11 percent of Canadian forces, though just over 1 percent of combat troops (165 women). Sexual harassment and rape are serious problems in the gender-integrated Canadian military, and king female soldiers #147;are often little more than game for sexual predators,#148; according to one recent expose. An official army study in 1998 #147;said women in combat units commonly were referred to in coarse sexual terms.#148; 64.

Denmark, Norway, and France are nearly as gender-integrated as Canada. Danish women serve in tank crews, including those that were deployed for apa book citation, peacekeeping in Bosnia. (Although peacekeeping is not usually #147;combat,#148; Danish tanks had earlier battled Bosnian Serb forces.) Denmark#146;s decision to include women in all military roles resulted from extensive trials in the mid-1980s to find out how women performed in various land and sea combat roles. #147;The trials proved very satisfactory, and today all functions are open to women#133;. King Movement? The trial results [show]#133;.that women can do the work just as well as their male colleagues.#148; 65. France allows women in air, sea, and ground combat, and plans to subject women to the draft starting in 2001. However, until recently France had quotas on the number of Essay women in each position, with only a handful in king ground combat. Real Examples? Women are still not allowed in the Foreign Legion, commando positions, or flying naval airplanes, although they no longer face quotas in other positions including flying combat aircraft. As recently as 1994, NATO summarized France#146;s policies on women in combat thus: #147;A woman#146;s role is to king movement, give life and not death. For this reason alone it is not desirable for mothers to take direct part in battle.#148; 66. In Norway, women serve on submarines, including one as a captain.

They are in infantry, artillery, tanks, and all kinds of aircraft. Essay About Vs Marx? Two served as officers in the UN peacekeeping force in king movement the former Yugoslavia. None of the religious imagery, integrated units has seen combat. Belgium, the movement, Netherlands, and Spain allow women in almost any position in theory, but only a few women serve in practice, especially in ground combat. In the Netherlands, women can serve anywhere except in combat positions in the Marine Corps. Citation Edition? The opening of positions to women in the Netherlands was driven in part by the abolition of the draft there. 67. Britain, Australia, and king New Zealand allow women into air and sea positions. In 1999, Australia included submarines (which had been built to accommodate a mixed-gender crew). Women do not participate in ground combat, with two exceptions: Britain opened field artillery to women in 1998, and Essay about Locke Australia has qualified three women as commandos. These forces have not yet participated in combat.

The British found in the 1982 Falklands War that it was hard to distinguish #147;combat#148; from #147;noncombat#148; ships, and this may explain why Britain has opened all surface ships to movement, women (about 700 women serve on edition British ships currently). 68. The Israeli experience In Israel, the king movement, persistent myth that Israeli women participate in combat is false. Before the establishment of Israel in 1948, women did serve in the underground paramilitary forces, though even then they were often left behind for major operations. Of The Vaginal? A few women also fought before the movement, 1948 war, when isolated settlements came under attack. Real Life? With independence and the creation of king movement a regular army, however, women were immediately and permanently excluded from all combat roles. Essay? Women do serve in the Israeli forces, and are even drafted (though less often than men). Subsequent reserve duty is lifelong for men, but only to age 24 or motherhood, whichever comes first, for women. Over half of king female draftees serve in secretarial and clerical jobs.

A women#146;s corps (its initials spell #147;charm#148;) administers the policies concerning Israeli women soldiers, including training them, overseeing their work in various units, and operating some of its own units. A 1980 women#146;s corps brochure states: #147;Today#146;s Israeli female soldiers are trim girls, clothed in uniforms which bring out kennedy their youthful#148; These women serve as #147;sister-figure#148; or #147;mother-figure#148; in a unit. Regular Israeli combat units often include a few women, who do administrative work. These assignments are #147;highly sought after#148; by women. But as soon as actual combat looms, the women are immediately evacuated from the unit. 69.

In the late 1970s, after the shock of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and king under great manpower pressures, the IDF opened up new nontraditional specialties to women, including instructing men on the use of arms. The 1980 brochure states that women serving as platoon sergeants in all-male basic training #147;have succeeded outstandingly.#148; The brochure continues: #147;New recruits do not dare complain of muscle aches and religious pains or drop out of a long-distance run when it is king movement being led by Essay about, a female sergeant.#148; Women#146;s success as arms instructors shows that some women can wield weapons effectively #150; for example, driving tanks, firing guns, and deploying armed groups tactically. 70. The reasons given for the exclusion of women from combat in Israel revolve around their effects on male soldiers rather than their own combat abilities. For example, men in mixed units supposedly showed excessive concern for the well-being of the women at the expense of the king, mission. The actual evidence of such effects is very sketchy, however. 71. The US experience. The US military in recent years has compiled the most extensive experience in integrating women into regular military units #150; though generally not #147;combat#148; units.

As of 1999, nearly 200,000 women serve in the US military (14 percent of the total force), over GentleHands, 1 million are veterans, and king movement thousands have operated in vietnam war combat zones in several wars. (Currently, 45 percent of US military women are women of king movement color, a greater proportion than in the population at large.) US women participate in combat support roles, ranging from the traditional (nursing, typing) to the nontraditional (mechanics, arms training). Sometimes the lines between combat and vietnam support blur so that women soldiers have found themselves in a combat zone or engaged in fighting. 72. Historical context Women have, on occasion, participated in combat in the US military since its inception. In US colonial times, warfare among the English, French, and native Americans was endemic. #147;For their own survival, colonial women learned to threaten force and to kill in self-defense. Even in the towns the respectable matrons could behave with a ferocity that would be thought shockingly improper if not impossible for movement, females a generation later.#148; In several historically documented cases, in the countryside women killed American Indians and in towns mobs of women carried out lynchings. During the Revolution, in addition to their roles as camp followers and Essay Locke as soldiers disguised as men, American women fought in militias in movement the countryside. 73. In the real life of classical conditioning, Revolutionary War, #147;Molly Pitcher#148; is a legendary woman who accompanied her husband in the field #150; a common practice in armies of the time (see pp. 381#150;83).

She used to movement, nurse wounded troops and carry water (hence her nickname). Of Classical? When her husband was killed in the Battle of king Monmouth, she took over firing his cannon #150; to the admiration of her fellow soldiers #150; and in a dubious epilogue is said to have met George Washington. Real Of Classical? (#147;Molly Pitcher#148; seems to be a composite of three real women who fought in the war.) In the king movement, Civil War, women fought on both sides, most of them disguised as men. 74. In World War I, 13,000 women enlisted in imagery the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work#150;#147;the first [women in US history]#133;.to be admitted to full military rank and status.#148; The Army hired women nurses and telephone operators to king, work overseas, but as civilian employees (although in uniform). Plans for vaginal, women#146;s auxiliary corps #150; to perform mostly clerical, supply, and communications work #150; were shot down by king movement, the War Department. So were plans for commissioning women doctors in the Medical Corps. The end of the war brought an end to proposals to enlist women in the Army. 75. In the interwar years, the Army created a Director of Women#146;s Relations to explain to women, now that they could vote, that pacifism was a bad idea.

The embattled Director in the 1920s, Anita Phipps, developed a plan for a women#146;s corps which would be part of the Army itself, not an Auxiliary, and would incorporate 170,000 women in about Locke wartime. This plan was not approved, however. The Army favored keeping any future women workers in an Auxiliary. King? Even the auxiliary role was approved only because, as an official memo put it in 1941, #147;it will tend to avert the pressure to admit women to the myth vaginal, actual membership in king movement the Army.#148; The same memo declared that the War Department would develop the real examples conditioning, idea slowly and not rush into it on a large scale. King Movement? 76. The realities of World War II, however, quickly changed this approach. With the United States more deeply mobilized for war (and over a longer period) than in of the World War I, women#146;s participation in the military increased dramatically, to about 3 percent of US forces at movement, the peak. Edition? The experience of World War II provides the largest amount of information on women soldiers up until the 1980s and 1990s. King? 77.

The Women#146;s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) was formed early in 1942, soon after Pearl Harbor. In mid-1943 it became a regular part of the Army, as the Women#146;s Army Corps (WAC). Within the US Army, the kennedy vietnam war, incorporation of movement so many women was an unprecedented development. The WAC encountered serious obstacles in about vs Marx recruiting American women (discussed shortly), and it faced continual bureaucratic attacks from the king, War Department, the Surgeon General, and others. Mattie Treadwell#146;s 1954 history tells the religious, story in detail. The WACs were never assigned to king movement, combat and rarely got near it. But their large-scale mobilization into the US Army some 65 years ago gives us valuable information about how women perform as soldiers, on some of the dimensions necessary for a functional combat soldier. In performance of their duties the WACs showed as much diligence as men soldiers.

Health problems were no greater than for the men, though the particular types varied by gender. The WACs lost less hospital time than men, and real life rates of movement accidents and nonbattle injuries were nearly identical across gender. But men were far more likely to be injured in motor vehicle accidents, whereas women more often fell down in situations unrelated to religious imagery, their jobs #150; partly because suitable military shoes were not provided. Towards the end of the war, fatigue became a serious problem for WACs, but its character was opposite to the combat fatigue endured by king movement, men #150; for women, it was unrelieved sedentary work with little visible connection to the war effort. Combined with Army food, the Kerr, sendentary work of WACs led to a #147;widespread condition of overweight.#148; 78.

The WAC found that menstruation presented only minor problems for movement, efficiency, with most of those being caused by Army regulations that, for example, sent women to the hospital for two days if their cramps made them stop work even just long enough for religious imagery, aspirin to take effect. In the Army Air Forces, women who ferried planes were not supposed to fly for several days around their periods, but male commanders found this rule unenforceable since many women did not cooperate with it, said nothing, and just kept flying. (In the event of pregnancy, a WAC was immediately discharged and left to her own resources.) 79. In the area of discipline, most of the problems resulted from the novelty of the situation #150; enforcement varied greatly from one locale to another #150; and from the men#146;s problems in dealing with women, such as having #147;great difficulty in punishing a woman for anything.#148; Gender differences in king movement discipline may have resulted from the exclusion of GentleHands by M.E. Kerr WACs from combat as well. As a 1946 Army field manual states, #147;the necessity for discipline is never fully comprehended by the soldier until he has undergone the experience of battle.#148; However, overall, morale and discipline were high among the women. 80. With regard to their ability to king movement, function in a hierarchy (see pp.

206#150;8), WACs differed from their male counterparts. Curiously, the main difference is kennedy vietnam opposite to the emphasis on male autonomy and female connectedness discussed earlier (see pp. 46#150;47). King Movement? The WAC Director specifically noted that #147;women need to remain individuals.#148; This high value on individuality, combined with a lack of experience with loyalty to organizations, made women tend to treat each other as separate individuals, contrary to the military style of hierarchy. If inspired by a WAC leader who set an example of religious imagery loyalty to the Army, however, WACs#146; #147;natural idealism was apt to produce group loyalty and esprit of an unexcelled intensity.#148; 81. The WACs resented the #147;caste system#148; separating officers from enlisted personnel, since it restricted enlisted women#146;s contact with close friends or family members who were male officers. King Movement? Within the WAC itself, however, few of the problems experienced in male#150;male relations across ranks developed. The officers of the WAC had risen recently from the ranks, and relations were generally close. Apa Book? The attributes that made for successful WAC leaders differed from those of male officers.

The most essential qualities for WAC leadership were fairness, unselfishness, and sincere concern for the troops. King Movement? Selfish ambition, accepted in male officers, was #147;absolutely disqualifying#148; when leading WACs. Appearance and about Locke vs Marx technical competence, emphasized in training male officers, did not matter for WAC officers. In terms of fitting the WAC into the larger male-dominated Army of which it was a part, few serious problems developed. Minor problems included the need to revise expectations of norms and procedures when women were included. For example, a male officer invited newly arrived WAAC officers to his hotel room for drinks #150; an movement action that would have been quite appropriate for the myth orgasm, newly arrived male officers.

The one serious problem in local Army#150;WAC relations arose in king movement those few cases where a male commander allowed romantic impulses #150; especially #147;immoral#148; ones #150; to affect military decisions (such as securing special privileges for the myth, one WAC). Movement? Such cases were viewed as #147;complete betrayal#148; by the rest of the WAC unit, and the unit#146;s effectiveness plummeted. 82. WACs were often better than men at communications and clerical work, especially in listening to Morse code for long hours. On the kennedy vietnam, other hand, WACs in king the Pacific (where they needed armed escorts to Kerr, protect them from king, sex-starved GIs) #147;became demoralized#148; by apa book citation edition, their mail censorship duties which required reading sexually explicit letters home to wives and girlfriends.

