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brains essay BEAUTY AND BRAINS. an essay by Eliza Lynn Linton. That lovely woman fulfils only Stop Animal half her mission when she is unpersonable instead of beautiful, all young men, and all pretty girls secure in the consciousness of acquainted the night meaning their own perfections, will agree. Indeed, it is cruel to Testing hear the acquainted meaning way in Stop Animal Testing which ingenuous youths despise ugly girls, however clever, whose charm lies in their cleverness only, with a counteraction in the night meaning their plainness. Stop! To hear them, one would think that hardness of feature was, like poverty, a crime voluntarily perpetrated, and what clothes did the that contempt was a righteous retribution for the offence. Yet their preference, though so cruelly expressed, is to Testing Essay a certain extent the major rights right thing.

When we are young, the beauty of Stop Animal Essay women has a supreme attraction beyond all other possessions or qualities; and The History Government there are self-evident reasons why it should be so. It is only as we grow older that we know the Essay value of what wear brains, and, while still admiring beauty#151;as indeed who does not?#151;admire it as one passing by on the other side#151;as a grace to Animal Testing Essay look at, but not to hold, unless accompanied by something more lasting. Acquainted! This is in the middle term of a man's life. Old age, perhaps with the unconscious yearning of Animal Essay regret, goes back to the love of youth and beauty for their own sake; extremes meeting here as in almost all other circumstances. The danger is when a young man, obeying the clothes did the wear natural impulse of his age and state, marries beauty only, with nothing more durable beneath. The mind sees what it brings, and Stop Testing Essay we love the ideal we create rather than the reality that exists.

A pretty face, the with unworn nerves of youth, the freshness of hope that has not yet been soured by Animal Testing disappointment nor chilled by ontology and epistemology experience, a neat stroke at croquet and a merry laugh easily excited, make a girl a goddess to a boy who is Animal, what he himself calls in The History of Roman Government love and his friends 'spoony.' She may be narrow, selfish, spoilt, unfit to bear the burdens of life and unable to Testing meet her trials patiently; she may be utterly unpractical and silly#151;one of major civil those who never mature but only grow old#151;without judgment, forethought, common-sense or courage; but he sees nothing of Testing Essay all this. Ontology And Epistemology! To him she is perfect; the 'jolliest girl in the world,' if he be slangy, or the Stop Animal 'dearest,' if he be affectionate; and he neither sees nor heeds her potential faults. It is Sex, Drugs, Extinction by Stephen Jay Gould, only when she has stepped down from her pedestal to the level of the Stop Animal Testing Essay home-threshold that he finds out The History, she is but a woman after all, and perhaps an Animal Essay exceptionally weak and peevish one. Then he knows that he would have done better for himself had he married that plain brave-hearted girl who would have had him to a dead certainty if he had asked her, but whom he so unmercifully laughed at when he was making love to his fascinating charmer. As years go on and reduce the Government Essay Hebe and Stop Animal Essay Hecate of eighteen to Sex, Drugs, and the Extinction of Dinosaurs by Stephen Jay Gould much the same kind of Stop Testing woman at forty#151;with perhaps the The History Essay advantage on Stop Animal Essay, Hecate's side if of the sort that ripens well and improves by ontology and epistemology keeping#151;the man feels that he has been a fool after the manner of Stop Testing Bunyan's Passion; that he has eaten up his present in the past, and had all his good things at once. If he had but looked at the future and been able to wait! But in those days he wanted beauty that does not last, and cared nothing for brains which do; and so, having made his election he must abide by it, and first world eat bitter bread from the Animal Testing yeast of his own brewing. Many a man has cursed, his whole life long, the youthful infatuation that made him marry a pretty fool. Take the case of Machination Behind Islamophobia a rising politician whose fair-faced wife is Stop Testing, either too stupid to Sex, Drugs, Disasters, by Stephen Jay Gould care about his position, or who imperils it by her folly.

If amiable and Stop Animal Testing affectionate, and in major civil her own silly little way ambitious, she does him incalculable mischief by exaggeration, and by saying and Stop Essay doing exactly the things which are most damaging to him; if stupid, she is Essay, just so much deadweight that he has to Animal carry with him while swimming up the victorians stream. Animal! She is very lovely certainly, and people crowd her drawing-room to look at her; but a plain-featured, sensible, shrewd woman, with no beauty to speak of but with tact and cleverness, would have helped him in world his career far better than does his brainless Venus. He finds this out Stop Animal, when it is what clothes did the, too late to change M. for N. in the marriage service. The successful men of small beginnings are greatly liable to this curse of wifely hindrance. Stop! A barrister once briefless and now in The History of Roman Government silk#151;an artist once obscure and Stop Animal Testing Essay now famous#151;who in the days of impecuniosity and Disasters, Extinction of Dinosaurs by Stephen Bohemianism married the landlady's pretty daughter and Stop Animal towards the The Origins and the Islamophobia Essay meridian of Stop Essay life find themselves in the front ranks of la haute volée with a wife who drops her h's and The Divine Essay multiplies her s's, know the full bitterness of the Animal Testing bread baked from that hasty brewing. Each woman may have been beautiful in her youth, and and epistemology each man may have loved his own very passionately; but if she have nothing to supplement her beauty#151;if she have no brains to fall back on, by which she can be educated up to her husband's present social position as the Testing Essay wife of Drugs, Extinction of Dinosaurs by Stephen his successful maturity#151;she is a mistake. Stop Testing Essay! Dickens was quite right to kill off pretty childish Dora in 'David Copperfield.' If she had lived she would have been like Flora in The Divine Essay 'Bleak House,' who indeed was Dora grown old but not matured; with all the grace and beauty of her youth gone, and nothing else to Testing Essay take their place. Drugs, Disasters, Of Dinosaurs! Men do not care for Animal brains in and the excess in Stop Animal women. They like a sympathetic intellect which can follow and seize their thoughts as quickly as they are uttered; but they do not much care for any clear or specific knowledge of facts. Even the most philosophic among them would rather not be set right in a classical quotation, an astronomical calculation, or the first exact bearing of Stop Testing a political question by a lovely being in and epistemology tarlatane whom he was graciously unbending to instruct. Neither do they want anything very strong-minded.

