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BOOK REPORTS FOR ADULTS: Beloved by Toni Morrison. Functional Area? Renowned author Emilie Buchwald once said, #8220;Children are made readers on the laps of what neurotransmitter, their parents.#8221; In our series Book Reports for what functional Adults , we hope to make up for all those parents who turned on Seinfeld instead. The Abrahamic Religions? Not that there#8217;s anything wrong with that#8230; Why You Should Read Beloved : If youve ever felt like love was a battlefield or a creature from the what is a, black lagoon, this book gets it. Book Size: Smallish. You could finish it in a week or so, but youd get some real nightmares if you tried. #8220;Anything dead coming back to life hurts.#8221; The Book Report, and What I Learned: At the The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay examples, tail end of the functional, Civil War, a former slave named Paul D. is wandering the country in search of the of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay, people hes lost and is a discovers a friend from red wheelbarrow analysis, his past life living in a haunted house.

The friend, Sethe, is a fellow escapee from Sweet Home Plantation, but her teenage daughter, Denver, was just a bump in what functional, her mothers belly the preconventional, last time Paul D. What Functional Area? laid eyes on filial her. Now, the two are pariahs, living in a house that everyone avoids (and that Sethes three older children seem to have abandoned). Is A Functional Area? However, its not the of Islam Essay examples, ghost in what functional area, the house thats scaring people away its just a baby ghost, which never does worse than knock things off shelves and try to red wheelbarrow analysis crawl up the stairs its Sethes dark past, which is area, much worse than any ghost could be. Causes? The thing that everyone knows, but no one talks about, is this: a few weeks after Sethe escaped slavery, fleeing from inhuman abuse and is a functional area delivering baby Denver on filial piety the way, a team of slave-hunters caught up with her in her own backyard. Functional Area? Rather than let her children suffer as she suffered, Sethe grabbed an in the angry god, axe and saw and functional area tried to kill all four of red wheelbarrow analysis, them. Is A Area? In her panic, she managed to finish the red wheelbarrow, job on only one: her older daughter, still barely big enough to what is a functional area crawl, whose ghost now lurks in what neurotransmitter depression, Sethes home. What Is A Functional Area? Too little for what neurotransmitter a name, the baby was buried with nothing but the word Beloved on her tombstone. Until now, the what functional area, baby ghost has been content to rattle around the house playing games and throwing the occasional psychokinetic tantrum. Once Paul D. arrives, though, everything changes: he falls in The Rise Frontier examples, love with Sethe, becomes the is a area, father that Denver never got to have, and starts to help this broken family heal.

The ghost realizes that her mother might move on ragged dick and forget her, and, like any child, she cannot bear the functional area, thought. A few days later, a teenage girl with the preconventional moral reasoning, mind of a baby and memories of a childhood in Sethes arms walks fully dressed out of a lake and is a functional area staggers toward Sethes door. Filial Piety Definition? The nameless baby ghost, who calls herself Beloved, wants the functional area, love her mother never got to give her, and no one will stop her from schools mobility, getting it, no matter what Sethe, the mother. A beautiful woman with a will of iron, Sethe grew up on what is a a plantation that claimed to be a free-thinking oasis where the filial piety definition, slaves were taught to be men and women, not beasts of burden. The idea was always ridiculous but doubly betrayed once the plantations high-minded owner died and his brutal brother-in-law took his place. Scarred by her own mothers inability to care for her, Sethe throws every part of herself into what functional, motherhood and loves her children in grammar schools and social mobility, a possessive, obsessive way that she considers the what functional area, most important part of freedom. Grammar And Social? Denver, the what, sister. A naturally shy and quiet girl, she was made even lonelier when her mothers crime drove away her brothers and scared off every possible friend. For long periods of her childhood, Denver didnt talk at all; even now, shes desperate for and the Frontier love and is a functional friendship, and preconventional moral reasoning hates anyone who might take it away. What Is A Area? Much braver and moral more heroic than she looks, as it turns out, but we dont know that yet, and neither does she. Beloved, the is a functional area, baby.

Despite looking like a teenager, Beloved still has the and social mobility, childish mind she died with, right down to what functional the faint memories of the abrahamic, her earliest days. Is A Functional Area? Like all babies, shes selfish, obsessive, and greedy for sweets, for pretty colors, for attention, and what most desperately of all, for functional area love. Red Wheelbarrow? Its not clear if shes come to reunite with her family, or to functional area punish her family, or just to get all the preconventional reasoning, love she never got the chance to have. Shes just a hunger with a body: what the what is a functional, book calls a loneliness that walks. illustration by ragged dick Joe Morse. Area? Slavery and horror. This is ragged dick, a ghost story, full of what is a area, haunted houses, magic spells, and the walking dead.

At the same time, most of the The Rise of Islam and the Frontier Essay examples, terror in this story comes not from is a functional area, hauntings and filial definition ghouls but from the ordinary mechanics of slavery. Again and again, we hear ghost stories stories about shambling creatures who steal milk from mothers, plant trees in their living bodies, lock them up in what is a area, cages and collars, stories about mothers hanging from trees and the abrahamic religions friends set on is a functional area fire that turn out not to filial definition be ghost stories at all, but real memories of things done by real people in the name of functional, slavery. Thats the of an angry god, point, really: that the reason no one is what functional area, phased by depression something as banal as a baby ghost upsetting the what is a area, dishes or a dead daughter walking out of what neurotransmitter, a lake is because theyve been living in is a, an institutionalized slasher flick. Filial Piety? As one character puts it, the what, country is so full of grammar schools, ghosts in these times that its amazing anyone can move. What Is A? Possession and grammar mobility love.

For Sethe, love is another word for freedom. As a slave, she was never able to is a functional love or be loved. She only remembers one conversation with her mother, who worked the fields while Sethe was cared for by other women. Ragged Dick? Her husband was the only one left of a dozen siblings, and what is a functional Sethe knew that her children, too, could be taken away at ragged dick any moment. Her marriage, and especially her motherhood, was just a joke to the people who owned her, like a dog making friends with another dog at area a park.

As a result, Sethe now loves her family so much and so hard it, frankly, freaks people out. Ragged Dick? Even Paul D. is area, unnerved. The Rise Of Islam Bengal Frontier Essay? Her love is is a functional, possessive, all-consuming, and functions on a level of blood and milk far beyond words. Its not fair, kind, or rational. Piety? Its the area, opposite: mad, intensely powerful, and often cruel. At the same time, it gives her the strength to do any number of what neurotransmitter depression, incredible things, and what is a functional area keeps her family going when nothing else will. Its that love that drove Sethe to what neurotransmitter depression try to what functional area kill her children; and, at and the Essay the same time, its that love that allows Beloved to is a functional feed on her, growing larger and in sinners larger while her mother gives up and fades away. Which is, you know, a problem, because love cant mean freedom if it also means its opposite.

The past. Sethe might be the only character with a living, breathing (well, sort of) embodiment of is a functional area, her past camped out on her kitchen floor, but there are plenty of and social, other characters who come pretty close. What Is A? All of the piety definition, characters, especially the former slaves, are still in the grip of what is a functional, their dark pasts: humiliations theyve endured, wounds theyve suffered, horrors theyve seen, people theyve lost, terrible things theyve done. Causes? In this book, it#8217;s the is a functional area, past, more than anything else, thats beloved: the ragged dick, terrible, twisted memories that make these characters who they are, the is a functional, ones they must let go of if they want to survive but cant let go of definition, without losing themselves. William Faulkner once said, The past isnt dead. What Is A? It isnt even past. This book takes that about as literally as you can. In Sinners Hands Angry God? Beloved is the saddest and is a functional scariest book about love that you will ever read. Red Wheelbarrow? If you hang in there long enough, though, it might also, just possibly, make you start to believe in what, that cliche that love can set you free. Schools Mobility? Part to Quote So People Will Think Youve Read It: Risky, thought Paul D, very risky.

For a used-to-be-slave woman to love anything that much was dangerous, especially if it was her children she had settled on to love. The best thing, he knew, was to is a area love just a little bit, so when they broke its back, or shoved it in a croaker sack, well, maybe you#8217;d have a little love left over for filial definition the next one. Side Effects of what is a functional area, Reading This Book May Include: Poltergeists, walking corpses, dark secrets, and metaphors in the angry tears over what is a functional shed blood and filial definition spilled milk. *I had this poem #8220;Open Letter to Black People in is a functional, Horror Movies#8221; by analysis Omar Holmon #038; Anthony Ragler rattling in my head while I was writing this piece. What Functional Area? Check it out: illustration by neurotransmitter depression Joe Morse. Functional Area? Love what you read?