83. US women also served in the Air Force and Navy during World War II. The Women#146;s Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs) worked in ferrying planes and as test pilots. About 1,000 women took part, and 38 died in the line of duty (see Figure 2.4). The Navy WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) participated in air traffic control, naval air navigation, and communications, starting in king 1942. There was a Marine Corps Women#146;s Reserve in both World Wars; 18 died in World War II. They became a permanent component of the Marines, and their successors decades later are described as #147;even more gung ho than many of the males.#148; 84. Figure 2.4 USWASP pilots after flight in B-17. About Locke Vs Marx? [US National Archives, 342-FH-4A5344-160449ac.] At its peak in 1945, the king, WAC had 100,000 members (at its inception the Army had hoped for 600,000). In all, during World War II, about 150,000 women served in the WAC, nearly 90,000 in the WAVES, about 25,000 in Marine reserves and Coast Guard SPARS, and the myth of the vaginal 75,000 as officer-nurses. Total fatalities appear to be in the range of king 200#150;300 women in all, but apparently few of these were by hostile fire.

85. Although soldiers and officers who worked with US military women in World War II adjusted to them and came to value their contributions, public opinion lagged behind. Essay About? The WAC#146;s biggest problem was in king recruiting, especially after a #147;slander campaign#148; against it in 1943. Vietnam? The campaign promoted the idea that WACs were really prostitutes, or women with low morals. Movement? Leaders had to spend great energy trying to counteract this campaign both through public advertising and through attention to the women#146;s appearance (feminine uniforms) and their actual morals, which were generally upstanding. (In the British Army in World War I, officials omitted a breast pocket on women#146;s uniforms for fear of drawing attention to war, female anatomy.) Despite efforts to counteract the slander campaign, a survey of Army men in 1945 found that about half thought it was bad for a girl#146;s reputation to king, be a WAC.

Some men also worried that women would become too powerful after returning to civilian life. 86. In recruiting women for the WAC, the Army used trial-and-error methods to stir interest. A major recruiting theme, #147;Release a Man for Combat,#148; was abandoned #150; but could never be fully suppressed in the public mind #150; when women responded poorly to the notion that their participation could send an by M.E. American man to his death. Later cheery themes, such as #147;I#146;m Having the Time of My Life,#148; were also unsuccessful. An all-out advertising and canvassing campaign in Cleveland in summer 1943 proved a total failure: personal contact with 73,000 families identified 8,000 eligible women, but brought only 168 recruits.

At that rate the 100,000 new WACs needed immediately would require contacting 44 million families, more than the total US population. Waiving the requirement of high school graduation also produced few recruits. As a result of this failure to king, recruit an additional half-million WACs in 1943, the draft was extended to fathers of young families, even though a March 1944 US poll found that three-quarters of the public would rather draft young single women (for noncombat positions) than young fathers. 87. Demobilization of women received top priority at the end of the war, as in other wars. When the war ended, one Navy commander declared, #147;I want all the women off this base by noon.#148; After World War II the number of women in the US military dropped drastically, but never back to zero. The World War II experience remained a valuable benchmark of women#146;s potentials as soldiers, which informed the later integration of women in the US military. In the Korean and Vietnam wars, women#146;s service as nurses was notable. Recently, a memorial to women veterans has been completed at kennedy vietnam, Arlington National Cemetery, and the history of US women soldiers is becoming better known.

88. The large-scale integration of movement women into the peacetime US military began in the early 1970s, coinciding with the end of conscription after the Vietnam War and the switch to an all-volunteer army. The number of women in the armed forces grew rapidly from under 3 percent to over 8 percent in 1972#150;80, then more slowly but steadily, reaching 14 percent by 1999. Essay About Locke Vs Marx? (These levels compare with a peak of 3 percent in World War II and king movement below 1.5 percent from GentleHands by M.E., 1945 to movement, 1968.) Top military leaders now describe women as essential to the operation of the US military. Given the imagery, ongoing integration of women into previously closed positions, such as flying combat jets or commanding warships (the first took her frigate to the Persian Gulf in 2000), the data here for the late 1990s will change over time. 89.

The current US expansion of women in the military comes in king movement peacetime and has continued in vietnam a period of shrinkage of the US military (in the king, 1990s). Historically, around the world, women have been allowed into military service in real life examples significant numbers only in times of extreme need in war. The current US integration reflects the professionalization and technical bureaucracy of the US military, in which being a soldier is #147;a job#148; and movement cost-conscious organizational managers realize that women#146;s labor is cheaper than men#146;s labor of equivalent quality. (Women are now paid the same as men in apa book citation specific jobs, but women in the all-volunteer force bring with them higher average levels of education.) The expansion also reflects the greater acceptance of movement liberal feminism in the country#146;s cultural and political norms #150; women and men should have similar rights in the workplace, and women can do #147;men#146;s#148; jobs. 90. In theory the expanded use of women in the US military maintains women#146;s exclusion from combat. Of The? In practice, the lines between combat and king support are not so clear-cut. War? A 1982 Army review noted: Currently, women are assigned to duty positions and MOS [jobs] that require them to movement, engage routinely in direct combat. Imagery? Women may be found in every battlefield sector including forward of, alongside of, or interspersed with direct combat units#133;.[T]he modern battlefield [is] an extremely fluid environment where many soldiers, assigned to units located in rear areas, are required to perform duties in forward combat areas. For example, of the nearly 4,000 women then in the US Fifth Corps in king movement Europe, 900 would be located in combat areas if the vaginal, Corps participated in combat. The blurred lines between combat and support sometimes were resolved with bureaucratic sleight of king hand.

For example, air tanker missions that had previously been defined as combat (with appropriate medals afterwards) were redefined as noncombat in the 1986 air strikes against Libya because women were participating. 91. In the religious, 1989 Panama invasion #150; at that time the largest US military action since Vietnam #150; women soldiers gained a new visibility. Almost 800 participated, constituting about 4 percent of the movement, total force. At least 150 were in religious combat areas, some coming under enemy fire and some returning fire. The female captain of a US military police unit, Linda Bray, became a celebrity after leading her unit in capturing a military dog kennel in king a half-hour firefight. The Pentagon first played up her story, which was receiving favorable media coverage and of the orgasm hence making the US Army look good.

However, when her story threatened to king, unleash political forces they did not want to face #150; pressures to lift the combat exclusion law for women #150; Pentagon officials reportedly leaked disinformation to kennedy, undermine her account (which some media reports had in fact exaggerated). King? Bray faced persistent harassment after the about Locke, episode, and movement left the by M.E. Kerr, Army in 1991. 92. In the Gulf War, nearly 40,000 US women participated #150; 6 percent of the US forces deployed (i.e., about half the proportion of movement women as the Essay about Locke, overall military had). About a dozen women soldiers died, of whom five were killed by hostile forces. Despite Pentagon fears of a bad public reaction #150; there had been no women casualties in Panama #150; the deaths of women soldiers were taken in stride by the American public. 93. The issue that most worried top military officials #150; the capturing of US female POWs #150; also fizzled.

Two US women soldiers were taken prisoner by Iraqi forces and returned after the king, war #150; a truck driver who stumbled into Iraqi lines in an early battle and a flight surgeon shot down on a helicopter trying to kennedy vietnam war, rescue a downed US pilot. They were the movement, first US women POWs captured since World War II (when Japan held 88 and Germany one). The military leadership#146;s fears, in addition to the potentially explosive public reaction which could undermine support for the war effort, were that male POWs might be induced to disclose information if women POWs with them were subjected to sexual abuse. These fears seem exaggerated, both because POWs have usually been (and were in Iraq) questioned and tortured in isolation to maximize psychological pressure, and because women pilots were already making sure men understood that rape was no different from religious imagery, any other torture and that if men caved in when women were abused they would put the women at king movement, greater risk of future abuse. Survival schools, which train pilots for their possible capture, had begun desensitizing men to rape, and preparing women for sexual abuse as they did men for torture. In any event, neither female USPOW in the Gulf War had attended the survival training (several thousand women pilots had, but the POWs were not pilots). 94. In this case, Iraqi authorities made no attempt to exploit the US women#146;s gender. (The 1949 Geneva Conventions mandate treating women POWs #147;with all the regard due their sex.#148;) Once in custody of the government, the of the orgasm, women were generally well treated whereas the men were tortured. King? Both women had trouble with low-level Iraqi soldiers while they were being transported in trucks after their capture, however. Kennedy? The doctor (whose arms were broken) was molested by one soldier and says she would have been raped if he had been able to movement, get her flight suit off during the ride. The truck driver slapped away a soldier who touched her breast.

Neither case destroyed the morale of the Essay Locke vs Marx, POWs, male or female. Opponents of women in combat later used the episodes, nonetheless, to movement, underscore the dangers to women soldiers. Even more than earlier wars, the Gulf War made it hard for the US military to maintain the distinction between combat and noncombat. In the Gulf War, more than half the 375 US soldiers killed were support personnel, not #147;combat#148; troops. The Pentagon followed the rule (as in Panama) that if a soldier was female she must not have been in combat and could not receive combat medals (which are highly valued in war military culture).

For example, the movement, female doctor POW (Rhonda Cornum; see p. 41) received no medal for her rescue mission although all the other surviving crew members in real examples of classical her helicopter were decorated with a Distinguished Flying Cross. Similarly, the Pentagon would not designate the US truck driver a POW when she was captured, and listed her simply as #147;missing.#148; They persisted even though her truck had been last seen stuck off the road with Iraqi soldiers running up to it, and later was found without the two drivers, and even though US pilots over Baghdad later spotted her in king movement a prison compound. When she was released after the war and appeared on TV wearing a yellow uniform stamped #147;PW,#148; her father called a Pentagon official at 3 a.m. and said, #147;Now, you asshole, will you declare her a prisoner of war?#148; 95. Overall, the Gulf War was a big victory for kennedy vietnam, liberal feminism. Women participated in large numbers, and performed capably, and the public proved willing to accept women soldiers as casualties and movement POWs. The Pentagon#146;s fears proved inflated, and its efforts to manage public perceptions (such as by silencing information about sexual assaults in the ranks) proved easier than expected. The main problems that arose from the women casualties and POWs were that they generated huge media interest which sometimes caused resentment among male colleagues and citation edition sometimes also was unwelcome to the women and their families. These problems arose mostly because of the king movement, novelty of the situation. 96.

Current issues In the 1990s, some problems in US military gender integration persisted, in vaginal orgasm basic training, military academies, and #147;sex scandals.#148; Both military academies and basic training socialize new soldiers (officers and king movement enlisted, respectively). The Myth Orgasm? The transition from an all-male environment to a mixed-gender one has not been smooth. Sexist elements in king military culture have been slow to change, and harassment of orgasm women is widespread. Women soldiers face a no-win situation in movement terms of relationships with men: if they have sex with men, men see them as sluts or whores, but if not, the men see them as lesbians. Real Life Of Classical? In a 1992 Pentagon survey, about one-third of women soldiers reported experiencing some form of movement verbal or physical sexual harassment or abuse.

A 1992 US Senate report said that 60,000 women had been raped or assaulted while in the military. (Such figures do not show whether sexual harassment and assault are more common in the military than in civilian society.) 97. Pregnancy in the ranks, a controversial political issue, is not a major military problem. GentleHands By M.E. Kerr? A retired admiral compares the pregnancy rate of about 10 percent with the #147;much higher disciplinary problem with the men, unauthorized absenteeism, absence in the brig for more serious offenses. Movement? Pregnancy is a wash.#148; 98. In US military academies #150; West Point for the Army, Annapolis for the Navy, and the myth vaginal the US Air Force Academy in Colorado, alongside various other private and public military academies #150; women have been integrated since 1976. The academies graduate about 600 women a year, who enter with records as distinguished as their male peers, perform equally in the academies, and go on to successful military careers. The only area in which women lag behind men is in certain physical requirements. Although many women keep up with the men on rigorous marches at king, West Point, other women (in disproportionate numbers) fall behind or need men#146;s help lightening the load. The average disparities in physical strength are a persistent source of gender conflict, as many men resent the different standard for women than men on certain physical fitness tests. Imagery? (In the case of greatest difference, men must do ten pull-ups but women only three.) 99. In surveys of graduating West Point seniors in the 1980s, fewer than a third of women cadets felt #147;totally accepted#148; by other cadets, compared to over half of men. As one male cadet put it, #147;I would never openly harass women, [but] I hope they understand they are not welcome here.#148; Women cadets dropped out of West Point at king, twice the men#146;s rate after the second summer which emphasizes combat training (which women would not be allowed to put to use).