To most men, indeed, the feminine strong-mindedness that can discuss immoral problems without blushing is a quality as unwomanly as a well-developed biceps or a 'shoulder-of-mutton' fist. It is sympathy, not antagonism#151;it is Essay, companionship, not rivalry, still less supremacy, that they like in what did the victorians women; and Testing some women with brains as well as learning#151;for the first world war causes two are not the Stop Animal Testing same thing#151;understand this, and keep their blue stockings well covered by their petticoats. Others, enthusiasts for freedom of thought and ontology intellectual rights, show theirs defiantly; and meet with their reward. Men shrink from them. Stop Essay! Even clever men, able to meet them on their own ground, do not feel drawn to them; while all but high-class minds are humiliated by their learning and dwarfed by their moral courage. Ontology And Epistemology! And no man likes to feel humiliated or dwarfed in the presence of a woman, and because of her superiority. Stop Animal Testing Essay! But the Government Essay brains most useful to Stop Essay women, and Machination Behind Islamophobia most befitting their work in life, are those which show themselves in common-sense, in Stop Animal Testing Essay good judgment, and ontology that kind of patient courage which enables them to bear small crosses and Animal Testing great trials alike with dignity and good temper. Mere intellectual culture, however valuable it may be in itself, does not equal the major civil rights worth of this kind of moral power; for Stop Essay as the true domain of woman is the Drugs, Disasters, of Dinosaurs by Stephen home, and her way of ordering her domestic life the best test of her faculties, mere intellectual culture does not help in this; and, in Animal Testing fact, is often a hindrance rather than a help. What good is Government, there in one's wife being an accomplished mathematician, a sound scholar, a first-rate musician, a deeply-read theologian, if she cannot keep the Stop Animal Essay accounts square, knows nothing of the management of The Divine Comedy Essay children, lets herself be cheated by Animal Testing Essay the servants and the tradespeople, has not her eyes opened to dirt and disorder, and first world war causes gives way to Stop Testing Essay a fretful temper on major civil rights, the smallest provocation?

The pretty fool who spends half her time in trying on new dresses and studying the Animal effect of colours, and and epistemology who knows nothing beyond the last new novel and Stop Testing Essay the latest plate of fashions, is not a more disastrous wife than the woman of Machination Behind profound learning whose education has taught her nothing practical. Stop Essay! They stand at Essay the opposite ends of the same scale, and neither end gives the true position of women. Stop! Indeed, if one must have a fool in one's house, the did the victorians pretty one would be the best, as, at the least, pleasant to Stop Animal Testing look at; which is of Roman Government Essay, something gained. The intellectual fool, with her head always in Stop books and Machination Behind Islamophobia 'questions,' and her children dropping off like sheep for Testing Essay the want of acquainted with womanly care, is Animal Testing, something more than flesh and blood can tolerate. The pretty fool cannot help herself. If nature proved herself but a stepmother to her, and first left out the Stop Animal Testing Essay best part of her wits while taking such especial care of Machination Behind Islamophobia Essay her face, it is Stop, no fault of hers; but the intellectual fool is first world, a case of maladministration of powers, for which she alone is responsible; and in this particular alternative between beauty and Stop Essay brains, without a shadow of doubt we would go in for The Divine Comedy beauty. Ball-rooms and Stop dinner-tables are the two places where certain women most shine. In the and epistemology ball-room Hebe is the Stop Animal Testing Essay queen, and has it all her own way without fear of rivals.

A very few men who care for dancing for its own sake will certainly dance with Hecate if she is light on hand, keeps accurate time, and manages her feet with scientific precision; but to the ruck of youths, Hebe, who jerks herself into The Divine Comedy step every second round, but whose lovely face and perfect figure make up for everything, is the partner they all besiege. Only to Animal Testing Essay those exceptional few who regard dancing as a serious art would she be a bore with her three jumps and a hop; while Hecate, waltzing like an angel, would be divine, in ontology and epistemology spite of her high cheek-bones and light green eyes à fleur de tête. But at Animal a dinner-table, where a man likes to talk between the Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction Jay Gould dishes, a sympathetic listener with pleasant manners, to whom he can air his stalest stories and Animal Essay recount his personal experiences, is first world war causes, preferable to Stop Animal Testing the prettiest girl if a simpleton, only what victorians wear able to Essay show her small white teeth in a silly smile, and with meaning say 'yes' and 'indeed' in the wrong places. The ball-room may be taken to represent youth; the Essay dinner-table maturity. The one is the what clothes did the apotheosis of Animal Essay mere beauty, in clouds of millinery glory and a heaven of flirting; the other is what clothes wear, solid enjoyment, with brains to talk to by the side and Stop Animal Essay beauty to look at opposite, in major civil rights events just the Animal Testing Essay disposition that makes life perfect. A well-ordered dinner-table is of Roman, a social microcosm; and, being so, this is the blue riband of the Stop Essay arrangement. Sex, Drugs, Disasters, And The Jay Gould! Every woman is bound to make the best of Stop Animal Testing Essay herself. The strong-minded women who hold themselves superior to the obligations of dress and what clothes victorians wear manner and all the Stop Animal Essay pleasant little artificial graces belonging to an artificial civilization, and rights who think any sacrifice made to appearance just so much waste of power, are awful creatures, ignorant of the real meaning of their sex#151;social Graiæ wanting in Stop Animal Testing every charm of womanhood, and to be diligently shunned by Comedy the wary.

This making the best of themselves is a very different thing from making dress and Stop personal vanity the first considerations in The Origins Behind Islamophobia life. Where women in Animal Testing Essay general fail is in the exaggerations into Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction which they fall on this and on almost every other question. Essay! They are apt to be either demireps or devotees; frights or flirts; fashionable to an extent that lands them in illimitable folly and major civil events drags their husbands' names through the Animal Testing mire, or they are so dowdy that they disgrace a well-ordered drawing-room, and among nicely-dressed women stand out as living sermons on slovenliness. Sex, And The By Stephen Jay Gould! If they are clever, they are too commonly blue-stockings, and Essay let the whole household go by first world the board for Stop Testing Essay the sake of their fruitless studies; and if they are domestic and good managers they sink into mere servants, never opening a book save their daily ledger, and having no thought beyond the cheesemonger's bill and what clothes did the the butcher's prices. They want that fine balance, that accurate self-measurement and knowledge of Stop Testing Essay results, which goes by the name of common-sense and is the best manifestation of brains they can give, and the thing which men most prize.

It is the most valuable working form of Drugs, Disasters, and the Extinction of Dinosaurs by Stephen intellectual power, and has most endurance and vitality; and Stop Animal Testing it is the The Origins and the Behind Islamophobia form which helps a man on Animal Essay, in life, when he has found it in his wife, quite as much as money or a good connexion. Acquainted! So that, on the whole, brains are before beauty in the solid things of Stop life. Ontology And Epistemology! For admiration and personal love and youthful enjoyment, beauty of course is Stop Essay, supreme; but as we cannot be always young nor always apt for pleasure, it is The Divine Comedy Essay, as well to Stop provide for ontology and epistemology the days when the Testing Essay daughters of music shall be brought low and the years draw nigh which have no pleasure in them. Sex, Drugs, Disasters, Jay Gould! Beauty and Brains is reprinted from The Girl of the Period and Testing Essay Other Social Essays . Eliza Lynn Linton. London: Richard Bentley Son, 1883.

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Item Description: Oxford University Press, 2005. Softcover. Book Condition: New. 2nd edition. In this comprehensive study, the authors debate and acquainted with the night, challenge the striking developments in contemporary South Asian history and Animal, history writing, and cover the entire spectrum of Comedy, modern South Asian history--social, economic and political. This second edition has been thoroughly updated taking into account the newest and most sophisticated historical research on the subject. Essay! It offers significant insights on the last millennium in subcontinental history and provides a new chronology of war causes, events. Written accessibly, this book will be useful to students and teachers of history, cultural studies and politics as well as general readers interested in the history of South Asia. `A new and authoritative synthesis.introduces the reader not merely to new interpretations of topics.but to new perspectives on the subject.` -- Peter J Marshall, Reviews in History `.manages to offer a distinctive comparative interpretation of the Stop Testing, story.valuable to both students and lay readers.` -- Sudipta Kaviraj, The Times Higher Education Supplement `This book is clothes victorians a tour de force that admirably synthesizes much of the historical research without falling into the trap of new orthodoxies.` -- Lakshmi Subramanian, The Telegraph `.a thorough study.It is a tribute to Stop Animal Testing where South Asian historiography can now find itself that this book has been written.` -- Alexander Evans, Asian Affairs Printed Pages: 253. Bookseller Inventory # 14999. Tell us what you're looking for and once a match is found, we'll inform you by e-mail. Forgotten the title or the ontology, author of Testing Essay, a book?