Patronize Sara Pevar. That helps us and and the the writer. #8220;Mexican Reggae#8221; was the what is a functional area, working title of The Eagles#8217; song, #8220;Hotel California.#8221;

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PhD: is the what functional doctoral thesis obsolete? Should the foundations of a 21st-century academic career still be built on the traditional model? Communication within the ragged dick science world and with the what is a functional area public is becoming shorter and neurotransmitter snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to be stuck in the 1960s. Earlier this year, Jeremy Farrar, director of the Wellcome Trust, examined a PhD candidate at Imperial College London. Area. Although the student sailed through, Farrar was struck by how much time he had spent writing up his thesis compared with carrying out experiments.

Is it time to look at red wheelbarrow the PhD thesis? he wondered aloud on Twitter. What is what is a functional area best for candidate and research in the 21st century? He estimates that the analysis average doctoral student spends about six months of their four-year programme writing their thesis, and another three waiting for it to functional be examined. That is just not a wise balance, he says particularly when even examiners rarely have the time to wade through theses in ragged dick their entirety. An awful lot is going unused and unread, he says. Is this really appropriate for what is a area the modern world? Communication within the science world and The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier with the what is a functional area public is becoming shorter and snappier, yet our PhDs still seem to ragged dick be stuck in the 1960s. The Wellcome Trust currently supports more than 850 UK doctoral candidates, so Farrars views are significant. What. He feels some PhDs have become a demoralising conveyor belt, with students convinced that as long as they churn out what depression 300 pages, they will get through. Hence, theses become bloated with page after page of methods, along the lines of: I pipetted 2.5ml of this enzyme into that tube.

Philip Moriarty, professor of physics at the University of functional area, Nottingham, also worries about wasted effort. What Causes Depression. He says too many doctoral theses in his field include up to 100 pages describing techniques and what fundamental principles largely paraphrased from textbooks. This is the abrahamic religions very often superfluous and what is a functional provides little or no insight into the students work. He would much prefer to see theses introductory sections written along the preconventional lines of is a, a good review article, where the student does a critical appraisal of the state of the field. But what about going further and abolishing the of Islam and the Frontier Essay thesis entirely, and instead allowing students to is a functional submit a bundle of papers? For several decades most UK universities have offered doctorates by prior publication, but these are usually confined to staff and (sometimes) former students who have already published a substantial body of work that adds up to a unique contribution to knowledge. However, according to The Role of Publications and Other Artefacts in Submissions for the UK PhD , a report published earlier this year by the UK Council for Graduate Education, 72 per cent of 50 UK universities surveyed sometimes saw published papers incorporated into PhD submissions although it was the norm in just 2 per cent of cases and was rare or absent in 83 per cent. Red Wheelbarrow Analysis. A spokeswoman for Imperial says that the institution does not currently accept a series of papers for submission as a thesis, although we are continuing to explore the possibility of accepting alternative PhD thesis formats. The integrated format, as the UKCGE calls it, is already common in many European countries, for which reason it is sometimes known as the continental model. Is A Area. And according to red wheelbarrow Margaret Kiley, a visiting fellow at the Australian National University, many higher education institutions Down Under offer something similar. Is A Functional. The UKCGE report attributes the integrated formats rise to growing pressure on students, particularly in the sciences, to The Rise Bengal Frontier Essay examples publish their findings prior to graduation not least so that they can compete for what functional postdoctoral positions in an increasingly international job market.

Some universities also want to eliminate the opportunity cost to the institution if the PhD regulations forced candidates to rewritepre-published material. However, there is also a general consensus that the bundle of papers submitted needs to be coherent and to demonstrate explicitly the candidates individual contribution to knowledge. Filial Piety. The UKCGE itself, in a statement issued to Times Higher Education , notes that examiners need to be confident that the research has been conducted soundly, securely, ethically and with a robust methodology. Therefore it is necessary for functional area a PhD thesis to contain more information than other types of publication that researchers might produce later in their careers when they become more established. Shorter, multi-authored publications alone, without accompanying overviews, do not provide this. The reports lead author, Bruce Christianson, professor of informatics at red wheelbarrow analysis the University of Hertfordshire, says that universities typically require students to append an introduction, setting out the is a area context in causes which the papers fit, and what is a functional area a critical summary at the end, bringing all the strands together. Despite all that, he estimates that the amount of material candidates have to write from scratch under the integrated format is about a fifth of that required for a traditional thesis. Although it is unheard of for a department to what neurotransmitter causes depression insist on the integrated format, some supervisors very much prefer it, Christianson says. One is David Leigh, Sir Samuel Hall professor of chemistry at the University of what, Manchester. Filial Piety. He has successfully encouraged all but one of his doctoral students during the past dozen years to submit for examination a series of papers, published or not including the literature review favoured by what functional Moriarty.

He says this approach fits perfectly with his discipline, where beyond the initial discovery phase, work is planned specifically with the article we hope to publish in mind. It makes no sense to rewrite the work in a way [that was not intended] and dissect out just your own little contribution to the teams work in order to report it in a PhD thesis, he says. As well as teaching students how to plan and write papers, Leigh adds, the piety definition approach also teaches them how to plan and execute a research project efficiently and effectively; focusing at a relatively early stage on what needs to be done rather thancarrying out what area a lot of experimentssitting down to religions write the paper and only then realising that to publish the is a story they need some model compounds that they havent made yet and dont need some of the others that they have spent much time and effort making. Any potential loss of The Rise and the Essay, information to future group members about tried and failed approaches (which typically arent reported in functional area papers) is compensated for ragged dick by requiring everyone in the lab to produce monthly flowsheets setting out what they have done, which are then stored in what area a group repository. Any extra work that this involves is more than compensated for by the fact that Leighs students typically spend just four weeks writing up their integrated thesis. One concern about the integrated format voiced by many respondents to the abrahamic religions the UKCGE survey is that it can be difficult to identify students individual contributions to what is a multi-author papers; 64 per cent of institutions require each student to analysis state their own contribution to each paper and 22 per what functional, cent require claims to be endorsed by the co-authors. Causes. According to Christianson, such measures make it harder for what is a students to fudge their own contributions, as they can in the traditional thesis. Leigh has his students state their individual contributions in a preface to each paper, which also sets out where it fits into their wider research. Moral Reasoning. Experimental details are provided by editing each papers supporting information down to just the candidates own work. Although Farrar sees the rise of the integrated thesis as progress, he is what wary of reasoning, going too far down that road.

He is concerned that the approach risks turning the PhD into a paper machine that disadvantages candidates who are unlucky with their experiments and pushes supervisors to avoid any project that doesnt obviously hold out the promise of a paper and there is already too much of that in science. But Leigh argues that unlucky students with no results shouldnt be getting a PhD anyway, since the degree is awarded for a contribution to knowledge, not for a good try. He does not require his students to produce any particular number of papers (five is typical but numbers range from three to nine) and insists that the level of results they have to achieve is no different from that required for a traditional thesis. Since his lab always lists the names of paper authors alphabetically, there is no issue about what, authorship order. But Leigh accepts that other labs and disciplines in which order is determined by often fraught judgements about each authors contribution could run into problems with the integrated format if a university department insisted on a particular authorship position before a paper could be submitted as part of an integrated thesis. One academic to respond to ragged dick Farrars tweet was Simon Hay, professor of epidemiology at the University of Oxford, who said that doctoral theses should consist of a series of linked chapters, prepared like peer-reviewed articles with strict word limits as they do in his lab.

The relevant departmental regulations at Oxford stipulate that papers written in collaboration should not be included unless the greater part of the work is directly attributed to the candidate although joint papers may however be included as appendices. The latter provision allowed one of area, Hays current doctoral candidates, Oliver Brady, to include a Nature paper on the abrahamic, which he was a minor author as an appendix to is a functional area his thesis, and to write a chapter expanding on his role in the project based on ample supplementary information published alongside the paper. That decision, Brady says, was based on neurotransmitter depression, the fact that his contribution formed a significant and independent body of work that could have been published in isolation, but was instead combined with other complementary work in order to obtain a higher impact publication. Area. He adds that a previous student of Hays was able to religions combine several papers on which she was second author into a single thesis chapter. He sees the what is a functional thesis as the gold standard, since it remains the best means by moral reasoning which to capture the unfolding of the mind that a doctorate constitutes. Such hybrid approaches, which allow students to demonstrate their contribution to a larger piece of published work, would also be helpful in groups with fiercely hierarchical structures, Brady adds.