At the Air Force Academy in GentleHands by M.E. the early 1990s, one-third of women as compared to one-quarter of men dropped out king before graduation. In the 1990s, incidents of sexual harassment apparently increased at the academies. Reportedly, the Coast Guard academy (with no gender restrictions) has the worst record on sexual harassment in the service academies. 100. The rough transition is perhaps to be expected; cultures change slowly. To military commanders, gender problems at the academies are a difficulty they can work around. As one West Point officer put it, #147;This is Essay about Locke not an experiment. This is an king operational reality.#148; Men#146;s and women#146;s feelings notwithstanding, the military is getting the officers it needs #150; which must include women in order to meet the about vs Marx, needed quality and quantity. Furthermore, despite the sexist culture, most women are getting through the academies with records equal to king, those of the men. Real Examples Conditioning? In the king movement, words of religious one woman officer formerly at West Point, #147;In a nonnurturing environment, they are kicking ass. Movement? And that is the the myth orgasm, bottom line#148; 101.

In basic training, the movement, problem of unfair treatment (lax or harsh) revolves around the relationship of drill sergeants and company commanders with their troops. By tradition, harsh treatment in religious imagery boot camp helps socialize new troops into discipline and hierarchy. The drill sergeant #150; typically male #150; has unparalleled power over his troops. King? If some troops are female, this power can be used for Essay vs Marx, sexual domination. King? In the mid-1990s several abuse-of-authority cases came to light, most visibly at the Army#146;s Aberdeen Proving Grounds where NCOs were accused of a widespread pattern of rape and sexual abuse.

However, these problems occurred in occupational training, which follows on real life examples of classical conditioning basic training and has long been gender-integrated. Congress in 1998 debated mandating the king movement, separation of genders during basic training, a move suggested by real life examples of classical, a commission but opposed by the Pentagon as impractical (since men and women go on movement to serve together). Only the Marine Corps (as of 1998) separates genders during basic training, and even the Corps in 1997 began sending women to the follow-on (gender-integrated) combat training program after boot camp. As one male trainee said, #147;Men or women, that doesn#146;t matter#133;. All we see is another Marine.#148; The Navy#146;s boot camp, with about 15 percent women, uses mostly all-male divisions with the rest having equal numbers of men and women (to avoid problems that arise when a few women are scattered in a heavily male group). 102. Also complicating US military gender integration in the 1990s, sex scandals of various types brought unfavorable publicity and fueled political debates.

The first woman to pilot a B-52 bomber with nuclear weapons (a symbolically important role) was forced to resign after she was accused of having an adulterous affair and then lying about kennedy, it. Liberal feminists, among others, pointed to a double standard, since similar cases involving men had been glossed over in the past. In the king, wake of the public controversy, a male nominee for Chair of the Joint Chiefs of real life of classical Staff was passed over king movement, because of an imagery affair decades earlier. Military sex scandals moved out of the movement, news, at least temporarily, when journalists#146; focus switched to the White House in 1997. Real Life Conditioning? 103. New combat positions While these general issues of gender integration swirled around the US military, the actual focus of movement women in combat shifted to combat aircraft and ships #150; the positions most often open to women in the NATO countries discussed earlier. Kerr? In considering military jobs related to combat in which women might be included, the US military reproduces roughly the same spectrum of tasks discussed earlier under NATO countries. For example, a 1993 survey of retired high-ranking officers regarding women in combat showed, in movement addition to greater support among those more recently retired, greater support for women in warplanes (29% yes), attack helicopters (24%) and kennedy war combat ships (24%) than in king movement artillery (22%) and combat engineering (17%), with least support for apa book citation, women in movement armor (12%) and infantry (10%). 104. In 1990, an Air Force officer testified to Congress that women #150; then barred from GentleHands, only 3 percent of jobs in the Air Force, namely aircraft actually engaged in combat missions #150; #147;can fly fighters, they can pull Gs. They are physically capable and, I think, emotionally capable.#148; After the king movement, Gulf War, a Presidential Commission on women in combat recommended by GentleHands by M.E. Kerr, a split vote to movement, keep the status quo, but the Administration lifted the religious imagery, combat exclusion for women on almost all airplanes and ships (except submarines and Navy commandoes).

Navy positions on king ships are opening only as separate quarters are built. 105. Naval aviation also has opened up and life conditioning several women have flown combat missions (in Iraq since 1998 and in Serbia in movement 1999). Controversy erupted when one of the first two women to fly the F-14A off aircraft carriers (Kara Hultgreen) died when her plane crashed after losing one engine just before landing. Opponents of women in combat aviation #150; including many of the Essay about Locke vs Marx, Navy#146;s male pilots #150; seized on king movement the accident and claimed that the life examples of classical conditioning, pilot had substandard flight skills which were tolerated only because of king her gender. It appears that Hultgreen#146;s inexperience, rather than substandard skills, caused an equipment failure to spiral to disaster when an experienced pilot might have prevented the crash. Nine male pilots flying the difficult F-14A had been killed in training accidents in the preceding three years. Eight out of nine male F-14A pilots who reenacted Hultgreen#146;s landing sequence in a flight simulator also crashed.

106. The Army and Marine Corps have been more resistant to women in citation edition combat. Nonetheless, in 1994 the Army opened combat support positions to women, allowing them into king, 20,000 previously prohibited jobs at brigade headquarters (closer to the front line). Three years later, however, fewer than 1,400 women had been assigned to those jobs, most doing traditionally women#146;s work (administration, health care, supply) in examples of classical the newly opened units. Military studies show that men and women work together well when women are not a novelty in a unit (see pp. King? 199#150;203). With the opening of new positions closer to combat, women became a novelty in those units (just as they still seem to be for each entering class at the academies, and in basic training). The Army makes no attempt to avoid assigning one or two women alone to a unit of several hundred soldiers, nor does it train male soldiers effectively to real life conditioning, work with women better. As a unit works together, however, and especially if it deploys in the field, unit bonding appears to overcome gender divisions to a great extent. Women soldiers who made up 10 percent of US forces in Bosnia in 1997 reportedly had #147;easygoing and untroubled#148; relations with the movement, men. For one thing, with US peacekeeping troops there wearing protective gear almost all the time, gender was less visible #150; it took one infantry colonel a week to realize that some of the MPs protecting him in vaginal orgasm the field were female.

In peacekeeping operations, women MPs are generally closer to king movement, the #147;front lines#148; than are the all-male infantry and armored units. Lines are further blurred by the Army practice of ignoring regulations and using females in supposedly off-limits jobs when practical considerations make it the best way to get the citation edition, job done. King Movement? Among the vietnam, US forces in Bosnia, women blended in king movement by adopting stereotypically #147;macho#148; attitudes and behaviors, including swearing, smoking cigars, and getting a thrill from firing guns. Most importantly, they adopted a #147;warrior spirit.#148; As one female US Lt. Colonel who commanded a Military Police battalion in Bosnia put it, #147;If a woman thinks like a warrior, believes she#146;s a warrior, then she#146;ll do what it takes. Most women don#146;t think they have it in them, but once you let that spirit loose you find that aggressiveness.#148; 107. The political debate Every step of the way, the experience of integrating women has fueled a raging political debate. The two sides tend to vietnam, draw on two kinds of king moral arguments. One concerns fairness #150; whether it is proper, desirable, or just to allow women to real examples, participate in combat if they so choose, or even to assign women soldiers to combat on the same basis as men.

The second category deals with the effectiveness of the military and king whether the participation of apa book citation edition women in combat would reduce or increase (or neither) its readiness, fighting ability, and king movement morale. Imagery? 108. Those who favor allowing women in combat rely on the fairness argument, and think the movement, effects on military performance would be minimal. Women should be allowed any job opportunities for which they are individually qualified, not barred because of their gender alone. This view extends the logic applied to by M.E., other occupations from king movement, which females were traditionally excluded, from police and firefighters to corporate managers, political leaders, and so on. Especially in life examples of classical today#146;s large and bureaucratic US military, being a soldier can be a career path. Many top military positions require service in a combat capacity as a prerequisite, effectively barring women. Congresswoman Pat Schroeder said of the combat exclusion laws that #147;the only thing they protect women from is promotion.#148; A focal point of women#146;s efforts to increase gender fairness in the military is the Defense Advisory Committee on movement Women in the Services (DACOWITS). It was created by Defense Secretary George C. Marshall in 1951 to help bring more women into Locke vs Marx, military service during the Korean War.

To overcome male resistance he awarded DACOWITS members the protocol rank of three-star general, which they still have. 109. Those who oppose women in combat rely on the effectiveness argument #150; that the king, military needs to put priority on religious its main mission of winning wars, not on social-change experiments. For example, retired General Norman Schwarzkopf said: #147;Decisions on what roles women should play in movement war must be based on military standards, not women#146;s rights.#148; However, some opponents of women in combat also rely on a #147;fairness#148; argument. They see protection for women as men#146;s end of a gendered division of labor: #147;Good men respect and defend women.#148; A widely reported exchange between Senator William Cohen and the myth of the orgasm Air Force General Merrill McPeak took place soon after the Gulf War: 110.

The two sides interpret the same set of king movement episodes from the late 1980s and early 1990s differently. As in the movie Rashomon , contradictory versions of the same episode seem credible and imagery coherent, with the #147;truth#148; being difficult to pin down. Each side plays up elements that support their political positions, and omits elements that undermine them. Each side accuses the other of manufacturing false information #150; to slander military women (with the collusion of male military officials), or to movement, cover up military women#146;s failings (with the collusion of liberal media and Essay about politicians), depending which side you take. Pro-feminist Linda Francke and anti-feminist William Breuer, for example, tell contradictory stories about Linda Bray#146;s experiences at the Panamanian military kennel (see p. 94). According to Francke, Captain Bray arrived at the kennel #150; which turned out to be a base and weapons cache for Special Operations troops #150; ten minutes into a fierce half-hour gun battle in king movement which the unit she led was outnumbered by apa book citation, Panamanian defenders firing from the surrounding woods.

She took cover in a ditch, fired her pistol at the enemy once, and movement rode in the armored vehicle that crashed through the front gate. A few days later, three Panamanian soldiers#146; bodies were found in the woods, probable casualties of the Bray-led attack. According to Breuer, however, the Locke vs Marx, kennel was militarily insignificant, there was only king movement, some sporadic fire and Bray was not even there at the time. Religious? She did not crash through the gates or lead her men in king movement combat. Real Life Examples? Breuer focuses on exaggerated media reports of a long firefight with many dead Panamanians strewn about (one report refers to #147;a three-hour-long infantry-type battle#148;). Breuer takes as fact a Los Angeles Times report that Francke calls disinformation leaked by king movement, Pentagon officials but not supported by the facts. Similar disputes surround other cases, notably the Hultgreen crash (see p. 99).

111. Despite the creeping proximity of women to combat, the gender structure of labor in the US military continues to place women primarily in traditionally feminine areas. Apa Book Edition? The large-scale gender integration creates more of the rare cases of women in and near combat, but these #147;newsworthy#148; cases should not blind us to king movement, the general pattern of Essay about Locke gendered labor. In the movement, first plans for apa book citation edition, a women#146;s corps drawn up in the 1930s, the US Army conceived of women as #147;a menial type of corps of low-grade personnel.#148; Nearly half would be used as clerks and movement stenographers, with the rest divided between domestic services (cooking, sewing, laundry, and cleaning), driving, labor, and other unskilled occupations. A few would be skilled workers such as telephone operators. 112. In World War II, the of the orgasm, Army realized it could save money by substituting women for men soldiers. Person for person, WACs cost 3 percent less to maintain than men (mostly owing to lower housing and food costs). King? More importantly, although women replaced men at a one-to-one ratio in driving and mechanical jobs, one woman could do the work of two men in traditional women#146;s jobs such as clerical work. From this experience came the idea decades later #150; in religious imagery the all-volunteer force where labor was a commodity to be bought, not conscripted #150; that budgets could be best utilized by drawing on either men or women according to individual ability for a particular job. 113.

Today, US military women are strongly concentrated at low ranks and pay grades (Figure 2.5). King Movement? Furthermore, although women made up over 10 percent of the US military in 1989, they were still concentrated in traditionally female occupations (see Figure 2.6). About two-thirds of US women soldiers are in administration, health care, communications, and imagery service/supply occupations. They are the successors to the historical secretaries, nurses, telephone operators, and #147;camp followers#148; (who once did the king movement, cooking, sewing, laundry, cleaning, and supply roles). The main area of the myth vaginal change, in terms of women in nontraditional roles, is in equipment repair. Combat-related occupations, such as training and combat support of various kinds, amount to just 4 percent of women (about 7,500 people).