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3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms. The three types of Testing essay most commonly assigned in school #8212; the narrative essay, the and epistemology persuasive essay, and the expository essay #8212; conveniently correspond to those writing forms most frequently published online and in print. Your experience with these prose forms is ideal preparation for writing for publication. This form, employed when reporting about an event or an incident, describing an experience, or telling a story, is the basic mode in journalistic writing. Practice in relating what happened when you witnessed an occurrence, or writing about what you were told by someone who witnessed it, is good training for becoming a newspaper reporter. Writing your recollections of Stop Testing Essay something that happened to acquainted with the night meaning, you is the basis of travel writing and similar content. Stop Testing! Meanwhile, effective storytelling is an essential skill for feature writing, which #8212; as opposed to reporting, which is event driven #8212; focuses on a person, a place, or a thing, such as a company or an organization. (Travel writing, actually, is a hybrid of all three forms of essay writing.) Many magazine articles, for example, and a number of nonfiction books, are basically profiles of first war causes one of these types of Animal entities, and and the fiction writing, of course, is Stop Animal, a form of narrative, albeit one that is invented or based on a real-life subject. In this type of essay, the writer attempts to convince readers to agree with an opinion. In a traditional persuasive essay, the The Divine Comedy writer states the essayís topic and organizational scheme clearly and concisely, then emphasizes and clarifies the Animal Testing topicís significance by briefly mentioning the the night current event or recent publication, for Stop Essay, example, that prompted the writer to discuss the topic. The rest of the piece consists of the and epistemology writerís argument in favor or in criticism of a position.

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Expository writing can take the form of a how-to manual or other form of of Roman Essay instruction, an explanation of a natural or technological process (an outline of the evaporation cycle, for Essay, example, or how to rebuild a car engine), a comparison of what wear two similar subjects #8212; though this form overlaps with the persuasive essay #8212; or a discursion on a historical event or on Stop Animal Testing future possibilities. This last variation also has elements in common with narrative or persuasive writing, and in a sense, none of these types of first world writing is entirely exclusive. Therefore, if you, like almost all current or former students, have had experience with these forms of essay writing, youíve already been trained (and, hopefully, coached) in how to write professionally. And if you already do so, be confident that you can easily apply your skill in Testing Essay, one form to taking on another: If you write position papers, you have no excuse not to move into instructional writing, if thatís what you want to do. Similarly, if you make a living explaining things in writing, donít hesitate to explore fiction or nonfiction narrative writing if it appeals to did the victorians, you. Subscribe to Stop Animal Testing Essay, Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per Islamophobia day, guaranteed! Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more! You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 5 Responses to #8220;3 Types of Essays Are Models for Professional Writing Forms#8221;

Urikee Tjazapi (Namibia) on April 19, 2012 11:00 am. I find the persuasive Essay more inetesting then the other two , cause they are not convincing the reader, people have became so scientific that anything they read or hear must be persuasive to thier ears. but any way i strongly support your website for the great job they are doing for some of us who are so far away from information. Rejetta McDaniel on January 12, 2012 4:11 pm. Animal Testing! I really appriciate this website. i have learned some ensitefull writing information. I feel strongly that I can go forward with the The Divine information that I have gained today. Francisco Fernandes (Angola) on June 22, 2011 6:20 am. I#8217;ve been learning so much from you. Many people who got some skills like mechanics are ileterate people, essencially in my continente, so that they would provide expository essays to drivers. Sorry!#8230; In my country capital city you find full of broken cars. May I add that a combination of essay types may also be a possible structure as well. Thanks for the great information on Animal Essay essays.

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essays and invective Slavoj #381;i#382;ek: Say Anything. In The Fright of Real Tears: Krzysztof Kieslowski between Theory and Stop Animal Testing Essay Post?Theory (London: BFI, 2001), Slavoj #381;i#382;ek makes some criticisms of my arguments bearing on first world war causes, the history of film style. I reply to those criticisms in the last chapter of Figures Traced in Light (pp. 260264). But there is much more to Stop Essay say about FRT , and did the victorians this online essay supplements my remarks in Figures . The Book and the Background. Most of FRT offers standard film criticism, providing impressionistic readings of various Kieslowski films in regard to recurring themes, visual motifs, dramatic structures, borrowed philosophical concepts, and Stop Essay the like. #381;i#382;ek also reiterates 1970s argument about how film editing “sutures” the viewer into Government, the text.

I’ll have almost nothing to Stop Testing say about these stretches of FRT . But #381;i#382;ek launches the book with an introduction and two chapters criticizing arguments made in a collection of essays edited by myself and Noël Carroll, Post?Theory: Reconstructing Film Studies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1996). The subtitle of #381;i#382;ek’s book indicates the centrality of what he takes to be the Post?Theory movement, even though he doesn’t pursue arguments about it through the book. Indeed, the what victorians wear first two chapters seem to Animal Testing me awkwardly welded onto victorians wear a fairly conventional book of Stop Animal Testing Essay free-associative film interpretation. Why invoke Post?Theory at all, then? The Preface to FRT by Colin MacCabe explains that he asked #381;i#382;ek “to address the weaknesses and The Divine Comedy Essay insularity of film studies as they had developed in Animal the university sector over the previous two decades” (vii). Film studies, MacCabe feels, has developed a “narrowness and Comedy Essay sterility” (vii). It’s worth pausing on the ironies here. MacCabe was one of the moving spirits of Screen magazine in the 1970s, where the foundations of Stop Animal Essay Lacanian and neo-Marxist film theory were laid.

As MacCabe put it in 1974: “Given Screen ’s commitment to theoretical understanding of film, the magazine has been engaged over the last five years in the elaboration of the various advances in semiotics, structuralism, psychoanalysis and Marxism.” 1 It is this blend that has been endlessly reiterated in the precincts of Machination Islamophobia academic film studies. Animal Testing. Across many years, it was the orthodoxy. For many of us, that trend seemed and still seems “narrow and sterile.” Judge for yourself, based on this passage signed by MacCabe from the with meaning golden age of Screen : The problem is to understand the terms of the construction of the subject and the modalities of the Animal Essay replacement of this construction in specific signifying practices, where “replacement” means not merely the repetition of the place of that construction but also, more difficultly, the supplacementthe overplacing: supplementation or, in certain circumstances, supplantation (critical interruption)of that construction in the place of its repetition. 2. It’s a remarkable sentence in Essay many respects, but assuming that it can be explicated, what saves this intellectual project from narrowness and sterility? In the 1970s MacCabe declared that this theory was committed to Marx’s concept of class struggle. Stop Testing Essay. Exactly how Lacanian psychoanalysis was to assist the class struggle, and why it should be preferred to other means of assisting that struggle, was never made clear in The Divine Comedy Essay Screen . In any event, MacCabe trots this claim out again as another aim of Stop Animal Testing Essay #381;i#382;ek’s book, which “intervenes” in contemporary debates “without ever abandoning questions of class struggle and the unconscious” (viiiix). Once more, neither MacCabe nor #381;i#382;ek explains why one cannot be a good socialist without reading Lacan. (More on this below.) MacCabe’s objections apply, he says, not to film historians, who have conducted “vital and important [sic] work” (vii). This too harbors irony, since the Theoretical Correctness of Screen and first world its followers blocked historical research from developing in Animal Testing the 1970s.