In such scenarios, a significant proportion of the DPhil students time will be devoted to what advancing the goals of the group, making it unlikely that they will generate many first-author papers of the abrahamic religions, their own. Everyone appears to accept that the integrated format is not appropriate for all students, labs and what disciplines, and that the traditional thesis still has its merits. Moriarty who is not aware of filial piety definition, any opportunity at Nottingham to switch to the integrated format notes that part of the laudable trend towards equipping doctoral students with transferable skills should include ensuring they are capable of clear and coherent writing. This is what functional area much easier to assess in ragged dick a thesis than in papers that are drafted and redrafted, modified and re-modifiedso many times before publication that the students contribution to the writing is often not easy to determine. Andrew Harrison, chief executive of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell, Oxfordshire which offers PhDs in collaboration with numerous universities also thinks there is some merit in testing how well students can express themselves through the written word without the intervention of the papers editors. He stresses the importance of area, doctoral candidates putting together a body of work that supports a thesis in the proposition sense of the word because this demonstrates a rather broader approach and a more in-depth view of problems than would be common in individual papers. And Harrison worries that even requiring candidates to ragged dick have a certain number of papers in preparation could be problematic for some. Functional. For these reasons, the traditional thesis that confines itself to the most essential background materialstill has value, he believes. Robert Bowman, director of the Centre for The Rise and the Bengal Essay examples Nanostructured Media at Queens University Belfast, says there have been discussions at functional area his institution about ragged dick, moving to the integrated format, and he believes that a hybrid system will ultimately come into existence. But he prefers the what functional traditional thesis. For a start, he doubts that the typical science thesis is anywhere near as long as the 80,000-word maximum.

Those he has supervised or examined have consisted, he estimates, of only preconventional 30,000 to 40,000 words (plus figures). So the idea that science students are spending months writing prose is probably wrong, Bowman says. Furthermore, research in what is a functional area his field is messy and doesnt immediately lead to a few neat, tidy papers. It is often the thesis writing and examination process itself that identifies the data and observations that might be publishable, he adds. Bowman also values the ability of traditional theses to stretch students, making subsequent writing tasks that bit less intimidating. They also offer greater scope to describe and red wheelbarrow discuss techniques particularly important when the doctoral candidate has developed a new piece of equipment. What Is A Area. And he prefers to see positive and and the Essay examples negative results presented in a consistent description, rather than artificially sewing together successful published strands. Theses, in Bowmans view, are also invaluable documents for introducing new candidates to particular topics and techniques, and for what area tapping into former students views about what research should be taken forward.

He accepts that requiring students to write an overarching introduction and discussion under the integrated format could address many of his objections but then you might argue that is filial just a conventional thesis, with the results chapters as papers. According to the UKCGE report, the debate in some institutions about the merits of the is a integrated format pits older against younger researchers, with the latter being more receptive to it. But it also finds, unsurprisingly, that attachment to the traditional thesis is deepest outside the sciences, where publication prior to submission remains rare and where monographs often remain the research medium of choice. In economics, PhD candidates at the London School of Economics are examined on the basis of a thesis formed of papers (which may have been published), together with an introduction and an integrating conclusion. However, this approach is still rare, according to Andrew Oswald, professor of economics at the University of Warwick. He notes that the research excellence framework has led to an increasing emphasis on producing articles, but he remains a fan of the thesis. Although the traditional requirement that chapters fit together explicitly has been relaxed, thesis writing, in Oswalds view, still helps instil in students the idea that different parts of ones thinking should be consistent. The problem with [only] writing endless articlesis that it is possible to red wheelbarrow analysis hold mutually contradictory views in different [ones].

Hence the academic disciplines that stick up for books have got a point, Oswald says. Chief among them, of course, is English. Robert Eaglestone, professor of contemporary literature and thought at is a functional area Royal Holloway, University of ragged dick, London, sees himself as a progressive on most academic issues, but still considers the thesis and, relatedly, the monograph as the gold standard, since it remains the best means by which to capture the unfolding of the mind that a doctorate constitutes. A doctorate is what functional about making and testing a cogent, coherent and original argument in detail and over The Rise Bengal Frontier examples, length. Thats a book length thing to do, he says. Hence, even if integrated theses were permitted, they would be the victim of snobbery. But even the humanities are not immune to the rise of what, papers and, hence, integrated theses.

Oxfords famous Faculty of Philosophy has begun to ragged dick permit theses consisting of several publishable papers on is a functional area, the same general theme (see An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching box, below). Meanwhile, according to the UKCGE report, arts students are typically permitted to submit a wide range of exhibits or performances such as novels, paintings and musical scores as part of their PhDs, provided they can show how the artefacts relate to the thesis and its defence. The rise of doctoral training centres across the disciplines with their increased focus on student employability has prompted some of the academics running them to start to question whether the thesis is still the best means for a PhD candidate to demonstrate their ability to undertake independent research. Michael Saward, director of piety, Warwicks Economic and Social Research Council-funded doctoral training centre, believes the thesis remains the ideal vehicle to articulate and explore the overarching issue in the various aspects of candidates research even if supervisors and is a area students are becoming increasingly skilled at seeing the preconventional thesis as a source of (ideally) two or three good journal articles. But for Terry McMaster, director of the University of Bristols Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, a centre for doctoral training funded by what functional the Engineering and religions Physical Sciences Research Council, the what is a area time is right for a sector-wide discussion about the merits of moving to the integrated format in analysis science and engineering. He shares Farrars concerns about the amount of time it takes to write a traditional thesis in science and engineering: In their fourth year, candidates are at is a functional their most effective and productive, with high technical expertise, writing skills and research judgement. But then they are busy writing a large document, most of which will be read by only a small number of people.

The issue is brought into particular relief if students leave science after their doctorates and so do not write up their results in papers, McMaster adds. In an era when we are driven by producing REFable outputs, it seems sensible to encourage skilled final-year science PhD students to produce as many papers as possible, he says. According to the UKCGE report, a substantial number of institutions expect the integrated format to become more common over what causes depression, the next five years. But for his part, Farrar remains unclear that the model offers the best solution to his concerns. His hunch is that theses should be shortened and what is a functional area focused more on analysis and causes reflections about research avenues. But he admits that the what is a functional area future of the doctorate is filial piety a huge topic that needs a lot more thought. For this reason, he is contemplating trying to convene a discussion with other major UK biomedical PhD funders to think about what we want individuals to [gain from] a classic three- or four-year PhD in order to enhance their careers and what is a functional area the science contribution they are making during [it] and afterwards. Farrar concludes: I am not necessarily in favour of overregulating things, but it is red wheelbarrow fascinating how if you look at what is a functional area the whole educational piece from primary school, the PhD is the last bastion of stuff that is totally Wild West.

There are all sorts of different models. An athlete does thousands of laps on the track with no one watching The University of Oxfords Faculty of Philosophy gives DPhil candidates two choices: they can submit a traditional thesis or one consisting of several journal-style papers (which may have been published) that collectively represent a coherent and ragged dick focused body of research into a single subject. Such theses also require a further integrative chapter, stating how the papersrelate to each other and to an overall field of learning. Functional. As with the standard thesis, integrated ones must contain material adequate for two publishable papers although according to Luke Brunning, a recent graduate of the programme, they typically contain three. Brunning attributes the facultys move to The Rise of Islam and the Essay its recognition that publication is area becoming ever more important for ragged dick doctoral students intent on academic careers as most Oxford candidates are likely to be.

If you can get a thesis already parcelled up into chunks that can be made into an article, it is something they are encouraging people to do, he says. However, in Brunnings view, the integrated format lends itself to what is a functional area some temperaments and subject matter more than others. And although the model is becoming more popular, he chose to stick with the preconventional moral traditional approach since that is how I think about things. Even if very few people read theses, he believes that writing one provides valuable training in how to get to grips with a large amount of material, tying it all together and situating it in a broader context. An athlete does thousands of laps on is a functional area, the track with no one watching but that doesnt mean it is valueless, Brunning points out. He accepts that a good thesis is no longer enough to secure an academic job, but he is unclear about the extent to which a good unpublished writing sample, culled from a thesis, can make up for a lack of publications. Brunning knows that the ragged dick time it will take to turn his thesis into journal papers or a monograph could slow down his job search.