Women make up about one-quarter of movement health care and administration personnel, about 10 percent of service, communications, and technical personnel, and just 2.5 percent of combat-related personnel. These data understate women#146;s combat exposure in the Navy, where 15 percent of women serve on ships and women in traditional occupations may serve in combat positions (e.g., nurses on combat ships). The opposite applies for Essay vs Marx, the Army, where women in nontraditional occupations are banned completely from king, combat positions, including infantry, armor, and most artillery units. Although women helicopter pilots received public attention during the Gulf War, in 1991 women pilots represented under 5 percent for each branch #150; Army, Navy, and Air Force #150; fewer than 1,000 pilots in all (not counting women navigators and aircrew). 114. Figure 2.5 Percent women at each pay rank, US military, 1997. Figure 2.6 Occupations in US military (enlisted) by imagery, gender, 1998. In the US Army in 1997 #150; after the movement, opening of some combat-support occupations and positions to women but while most women were in occupations chosen before that opening #150; women troops were still concentrated in administration (one-third), health care (one-sixth), and service and supply (one-sixth). Vs Marx? For men, fully 32 percent were in infantry, gun crews, and seamanship.

Among the women officers , almost half were in health care (doctors are officers), another quarter in logistics and administration. For male officers, by contrast, almost half were in tactical operations. King? These differences are gradually eroding from year to year, however. Apa Book Citation Edition? 115. One could argue that women are in king the traditional roles because these are the roles they want and are best at. Indeed, most women soldiers do not want combat assignments #150; but then neither do most men. Essay Locke Vs Marx? In a 1992 US survey, 12 percent of enlisted women and 14 percent of officers said they would volunteer for the combat arms if allowed to do so.

Another 18 and 15 percent, respectively, said they might do so. (About 75 percent of women soldiers thought that women should be allowed to king movement, volunteer for combat.) These numbers translate into a pool of real life nearly 25,000 current soldiers, and possibly twice that number, ready to king movement, volunteer for combat. 116. Overall, the results of the US experience indicate a broad, deep, and apa book edition well-rounded capability of women to participate in the kinds of actions and operations required for movement, combat, and to hold their own in combat itself when drawn into it. Conditioning? Most of the movement, problems revolve around men#146;s difficulties in adjusting to kennedy, the presence of women in their midst, and even those problems are most acute when women are a novelty and king movement much less so after men work together with women soldiers. The Myth Of The Vaginal Orgasm? The US experience is significant because it is occurring on king movement a very large scale #150; the life examples of classical, largest such effort ever in peacetime. The most widespread involvement of women in combat has been neither in all-female nor in movement gender-integrated units, but rather as individuals scattered through the ranks. Such women combatants are found in many cultures around the imagery, world, and in many historical periods, although generally in extremely small numbers compared to male combatants. Put together, these thousands of cases add up to a strong endorsement of the conclusion that individual women can hold their own in combat when circumstances permit (or force) them to do so. Historically, women who have participated in combat usually did so disguised as men.

An Englishman joked in 1762 that #147;so many disguised women were serving in king movement the army that they ought to have their own regiments.#148; This presents a real problem for assessing the evidence: we cannot know how many women have successfully participated in this manner #150; surviving (or being buried) without detection. We can only know those whose gender came to light, which most often occurred after a serious injury requiring prolonged medical care. Kennedy War? Historically, most armies have not provided such care in the way we take for granted today, and wounded women may have left the ranks without discovery. Furthermore, soldiers killed in battle would not generally be undressed before being buried. Movement? Thus, we do not know how many women lie in soldiers#146; graves.

Nonetheless, scholars have documented enough cases of cross-dressing women warriors, discovered before or after death, to draw some inferences. 117. Women soldiers in imagery men#146;s clothes are found in most regions of the world. King Movement? In the old Chinese story of Mulan, a young woman dresses as a man, serves in the army in place of her sickly father, earns distinction, has her gender discovered after the fact, and ultimately returns home to a feminine role. Mulan was adapted by Disney, with artistic license, as a cartoon movie in 1998. Although probably a fictitious or composite figure even before Disney got hold of her #150; scholars disagree about when and where she lived, and even her family name #150; she is vietnam war probably based on king movement real cases. This basic story recurs in religious imagery various cultures, including several true stories (perhaps exaggerated for commercial reasons) that spurred popular books, articles, and speaking tours. A central message is that gender relations are overturned in king wartime but restored in the happy ending.

For example, Franziska Scanagatta reportedly graduated from the Austrian military academy in apa book edition 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars. She served in the campaigns of 1797 and king 1799, and religious was promoted to lieutenant in king 1800. However, her gender was discovered the next year and she left the army, marrying another lieutenant and by M.E. having four children. In the US Revolutionary War, Deborah Samson (sometimes spelled Sampson) apparently did serve in male disguise, although her later autobiography and lecture tour were fictionalized. She won a small pension afterwards, and her husband even received benefits based on movement her service.

118. Among the the myth, best documented cases is the US Civil War. It took place in king movement a transitional era when the military was organized enough to maintain records on real examples individual soldiers but not organized enough to king, provide all entering soldiers with detailed physical exams. Kennedy War? Women participated on both sides. Most women serving at movement, the front in the Civil War did so as nurses (Clara Barton being the most famous), and others served as #147;daughter of the regiment#148; #150; a morale booster and support person (similar to the Israeli role mentioned earlier). These nurses and #147;daughters#148; stayed just behind the lines, in theory, but in fact were sometimes caught up in battle.

Other women accompanied the kennedy, troops until combat became imminent, as wives and girlfriends, cooks and laundresses. 119. In several dozen documented cases, women dressed as men and fought in movement the ranks. For example, #147;Frank Mayne#148; (Frances Day) disguised herself to follow her lover into the Union Army, stayed on after he died from disease a few weeks later, and was promoted to sergeant. Her secret was discovered when she was mortally wounded in battle. GentleHands? Lizzie Compton enlisted in seven different regiments, joining a new unit each time her gender was uncovered. #147;Frank Martin#148; (Frances Hook) fought in Tennessee in king 1862 but was mustered out, against kennedy vietnam war, her pleas, when her gender was discovered after she was seriously wounded in battle. King Movement? She reenlisted in a Michigan regiment in Kentucky, was found out again, and reportedly served later in an Illinois regiment. Hook was, according to the Michigan regiment records, #147;quite small, a beautiful figure#133;.large blue eyes beaming#133;.exceedingly pretty and citation very amiable.#148; By contrast, another woman soldier wounded in the same Tennessee battle (in a Minnesota regiment), Frances Clayton, was described as very tall and masculine looking. She learned to drink, smoke, chew tobacco, and swear prolifically in king movement order to life, help conceal her gender.

Clayton had enlisted to movement, be with her husband. Both these women were considered excellent soldiers and brave fighters, despite their differences in physique and appearance. 120. #147;Albert Cashier#148; (Jennie Hodgers) served for three years with the Union and was in combat forty times, notably in the brutal 1863 battle for Vicksburg, Mississippi, where Cashier#146;s name is inscribed on the battlefield monument. Cashier was considered dependable, healthy, and by M.E. Kerr fearless by king movement, her commanders #150; the real examples of classical, equal of anyone in #147;his#148; company, despite a lack of size and brawn. She continued to pose as a man after the war, her story coming to king movement, light only in life examples of classical 1913 at age 70, shortly after Hodgers was sent to a hospital for the insane. The story caused a minor sensation. Hodgers#146;s former sergeant visited and reported her #147;broken#148; because #147;she was compelled to put on skirts.#148; She told him: #147;The country needed men, and I wanted excitement.#148; 121. On the Confederate side, generally fewer women served near the front than on the Union side, although some women served in support roles usually called #147;mother#148; of the king, troops.

Some Confederate women did serve while disguised as men. Life Examples? #147;Richard Anderson#148; (Amy Clarke) enlisted in the Confederate army with her husband, stayed after he was killed, and was captured by the Union and released in a dress after her gender was discovered. She then apparently (although evidence is thin) returned to service as a lieutenant, even though her gender was then known. King Movement? Lucy Matilda Thompson #150; tall, masculine, and an expert shot #150; also enlisted in GentleHands the Confederate army with her husband, and was discovered only after serious injury. 122. While some women believed in the Confederate cause, others joined only to remain close to husbands or boyfriends. Sarah Malinda Blaylock of North Carolina joined the Confederate army with her husband, although he was a Unionist, when he was about to be drafted. A month later, he rubbed his body with poison sumac and king movement received a medical discharge. Of The Vaginal Orgasm? She immediately revealed her identity and was discharged as well. They went on to become Unionist partisans, and led raiding parties from the Tennessee mountains.

123. The most famous women soldiers of the war served as spies and published their stories afterwards. King Movement? #147;Franklin Thompson#148; (Sarah Emma Edmonds) adopted a male identity before the war and worked in the Union army as a #147;male#148; nurse and mail carrier who was recruited to kennedy vietnam war, the secret service and king slipped behind Confederate lines on numerous occasions to bring back vital military information (Figure 2.7). On these forays, Edmonds adopted disguise-within-a-disguise, as an GentleHands African American man, or an Irish woman peddler. King? She lived through many battles, deserted the army when her identity appeared to apa book edition, be in jeopardy, and published a best-selling book in 1864, Nurse and Spy , about her escapades, told as though she were a female nurse who sometimes adopted male disguise. She was the only woman ever accepted into the veterans#146; group, Grand Army of the Republic, in 1898. (Several other cross-dressing women combatants wrote successful books, encouraging similar, fictional stories.) 124. Figure 2.7 Sarah Emma Edmonds as #147;Franklin Thompson,#148; US Civil War. Movement? [Courtesy of State Archives of Michigan.] Edmonds#146;s counterpart in the Confederacy was #147;Lieutenant Harry T. Buford#148; (Loreta Janeta Velazquez). With the imagery, help of king movement a fake moustache and beard, Velazquez fought with the by M.E. Kerr, Confederate army as an independent lieutenant (floating from one unit to another as needed) in 1861, and at least twice temporarily took charge of a company that had lost its officers. She served under her fiance without being recognized by him, worked as a spy switching in and out of male and female attire, and king movement was arrested by both the North and the South numerous times on charges of spying or (in the kennedy vietnam war, South) being a woman, only to king movement, get away each time and carry on.

After revealing herself to her fiance (when both were recovering in a hospital) and marrying him, only to citation edition, have him die weeks later, Velazquez gave up male disguise and turned to king movement, spying full-time, as a woman. She became one of the South#146;s most effective secret agents, working as double (and once triple) agent under the North#146;s secret service, counterfeiting large sums in the US Treasury to finance the Confederacy, blockade-running through Cuba, and making a clean getaway at the end of the war. She published her controversial memoirs in Kerr 1876. 125. Many women were discovered quickly and discharged #150; often victims of their #147;feminine#148; mannerisms, such as how they put on stockings or wrung out dishcloths. Two soldiers were found out when officers threw apples to them, which they tried to movement, catch with their aprons (they were not wearing aprons).

Another, according to Essay Locke vs Marx, an 1862 newspaper account, was found out king after #147;trying to Essay vs Marx, put her pants on over her head.#148; Several women were discovered after giving birth, including a Union sergeant whose delivery was #147;in violation of all military law#148; according to an outraged superior officer, and a Confederate officer who gave birth after being taken prisoner by the North. Many women, however, were discovered only after injury or death, and an unknown number either were buried on movement the battlefield or survived the apa book citation edition, war undiscovered. Of course, while hundreds of women soldiers may have fought in the Civil War, hundreds of king thousands of men did. The participation of women was limited in that they almost always had to pretend to be men in order to fight, and they were summarily dismissed or punished when discovered. 126. Women have participated in naval warfare and as pirates on a number of occasions, in a variety of roles #150; disguised as men, working in support jobs on Locke ships, and in rare cases as openly female combatants. King? In the sailing ships of the British Navy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it was common for women to accompany men to sea, both as wives and as service workers (prostitutes, cooks).

As Figure 2.8 illustrates, in time of battle women participated under fire, facing many of the same dangers as the men. They traditionally helped nurse the GentleHands Kerr, wounded and carry gunpowder to the cannons. Movement? The latter was an especially difficult and dangerous task, since heavy cartridges had to be carried from the (spark-free) powder room up ladders to apa book, the slippery and smoke-filled gun deck, over and over. It was #147;not unusual#148; for the noise, vibration, and stress of battle to movement, induce labor in a pregnant woman, who gave birth with little assistance from others. 127. Figure 2.8 British seaman#146;s wife helps a wounded seaman in battle, 1830. About? [From Matthew Henry Barker, The Log Book . London: J. King Movement? #038; W. Robins, 1830.] These combat support roles for women at kennedy war, sea are supplemented by quite a few cases of women who adopted male dress and joined the king movement, Navy as regular sailors #150; usually motivated by economic and social restrictions faced by women on land (and by pure adventurousness). Of three biographies of eighteenth-century women who went to sea with the imagery, Royal Navy, one turns out to be accurate, one is embellished with fiction, and the third entirely fictitious. The public showed both tolerance of, and amusement at, the story of a woman dressing as a man and taking to king, sea, especially if she went in search of a lost love (which few real women did) and returned to normal gender roles at the end of the orgasm, story. It was surprisingly easy to pass as a man in the eighteenth century, when men were routinely press-ganged into naval service to king, fill labor shortages in the war-prone British Navy.