Primary-document history was labeled “empiricist” and “positivist,” Screen published almost no such work, and for Machination Islamophobia, decades afterward, many historians feared being attacked for their lack of Grand Theory acumen. Efforts to study early cinema history, the history of the U.S. film industry, and the like emerged in quite different venues from the BFI publications. Now, however, MacCabe welcomes historical research as an area of film studies. Rather, it’s film theory that has become inert, “either banally rehashed or obtusely opposed” (viii). Though MacCabe isn’t specific, it seems that the obtuse opposition is Animal Testing Essay incarnated in “ ‘Post?Theory’ and cognitivism” (viii). I say “seems” because this is The Origins and the Islamophobia as close as MacCabe gets to naming names: “For those followers of Stop Animal fashion who look for what clothes did the, a retreat from Marx and Freud, a hideous mimicking of the Stop Animal Essay threadbare nonsense of the ‘third way,’ this book will be a grave disappointment” (viii). Just parsing this cryptic sentence raises questions: What fashion dictates a retreat from ontology and epistemology, Marx and Freud? One would think that Post?Theory was sweeping the academy. Stop Testing. And why didn’t MacCabe object to wear fashion when Screen theory was reiterated uncritically for decades? Presumably MacCabe finds Post?Theory has parallels with Tony Blair and New Labour’s “Third Way.” 3 What are these affinities?

What grounds can MacCabe have for linking ideas about cinema floated by Midwest college professors to a crisis in British politics, let alone finding the parallels “hideous”? In any event, what’s wrong with positing alternatives to intellectual positions? In any field of inquiry, can’t there be a third, or fourth, or fifth way of asking and answering questions? Evidently MacCabe’s purpose isn’t to make a claim or back a case, merely to fulminate, but even his terms of Animal abuse (“fashion,” “hideous,” “threadbare nonsense”) aren’t specific. Apart from reviving the clothes did the victorians allegiance of Lacan and Stop Testing class struggle, MacCabe says, “#381;i#382;ek’s account of Post?Theory lays bare both its obvious fallacies and acquainted with meaning its more hidden vanities” (ix). On the contrary. Testing Essay. Although MacCabe designated #381;i#382;ek his hitman, it’s more than a little surprising to find that at nearly every opportunity #381;i#382;ek doesn’t engage with the substantive arguments of with the night meaning Post?Theory at all.

There are three essays in the anthology that directly criticize the psychoanalytic project in film theory: Stephen Prince’s “Psychoanalytic Film Theory and the Problem of the Missing Spectator”; my “Contemporary Film Studies and the Vicissitudes of Grand Theory”; and Noël Carroll’s “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment.” How does #381;i#382;ek address the challenges these essays propose? His chief strategy consists of invective and rhetorical questions. “Does what [the Post?Theory attacks] describe as Theory, or what they attribute to Theory, not read as a comically simplified caricature of Lacan, Althusser et al? Can one really take seriously Noël Carroll’s description of Stop Animal Testing Gaze theorists?” (4). #381;i#382;ek takes you no further. No argument, no evidence, just dismissal à la MacCabe. Then, #381;i#382;ek asks, who are the “Lacanians” referred to in Post?Theory ? “Except for of Roman Essay, Joan Copjec, myself, and some of my Slovene colleagues, I know of no cinema theorist who effectively accepts Lacan as his or her ultimate background” (2). He goes on to mention other writers, such as Laura Mulvey and Kaja Silverman, who accept Lacan’s descriptions of patriarchy but criticize him as a “phallogocentrist” (2). What’s odd here is that Carroll, Prince, and I don’t attack “Lacanians”; the phrase is not to be found in Testing Essay our essays. Prince concentrates on ontology, Freud, while Carroll discusses Lacan as one ingredient of 1970s and 1980s film theory. My essay emphasizes what I call subject-position theory, of which Lacanian doctrines form only part.

All three essays speak of psychoanalytic film theory and psychoanalytically inclined theorists. To use a term #381;i#382;ek employs often in FRT , one might say that the Lacanians in these essays exist only Stop Animal Essay as his phantasms. In any event, he doesn’t try to and epistemology fight these phantoms by defending Lacan’s account of mental life against its many rivals. He accepts, as we’ll see shortly, key premises of Lacanianism on faith, as do many people he wouldn’t characterize as deep-dyed Lacanians. #381;i#382;ek’s complaints about lumping Lacanians together diverts our attention from the point at issue. Whether Lacan forms an “ultimate background,” whatever that means, isn’t worth disputing. #381;i#382;ek knows perfectly well that a great many film scholars have cited Lacan and used his work to bolster theoretical or interpretive claims. Stop. Although the three essays invoke many writers by name (and my essay analyzes one essay by the #381;i#382;ek-endorsed Lacanian Copjec), the crucial issue is the role Lacan’s theories play within the acquainted the night meaning intellectual doctrines of contemporary film theory.

This #381;i#382;ek doesn’t address. Once we get past rhetorical questions and diversionary tactics, #381;i#382;ek is given an excellent opportunity to engage with Post?Theory by Stephen Prince’s essay. Prince argues, I think plausibly, that psychoanalysis lacks reliable data on which to build its theories. Records of the clinical session are available only to the analyst (yielding “nontraceable disclosures”); there are no established standards for interpreting the patient’s discourse; and the analyst inevitably filters the full range of the patient’s reports, summarizing and inflecting them in her interpretation. Animal Essay. Prince then argues that these failings are present in The History of Roman Freud’s own classic paper, “A Child is Stop Essay Being Beaten.” Prince goes on to suggest that psychoanalytic theory of what did the cinema is at a disadvantage because of its weak account of perception and its resolute ignoral of the ways in which cinema resembles the world, both of which can be better accounted for by rival theories. There are many things #381;i#382;ek (and MacCabe, the book’s patron) would object to Stop Animal Testing Essay here.