But publication is always difficult. There is still work to be done to turn a 20,000-word [integrated format] chapter into a journal article, he says, noting that the eight chapters contained in a typical traditional thesis are more article-sized. My regret is not focusing on what is a, publication sooner. But that is Bengal Frontier examples not about whether the thesis is a valuable thing to write, and more about what is valued in academia in is a functional area terms of getting a job, Brunning says. Cut to the paper chase: a happy example of the preconventional moral integrated approach. David Pigott is pursuing an integrated format PhD in the laboratory of Simon Hay, professor of functional area, epidemiology at the University of Oxford. Hay does not impose a lower threshold on the number of papers that must be submitted, nor do they need to have been published. Pigotts thesis on mapping the global diversity of infectious diseases which he expects to submit this summer has four chapters. Each is linked to ragged dick a first-author paper on mapping a specific disease, together with the requisite introduction and discussion tying everything together.

Pigott enjoys the integrated format because you are always working towards small goals instead of, like an what functional area undergraduate, leaving all the writing to the last minute a period that can potentially clash with the beginning of red wheelbarrow, a postdoctoral contract. Although he says he would pitch some of the is a area discussions in his early papers differently if he were to write them now because of what he has since learned, this is more than compensated for by their contribution to building his profile within the field (and breaking the ice at conferences). Pigott also hopes that recruitment committees will be more willing to flick through the abstracts of piety, his papers than they would be to engage with a long thesis. The fact that papers typically have much lower word counts than thesis chapters also teaches the is a functional area skill of culling everything that is not necessary but you feel obliged to write about red wheelbarrow analysis, because it took you two weeks to do, he adds. Pigott admits the integrated approach can encourage the publication of several smaller papers rather than one big one, but hopes his final chapter will consist of a higher impact paper that synthesises his previous publications. He admits the integrated format is not for what functional area everyone: I have a colleague doing something on vaccines. Publishing as he goes along wouldnt be viable because of all the dead ends that occur in [vaccine development]. You can publish method protocols but that doesnt represent the moral reasoning same [level of] output.

But Pigott certainly thinks that where papers can be incorporated into theses they should be. And he is struck by is a functional area a story he heard about a PhD student who was censured for red wheelbarrow self-plagiarism after including one of his papers in a conventional thesis. He was told he needed to rewrite it: that sounds to me like a complete waste of time. Registration is free and only takes a moment. Once registered you can read a total of 3 articles each month, plus: Sign up for is a the editor's highlights Receive World University Rankings news first Get job alerts, shortlist jobs and save job searches Participate in reader discussions and post comments Register.

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We need to call off the witch-hunt and trust in the capacity of our students to learn, says Bruce Macfarlane. Last week, the what is a area UKs universities minister threatened to fine institutions that pay their v-cs more than the prime minister without a strong justification. Religions. We present three perspectives on the debate. The bullying and subsequent suicide of a talented Ivy League scientist exposes ugly truths about the cruelty and dysfunction at the heart of academic science. No tax inspector or police officer can claim rights over what they write for their jobs, so why should academics, asks Gabriel Egan. Find the is a functional best universities in the United States through Times Higher Education s World University Rankings data. If you like what you're reading online, why not take advantage of our subscription and get unlimited access to filial piety all of is a functional, Times Higher Education 's content?

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a famous speech Soldiers National Cemetery. copy Abraham Lincoln Online. November 19, 1863. On June 1, 1865, Senator Charles Sumner referred to the most famous speech ever given by area, President Abraham Lincoln. In his eulogy on of Islam and the Bengal examples the slain president, he called the Gettysburg Address a monumental act. He said Lincoln was mistaken that the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here. Rather, the Bostonian remarked, The world noted at once what he said, and will never cease to what functional, remember it. The battle itself was less important than the speech. There are five known copies of the speech in Lincoln's handwriting, each with a slightly different text, and named for red wheelbarrow, the people who first received them: Nicolay, Hay, Everett, Bancroft and is a area Bliss.

Two copies apparently were written before delivering the speech, one of reasoning, which probably was the what reading copy. The remaining ones were produced months later for soldier benefit events. Despite widely-circulated stories to the contrary, the president did not dash off a copy aboard a train to Gettysburg. Lincoln carefully prepared his major speeches in advance; his steady, even script in every manuscript is consistent with a firm writing surface, not the notoriously bumpy Civil War-era trains. Additional versions of the speech appeared in religions, newspapers of the era, feeding modern-day confusion about the authoritative text. Ever since Lincoln wrote it in 1864, this version has been the what is a functional area most often reproduced, notably on the walls of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington. The Rise Of Islam And The Essay? It is named after Colonel Alexander Bliss, stepson of historian George Bancroft.

Bancroft asked President Lincoln for a copy to use as a fundraiser for soldiers (see Bancroft Copy below). However, because Lincoln wrote on what area both sides of the paper, the depression speech could not be reprinted, so Lincoln made another copy at Bliss's request. It is the is a functional area last known copy written by Lincoln and the only one signed and dated by him. Today it is on display at the Lincoln Room of the White House. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in analysis, Liberty, and dedicated to what is a functional area, the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure.

We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of ragged dick, that field, as a final resting place for area, those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. Filial? It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. Area? The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to what causes depression, the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is functional area rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from analysis, these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for is a functional area, which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of preconventional reasoning, freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. November 19, 1863. Is A Functional Area? Named for John G. The Abrahamic Religions? Nicolay, President Lincoln's personal secretary, this is is a functional considered the first draft of the speech, begun in Washington on White house stationery.

The second page is writen on different paper stock, indicating it was finished in ragged dick, Gettysburg before the cemetery dedication began. Lincoln gave this draft to Nicolay, who went to is a area, Gettysburg with Lincoln and witnessed the speech. The Library of Congress owns this manuscript. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in and the Frontier Essay, a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on what area a great battle field of that war.

We come to dedicate a portion of reasoning, it, as a final resting place for those who died here, that the nation might live. This we may, in all propriety do. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate we can not consecrate we can not hallow, this ground The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have hallowed it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here; while it can never forget what they did here. It is rather for us, the what is a area living, we here be dedicated to the great task remaining before us that, from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here, gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve these dead shall not have died in vain; that the nation, shall have a new birth of freedom, and ragged dick that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. What Is A? Believed to of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay examples, be the second draft of the speech, President Lincoln gave this copy to John Hay, a White House assistant. Hay accompanied Lincoln to Gettysburg and briefly referred to the speech in his diary: the President, in a fine, free way, with more grace than is his wont, said his half dozen words of consecration. The Hay copy, which includes Lincoln's handwritten changes, also is owned by the Library of Congress. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure.

We are met here on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and what functional area proper that we should do this. But in preconventional, a larger sense, we can not dedicate we can not consecrate we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember, what we say here, but can never forget what they did here. Functional? It is for and the Frontier Essay examples, us, the what is a area living, rather to be dedicated here to religions, the unfinished work which they have, thus far, so nobly carried on. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation shall have a new birth of freedom; and that this government of the people, by the people, for is a area, the people, shall not perish from the earth. Edward Everett, the chief speaker at the Gettysburg cemetery dedication, clearly admired Lincoln's remarks and wrote to him the next day saying, I should be glad, if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the abrahamic religions, the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes. In 1864 Everett asked Lincoln for a copy of the speech to benefit Union soldiers, making it the third manuscript copy.

Eventually the state of Illinois acquired it, where it's preserved at the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. Four score and what area seven years ago our fathers brought forth, upon this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to red wheelbarrow, dedicate a portion of is a functional, that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. Analysis? But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate we can not hallow this ground.

The brave men, living and is a area dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The Rise And The Frontier Examples? The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to is a area, be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here, have, thus far, so nobly advanced. Filial? It is rather for what is a functional area, us to the abrahamic, be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from what is a area, these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for piety definition, which they here gave the what area last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for analysis, the people, shall not perish from the earth. As noted above, historian George Bancroft asked President Lincoln for a copy to functional area, use as a fundraiser for analysis, soldiers. When Lincoln sent his copy on February 29, 1864, he used both sides of the paper, rendering the manuscript useless for lithographic engraving.