As with all cross-dressing female soldiers, it is hard to estimate numbers of real historical cases behind the examples of classical conditioning, popular ballads. 128. Openly female fighters. The form of female participation found least often is the isolated individual female soldier who, without gender disguise, fights among her male comrades. Cultures tend to treat these as exceptional cases, decoupled from any idea of women#146;s systematic participation. For example, the king movement, Russian Naval Academy#146;s first female cadet, admitted in 1997, is being treated as an exception #150; admitted by special decision of the Defense Minister. To quote an officer at the academy, #147;One girl alone cannot ruin the navy.#148; Many stories describe individual, remarkable women who simply went to kennedy vietnam, war as women, their strong abilities usually convincing males to movement, accept them despite their gender. Some of these stories are of dubious historical accuracy, other are composites of several cases, and others are well documented.

The phenomenon of individual, openly female warriors is widespread and yet, in most times and places, rare. 129. Simple societies In several simple, prestate societies, women sometimes participate in fighting. In these societies, combat and war support roles are not always clearly separated (although in some cultures they are), so that when a small band of warriors goes off to fight, women may accompany them and occasionally participate in king fighting. I have mentioned the case of women of the Eurasian steppes in the early Iron Age (see pp. 13#150;14). Citation Edition? Among the Maori, women fought in emergencies, as when inner home defenses were threatened. This was unusual, however. As the Maori proverb says, #147;Fighting with men and childbirth with women.#148; Several other cases illustrate women#146;s participation, although in none of them do women play a role equal to men in combat. Some native American societies allowed women to participate in combat to a minor extent. King? Among the southern Apaches, some women accompanied war parties and a few #147;also fought and were known for religious, their bravery and expert marksmanship.#148; Reports are somewhat contradictory, however.

Cremony reported in 1868: Many of the women delight to participate in predatory excursions, urging on the men, and actually taking part in conflicts. They ride like centaurs and handle their rifles with deadly skill#133;.[T]he fighting women#133;.are numerous, well trained, and desperate, often exhibiting more real courage than the king movement, men. However, a 1941 report states that Apache raiding parties were #147;made up of men only. Women never go on raids.#148; Nonetheless, prisoners taken in battle were often taken back to camp for the women (especially those who had lost loved ones in battle) to life conditioning, torture and kill. Apache girls and young women received much physical training including riding and using knife, bow, and rifle #150; and were expected to guard camp while males were away. Adult women occasionally joined a raiding or war party, usually to help with cooking, cleaning, and movement nursing. 130. The most famous woman Apache warrior was Lozen, who rode and fought with Geronimo (against the kennedy war, US and Mexican armies in the late nineteenth century). Lozen was unusual because she was not married. A witness who, as a child, rode with Geronimo#146;s band recalls: #147;Lozen#133;.was called The Woman Warrior; and king movement though she may not have had as much strength as one of the men she was as good a shot as any of them.#148; This witness mentions that #147;no unmarried woman was permitted to go#148; with a war party. War? #147;Lozen?

No, she was not married#133;. But to us she was as a Holy Woman#133;. And she was brave!#148; Lozen, the sister of Chief Victorio, reputedly used her powers as medicine woman to detect the enemy#146;s presence and movement help the religious, Apache warriors elude capture on many occasions. Movement? After her brother#146;s death, Lozen rode with Chief Nana, who #150; with a force of 15 to 40 warriors #150; eluded a US force of over 1,000 soldiers and won eight battles against them. Lozen went on vietnam war to ride with Geronimo, was eventually captured with him, and king movement died in Essay about vs Marx custody. Clearly, however, Lozen was the exception. Most Apache women did not participate in war, and most war parties did not integrate women into the ranks. 131.

On the long war expeditions of the extremely aggressive Mundurucu (Brazil), warriors were joined by their wives and #147;a number of unmarried girls. Their tasks were to carry cooking utensils and all of the equipment of the men, except for king, their arms#133;. They also cooked, fetched water and firewood and performed other female services. Contrary to [an 1831 report]#133;.that the women helped on the battlefield#133;.the women were always left at a safe distance#148; during fighting. 132. Cheyenne Indian women also occasionally, though rarely, went with war parties, and kennedy vietnam war showed courage equal to the men. When the chief#146;s horse was killed in a battle in 1876, his sister charged in among the white troops and king rode away with him to safety. According to some reports, Cheyenne women who had been in wars formed a small guild and held meetings.

Women also occasionally accompanied war parties among the Shasta (California). The women cut enemy bowstrings with knives, and were sometimes taken prisoner. They also cooked and religious imagery carried supplies. The Gabrielino society (California) #150; wrongly characterized by nineteenth-century writers as #147;timid and peaceful#148; #150; used women and children to accompany war parties, carrying the food and supplies, as did the Hidatsa, Choctaw, and Guiana Amerindians. Possibly, Klamath (Oregon) women fought other women in war. The Konkow sometimes allowed women to participate in torturing captured male enemies. 133. Women#146;s participation in torturing and killing prisoners is found elsewhere as well, scattered across the anthropological record of movement cross-cultural research on religious imagery simple societies.

For example, among the Tupinamba of Brazil, women enthusiastically helped torture prisoners of war to death and then dismember and eat them. Similarly, Kiwai women of Oceania had the special job of #147;mangling#148; enemy wounded and then killing them with knives or digging sticks. In seventeenth-century colonial Massachusetts a mob of women tortured two Indian prisoners to death after overcoming their guards. Afghan women in the nineteenth century tortured enemy survivors of battle. In 1993 a mob of Somali women tore apart four foreign journalists. 134. It is possible, incidentally, for a culture to king movement, mobilize women into combat support without taking away their noncombatant protected status. About Vs Marx? In Papuan warfare, women #147;collect stray arrows for their husbands#148; and scout enemy movements, enjoying immunity from king movement, attack. Kapauku warfare (New Guinea) extends total immunity to women who function as support troops in the middle of the battle. #147;The Kapauku consider it highly immoral for a man to Kerr, shoot at a female during a battle.

Even an accidental injury brings#133;.derision and loss of king movement prestige.#148; These cases highlight the distinction between combat and the myth of the orgasm combat-support categories. 135. In Celtic traditions, women warriors are a recurrent theme. Beyond the historical cases, warrior queens of dubious historical basis also figure prominently in legends and myths of many cultures. For example, Queen Medb (Maeve), in the Celtic classic The Tain , would have lived around the first century AD. In the king, legend, the goddess-warrior Medb commanded 1,500 soldiers but was most fearsome as a single warrior. The Celtic tradition in imagery general gives considerable latitude for military roles to king movement, women. In Celtic myth, #147;again and again it is the apa book, magic intervention in the course of battle of a female, goddess, queen or a combination of the two, which provides the focus or climax of the story.#148; Legends refer frequently to king, warlike queens and goddesses, but little hard evidence indicates actual women fighters. Even the goddesses of war generally do not engage in battle, but use magic to kennedy, influence battle outcomes, or sometimes train men in king the art of citation war. As for historical evidence, since the Celts were not literate, we must rely on king movement second-hand accounts.

A Roman historian claimed that if a Celt called in about Locke his wife, foreigners would be hard pressed, since she was stronger than him and could rain blows and kicks of amazing strength on the foreigners. However, I have found no evidence that Celtic women participated as regular soldiers in warfare. If they did so, they left little trace. 136. Historical cases in movement industrialized societies In industrialized societies, individual women have also fought openly on occasion. In the French Revolutionary Wars, which first mobilized a whole national population for imagery, war service on a mass scale, several hundred women proposed forming a women#146;s militia. A proposal for king, a women#146;s battalion was considered, but rejected, in 1793. However, Renee Bordereau served openly in the royalist cavalry, fighting with #147;unbelievable courage,#148; evidently out of rage at the murder of 42 of her relatives (including her father before her eyes).

Afterwards she dictated her memoirs which were published as a pamphlet. In the French siege of Saragossa, Spain, in real life conditioning 1808, a Spanish woman named Agostina served with hundreds of women bringing drink to the 200 defending soldiers and water to movement, swab the cannons. Locke? When the king movement, French broke through and GentleHands by M.E. Kerr killed all the artillerymen, Agostina began firing a cannon, and other women joined in, forcing a French retreat. After the war, she continued as an artillery captain, in uniform with standard pay and king pension, despite being openly female. A French woman, wearing male clothing but known by real life examples of classical, all to be female, fought competently in king movement Corsica in 1792#150;99, and retired as a sergeant major after being wounded.

Another woman served openly in the French army in 1793#150;1815, was wounded six times, and dictated her memoirs afterwards. No attempt was made to discharge her, because she fought well. Vietnam War? 137. In at least two cases in the US Civil War, similarly, women served openly as officers in the Confederate army at the rank of captain (in addition to those disguised as men). During World War I, a number of movement women participated individually in several armies.

One of the most famous, Englishwoman Flora Sandes, fought with the Serbian army on the same terms as the men, and real life examples conditioning took an Austrian speaking tour in 1920. 138. Just as individual women have proven capable as soldiers, so too they have shown themselves adept as military leaders. Male soldiers and officers will follow the commands and king movement exhortations of a female leader #150; and not just one whose gender is disguised #150; when that leader is deemed to possess proper authority. Joan of about Arc The most famous case #150; although it is atypical #150; is Joan of Arc. As a peasant girl, she heard voices telling her that God wanted her to save France, which was doing poorly in the Hundred Years War against England. The English, with the collusion of some French forces, occupied much of king movement France including Paris and the cathedral of Reims where French kings were crowned, and were besieging Orleans. Of Classical Conditioning? At age 16, Joan somehow convinced the movement, French ruler to kennedy vietnam war, provide her some troops and send her to Orleans, where (in 1429) she rallied the demoralized army trying to relieve the siege.

She personally led the attack on the key English fortress, and prevailed. Using her ability to motivate the rank-and-file soldiers with religious fervor, and overcoming some initial resistance by the French military leadership, Joan led the movement, army to a series of victories, culminating in life conditioning the coronation of Charles VII at king movement, Reims with Joan by imagery, his side. These successes turned the movement, tide of the Hundred Years War. The next year, Joan was captured by Burgundy and sold to the myth, the English, who condemned her both for idolatry and for wearing men#146;s clothing, and burned her at the stake. King? 139. Joan#146;s main strength as a military leader was her ability to inspire troops to follow her. The Myth Of The Vaginal Orgasm? Leadership is critical in overcoming the movement, paralyzing terror and confusion of soldiers on the battlefield (see pp. 253#150;58). Joan pro- vided the vaginal, necessary strong leadership, in a manner not unlike that of the captains of mercenary units at that time.

The mercenaries would risk their lives for their captain and were rewarded with plunder, whereas Joan#146;s troops were rewarded with spiritual ecstasy. The French soldiers believed that Joan was a holy presence. King Movement? They loved her, and rushed to GentleHands, touch her, or her horse. Joan exemplified a spiritual life: she prohibited looting by her troops, even for food. She was charitable to all. She chased away pro-stitutes (who follow armies; see pp. 342#150;48).

She prayed frequently and heard mass daily. Movement? In battle, she refused to apa book citation edition, shed blood personally, preferring to carry her standard instead of movement using her sword. Reportedly she could not stand the kennedy vietnam war, sight of blood. Her soldiers #150; the same ones those prostitutes had been serving #150; claimed they were not sexually aroused around her, even when they saw her breasts or bare legs (when she was dressing, or wounded). King? Instead, the soldiers #147;relished the spirituality of their own existence when with her.#148; In addition to these qualities, Joan appears to have had a knack for military tactics. She was especially adept at riding a horse while wielding a lance, at setting up artillery (which was fairly new), and at religious, organizing armies for battle.

Her contemporaries described her as a simple, innocent, and ignorant girl except in the art of movement war, where she acted as though she had 30 years#146; experience. 140. Most women military leaders, unlike Joan, were queens who held political power and exercised military leadership from that position. Antonia Fraser reviews the record of a dozen such historical #147;warrior queens.#148; Different stories treat such figures differently #150; for example, some emphasizing their chastity and vietnam others their sexual voracity. 141. The documented historical cases include Semiramis (Sammu-ramat), who ruled Assyria in 811#150;806 BC after her husband#146;s death and before her son came of age. Not much is known about her, but Greek writers built her up into a legendary adventuress, conqueror, and king voracious lover #150; a story further embellished, centuries later, in religious imagery a Voltaire play and a Rossini opera. 142. The forces of king Tomyris, queen and general of the Massagetae in today#146;s eastern Iran, defeated the Persian ruler Cyrus in the sixth century BC, according to Locke vs Marx, the fifth-century Greek historian Herodotus (who here, unlike the Amazon case, is movement reporting fairly recent history). When Cyrus tried to conquer her territory, using trickery and capturing her son, Tomyris#146; army crushed the Persians in an extremely violent battle and killed Cyrus.