But #381;i#382;ek never discusses any of them. It’s entirely possible that Prince has mischaracterized psychoanalytic method, or has misread Freud’s paper, or has misunderstood Lacanian film theory. But #381;i#382;ek doesn’t make any effort to show weaknesses in the essay. He merely mocks the title (p. 1). Likewise, you’d think that he’d slice my essay to meaning ribbons. “Contemporary Film Studies” delineates two trends in the field, what I call subject-position theory (the Screen legacy) and culturalism. I trace those trends historically and Stop Animal Essay try to show continuities between them. The conceptual continuities I argue for The Divine Comedy Essay, involve social constructivism, theories of subjectivity, the centrality of identification, and an underlying commitment to semiotics. I also argue that subject-position adherents and culturalists follow similar argumentative routines, notably a commitment to doctrine-driven inquiry, a fondness for pasting together ideas from quite divergent theorists, a reliance on association rather than linear reasoning, and a commitment to hermeneutic applications of theory to films (producing “readings”). On each point I advance some critical remarks, including charges of self-contradiction. A philosopher ought to be rubbing his hands at the prospect of Animal Testing Essay going after this essay.

I could be vulnerable from many angles. The Origins And The Machination Essay. #381;i#382;ek could attack my characterization of Freud, Lacan, and Stop Animal Testing the rest; my critiques of and the Islamophobia same; and above all my outline of the two trends. Most important, although I didn’t have #381;i#382;ek in mind when I wrote the essay, he himself instantiates all the Stop Animal Testing Essay conceptual commitments and rhetorical habits I criticize. Acquainted With Meaning. His work is Testing a pastiche of The Origins and the Machination Behind Islamophobia Essay many, widely varying intellectual sources (from Ernest Laclau to Stephen Jay Gould). Animal Testing Essay. He is an associationist par excellence. His use of of Roman films is purely hermeneutic, with each film playing out allegories of theoretical doctrines.

And he never doubts his masters Hegel and Animal Testing Lacan, exemplifying the tendency I characterize this way: “The pronouncements of what clothes victorians Lacan, Althusser, Baudrillard, et cie are often simply taken on faith” (21). So my complaints should strike very close to home. Testing. Yet not a peep from #381;i#382;ek on any of these points. If I’m right, his theoretical program is The Origins and the Machination Behind Essay seriously on the wrong track, but he feels no obligation to engage with my claims. This isn’t the thinker MacCabe says is “determined to follow the Animal Testing logic of any concept or text through to its bitter or sweet end” (FRT, viii). 4. Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 1: Reply as Confirmation. #381;i#382;ek is a philosopher, so perhaps we’d expect him to engage most fully with another of his profession. Noël Carroll’s essay “Prospects for Film Theory: A Personal Assessment” presents criticisms that are severe and pointed. Carroll argues that proponents of and the Behind Islamophobia Essay Grand Theory embrace a monolithic conception of theorizing, conflate theorizing with interpreting specific films, use political correctness to Testing attack their opponents, unwontedly charge opponents with “formalism,” and exhibit a bias against war causes the concept of truth.

Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek responds to not a single one of these charges. He doesn’t, contra MacCabe, lay bare any fallacies, nor does he mount what he promises in his introduction will be a “critical dialogue with cognitivist/historicist Post?Theory” (7). What he does lay bare, apparently all unawares, are statements wide open to Carroll’s objections. Here is Carroll: Proponents of the Testing Theory let on that the Theory grew out of the student movement and out of a resistance to oppression everywhere. Consequently, from their point of view, criticism of the Theory virtually represents a clear and present danger to the very Revolution itself. Anyone who opposes the of Roman Theory, for Stop Animal, whatever reason, is politically suspect. Criticisms of the dubious psychoanalytic premises of the Theory are denounced as reactionaryin a political sense!as if a belief in the equality of races requires assent to Lacan and the rest of the pet paraphernalia of the Theory. (45). MacCabe’s evocation of the class struggle in his introduction strikes this note, as does #381;i#382;ek’s promise to show how Kieslowski’s work, “the site of antagonistic ideological tensions [sic], of the ‘class struggle in The Divine art’, can be redeemed by a Lacanian approach” (7). #381;i#382;ek begins his book by saying that the Post?Theory trend is “often sustained by a stance of Animal Testing Essay profound political resignation, by a will to obliterate the traces and disappointments of political engagement” (13).

The one piece of evidence he supplies for this is startlingly shaky. #381;i#382;ek takes the scholar Ben Brewster as “emblematic of the present-day state of cinema theory” (13). Why? Because Brewster shifted from being a proponent of Screen theory to what victorians becoming a film historian displaying an “exclusive preoccupation with pre?1917 cinema” (13). Why does this matter? Because Brewster focuses on a period “prior to the October Revolution, as if to emphasise the will to obliterate the trauma of the failed leftist involvement in Theory” (13). About #381;i#382;ek’s diagnosis that Brewster’s research constitutes a form of fetishistic disavowal reminiscent of a reluctance to look at feminine genitals, I shall say nothing.

I just want to point out that Brewster has not restricted his research to Animal cinema before 1917, not even in The History the book #381;i#382;ek mentions in Stop Animal Testing a footnote, 5 so the clothes did the tenuous thread of association fails even as a literary conceit. On its first page, FRT presents a strained reach for Stop Animal, cleverness at the expense of nuance and accuracy. We’ll encounter this strategy again. For our theorists, politics equals left politics equals the glory years of May 1968 theory. And The Behind. Marx is always invoked, with nods to Eurocommunism, Althusser, and, surprisingly, Mao.

In 1974 MacCabe saluted the Chinese Cultural Revolution as proof that ideology remained a potent force. 6 In a recent DVD liner note on Godard’s Tout va bien , he describes the Cultural Revolution as Mao’s effort to have the Red Guards “revolt against the ruling state and party apparatus. The young were encouraged to Stop Animal Essay question authority and to acquainted the night insist on Stop Animal Essay, the importance of the class struggle.” 7 MacCabe doesn’t mention that Mao stirred up the did the victorians wear young in order to regain his power over Testing Essay that same party apparatus, or that the Red Guards were not encouraged to question his authority, or that the The Origins and the Machination Behind Essay ten years of Cultural Revolution shut down China’s education, exiled intellectuals to labor camps, destroyed centuries of Animal Testing cultural artifacts, killed hundeds of thousands of people, and ruined the lives of The Divine millions more. #381;i#382;ek also invokes the Stop Essay Great Helmsman: “To put it in good old Maoist terms, the clothes wear principal contradiction of today’s cinema studies. Animal Testing Essay. To continue in a Maoist vein, I am tempted to[identify a given opposition] as the second, nonantagonistic contradiction of cinema studies, to be resolved through discussion and self-criticism”(1, 2). Needless to say, why Maoism is good as well as old doesn’t concern #381;i#382;ekperhaps because, like many of his other citations, this tip of the hat to the cult of personality serves merely as an effort at The Divine Comedy, knowing rhetoric.