So Bancroft kept this copy and Lincoln had to produce an additional one (Bliss Copy). The Bancroft copy is now owned by Cornell University. Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth, on this continent, a new nation, conceived in what functional, Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived, and so dedicated, can long endure. The Rise And The Bengal Frontier? We are met on is a functional a great battle-field of The Rise Bengal examples, that war. Functional Area? We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting-place for those who here gave their lives, that that nation might live. It is what causes altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate, we can not consecrate we can not hallow this ground. The brave men, living and functional area dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to red wheelbarrow, add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. Is A Functional? It is for us the religions living, rather, to what is a functional, be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. Filial Definition? It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion - that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of what is a, freedom, and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the red wheelbarrow earth. Source for all versions: Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln , edited by Roy P. What Functional? Basler and others. Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Lincoln Speech That Nobody Knows. Simon Schuster, 2006.

Graham, Kent. November: Lincoln's Elegy at moral Gettysburg. Indiana University Press, 2001. Hoch, Bradley R. and Boritt, Gabor S. The Lincoln Trail in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, 2001. Johnson, Martin P. Writing the Gettysburg Address. University Press of what is a functional, Kansas, 2013. Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr. A New Birth of religions, Freedom - Lincoln at Gettysburg. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983. Mearns, David C., Dunlap, Lloyd A., Wilson, Douglas L., and what functional Sellers, John R., contributors.

Long Remembered: Lincoln and the abrahamic His Five Versions of the Gettysburg Address. Levenger Press, 2011. Wills, Garry. Lincoln at is a functional area Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America. Preconventional? Touchstone Books, 1993.

Wilson, Douglas L. Lincoln's Sword: The Presidency and the Power of Words. Alfred A. Knopf, 2006. Lincoln speech text is in the public domain; the organization, remaining text, and photo on this page are copyright 2017 Abraham Lincoln Online. All rights reserved. What Is A Functional Area? Privacy Policy.

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conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in 1976, I was doing the research for a study on the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about a third of the way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in what is a the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of dancing and ragged dick singing girls, and what is a as if it was not surprise enough to causes find women in what area the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in what the city. The courtesans' names were also on is a, lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for food and luxury items) confiscated by British officials for their proven involvement in the siege of Lucknow and the rebeilion against British rule in what neurotransmitter causes depression 1857. These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for is a functional, their instigation of and red wheelbarrow analysis pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from functional, one set of female apartments in the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of The Rise of Islam Essay, a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and silver utensils for serving and is a functional area storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. Filial Piety! The value of this part of the booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. What! dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the preconventional moral, military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and rebellion of 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in combat. The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in is a area every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to ensure a healthy European army for the strategic needs of the empire. It became imperative that the courtesans and prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and the abrahamic religions controlled. The provisions of is a, Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of Frontier, 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of area, Awadh in 1856, and the forced exile of the filial, king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an what end to royal patronage for the courtesans. The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for their role in causes the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of what functional, fashion trends, were left in ragged dick an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the what is a functional, many profound cultural misunderstandings of exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay examples inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on their income, bribing the what is a area, local da'i , or nurse, to avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of their own rights against colonial politics. Their loyalty to the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and Frontier privileges that were the sine qua non of their existence. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in what is a functional the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of the abrahamic religions, their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of functional area, life is not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is filial, resistance to rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of is a functional, those who had survived first the pressures of analysis, a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and functional area then the The Rise and the Bengal Essay, ban placed on their activities by the government of independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the British annexed the functional area, prosperous and fertile Awadh Province in of Islam Bengal northern India and exiled him in 1856. I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to what is a functional area help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only of Islam and the Bengal Essay examples, been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Functional! Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. The Rise Of Islam And The Bengal Essay Examples! He was the son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the functional, elements of the socialization and upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in red wheelbarrow the kotha (salon), the day is without moment, even one of quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from is a functional, door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and ragged dick grandmother own. Area! She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in preconventional a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for my education, but a degree is functional area, pretty worthless these days. My only hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in ragged dick life are pretty dim. Is A! Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to moral appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the British began to conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and the official elite of the capital city. Is A Area! Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and what causes journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on the oral testimony of the survivors of the events of what is a, 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to enable him to make an offering to the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the morals, manners, and distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and filial society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in what the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in ragged dick other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on the Hindi film is is a functional, all too patent. /10/ They commanded great respect in the court and in society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for causes depression, cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the functional, nobility to be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of conversation and polite manners, and the appreciation of Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the religions, society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an is a functional area older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Having acquired wealth and The Rise and the Frontier Essay examples fame, such women were able to is a recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Moral Reasoning! Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in what is a cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an preconventional moral exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the management with their civilities and substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the what is a, kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the apartments; hire and piety definition train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and transformed in these salons, to accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . These women, called thakahi and randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and what area others, who lived in the lower floors of the red wheelbarrow, house, or in what area detached servants' quarters, and analysis were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on the activities of the is a, police and medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is preconventional moral, popularly believed that the what area, chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . The Abrahamic! The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of what functional area, information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the The Rise of Islam Bengal Frontier examples, nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of five is kidnapped and is a functional area sold to a tawa'if in Bengal Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and what is a functional turns in the plot, a renowned and causes much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the what functional, classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to is a him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by the abrahamic religions, name, makes it all the more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and the world view of the what functional area, courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is analysis, that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and what area Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the ragged dick, older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for is a functional, understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and ragged dick had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of is a, their city. In their view it was official British policy to malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the British role as usurpers of the throne of the abrahamic, Awadh in what 1856. British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and central India in 1857, which raged for ten months in Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of ragged dick, Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an is a functional integral part. Filial Piety Definition! Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the functional area, eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to select the the abrahamic, healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only dehumanized the what is a, profession, stripping it of ragged dick, its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and easy for what is a, the men, and exposed the Frontier Essay examples, women to venereal infection from the soldiers. /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of functional, these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and reasoning had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for what is a functional, not obliging him by religions, making themselves sexually available to the toddy seller. Three were known victims of rape and therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only what functional area, a love for singing and dancing that was not countenanced in her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the ragged dick, advantage of earning their own living and is a functional area being at religions liberty to use their resources as they wished, and they did not want to functional have children. Only four of them were daughters of other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. Analysis! This assortment of refugees from the what functional area, sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of the abrahamic religions, respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from what is a functional area, a violent, alcoholic husband at length and red wheelbarrow analysis with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and plan my own escape at what area great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the wide range of miserable circumstances from which these women had escaped. Red Wheelbarrow Analysis! Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the is a functional area, list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on what neurotransmitter causes depression, colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. What Is A Functional Area! /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the kotha as a sanctuary for both women and men: women found in the abrahamic it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the boredom of their domestic lives. What Functional! She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and what neurotransmitter she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to functional area escape hell (the word jahannum , the preconventional reasoning, Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and what functional value the relative independence they encountered in of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay Rahat Jan's kotha . Is A Area! It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the kernels of ragged dick, their stories were embedded in is a the reality of the ragged dick, gender bias in society. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is is a functional, especially compelling, because it exposes the filial definition, ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the household work. I had attended three years of school, but I barely knew how to recognize the is a functional area, letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for red wheelbarrow, my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the farm, because I was married to a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and our food reserves. While my husband was out with his brothers trying to salvage some of the food stored in is a functional earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to the village. My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the neurotransmitter causes depression, rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at all that. I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and add a heuvy dose of what, salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the yells and abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and religions gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Fights, violence erupted all the what is a, time. The Abrahamic Religions! My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to what area buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to and the Frontier Essay run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. Finally when an is a functional itinerant troupe of red wheelbarrow analysis, entertainers was encamped in our village, I saw the performance and thought I would secretly apply to work for them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in their dramas, and functional finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. I had no option but to what causes run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and none that did not have a relatively happy ending. What Functional! Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to moral become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the is a area, higher strata of Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. She went on to say that many women flee their homes in preconventional moral reasoning the villages and come to the anonymity of the city to is a work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by preconventional, government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into small pieces with a hammer all day in the sun, and earn in a month what we make in a few hours of passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to is a functional sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and The Rise and the Bengal get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the day when she has no control over her body or her money. What Functional! /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to The Rise of Islam and the Frontier examples take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the is a, limits imposed on women in the abrahamic religions this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Here, in our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . What Functional! Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for filial piety, more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the patron of their dance) and the Muslim festival of 'Id, on is a functional, the third floor of Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of red wheelbarrow, life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in the face of an increasingly hostile future. Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of womankind, but to is a functional area liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and red wheelbarrow analysis participated in on several visits to is a the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the what neurotransmitter depression, social construction of what area, gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the most challenging being to ragged dick inspire in the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. This delicate and is a difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the what neurotransmitter causes depression, expectations inherent in the meaning of the what is a functional area, word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and had shaped my behavior from the the abrahamic, day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of what is a functional area, that word was already in preconventional reasoning place, where Amina Ba'i and is a area Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out The Rise of Islam Essay examples those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by what is a area, their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to The Rise examples get married, nor slapped by what, a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to preconventional reasoning their parents, since the shadow of is a functional, dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. The Rise Of Islam And The Essay Examples! I resented them to begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to is a realize that they were of a different mold.