Fifty years later, the real life conditioning, Persian king Xerxes battled the king, Greeks at religious imagery, Salamis, with a warrior queen at his side #150; Artemisia of Halicarnassus (again, according to Herodotus, who praises her #147;manly courage#148;). Although she advised against the unwise naval encounter with the Greeks, Artemisia fought more bravely than Xerxes#146; male commanders: he is supposed to have said, #147;My men have turned into king, women, my women into men.#148; The Greeks, who resented a woman warring against GentleHands Kerr, them, had offered a large reward for Artemisia#146;s capture, but she managed to escape the battle alive with some clever tactics. (Tactics included ramming and sinking a friendly vessel, convincing a pursuer that she was on his side, while Xerxes assumed she had sunk an enemy vessel.) 143. The legendary and historical British queen Boudica (Boadicea or Boudicca) led a rebellion against king movement, the Romans around 60 AD (17 years after their invasion). A statue of her on religious a chariot stands near the British Parliament (see Figure 2.9). King? Boudica took leadership of the Iceni people (in present-day England) after her husband died. Her Iron Age society was of Celtic heritage (see p. 115) #150; warlike, reckless, horse-loving, robust and strong, prone to fighting naked accompanied by real life examples of classical, loud noise and frequent drinking. Celtic women, although they did not rule in king movement a matriarchy as has been claimed, led freer lives than Roman law allowed. Women were not excluded from Celtic religion, which included powerful goddesses, and apparently women could serve as druids (priests). The historian Tacitus said of the Britons (in contrast to the Romans), #147;they make no distinction of sex in their appointment of commanders.#148; At the time Boudica took power, another queen, Cartimandua, presided over the Brigantian territories to kennedy war, the north, as a client of Rome (which had come to her aid when her rule was threatened).

144. Figure 2.9 Statue of Boudica, London. [By Thomas Thornycroft. Photo by Sue Lanzon.] Boudica#146;s own history is sketchy, although the main outlines seem clear. Upon the king, death of Boudica#146;s husband, the apa book edition, Romans seized his estate, dispossessed the Iceni nobles, flogged the new queen, Boudica, and raped her two daughters. These humiliations came at a time of king movement wide resentment against GentleHands by M.E., imperial rule. King Movement? Drawing on spiritual and political symbols, Boudica mobilized her people to kennedy vietnam, rebel, and led an army of possibly 100,000 which overran, burned, and sacked a Roman colonial settlement. Joined by other tribes, the army ambushed the Roman reinforcements and moved on the trading city of London, which the Romans abandoned and the rebels burned, as they did a third city, populated by Britons friendly to Rome. In the course of these attacks, tens of thousands of people died and many atrocities occurred. The Romans regrouped, attacked Boudica#146;s army, and #150; with superior experience and equipment #150; routed them and killed tens of thousands of soldiers along with their families who had come to king movement, see the battle.

Boudica reportedly killed herself afterwards. Rome inflicted vengeance on by M.E. the Britons, and went on to rule for 400 years. Queen Cartimandua had not joined the rebellion, and remained in power. 145. Two hundred years after Boudica#146;s rebellion, Queen Zenobia of movement Palmyra led a similar revolt against the Roman empire, in modern-day Syria. Around 260 AD, Zenobia#146;s husband Odainat, ruler of the Roman colony Palmyra, went to war against Persia and edition won. The incredibly beautiful Zenobia rode with the men in king movement wartime, was as brave as her husband, and supposedly had sex only for purposes of apa book citation edition procreation. When her husband and king movement his heir from an earlier marriage were assassinated, Zenobia took power as regent for her own son.

She quickly turned to an ambitious campaign of military conquest, and edition within a few years ruled a large territory from Egypt to the Bosphorus, then declared independence from Rome. She rode with her troops (an army of 100,000 or more), transmitting orders through her general. Eventually Rome attacked, reconquered the territory, sacked Palmyra, and took Zenobia captive. Taken to Rome, she apparently survived and built a comfortable life married to a Roman senator. 146. Matilda of Tuscany was an important ally of Pope Gregory VII in his eleventh-century power struggle with the Emperor Henry IV. Movement? Pious and largely chaste, she led her army on religious the battlefield, exhorting her troops and plunging into the battle with sword in hand.

She won and lost many battles, played important diplomatic roles, and died in old age. Her body was reburied in St. Peter#146;s (Rome) in the seventeenth century, with the inscription: #147;This warrior-woman disposed her troops as the Amazonian Penthesilea [of Greek myth]#133;.#148; 147. In the king movement, twelfth century, Maud #150; daughter of by M.E. Kerr King Henry I of movement England and husband of GentleHands by M.E. Emperor Henry V #150; became heiress to the English throne after her brother and king then her husband both died. In the long succession struggle with her (male) cousin following her father#146;s death, Maud both led and real examples defended against various military attacks and sieges. 148. Queen Tamara of twelfth-century Georgia plotted military strategy for aggressive campaigns, marched with her army, and spurred her soldiers on with battlefield speeches. The voraciously sexual Tamara of Georgian legend contrasts with the real Tamara, #147;more of a matriarch than an erotic heroine,#148; who was later canonized by movement, the church. Apa Book Citation Edition? 149. These European queens #150; to movement, whom we may add Queen Isabella of religious imagery Spain and Queen Elizabeth of England #150; are joined by king, others far from Europe.

The first-century Vietnamese sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi are said to have raised an GentleHands by M.E. army that expelled Chinese invaders 2,000 years ago (see Figure 2.10). One commander in their force supposedly gave birth at the front before fighting her way through enemy lines with her baby on movement her back. The Rani of Jhansi led the nineteenth-century Indian rebellion against British rule. 150. Figure 2.10 Trung sisters drive Chinese from Vietnam in 39 AD. [From Fraser 1989, 96f.]

Queen Nzinga (or Nzingha, N#146;Zinga, Jinga, or Mbande Zinga) of seventeenth-century Angola took power when her brother (the king) died. A cannibal who personally beheaded and drank the blood of prisoners, her economic base was the slave trade. Nzinga ruled first Ndongo and then #150; never having fully overcome sexist traditions there #150; neighboring Matamba which had some history of female rulers. Religious? She shifted alliances between the Portuguese and king the Dutch, and is currently seen in Angola as a proto-nationalist who inflicted military defeats on colonialist Portugal. (Some writers claim that Nzinga#146;s army included many female soldiers, but this seems to have no basis.) 151. Historical warrior queens sometimes tried to GentleHands Kerr, link themselves symbolically (for practical reasons) with well-known goddesses of war #150; Semiramis (ninth-century BC Babylon) with the goddess Astarte, Cleopatra (first-century BC Egypt) with Isis, and Boudica (first-century AD England) with Celtic warrior goddesses. In other cases, warrior queen figures are symbolic of the nation and removed from military strategy. Queen Louise of Prussia led the fight against Napoleon #150; as a national symbol dressed in military attire, but not a military strategist or fighter (she suffered disastrous defeat). 152. Other women in more recent centuries have shown leadership in battle. During the conquest of Paraguay by its neighbors in 1864#150;70, the dictator#146;s mistress, Elisa (Ella) Lynch, played an important role and held the rank of colonel.

In one critical battle in 1868, as a town was being overrun, she rode to the women#146;s camp, organized thousands of women into an #147;army#148; carrying hoes and king brooms, and marched back over the hill to town, where Argentinian infantry panicked and religious imagery ran at the rumor of thousands of Paraguayan reinforcements arriving. Movement? This seems to have been an isolated incident, although Paraguayans of vietnam war all ages and king movement both genders participated in home defense in the myth of the orgasm several other desperate battles during that war. 153. In feudal times, in both Europe and Asia, it was not unusual for women to take over defense of their castle when their men were away, held prisoner, or killed. The Countess of Montfort, who lived in fourteenth-century France, is an exemplary case. When her husband was taken prisoner by an archrival #150; a man given to atrocities in king war #150; the Countess organized military affairs including morale, finance, tactics, and diplomacy. When besieged by the rival, she led the defense, dressed in armor, from horseback in the streets, mobilizing women to throw down stones and boiling tar on imagery the enemy. She used a secret gate to king, sneak out with some knights during a lull, then destroyed half the enemy in an attack from behind, breaking the siege. (Although victorious, the Countess ultimately went mad and apa book citation edition lived her last 30 years in isolation in a castle.) 154. Modern political leaders in king movement wartime.

Women in the present-day interstate system sometimes become military leaders when they hold political power during wartime. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir, and Indira Gandhi led their countries in war. (Thatcher is the only woman to lead a #147;great power#148; this century.) Benazir Bhutto of vietnam Pakistan and Corazon Aquino of the king movement, Philippines both struggled to control their own military forces in the late 1980s (Aquino survived seven coup attempts). Turkey#146;s Tansu Ciller prosecuted a harsh war to suppress Kurdish rebels in the mid-1990s. President Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga of Sri Lanka (and the prime minister, her mother) practiced war against Tamil separatists after her peace initiatives failed. Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua kept the peace between factions that had fought a brutal civil war. Other states, such as Norway and religious imagery Iceland, have had women leaders at times when war and peace were not major political issues in those countries. King? 155.

Female national leaders use both #147;masculine#148; and #147;feminine#148; styles in military and diplomatic matters. Aquino#146;s modest femininity was a great asset in diplomacy. On a 1986 US visit, according to of classical, a State Department official, Aquino #147;had hard-bitten politicians eating out king of the palm of her hand.#148; However, this femininity made it harder for her to gain loyalty and obedience from her military. After each of several coup attempts, Aquino delivered speeches that first addressed military and government officials in masculinized English and then switched to more feminine phrases in Tagalog to citation edition, address her citizens. 156. In sum, overall, women like men seem capable of leading in king war or in peace.

They do not appear to be more peaceful, more oriented to nonviolent resolution of international conflicts, or less committed to state sovereignty and territorial integrity than are male leaders. We still lack enough data, however. Women national leaders, from World War II through 1993, number 28 individuals (excluding hereditary heads of state) #150; a small fraction of the total. 157. US foreign policy Within the United States foreign policy establishment, women leaders do not show particular softness compared with male counterparts. Both Secretary of by M.E. State Madeleine Albright and UN Ambassador Jeane Kirkpatrick were hard-liners within their administrations. (Kirkpatrick, incidentally, remarked of the White House Situation Room that #147;I don#146;t think there had ever been a woman in that room before.#148;) In the US Congress, it is hard to compare men#146;s and women#146;s voting records on king movement foreign policy issues because there have been so few women. The US Senate was 98#150;99 percent male until 1992, when it dropped to only 94 percent male. Women have never chaired the key foreign policy committees (Armed Services and Foreign/International Relations) in the Senate or the GentleHands by M.E., House. 158. In the US State Department in 1989, women held fewer than 7 percent of the king movement, senior foreign service positions (up from 2 percent in 1970), but 79 percent of the lowest-rank civil service positions (from 72 percent in 1970). Thus, men more often make the the myth of the orgasm, policies while women type the memos.

A #147;glass ceiling#148; holds women down in the State Department hierarchy. In the Department of movement Defense, similarly, women are concentrated at low levels and edition have trouble moving up the hierarchy either as service members or as civilians. 159. A 1993 study of movement foreign policy insiders found that career women in the State Department were less hard-line and less prone to life examples conditioning, recommend force than men. However, for women political appointees at State and for both career and political women in Defense, no such gender gap existed. Movement? In fact, #147;in the few instances in which they differed from their male counterparts, [women] seemed to be more hard line and conservative.#148; Regarding the kennedy vietnam, foreign policy process, there were no statistically significant gender differences. King? Nearly 90 percent of men and Essay about women at movement, both State and Defense, excluding career women at Defense who split evenly, thought that having more women in the Department would not affect foreign policy or process. Kennedy Vietnam War? Overall, little evidence shows that women foreign policy insiders hold a #147;women#146;s perspective#148; on international issues or the policy process.

160. A 1990 poll asked US men and women whether they thought women in king public office would do a better job than men, in several issue areas. Across issues, more women than men thought women would do a better job, but this gap was only a few percentage points on most issues. Both genders on average thought women would do a better job in improving education, assisting the poor, protecting the environment, governing honestly, and imagery working for world peace. Both genders thought women would do a worse job in trade negotiations, diplomacy, decisions about war, and (especially) directing the military. The main societal factors creating difficulty for female US foreign policy insiders were the king, stereotypes of religious imagery foreign policy as a male preserve and king of women as unknow- ledgeable about foreign affairs. Among the kennedy vietnam, poll respondents, almost all women and nearly three-quarters of men said the public sees women as knowing less than men about foreign affairs, although only 22 percent of women and king 11 percent of men said they personally believed that idea. 161. A 1976 study analyzed gender differences in the myth vaginal orgasm elite opinion about foreign policy issues.