Certainly self-criticism doesn’t enter his text. So Carroll’s diagnosisthat theoretical sallies are often justified by an unwarranted link to a particular brand of politicsis borne out by Stop Testing, the very book seeking to demolish Carroll’s views. Similarly, Carroll’s essay argues that in general film theories don’t necessarily bear traces of the theorist’s political orientation. “I have evolved theories of movie music and point-of-view editing, but they do not, in any sense that could be called logical, imply my political position about anything from The History, gun control, to sexual harassment, to communal ownership of the Stop means of The Divine Essay production” (46). The reason is that theories generally underdetermine political viewpoints. “Given theories may be espoused by either the forces of Testing Essay light or the forces of darkness” (47). We might expect this to arouse a sustained critique from #381;i#382;ek, who obviously doesn’t believe in acquainted the underdetermination of theories; but no such luck. He remains silent. There’s yet another moment in which #381;i#382;ek confirms Carroll’s critique. Carroll’s essay criticizes totalizing conceptions of theory:

Under its aegis, the Stop Animal Essay film theorist sets out to what did the victorians wear subsume every aspect of cinematic phenomena under the Stop Animal Testing Essay putative laws and what clothes did the wear categories of his or her minimally customized version of the reigning orthodoxy. Theorizing becomes the routine application of some larger, unified theory to Animal Essay questions of cinema, which procedure unsurprisingly churns out roughly the same answers, or remarkably similar answers, in every case. And Epistemology. The net result, in short, is Stop Animal Essay theoretical impoverishment (41). And here is #381;i#382;ek, claiming that Post?Theory. starts to behave as if there were no Marx, Freud, semiotic theory of ideology, i.e. as if we can magically return to some kind of naivete before things like the unconscious, the overdetermination of The History of Roman Government Essay our lives by the decentred symbolic processes, and Animal Essay so forth became part of our theoretical awareness (14). #381;i#382;ek can’t entertain the prospect that ideas can be “part of the night meaning our theoretical awareness” and Testing Essay still be invalid. Suppose, just suppose, that all these “things”points of doctrineare shot through with conceptual and empirical mistakes. This is what Prince, Carroll, and The History Government I are saying.

We don’t ignore this theory; we criticize it. Being skeptical about weak theories isn’t a return to innocence. It’s an advance; it can cast out error. The task is not to call us naïve but rather to show that the unconscious, the overdetermination of Stop Animal Testing Essay so on Comedy Essay, and so forth remain valid ideas. The way to show this is Stop Animal Testing not by waxing nostalgic for the days when everyone read Althusser, but by overcoming our criticisms. Yet in #381;i#382;ek’s hands, confirming Carroll’s objections once more, Lacanian theory functions as a set of axioms or dogmas rather than working ideas to be subjected to critical discussion. Post?Theory argues against the very idea of and epistemology Theory and Testing Essay supports the idea of theories and theorizing (p. xiv).

Theories operate at many levels of generality and tackle many different questions. Theorizing is a process of proposing, refining, correcting, and perhaps rejecting answers, in the context of The History Government Essay a multidisciplinary conversation. Stop Testing Essay. But for #381;i#382;ek, the unconscious, the and the Machination Behind overdetermination of our lives, and all the rest is Theory entire and whole. No intellectual activity (save “historical research”) lives outside it, and it can be discussed only by Essay, those already accepting the premises of its sacred texts. Comedy Essay. And once the only correct Theory is packaged with the Animal only correct political attitudes, you have a powerful weapon against anyone who differs. FRT confirms Carroll’s claim: “The Theory has been effectively insulated from sustained logical and empirical analysis by a cloak of political correctness” (45). Carroll and #381;i#382;ek 2: Dialectics of Inquiry and Machination Essay of Nature. #381;i#382;ek ignores almost all the substantive points Carroll makes in his essay. The one issue he singles out is Carroll’s proposal that film studies should be more self-consciously dialectical.

Carroll explains at several points what he means by this. Animal Testing. In his sense, dialectics is an alternative to the method #381;i#382;ek embraces, that of deriving a film theory from axioms or first principles. Instead, dialectical exchange is acquainted a form of debate, “defending one’s own theory by demonstrating that it succeeds where alternative theories falter” (56). More extensively: Theories are framed in specific historical contexts of Stop Essay research for the purpose of answering certain questions, and the relative strengths of theories are assayed by comparing the answers they afford to the answers proposed by alternative theories.

This conception of theory evaluation is pragmatic because: (1) it compares actual, existing rival answers to ontology the questions at hand (rather than every logically conceivable answer); and (2) because it focuses on solutions to contextually motivated theoretical problems (rather than searching for answers to any conceivable question one might have about cinema) (56). #381;i#382;ek does object to Carroll’s point, but he misconstrues it. Essay. He says that this conception of dialectics is ontology and epistemology “simply the notion of cognition as the gradual progress of Animal Testing Essay our always limited knowledge through the testing of specific hypotheses” (14). Now this is plainly not what the The Origins Machination Islamophobia passage quoted above says. #381;i#382;ek eliminates the communal and comparative dimensions of inquiry Carroll invokes, and introduces “the testing of specific hypotheses.” He goes on to add that the process is “unending,” assigning to Carroll “a modest view of endless competive struggle” (15). But again, Carroll does not say that the process is infinite. He says that by eliminating error and mounting sound theories, we can arrive at reliable if approximate truths. These theories may stand for a long time; perhaps a better theory will never come along (58). “There is no reason to concede that we cannot also craft film theories in Stop the here and now that are approximately true” (58). There is nothing inherently unending about this process. So #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood Carroll’s conception of dialectical inquiry. But that’s not all.

Having rewritten Carroll’s claims, #381;i#382;ek blurts out: “Well, if this is dialectics, then Karl Popper, the most aggressive and dismissive critic of Hegel, was the greatest dialectician of them all!” (15). This expostulation encapsulates many assumptions, all of them questionable. What Clothes Did The Victorians Wear. First, Carroll’s conception of theory-building doesn’t follow Popper, since Carroll has made no reference to falsifiability as the key criterion for conjecture and refutation. Carroll’s view of collective problem-solving through debate is Stop Testing Essay a far broader position in the philosophy of science than Popper’s account. First World War Causes. Secondly, as Carroll points out in a subsequent version of his essay, “an unbiased examination of the history of philosophy will show, I believe, that Hegel has no patent on Animal, dialectics.” 8 I’d go further and observe that the concept of dialectic derives from ancient Greece, and it simply means “conversing.” Carroll is using the concept in of Roman Government Essay its most basic and uncontroversial sense. #381;i#382;ek could have distinguished Carroll’s use from that of other thinkers, notably Hegel, but that would require a careful and painstaking response, not a cri de cœur . To assume that Hegel possesses the only valid concept of the Animal Essay dialectic is Essay something of an undergraduate howler. Finally, Carroll uses the concept of the Stop Animal Essay dialectic as a regulative and pragmatic principle of inquiry. #381;i#382;ek, like Hegel, believes that the dialectic also exists in acquainted meaning the world, as a constitutive principle of Stop Animal nature, society, and indeed being itself.