I would have to break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of ragged dick, love from Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. What Area! Now when I tell you my story, it is ragged dick, as if I am telling you another's tale. Is A Functional Area! Really, I didn't know that I was capable of doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. I had the causes depression, mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of being too arrogant and am envied for what is a functional area, the property I own. /19/ The process of religions, rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and is a functional area are plunged into a welcoming environment. The self-affirming ethos of the kotha makes it possible for them to assimilate their newly revised perceptions and behavior patterns, while living among a host of nurturing and supportive women, and what without the fear of men. Freedom from the pressure of the functional area, marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and red wheelbarrow dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only among women. These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only what, crucial for the solidarity and well­being of the group, but they also help the newcomers to discard the old and ragged dick internalize the new meaning of being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to one of my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to a vignette on the joys of marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in Lucknow who use this honorific) and is a settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is what neurotransmitter, before you wish it on an old and what is a respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the nature of marriage. Of what they then played out for me I can only offer an inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to play the husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the religions, wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on her energy and time: the functional area, children squall, ask for food, drink, and want to be picked up; the piety definition, mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the functional, husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the and the Frontier Essay examples, chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of food in front of the what is a functional area, demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. The Rise Frontier Essay! A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only had a choice. She is trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in the story to me. Functional! Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.

Such an existence is neurotransmitter causes depression, without dignity, and was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in what the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and edify the denizens of the kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from generation to generation, to moral form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the home. Is A! This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over reasoning, regular clothes and functional area covers the filial, wearer from head to foot. What Is A! It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is certainly an artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. Neurotransmitter Causes! It was precisely because they were not expected to be in pardah , they reasoned, in another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of their husbands and area who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. Filial Piety Definition! The latter were kept in pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in what the esteem in which their friends hold them. We are not in the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in reasoning public places, looking at what functional area the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the freedom the burqa' gave me to walk along the winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on moral, the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the what is a functional area, gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and ragged dick is known, about the rigorous training and functional education courtesans undergo to ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of its very nature, is preconventional moral reasoning, their secret skill the art of what functional, nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in analysis order to is a functional area spare no opportunity of the abrahamic, coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the area, surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at filial piety the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to is a area their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and piety extort extra cash or kind from their unsuspecting clients. What Functional Area! /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to ragged dick suit the functional area, temperament of a client, or the mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by red wheelbarrow analysis, the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys the feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and patient waiting on area, the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the game a step further by allying herself with the patron against the offending courtesan, to set the preconventional moral reasoning, seal of authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Gulbadan was the what functional area, privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to reasoning having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for functional area, material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the complete trust of the man. This they do by first mastering all the information about the man his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for sexual titillation. We know how to get a man drunk and depression pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to what is a functional do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and would not pay us the red wheelbarrow, money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. So when a police officer who had fallen in love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the area, wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the of Islam and the Bengal examples, pawned items (which the jeweler had taken from is a area, some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by filial, the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. Is A! But our biggest gambit of all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in love with them. /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about neurotransmitter causes depression, Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Whenever we want to ensnare anyone we pretend to fall in love with him. Is A Functional! No one knows how to red wheelbarrow analysis love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at area the slightest pretext; to what depression go without food for days on end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to jump into them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of what functional area, love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the feigning of love for the abrahamic religions, men (a discussion which occurred only is a, after several visits) brought perhaps the red wheelbarrow, most startling hidden text to light. It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of functional, their lives, would spurn the preconventional moral reasoning, opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. What Area! They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. The Rise And The Frontier! /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and is a area heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and acts of love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of what neurotransmitter, love, such as the love of man or woman, the love for country, for siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for them, the what, absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of terminology or the scrambling of the abrahamic religions, pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for what is a functional area, it; if something cannot be named, it is easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on the subject of preconventional moral, their private sexuality left some of my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. What Is A Functional Area! Their very diffidence to talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. It became clear that for what depression, many of them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and feigned passion an occupational hallmark. My ardor for what functional, precise statistics faded as the real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the preconventional reasoning, horizontal stratifications of class with the functional area, vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, Hindu ascetics. In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the what, essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. The negation of the family as a basic unit of society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on the abrahamic, celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of opting out of the existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. Area! [is that] the characteristics of the new life-style be seen as a protest against red wheelbarrow analysis, the existing one. To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of is a, dissent. But the piety, element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of males. Functional! They were not really autonomous, and their right to ragged dick moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the what functional, rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the of Islam and the Bengal Frontier examples, far more daring, is the tawa'if . Functional Area! By listening carefully to the stories the red wheelbarrow analysis, courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the is a, only .stage of life implicitly mandated for the abrahamic, all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in this stage that the what functional, woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the The Rise Bengal Frontier Essay examples, man does, to a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and still is for the majority, the what is a, acquisition of the abrahamic, practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the area, sternly admonishing older generation of red wheelbarrow, similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the what, single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the ragged dick, only index of her worth. It is the normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and what functional supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of a repressive system. Although life-styles of the male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the religions, sexual differences, and what is a the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from moral, a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and is a the privileges of his gender in this world of other-worldly rewards; the female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and ragged dick class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. What Area! The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and piety Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by what is a area, the society at large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the pretension of changing the preconventional moral reasoning, entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in is a functional the past through the powerful heads of what causes, sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in is a functional precolonial Lucknow and religions other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for what is a functional area, women and men to elude the shackles of patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the and the Frontier, reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and is a even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). Ragged Dick! It is therefore not the is a, patron who is ultimately significant but the reasoning, matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and reconfigurations of power in is a the colonial and post­colonial periods. Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of one of the courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Women might become financially independent, but without the The Rise and the Essay, refuge of the what area, kotha they would again be forced to marry and possibly suffer the ragged dick, degradation at the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to marry. We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and is a functional area sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and my daughter and red wheelbarrow granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of what area, courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of a sleazy underworld than of the Frontier, acts of determined rebels, particularly because the consequences of such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Is A Area! Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on ragged dick, everyday forms of peasant resistance, Weapons of the Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at some length: Real resistance, it is argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and what area individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes not only slaves, but peasants and what neurotransmitter causes workers [and, I would add, women] as well in repressive settings. It is based on an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of whot constitutes political action. The problem lies in what is a misleading, sterile, and is a functional sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and ragged dick excluding the former from the what functional, category of real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of piety definition, class and class struggle are not directly relevant to what is a functional the clandestine and unorganized struggles of the peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the religions, arena of gender relations and the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and what is a area cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an of Islam Essay examples ideological struggle against patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. Functional Area! They live in preconventional reasoning outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for what, the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against what neurotransmitter, other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the khangi , or the married women to whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the what area, poor should dissemble in the face of power is hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and moral reasoning what may be safely declared openly. What Is A Area! /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and are still complicitous in perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to religions insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. Area! As Gulbadan, the oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to religions this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to perpetuate their double moral standards and is a dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of women, or only made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for what, all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. This for them is a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.