Of the women, 42 percent were educators or media leaders (occupations that tend to be #147;dovish#148;), whereas 38 of the men were military officers or business executives (#147;hawkish#148; occupations). King Movement? The women were also somewhat younger on average, and more likely to be Democrats and self-described liberals; 73 percent of men and 11 percent of about Locke vs Marx women had military service records. Multivariate statistical analysis controlled for some of these variables. On Cold War questions, significant gender differences appeared on only four of twenty items. Of the movement, nine questions in this cluster relating to the myth, the use of force, only one showed a significant gender gap. On international questions unrelated to the Cold War, such as poverty and humanitarian concerns, again few gender differences were found. Only on king questions regarding #147;isolationism#148; did a consistent and significant gender gap appear, with women more isolationist. In multivariate analyses, occupation rather than gender was the best predictor of foreign policy views. This study suggests that US women in leadership positions in the 1970s did not share the real examples of classical conditioning, tendency of the general population of women to be somewhat more peace- ful on foreign policy questions (see pp. King? 329#150;30). This could be because women achieved leadership positions by apa book, emulating, or being selected for, #147;masculine#148; qualities.

162. Diplomacy Women#146;s military leadership abilities might overlap with their more general political and diplomatic capacities. US women ambassadors, beginning with the king movement, first in 1933, show #147;striking similarities#148; as high-energy risk takers, patriotic, courageous, tall, physically fit women who loved their jobs. As girls, they were curious about the world, were called tomboys, were voracious readers, and received special attention from parents and teachers. Only 17 of 44 were married while serving as ambassador.

The ambassadors, especially the early ones, faced sexist attitudes in the host countries and institutional lack of support (though equal pay) within the State Department. Most #147;accepted the fact of discrimination as a condition of the religious, times and carried on king movement without too much grumbling.#148; Men, in describing these ambassadors, referred frequently to their #147;femininity.#148; The women used this to advantage: since they were not considered threatening, they could speak bluntly to male officials without the latter worrying about losing face. However, the first US woman appointed as ambassador to edition, a Middle Eastern country, April Glaspie, was blamed by Congressional critics for supposedly giving Saddam Hussein the #147;green light#148; to invade Kuwait. One senior male State Department official reportedly said: #147;We have some lessons to learn. The first is don#146;t send women as Ambassadors.#148; 163. Fortunately, Hapsburg emperor Charles V did not obey that logic in king movement 1529, when the Paix des Dames (#147;Ladies#146; Peace#148;) ended a destructive war with France. The peace resulted from the life, initiatives of Marguerite of Austria #150; the movement, emperor#146;s aunt and regent of the kennedy war, Hapsburg-controlled Netherlands #150; and Louise of Savoy, who was the French king#146;s mother and Marguerite#146;s sister-in-law. The negotiations grew out of a feeler to movement, Marguerite#146;s ambassador at a party given by about vs Marx, Louise in Paris. Both sides were under pressure owing to the complexity of movement shifting alliances. By negotiating through his mother, the French king kept his allies out of the talks and retained the ability to reject the result if he did not like it. The treaty demonstrated Western Europe#146;s common interests and allowed efforts to be redirected against Turkey.

Marguerite is imagery generally credited as the king, central player and the myth vaginal orgasm Charles as the movement, main beneficiary of the GentleHands, treaty. 164. Five centuries later, however, in king movement the emerging international civil service of the war, United Nations staff, women#146;s potentials remain underutilized. The UN staff is nearly half female at the lowest levels, but women are only about 10 percent of the top staff, just over 5 percent of Assistant Secretaries General, and zero percent of king Undersecretaries General (1992 data). All seven Secretaries General have been male.

Despite a commitment in the UN Charter that women be eligible to participate equally in any capacity (gained by the activism of Eleanor Roosevelt and a few others in 1945), in reality women have faced persistent discrimination at the UN. Kerr? 165. The evidence #150; from large-scale organized female participation through various types of gender integration through the king, participation of individual women #150; shows that when women have found their way into about, combat, they have generally performed about as well as most men have. Movement? Women in apa book citation edition combat support roles, furthermore, have had little trouble fitting into king, military organizations, and have held their own when circumstances occasionally placed them in combat (especially in guerrilla wars). They can fight; they can kill. Yet exceptional individual women who wanted to go to war had either to the myth of the orgasm, overcome stubborn resistance from king, men or to adopt male disguise. Overall, the war system works to push women away from killing roles except in the most dire emergencies such as when defending their homes and apa book edition children. This does not necessarily protect women participants from harm.

Women have faced great danger on the battlefield, whether as nurses in front-line trenches, as powder-carriers aboard ships and in king artillery units, or as helicopter pilots ferrying male troops around. GentleHands By M.E. Kerr? What these women generally do not share with the men around them is the task of aggressive killing. Most striking are the very rare historical cases in which larger numbers of women were mobilized into combat #150; a substantial number of the healthy, strong young women in a population. King? In the the myth vaginal, nineteenth-century Dahomey Kingdom and the Soviet Union of World War II, women made up a nontrivial minority of the king, military, and clearly contributed to the war effort. Religious? They were a military asset which, when mobilized, increased the effectiveness of the king movement, military in combat, in a few cases even turning the tide of vietnam war battle. Women#146;s physical strength, while less than men#146;s on movement average, has been adequate to apa book, many combat situations #150; from movement, piloting to sniping to firing machine-guns. One recurring argument of the myth those opposed to women in combat #150; that the king movement, women would be unable to drag wounded comrades from the battlefield under fire #150; is refuted by the record of women nurses#146; doing so. Women#146;s supposedly lower levels of aggressiveness, and their nurturing nature, have been, historically, nobstacle to many women#146;s participation in combat. Imagery? Furthermore, contrary to the idea that women are too soft-hearted to kill, not only did Soviet snipers coolly shoot down dozens of German soldiers, but in various cases women took the lead in cruelty and torture, especially of prisoners.

1 De Pauw 1998, disappear xiii; Pennington ed. King? n.d. 2 Laffin 1967, verify 186, bed 185; Salmonson 1991; Jones 1997; De Pauw 1998, 17#150;25. 3 Polanyi 1966, 3, 26#150;27; Manning 1982, 9#150;11; Duncan 1847, visiting 233#150;38; Alpern 1998; Dalzel 1967. 4 Polanyi 1966, 28; Snelgrave 1734, 125#150;26; Wrangham and GentleHands Peterson 1996, 109#150;10; size: Alpern 1998, 72#150;75; Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15, Forbes 1851/II, 55#150;56; Obichere 1971, 67; loyalty: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 52. 5 Duncan 1847, muskets 224#150;27, 231#150;35; Forbes 1851/I, resembled 23; Smith 1989, mats 59; physique: Herskovits 1938, 46; Burton in Alpern 1998, 36; Smith 1989, none 43, 47; Turney-High 1971, 155, 159#150;60. 6 Alpern 1998, 158, courage 159, fleeing 162; Forbes 1851/I, cruelty 132; Duncan 1847, 236, prefer 240. 7 Forbes 1851/I, we 23, 134; Alpern 1998, 44#150;47; Herskovits 1938, broken 46, segregated 48; Duncan 1847, bell 257#150;58. 8 Polanyi 1966, mobilized 42#150;43; Herskovits 1938, send 76, administration 85. 9 1840: Forbes 1851/I, 14#150;15; infuriated: Ajayi and Smith 1971, 37#150;39, 50#150;51; France: Obichere 1971, 67#150;75, commander 75, 107; Alpern 1998, 104.

10 Alpern 1998, manpower 36#150;37, weapons 61, 65#150;68; firearms: Smith 1989, 51, 81; M. King Movement? Harris 1989, 285. 11 Obichere 1971, preeminent 120#150;21. 12 Griesse and Stites 1982, labor 68#150;69. 13 Griesse and kennedy war Stites 1982, drafted 31, specialty 69. 14 Griesse and Stites 1982, vague#150;Komsomol 73, teens 31; De Pauw 1998, 239#150;45; D. Jones 1997, 137#150;45. 15 Griesse and Stites 1982, memoirs#150;combat 75, 71#150;75; Presidential Commission 1993, C28. 16 Griesse and Stites 1982, hostile 72. 17 Griesse and Stites 1982, 71; Krylova: Jones 1997, 137#150;40. 18 Griesse and Stites 1982, pass 69, subculture 72; British: Quester 1977, 81#150;82.

19 Cottam 1983; Noggle 1994, 15#150;17, 99#150;101; White 1994, 7#150;11; Griesse and Stites 1982, 70; Pennington 1993; [less reliable: Myles 1981; Jones 1997, 140#150;45]. 20 White 1994, 9#150;11, verge 10; Noggle 1994, 18#150;98. 21 Noggle 1994, 99#150;156, dangerous 105; White 1994, 9. 22 Noggle 1994, 157#150;219, attacked 160#150;61; White 1994, 8; Cottam 1983, strength 7. 23 Noggle 1994, 157#150;58; White 1994, 8#150;9; Jones 1997, 142#150;43. 24 Griesse and movement Stites 1982, 71#150;72. 25 Griesse and Stites 1982, integrated#150;snipers 69#150;72; Jones 1997, 45; cf.

Randall 1981, grenades 145#150;46. 26 Griesse and Stites 1982, 72. 27 Griesse and Stites 1982, proved 73, German 75. 28 Tuten 1982, 48#150;49. 29 Tuten 1982, 51. 30 Tuten 1982, 54#150;55. 31 Tuten 1982, 55#150;56; De Pauw 1998, 245#150;47; Jones 1997, 200; Seifert 1995; practice: Ruth Seifert, personal communication 2000. 32 De Pauw 1998, 214#150;16, 207#150;30; Hirschfeld 1934, 110#150;23; Stites 1978, policy 280. 33 Botchkareva 1919, 71#150;136; Stites 1978, 280.

34 Botchkareva 1919, 154#150;71; Stites 1978, 280; White 1994, 4#150;5, 13; Bryant 1918, 212, 216#150;18. 35 Shame: Botchkareva 1919, 157, 207, 211, studio 161; Bryant 1918, 10. 36 Botchkareva 1919, began 163#150;64, swarming 173, 172#150;83, 202#150;5, uniforms 189, 192, 197. 37 Botchkareva 1919, sisters 207, knew 262. 38 Botchkareva 1919, adjutant 205, 208#150;12. 39 Bryant 1918, 212#150;13. 40 Botchkareva 1919, soldiers 165. 41 Spence 1996; Fairbank ed. GentleHands By M.E.? 1978, 276#150;77; Michael 1966, 43#150;45; Jen 1973. 42 Boulding 1992/I, 237; David Graff, personal communication 1998; Peter Lorge, personal communication 1998; De Pauw 1998, 204#150;5, 332#150;33; Li 1995; Twitchett and movement Loewe 1986, Ch#146;iang 433, 422#150;23. 43 Ancient: Alpern 1998, 2#150;3; Chinese: Yu forthcoming; Danish: Francke 1997, 243; Montenegrin#150;Serbian: Jancar 1982, 87; Congo#150;Malawi: Brown 1998; Shaka: Brown 1998; Edgerton 1988, 38#150;39, 107; Thompson 1969, 344.

44 Pettman 1996a, 126#150;53; Isaksson 1988; Ruddick 1990, 231; Elshtain 1987, 184#150;85; Zur 1989, 315#150;20; Zur and Morrison 1989; Vietnam: D. Butler 1990; Jason ed. 1991; Argentina: Taylor 1997; Taylor 1993; Cyprus: Pourou-Kazantzis 1998; Lebanon: Cooke 1987; Keddie and Baron eds. 1991; Moghadam 1993; Emmett 1996; Kandiyoti 1996; Nicaragua: Mulinari 1996; Mulinari 1998; South Africa: Cock 1989; Cock 1991; Unterhalter 1987, 119; Zimbabwe: Thompson 1982; Philippines: Aguilar-San Juan 1982; Others: Ridd and Callaway eds. 1986; Matthews 1993; S. Carter 1992; Noakes 1998, 103#150;63; Mora 1998; Beilstein 1998; Collett 1996; Peterson and apa book edition Runyan 1993, 129#150;35. 45 Wilhelm 1988, Italy 119; Weitz 1995, 147#150;70, fighters 148, 150, comrade 155; Jones 1997, 199#150;203. 46 Jancar 1982, roles 85, 100, NLA 90, 99, training 93#150;94, medic 97#150;98; Jancar-Webster 1990, clothes#150;married 89. 47 Jancar-Webster 1990, 88; Jancar 1982, 93.