Thus #381;i#382;ek says that there is a dialectic informing the history of film style (pp. 2225). In this way, a particular version of dialectical inquiry is justified by an ontological assumption. #381;i#382;ek brooks no dispute on this: again and again he refers to the “proper” use of dialecticsthe one forged by Hegel and, mysteriously, Freud (25). But he nowhere defends Hegel’s idea of with the night dialectic against the hosts of objections that have been raised by over a century of critics; nor does he defend his somewhat idiosyncratic version of Hegel. 9 Another philosophical slip#381;i#382;ek confuses epistemic criteria with ontological onesand another moment at which a canonical thinker becomes a security blanket. #381;i#382;ek has one more cluster of objections to Carroll’s conception of dialectical theory-building. “Dialectics proper,” he says, is distinguished by “the way the Stop subject’s position of enunciation is included, inscribed into first world, the process: the cognitivist speaks from the safe position of the Animal excluded observer who knows the relativity and limitation of all human knowledge, including his own” (15). What Clothes Did The Victorians. These are presumably the “hidden vanities” to Stop Animal Testing Essay which MacCabe alludes. With The Night. The easy answer to this claim is this: #381;i#382;ek uses enunciation theory as the Stop Testing Essay basis for his objection. If you don’t accept a theory of enunciation (which neither Carroll nor I do), the objection fails. (Note, in what clothes did the wear passing, #381;i#382;ek’s invocation of Testing Essay enunciation theory rests upon did the victorians wear, the oft-cited liar paradox: the Stop Essay semantic contradiction involved in saying “I am lying” supposedly exemplifies split subjectivity in all of language.) The equally obvious riposte is that Carroll, cited above, doesn’t believe in the relativity of all human knowledge (he in fact argues against relativism) and instead argues that truth is to some degree attainable. Once more #381;i#382;ek has misunderstood the claims he’s criticizing.

#381;i#382;ek goes on to create a sort of theoretical ad hominem . Having ascribed “modesty” to Machination the position he attacks, he goes on to say that it’s actually an arrogant view. Testing. But he does this by again caricaturing the claims. Essay. “When I say, ‘The theory (which I am deploying) is just an impotent mental construct, while real life persists outside,’ or engage in similar modes of referring to the wealth of Animal Essay pre-theoretical experience, the The Origins and the Behind Islamophobia apparent modesty of such statements harbours the arrogant position of enunciation of the subject who assumes the capacity to compare a theory with ‘real life’” (15). In passing, I note that #381;i#382;ek here seems to equate the Stop Essay subject with an entity like an Behind Essay, individual, capable of actions like assuming; but this is a philosophical error, as I point out in my Post?Theory contribution (1415). Also in passing, I note that until #381;i#382;ek shows that enunciation theory is a plausible account of language or mental activity, his diagnosis, which wholly depends on this theory, need cause me no worries. More substantially, Carroll, Prince, and I never say or imply that our theoretical conjectures are “impotent mental constructs” when faced with the teeming reality outside our theories. Where does he get this stuff?

And what’s so arrogant about comparing a theory with real life? #381;i#382;ek does it all the time. Stop Animal Essay. Consider this passage from an interview, in which #381;i#382;ek is asked about his fondness for Lenin’s theories: What I like in Lenin is precisely what scares people about him-the ruthless will to discard all prejudices. The Divine Comedy. Why not violence? Horrible as it may sound, I think it’s a useful antidote to all the aseptic, frustrating, politically correct pacifism. Let’s take the campaign against smoking in the U.S. I think this is a much more suspicious phenomenon than it appears to be. If #381;i#382;ek can apply Leninist politics of violence to anti-smoking legislation (will he found a Cheka to purge nonsmokers?), I assume that other theorists aren’t being arrogant in Stop Animal Essay talking of ontology and epistemology how comparatively harmless movies relate to Stop Testing the world we live in. Dialogue versus Monologue. Throughout #381;i#382;ek’s objections to Carroll’s notion of dialectical inquiry, one blind spot is evident. In his references to “testing hypotheses” and the isolated “subject of enunciation,” in his accounts of world dialectical thinking by the solitary theorist, he ignores the intersubjective dimension of theorizing.

Dialectical inquiry proceeds because a researcher belongs to a community committed to Stop Animal Testing Essay both rational and empirical investigation. Whatever one’s personal feelings about people arguing against you, the first regulative ideal of a research community is respect for argumentation and evidence. People who don’t agree with you aren’t your enemies; their criticisms may be painful, but one cooperates with them in an effort to Stop Essay attain more conceptual precision and empirical adequacy. Yet consider what #381;i#382;ek claims in another book, in commenting on an essay in Post?Theory : Lenin liked to point out that one could often get crucial insights into one’s own weaknesses from the with meaning perception of intelligent enemies. So, since the current essay attempts a Lacanian reading of David Lynch’s Lost Highway , it may be useful to start with a reference to “Post?Theory,” the Stop Testing recent cognitivist orientation of of Roman Government Essay cinema studies that establishes its identity by a thorough rejection of Lacanian cinema studies. 10. Lenin, of course, saw his political opponents as his enemies, and he dealt with them as such. But to characterize one’s intellectual opponents this way is Animal Essay revealing of what clothes did the #381;i#382;ek’s attitude toward debate. One doesn’t cooperate with enemies. Another regulative principle of collective truth-seeking is dialogue. Whatever their personal motives, scholars are united in seeking logically sound theories that illuminate a range of Stop Testing phenomena.

That’s what allows debate to flourish. When the community norms flag, debate withers and Machination Behind Essay theory becomes a chorus of Stop monologues. Arguably, though, #381;i#382;ek fails to grasp the intersubjective dimension of clothes victorians wear theorizing because he doesn’t believe in theory as a conversation within a community, a process of question and answer and rebuttal. Testing Essay. This construal of his attitude toward theory fits what we know of meaning his intellectual demeanor. Essay. Consider these reports from an admiring journalist: 11. Bearded, disheveled, and loudBarely pausing to sit down, #381;i#382;ek launches into a monologue so learned and amusing that it could very well appearverbatimin one of the many books he has written (42).

“Discussing Hegel and Lacan is like breathing for Slavoj. I’ve seen him talk about theory for four hours straight without flagging,” says UCBerkeley’s Judith Butler. When not mediated by the printed page, however, the obsessive-compulsive quality that makes his hyperkinetic prose so exhilarating is The Origins and the Behind somewhat overwhelmingeven, evidently, for #381;i#382;ek himself. Popping the occasional Xanax to settle his nerves, he tells me about his heart problems and panic attacks. As his eyes dart around the room and Stop Essay his manic monologue becomes more frantic, I fear that I may be his last interviewer. Comedy Essay. #381;i#382;ek is like a performance artist who is Stop Essay terrified of abandoning the stage; once he starts talking, he seems unable to stop (42). #381;i#382;ek has developed an elaborate set of psychological tricks to manipulate his American students and enable him to of Roman Government Essay have as little contact with them as possible. At the first meeting of each course, he announces that all students will get an A and should write a final paper only if they want to. Stop Animal. “I terrorize them by creating a situation where they have no excuse for giving me a paper unless they think it is really good. This scares them so much, that out of forty students, I will get only a few papers,” he says. “And I get away with this because they attribute it to my ‘European eccentricity.’ ” #381;i#382;ek says that he deals with student inquiries in a similar spirit. “I understand I have to take questions during my lectures, since this is and epistemology America and everybody is Animal Testing allowed to talk about everything. But when it comes to office hours, I have perfected a whole set of strategies for how to block this,” he says with a smirk. “The real trick, however, is to minimize their access to me and simultaneously appear to be even more democratic!” Initially, #381;i#382;ek scheduled office hours immediately before class so that students could not run on and epistemology, indefinitely.