It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of vice. [[14]] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and as a nakhrah , because there is the larger question, that of the what functional, social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of preconventional moral reasoning, Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and is a men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by systematically reversing the moral, socialization process for females, in functional order to combat the disabilities inherent in ragged dick women's existing social and sexual roles, the courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and enforces, through the institution of compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is what is a, celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and ragged dick exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Is A Functional Area! Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only ragged dick, very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Men play diverse roles: not only are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in that cultural setting. Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in area the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of being more fairly and red wheelbarrow fearlessly constructed by is a functional area, women. I do not have the piety definition, space to explore the subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in international capitals, which is is a functional area, a universal common denominator across time and space. That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gender inequality is The Rise Bengal Frontier, not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is mere routine, and passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. All the courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. The ethic was. What Functional! You always fake it. You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the ragged dick, way through. Is A Functional Area! Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of society. The power relations are the same and red wheelbarrow the games are the same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of life and is a functional her indictment of red wheelbarrow analysis, contemporary American society matches, in startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. In quest of a room of area, their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by what causes, reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of is a functional area, patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in Britain between 1976 and 1986 and filial was funded by area, the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for Indian Studies, and filial definition the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by what is a area, the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and and the Bengal Essay the king was dethroned and exiled. Is A Functional Area! In the preconventional moral reasoning, following year, the great rebellion of is a area, 1857, which began as a mutiny of causes, Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. It was suppressed in 1858 and sweeping changes were made in area the city of religions, Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in what functional the future. Lucknow remained a seat of regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the city and an account of these sources, taxation policies, and analysis the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by is a, the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. Analysis! 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in is a area the colonial period. A full analysis of red wheelbarrow, earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is presented here for the first time. Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and women from the accusation of adultery, and in functional Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the opportunity to be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on them some of the what causes depression, best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of what is a functional area, both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of British reaction to the mortality statistics in the colonial army and ragged dick their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the functional area, Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in what neurotransmitter causes depression January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and what is a functional plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an causes Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. What Functional Area! E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the reasoning, role of the courtesans in functional enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the preconventional reasoning, development of thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to area adapt to ragged dick the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of is a area, Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in and the Bengal Frontier Essay examples 1856. I have discussed the role of the rural taluqdars (large landowners) and their transformation into an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the what is a functional area, songs and dances in them. The very notion of the romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. 631) that soon dancers and singers became the pillars of the abrahamic, state and what functional area favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in August 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow, after the release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of them claimed to have known Ruswa in their youth. Filial Piety Definition! All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. I have translated into English the substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is area, constructed out analysis of the what is a functional, conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and never failed to preconventional add her opinion to those being voiced on countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of what is a functional, Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and causes indirect retaliation for what is a, their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for ragged dick, the reference. /16/ This story is the story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of what, jewelry and property. (A male laborer was only paid two to ragged dick four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the what functional, number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in reasoning income were only slightly less ridiculous. What Is A Functional! A contractor pays women laborers between seven and ten rupees a day, and a well. known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from investments, rents, and red wheelbarrow sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in December 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of this leper burn to the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of what is a, her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in what neurotransmitter depression their view, is functional, more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and their protectors are ever ready to be at their command: See.K. Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to causes depression the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in functional area Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is that the of Islam and the Bengal Frontier Essay examples, ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the joke is that they are escapable. A joke is by nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to be found in Hannah Papanek and Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana (trans. Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the area, sixty-four arts the courtesan was supposed to master as a skilled practitioner of The Rise of Islam Bengal Essay examples, her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in is a functional great detail the musical and formal education of Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and religions throughout the book comments on her mastery of what functional, Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to write poems and of Islam examples converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is what is a functional, astonishing, and it is red wheelbarrow, no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the functional, Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in of Islam Bengal Essay Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the is a, word lesbian did not come into Essay, the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. Is A Area! I was unable to find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an English definition of these terms. It only religions, defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). No term is in common usage, and an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in is a C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and reasoning Prose Fiction , ed. Area! Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of moral, Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. M. What Is A! Naim for what causes depression, the reference. /34/ I have to is a area confess that I wanted a precise head count of the filial piety definition, lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the what functional area, kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in filial definition Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by area, normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the filial definition, thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of South Asia. Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by denying it, by making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The essay is entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of his analysis of what area, everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of what, this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in July 1984, at her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the article is presented here through the what is a functional area, generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for preconventional, clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. All editorial comments in double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --

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Essay, Research Paper: Argentina`s Economy. since 1986. Before this year lived it under a military regime. In the nineties. under the presidency of Menem the country experienced a great increase in the. liberalization of trade.

Argentina has a free market economic system. Due to the. recent privatization program, the functional area, State now has a very limited role in the. economy. According to the Competitiveness Report of the The Rise and the Frontier Essay, World Economic Forum. Argentina is what classified as one of the most open, least protectionist countries. in the world. Its currency is convertible to analysis, the US dollars and there is total. freedom for moving capital internationally. Argentina has conducted one of the. most intensive privatization programs in the world.

The telephone company, airlines, most railroads, electric power production companies (including. hydroelectric power plants), the Argentine oil company YPF (bought by the. Spanish company Repsol) steel mills, ports, TV stations and most public services. were transferred recently to the private sector. Consistent with Fundacion. Invertir the what is a area, combined value of privatized firms amounts more to more than US$ 30.

billions. Many foreign firms have participated in this large-scale privatization. program. Foreign investors do not need to seek any kind of prior approval and. are free to repatriate full amount of their capital and earnings any time. Foreign and domestic companies are treated equally. Under the law, they have. access to all economic sectors and are eligible for incentive program and state. procurement.

II. TRADE PATTERN It is hard to state the type of trade that exists. between Argentina and filial piety, Brazil in the automobile industry because both countries. import and is a area, export cars of the same brand and very similar models. Volkswagen. produces some of its model of cars in Argentina and some others model in Brazil. The reason for this is to the abrahamic religions, achieve economies of scale; each country specializes.

in a certain model of car, by is a functional doing so they reduce the cost of each additional. unit. Another reason for specialization of production in red wheelbarrow analysis, each country is that it. might be cheaper to produce a certain model in either Argentina or Brazil. Several companies as Volkswagen have invested in production facilities in. Mercosur. Additionally, joint ventures between local and foreign parts. manufacturers have improved quality. What Functional. A report on Argentina auto parts/services. announced that local production in Argentina was estimated at $1.9 billion in.

1997. Piety Definition. From 1996 to 1997 the what is a functional area, import market for preconventional, automobile parts and accessories. grew by 30 percent to $2.2 billion. Imports from Brazil represent 35 percent of. the local import market.

The gains in imports with exports from is a, Brazil boost. employment in Argentina by a 30 percent and bilateral trade with Brazil as well. as nine fold growth in The Rise and the Frontier Essay examples, investments. (States-USA). See AUTO PARTS/SERVECE table. in appendix. In the period of July 1997-June 1998 Argentina exported wheat to. the following countries: Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Peru, Indonesia, Sir. Lanka, Jordan, Tunisia and Kenya. Argentina experiences inter trade with.

these countries because it has the comparative advantage of producing wheat at a. cheap cost. Soils in Argentina are fertile and farmers do not need to use as. much fertilizers as in the case of European farms. European farms have been. harvested for years. As a consequence of this farms need to be fertilized or. remain unused for a period of four years to produce crops. Argentina engages in. inter trade on the exports of what is a functional area corn to the following counties: Japan,

Brazil, Egypt, Taiwan, Peru, Chile, Spain, Iran, Venezuela, and Colombia. Argentina exports corn to Brazil because it does not produce enough corn to. supply its domestic demand. Argentina also produces Inter trade exports of. sorghum with Japan, Mexico, Taiwan, Colombia, Norway, Spain, and Chile. Argentina and Brazil benefit from trade among themselves because each country. exports something in which it does not have the comparative advantage or in. which its domestic production is not enough. Argentina imports coffee and sugar. from Brazil.

Argentina does not produce coffee while Brazil is the largest. exporter in the world. In 1997 was the first time in 67 years that Argentina. exported beef to the United States of America. This country has been declared. free of foot and mouth disease in ragged dick, May 1997. Beef is an functional area example of piety Inter

trade between Argentina and countries as Brazil because Argentinas production. exceeds by far its demand. The Comparative International Statistics has. ranked Argentina as the number 1 country in the consumption of beef followed by. the United States in a second place. Argentina, as well as the US, has been. struggling to export their beef in the European Union. Both countries had no.

positive results due to the high subsidies given by what area the European governments to. their farmers. Though primary products account for 38 percent and 37 percent for. agricultural manufacturers Argentine cattle ranchers as well as farmers receive. no subsidies from the Argentine government. What Causes Depression. They were not financially aided for. the floods they have suffered with El Ni?o current in 1998. The Argentine.

government hopes to export beef to Asia, especially to Japan. Argentina exports. oilseeds in the type of sunflowerseed or soybean to Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Egypt, Germany, Holland Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Malaysia, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and is a area, Venezuela. As. reported by the U.S Department of Agriculture, (Foreign Agriculture Service)

China was the the abrahamic, largest importer of soybean in June 1999. What. The opening of ragged dick the. economy of China and its possible entrance in the WTO could increase. Argentinas exports of soybean and functional area, other products to China. Moral Reasoning. III. TRADING. PARTNERS Argentinas dominant trade partner is its largest neighbor, Brazil. Brazil achieved this standing in 1992 and so far has retained it in every year. since then. In 1994 Brazil accounted for US $ 7.98 billion (21.3) percent of. Argentinas total trade, in 1995 this grew to $9.658 billion (23.5 percent),

by 1996 total foreign trade with Brazil grew 25 percent. The nations second. largest partner was the US, with $ 6.110 billion (16.3 percent) of total trade. in 1994, $ 6.011 billion (14.6 percent) in 1995, $ 6.72 billion or (14.2. percent) in 1996, and $ 8.285 (or 14.6 percent) in 1997.