48 Duiker 1982, 114#150;15; Turner 1998, estimates 20#150;21; De Pauw 1998, 269#150;72. 49 Duiker 1982, policy#150;one 117#150;19; south: Francke 1997, 244. 51 Enloe 1983, 166; Bayard de Volo 1998, 246. 52 Jones 1997, founder 103; Randall 1981, director 138#150;39, 147; Seitz, Lobao, and Treadway 1993, 175. 53 Bayard de Volo 1998, give#150;wombs 246#150;48; cf.

Mora 1998, 170; Luttwak 1997. 54 Uglow ed. 1989, 400#150;1; Cock 1991, numbers 182#150;83; Sylvester 1989, 108; cf. Kenya: Kanogo 1987, 94. 55 Cock 1991, knitting 149, equals 162#150;65, luxuries#150;killing 152#150;53, 150, defend 165, man 168; Morris 1993. 56 Hall 1993, apocryphal 104#150;5; Fellman 1992. 57 Filkins 2000, third; Ganguly 2000, half; De Pauw 1998, two-thirds 292; De Alwis 1998; Bennett, Bexley, and Warnock 1995, 135#150;56, 228#150;41. 60 Enloe 1983, 160#150;72; Tetreault 1992; Boulding 1992/II, 288#150;92; De Pauw 1998, 290#150;91. 61 Seager 1997, 92; Segal 1993, 86; Manning 1999; law: Jerusalem Post 2000; ruling: Inverardi 2000. 62 Fisher 1999; De Pauw 1998, 292.

63 Lory Manning, personal communication 1998; Enloe 1982, 127#150;31; NATO 1994. 64 NATO 1994, 4; Enloe 1994, 81; O#146;Hara 1998, 23, 14; Associated Press 1998a; Weinstein and White 1997. 65 NATO 1994, 6, 8. 66 NATO 1994, 16. 67 Manning 1999; NATO 1994, 25. 68 Manning 1999; NATO 1994. 69 Van Creveld 1993, 6#150;9; Gal 1986, 46#150;57, 32#150;33, 48#150;49, brochure 47, sister#150;sought 52; Bloom 1982; Enloe 1983, 156. 70 Gal 1986, 50, succeeded#150;recruits 49#150;50, 52#150;53; Van Creveld 1993, 8#150;9; Jerusalem Post 2000.

71 De Pauw 1998, 281#150;86. 72 Manning 1999; Elshtain 1987, 241; Stiehm 1989; Presidential Commission 1993; Moore 1996. 73 De Pauw 1975, 174#150;93, later 174#150;75; De Pauw 1998, 110#150;15. 74 De Pauw 1998, 115#150;31. 75 Treadwell 1954, 6#150;10, status 10; De Pauw 1998, 225#150;29; Hewitt 1974.

76 Treadwell 1954, 18. 77 Campbell 1990, 107; De Pauw 1998, 247#150;58; Larson 1995. 78 Treadwell 1954, 611, 626, overweight 627. 79 Treadwell 1954, rule 612#150;14, pregnancy 507#150;9. 80 Treadwell 1954, 503#150;7, punishing 503, battle 676; Campbell 1990, morale 112. 81 Treadwell 1954, 675. 82 Treadwell 1954, caste 511#150;14, drinks 681#150;82, immoral 678, betrayal 682, 669#150;83. 83 Costello 1985, 49, 52. 84 Soderbergh 1992, xv, gung xvii. 85 Soderbergh 1992, 146#150;47. 86 Treadwell 1954, 191#150;218; Campbell 1990, 115#150;17, survey 116; Meyer 1996, 33#150;35, uniforms 154; De Pauw 1998, 251#150;58; Costello 1985, 47; Enloe 1983, pocket 119, 141.

87 Treadwell 1954, release 184, failure 189; Costello 1985, cheery#150;draft 47#150;48; Bourke 1999, poll 303. 88 Francke 1997, noon 22. 89 Manning and Griffith 1998, number 9; Marlowe 1983; US Army 1982, 2, 1.2, 1.4; Quester 1977, 85; Nabors 1982; Thompson 2000. 90 Rustad 1982, 46; Enloe 1983, 7; Dyer 1985, 122#150;25. 91 Corps: US Army 1982, 4.4#150;4.5; tanker: Francke 1997, 228#150;29. 92 Francke 1997, 46#150;72. 93 Francke 1997, 76. 94 Francke 1997, 73#150;103; survival 80#150;82, 87#150;91; Enloe 1993, 222; WWII: Manning 1999. 95 Francke 1997, 82, doctor 102, asshole 97; Cornum 1996; Sciolino 1992.

96 Enloe 1994, 99; Enloe 1993, 201#150;27; Francke 1997, 96. 97 De Pauw 1998, 7; Enloe 1983, 145; Francke 1997, 250, 29; Senate: McNeil-Lehrer News Hour, July 1, 1992. 98 Francke 1997, wash 251. 99 Francke 1997, 183#150;219. 100 Francke 1997, welcome 205, data 200#150;7; Moskos 1994, coast 61; Stiehm 1981; Mitchell 1996. 101 Francke 1997, reality 200, line 216; Ballard 1996; Stiehm 1981; Faludi 1994; New York Times , April 23, 1997: A20; Hess 1997.

102 Myers 1997a; Myers 1997b; Myers 1998a, Myers 1998b; Shenon 1998; Janofsky 1997, matter; D. Johnson 1997, Navy. 103 Shenon 1997; Associated Press 1997; Sciolino 1997a; Sciolino 1997b; Spinner 1997a; Jones 1997a; Jones 1997b; Cohen 1997b; Myers 1998c. 104 Presidential Commission 1993, D-9. 105 Francke 1997, capable 221. 106 Manning 1999, several; Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Spears 1998. 107 Priest 1997a; Priest 1997b; Priest 1997c; Moskos 1998. 108 Moral: Peach 1993; Peach 1996; Presidential Commission 1993, 46; Hackworth 1991, 24; Holm 1992, 389; Lagerspetz et al . 1988; debate: McNeil 1991; Stiehm 1981; Rustad 1982; Goldman ed. 1982; Mitchell 1989; Blacksmith ed.

1992; Howes and king movement Stevenson eds. 1993; Addis, Russo, and religious imagery Sebesta eds. 1994; US House 1992; US Department of Defense 1992, 15; Mariner 1997; Donnelly 1997; Cohen 1997a. 109 Van Creveld 1993, 8; Bendekgey 1992, 19, 23; DeFleur 1992, 25; Fuentes 1992, 35; Katzenstein 1998, 45#150;103; Summers 1992, promotion 131. 110 Holm 1992, experiments 389; Gutmann 2000; Presidential Commission 1993, Schwarzkopf 46, defend 46; Katzenstein 1998, exchange 50. 111 Bray: Francke 1997, 46#150;72; Breuer 1997, 139#150;40; Dever and king movement Dever 1995, infantry 127; Hultgreen: Francke 1997, 256#150;58; Breuer 1997, 206#150;12. 112 Treadwell 1954, 12. 113 Treadwell 1954, chapter 37. 114 Aviators: Francke 1997, 226; Katzenstein 1998, 79; Navy#150;all: Manning 1999. 115 Priest 1997b.

116 Presidential Commission 1993, D5; Astrachan 1986, 63#150;65. 117 Wheelwright 1989; De Pauw 1998, regiments 105; Enloe 1983, 119#150;23. 118 Mulan: Raven and Weir 1981, 32; Ayscough 1937, 214#150;27; Scanagatta: Wish Stream 1964; Samson: De Pauw 1998, 126; Wheelwright 1989, 132#150;35. 119 Hall 1993, xi, daughter xiii, 4. 120 Hall 1993, 177, 20, 161, Hook 26#150;28. 121 Hall 1993, 20#150;26. 122 Hall 1993, 98#150;101.

123 Hall 1993, 101#150;3. 124 Hall 1993, 46#150;97; De Pauw 1998, fictional 106. 125 Hall 1993, 107#150;53, temporarily 108, 120; De Pauw 1998, 153; Wheelwright 1989, 139#150;41. 126 Hall 1993, 155#150;56, pants 156#150;57, birth 159#150;60. 127 Stark 1996, 82#150;122, battle 71#150;72; De Pauw 1982; Stanley ed.

1995; Creighton and Norling eds. 1996; Druett 2000. 128 Stark 1996, motivated 92, biographies 102, easy 88#150;90. 129 Stanley 1998, A4. 130 Griffen 1988, also 12; Cremony 1868, 142; Opler 1941, raids 333, 350#150;51; Stockel 1991, xii, 17, 46, 30. 131 Stockel 1991, 29#150;51, 41; Ball 1980, witness 103#150;4. 132 Murphy 1957, distance 1022#150;23; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 133 Grinnell 1923, Cheyenne 44#150;47; Heizer ed. 1978, Shasta 218#150;19, Gabrielino 546#150;47, Konkow 380; Turney-High 1971, Shasta#150;others, 154; Klamath: Gatschet 1890; Barrett 1964; Stern 1965; Cressman 1956; Spier 1930, 31; Goldschmidt 1989, 23. 134 Brazil: M. Harris 1989, 321; Kiwai: Turney-High 1971, mangling 162, 7; Massachusetts: De Pauw 1998, 113#150;14; Somali: Ehrenreich 1997a, 128#150;29. 135 Pospisil 1963, 59.

136 Fraser 1989, story 14#150;17; Boulding 1992/I, 276#150;82; Matthews 1989, 76#150;77; Stone 1979, 47, 49#150;52, 68#150;69; Larrington ed. 1992, 123#150;25; Green 1993, 27#150;28; Mac Cana 1970, 86; Green 1993, 24; Chadwick 1970, 134#150;35; Ritchie and Ritchie 1985, 14; Dillon and Chadwick 1972, 25, 146; Hill 1986; Ellis 1996, 77#150;98. 137 Pierson 1987, militia 208#150;10; De Pauw 1998, 135#150;39. 138 Civil: Hall 1993, 104#150;5, 163#150;64, 154; WWI: Hirschfeld 1934, 111#150;15; Wheelwright 1989, 29#150;36, Sandes 14#150;16, 147; De Pauw 1998, 212, 207#150;30; Bourke 1999, 294#150;97, 299#150;333. 139 DeVries 1996; Wheeler and apa book citation edition Wood eds. King? 1996; Enloe 1983, 118#150;19; Fraioli 1996, 189; Wood 1996, 19; Schibanoff 1996. 140 DeVries 1996, 5#150;12, relished 9. 141 Fraser 1989, 11#150;13.

142 Fraser 1989, 28#150;30. 143 Fraser 1989, 30#150;34; Lefkowitz and Essay vs Marx Fant 1977, 11#150;12. 144 Fraser 1989, 43#150;106, naked 47#150;48, Tacitus, 53#150;55; De Pauw 1998, 70#150;74. 145 Fraser 1989, 58#150;101. 146 Fraser 1989, 107#150;28; De Pauw 1998, 75#150;77. 147 Matilda: Fraser 1989, 131#150;50; Europe: Boulding 1992/II, 33; De Pauw 1998, 82#150;87. 148 Fraser 1989, 151#150;66. 149 Fraser 1989, 167#150;81, matriarch 168. 150 Trung: De Pauw 1998, 269; Rani: Fraser 1989, 272#150;96. 151 Boxer 1952, 227#150;28, 242, 261, 264#150;69, 274, 286; Miller 1975; Miller 1976, 203#150;21; Birmingham 1966, 6, 92#150;116; Vansina 1966, 134#150;44; Beachey 1976, 88#150;90; Alpern 1998, 2; claim: De Pauw 1998, 180#150;81; Salmonson 1991, 198; Brown 1998.

152 Fraser 1989, 17. 153 Barrett 1938, 263. 154 Fraser 1989, 158#150;59; Montfort: Tuchman 1979, 74#150;75. 155 Fraser 1989, 307#150;22; Richardson and Howes 1993; Carras 1995; Harris 1995; Nelson and Chowdhury eds. 1994; Genovese ed. 1993; Norris 1997; Williams 1995; cf. Victoria: Monypenny and Buckle 1912, 1089. 156 Boudreau 1995, 75, 78#150;79. 157 Number: D#146;Amico 1995, 24#150;25; McGlen and Sarkees 1993.

158 Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 111, 115; Jeffreys-Jones 1995, room 175; Morin 1995, 274; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 2#150;3; DuBois 1995. 159 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 76, glass 83, 87; Burwell and Sarkees 1993, 117#150;31. 160 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 196#150;215, differed 211, process 254, affect 283, overall 302. 161 McGlen and Sarkees 1993, 37, 46, 47. 162 Holsti and Rosenau 1981; selected: Cantor and king Bernay 1992.

163 Morin 1995, striking 264, 266, 270, 272; McGlen and Sarkees 1993, send 300. 164 Von Habsburg 1969, 123#150;24; Knecht 1982, 219; Brandi 1939, 279#150;80.