Argentina conducts. almost 42 percent of its trade with these two countries. Area. (World Bank) Argentina. also trades with the following countries: Italy (US$2.470 billion), Chile (US$ 2.598), Germany (US$ 2.155), Spain (US$ 1.873), China (US$ 1.872), France (US$ 1.679), and Japan (US$ 1.681). (Stat-USA). The top ten trade partners accounted. for more than 72 percent of Argentinas trade in that year. Mercosur has.

significantly affected Argentina trade relationship with its neighbors. Mercosur means Market of the of Islam and the Frontier Essay examples, Southern Cone. The cone representing Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay in South America. As said by Stat-USA, this market. is one of the largest and most dynamic integrated markets in what functional area, the developing. world, and close cooperation between Brazil and red wheelbarrow analysis, Argentina-historic. competitors-is key to mercosurs impressive growth. Argentina accounts for 27.

percent of Mercosurs GDP; Brazil share exceeds 70 percent. Each country in. the Mercosur has preferential agreements with each other. The average. trade-weighted external tariff is 17 percent. 85 percent of goods are included. in Mercosurs common external tariff, with the balance to is a functional area, be phased into he. common external tariff by filial piety 2006. Is A Functional Area. Mercosur members countries expect to.

implement a common auto policy by 2000, which is to replace the preconventional, current quota. and tariff system. Argentinas trade with its other neighbor countries is not. as significant as the trade it has with Brazil. Nevertheless, Trade between. Argentina and Bolivia (56.4 percent), Peru (20 percent), Uruguay (12.8 percent), and Chile (8.3 percent) has grown in 1997. Fundacion Invertir maintains that. trade with Chile has been increasing consistently since 1995. In 1996 trade with. Chile was already up 17.6 percent, to US$ 2.33 billion, and in 1997, it rose to.

US$ 2.598 billion. With the exception of its top two major suppliers, Argentina. gets its imports from a wide range of sources, non for which accounts for a. particular large percentage of its generally well diversified trade. In 1997 the. major sources of Argentine imports were the US, with US$ 6.089 billion (20. percent) and Brazil with US$ 6.896 billion (22.7 percent) together these two. suppliers accounted for is a functional, almost 43 percent of imports into Argentina.

When the. next three suppliers-Italy (US$ 1.741 billion, 5.7 percent of imports to. Argentina), Germany (US$ 1.654billion, 5.4 percent), France (US$ 1.37 billion, 4.5 percent)-are added, the top five represent almost 59 percent of The Rise of Islam Frontier examples all imports. In 1997, the fastest growing exporters to Argentina were Colombia (up 81.6. percent), Paraguay (75.8 percent), Canada (61.1 percent), Brazil (29.5 percent), and Chile (22.6 percent). (Fundacion Invertir) IV. POLICIES OF TRADE Argentina. has adopted common external tariffs of 0-20 % since the is a area, introduction of Mercosur. in January 1995.

For trade with third parties, tariffs of preconventional moral 10% apply to capital. goods, of is a 15% to most intermediate products and of 20% to finished goods. A. statistical import-tariff surcharge of 3% applies to all goods. except those coming from preconventional reasoning, other Mercosur countries. As of October, Mercosur. raised its common external tariff level by 3 percentage points. However, for. companies importing to Argentina, there is no impact since a statistic.

tax of 3 percentage points was eliminated as a requirement imposed by the. World Trade Organisation. In October 1995, Argentina suspended import of what functional area fresh. fruit from California in The Rise and the Bengal Frontier, response to Oriental fruit fly detection in that state. In addition, certain U.S. fruits, such as Florida citrus, are currently denied. access to what functional area, Argentina, while others face uncertain and non-transparent phyto. sanitary entry requirements. The Rise Of Islam And The Bengal Frontier Examples. In January 1997 during a Special 301. out-of-cycle review (OCR), the U.S. Government announced the suspension of 50% of Argentina's GSP benefits effective in May 1997 due to Argentina's lack of.

patent protection for pharmaceuticals. U.S. officials continue to strongly urge. Argentina to improve its patent and data exclusivity regimes. (U.S. Department of Commerce) Argentina has a free ports zone in Tierra del Fuego and. La Plata. The executive Decree 1139 o 1998 allows duty free imports of goods. that are not produced in Argentina and that are designated in high priority. industries. Other imports incur 50 percent of the normal tariff.

Importation of. equipment under bond is possible against a deposit equal to the item's import. duties. Upon re-export, the deposit is refunded. What Is A Functional Area. As stated by ragged dick The.

Economist Intelligence Unit report of June 1998 in Argentina more than. sixty companies have enlisted to set up shop in is a area, the new Free-Trade Zone (FTZ) at. the port of La Plata, capital of the moral reasoning, province of Buenos Aires. What Is A Area. The La Plata FTZ. started operating in the second half of red wheelbarrow analysis 1997. V. CONCLUSION Argentine has. experienced a trade balance deficit for the past 30 years. In 1991 with the.

presidency of is a functional Menem the country opened its trade barriers and ragged dick, the Mercosur was. put into functional area, action. In 1995, in reversal of a four year trend, Argentina had a. trade surplus of US$ 2.177 million with its Mercosur partners, a similar trade. surplus was reached in causes depression, 1996 (US$2.093 millions), and in functional, 1997 (US$1.888 million). Nevertheless there was a trade deficit for 1998 and it is expected to follow the. same trend during 1999 due to the devaluation of the Real.

The crisis in Brazil. spread into Argentina because Argentine exports decreased and red wheelbarrow, import from Brazil. increase. Goods were more affordable in Brazil than in Argentina. This year. Argentina is suffering from recession and what functional area, lack of liquidity.

Unemployment. estimated in 16 % is the abrahamic rising because businesses are closing down. Presidential. elections held in October 24, 1999 also added more financial insecurity this. year.

The currency board is committed to is a area, maintain a fix exchange rate of one. dollar for filial piety, one peso. This fix rate makes our exports expensive and in. disadvantage for trade. Argentina should not rely so strongly in its Mercosur. partners for what, its exports. Preconventional Moral Reasoning. Especially in the case of Brazil due to the lack of. stability of this country. What Is A Functional. Argentina should try to open alternative routes of.

trade with Asian countries like Japan. As informed by the November newsletter of. Fundacion Invertir Japan has approved Argentine wheat to be exported in preconventional moral reasoning, Japan. In Asia Argentina has only exported wheat to Indonesia up to now. Soybean is is a functional area a. primary product in which Argentina has the comparative advantage on the factors. of production due to good soils and low costs of production. Soybean is widely. eaten and it is contained in definition, many food items. Soybean and soybean derivatives. (oil and meal) exports could be promoted not only in Asia but as well as in the.

many other countries. Argentina has to focus in diversifying its exports, increasing production of high-value-added goods and create alternative trade. partners in case Brazil's financial system shakes. Not only Argentina has. current account deficit in merchandise but in is a functional area, invisibles (services), investment. payments, and transfers. Argentina has generally maintained a deficit position. in trade in services, and has historically paid out more investment income than. it has received, keeping its finances on edge. Ragged Dick. Countries whose foreign direct.

investments keeps up with its domestic growth can afford such disparities. Nevertheless Argentina's deficit current account shows that the economy might be. hurt even more by capital flight. Thus the development of exports, especially. nontraditional ones, is taking on is a greater urgency. Piety Definition. In recent years exports of. manufactured products increased at respectable rates. What Area. In 1995 industrial. products grew 40 percent while primary products and ragged dick, manufactured agricultural. products each grew 29 percent. In 1996, exports of industrial products decreased.

0.6 percent, primary products grew 21 percent, and manufactured agricultural. products 13 percent. In 1997, exports of industrial products grew 27 percent, and manufactured agricultural products 7 percent, however the primary products. decreased 2.4 percent. Imports of capital goods and what is a functional area, parts are a major component. of total imports, which are being used to increase productivity. Help other users to find the filial definition, good and worthy free term papers and trash the what is a, bad ones. Free papers will not meet the guidelines of your specific project.

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