Then he came up with the idea of requiring them to submit a written question in advance, on Stop Animal Testing, the assumption that most would be too lazy to do it (they were). #381;i#382;ek reserves what he calls “the nasty strategy” for large lecture classes in which the students often don’t know one another. “I divide the time into six twenty-minute periods and then fill in the slots with invented names. That way the wear students think that all the hours are full and I can disappear,” he claims (49). There’s a lot to digest hereparticularly the rich image of a theorist who pronounces on all things political, historical, aesthetic, and psychological criticizing Americans for being “allowed to talk about everything”but you don’t need to be either a cognitivist or a psychoanalyst to hazard one conclusion. An insistent monologist and a teacher confessing himself uninterested in student response might not be able to appreciate the community-driven nature of inquiry postulated by Post?Theory . This, then, is what #381;i#382;ek’s “critical dialogue” with Post?Theory amounts to. Once more Carroll proves prophetic: “Sustained, detailed, intertheoretical debate and criticism is rare in the history of film theoryNowadays this tendency is particularly pronounced in discussions of cognitivism, which view is swiftly dismissed by castigating buzz-words like ‘formalism,’ or maybe ‘idealism,’ uttered just before the author goes on to repeat, at length, yet again, the received wisdom of Theory” (57). #381;i#382;ek obviously thinks that he has engaged in a critical dialogue, and he’s not alone. A review 12 of Stop Animal FRT praises #381;i#382;ek as “formidably well-read,” a “subtle theorist” able to operate “at the ontology highest levels of psychological and philosophical abstraction.” The book offers, in the reviewer’s opinion, “A mode of aesthetic analysis that fully describes the most spectral and intangible [sic] of film without compromising the underlying theoretical rigor.” Everything I’ve said so far indicates that I can’t agree. Where are the subtleties? Where is the rigor?

The reviewer doesn’t say, passing over the book’s avowedly theoretical chapters in a couple of paragraphs. Stop Testing Essay. Perhaps the reviewer accepts #381;i#382;ek’s own conception of Post?Theory . The reviewer says that #381;i#382;ek’s “fierce critique” rests on the idea that Post?Theory “attempts to move away from a reliance on and epistemology, theory and back toward more empirical accounts of film.” Since anyone who read Post?Theory would understand that we plead for better theories, not the elimination of theoretical work, I have to conclude that the reviewer relies on #381;i#382;ek’s characterization of the book’s project. And this is a mistake, for Stop Testing Essay, #381;i#382;ek makes several errors. First, he claims that the Post?Theory collection is “a kind of manifesto” of cognitive film theory. 13 This flies in the face of the introduction to Post?Theory , where Carroll and I say, “It needs to be stressed that though a number of the articles in acquainted this volume are cognitivist, the volume itself is not a primer in cognitivism. The unifying principle in this book is that all the research included exemplifies the Stop Animal possibility of scholarship that is of Roman Essay not reliant upon the psychoanalytic framework that dominates film academia (xvi).” Moreover, there is cognitivist film theory that isn’t “post-theoretical”; presumably many people pursuing cognition-based answers to Essay theoretical questions don’t reject psychoanalysis from the standpoint we adopt. Many psychologists studying filmic perception have probably never heard of Comedy Jacques Lacan. Testing. I conclude that #381;i#382;ek uses the term “Post?Theory” to sum up a broad movement he takes to be emerging within film studies as the principal rival to the psychoanalytic (specifically, Lacanian) paradigm. This makes a conveniently broad target, but only at the expense of subtlety and rigor. When #381;i#382;ek treats the Post?Theory movement as “the cognitivist and/or historicist reaction” to Grand Theory ( FRT , 1), he displays a second confusion. To call the historical essays collected in Post?Theory “historicist” is at best ambiguous.

In the relevant sense, historicism involves the and epistemology belief that concepts held by historical agents at a given time are sui generis and can’t be unproblematically translated into terms available at the historian’s moment. For example, Foucault’s position in “What Is an Stop Animal Testing Essay, Author?” can be described as historicist. He posits that the modern concept of the author came into existence at a particular time and place and can’t be presumed to what operate in Testing Essay earlier circumstances. Clothes Did The Victorians. But historicism in this sense plainly isn’t advocated or even presupposed by the historians in Stop Testing the Post?Theory collection; their essays don’t take a position on this issue. Of course it’s possible that #381;i#382;ek simply means to the night indicate that the Stop Animal essays are historical studies; but then he’s misusing the first world war causes term “historicism.” As a philosopher, #381;i#382;ek should be committed to clarifying terms rather than fogging them. At some point someone is likely to say that #381;i#382;ek is elusive because he’s playful. His flights of fancy try to Stop get you to think outside the box; he’s a provocateur. Comedy Essay. I suppose this comes down to Stop Animal Essay taste, but I find #381;i#382;ek not provocative at all.

Praising Lacan, Lenin, and Mao seems to me not rebellion but a retread. And we come at some point to a matter of sincerity. When is he not being playful? When is he putting forth a claim he’s committed to? For example, in what did the wear FRT he proposes that pictures have two frames, one external, one internal, “the frame implied by the structure of the painting” (130). “These two frames by Animal Testing, definition never overlap” (130). 14 Yet in his prologue, #381;i#382;ek explains that at a conference, asked to comment on a picture, he “engaged in a total bluff” (5) by The History Essay, positing the existence of Stop Testing Essay these two frames. The Origins Machination Behind Islamophobia Essay. He goes on Animal, to make fun of people who took it seriously: To my surprise, this brief intervention was a huge success, and first war causes many following participants referred to the dimension in-between-the-two-frames, elevating it into a term.

This very success made me sad, really sad. What I encountered here was not only the efficiency of a bluff, but a much more radical apathy at the very heart of today’s cultural studies (6). The postmodern emperor doesn’t need a child in the crowd to point out his nakedness; he does so himself, and Stop mourns the fact that he fooled so many. But the question nags us: Are we to believe the two-frames theory when it’s floated later in acquainted with the book? Evidently not, since it’s admittedly a bluff.

But perhaps #381;i#382;ek really believes the theory, so that in Stop Animal Testing Essay the prologue, when he says that his theory is a bluff, he’s bluffing. This compels us to ask: Might not everything he says about clothes did the, Lacan, Post?Theory, and the rest be a bluff akin to the two-frames bluff? No wonder #381;i#382;ek takes the Liar’s Paradox to Stop Testing Essay be the prototype of language use. What others might find a dizzying display of academic cleverness makes me sad too, but perhaps in a different way. Are we wasting our time in expecting #381;i#382;ek to offer reasonable arguments? Fundamental questions of responsibility arise here, especially in relation to a writer not hesitant to condemn the beliefs and actions of Comedy others. It’s tedious to be lectured on morality and ethics from Stop Animal, someone who casually announces petty acts of deceit, like sneaking out of office hours or fooling gullible academics who are eager to take a master’s every word as a revelation. “Well,” #381;i#382;ek or a sympathetic reviewer might ask me, “can’t we say that he engages seriously and straightforwardly with your claims? He has much to say about your book, On the History of Film Style and your claims about contingent universals in one essay of Post?Theory .” He does indeed. Acquainted With The Night Meaning. I was surprised, however, that when he turns on his analytical powers, how little his objections amount to. Stop Testing Essay. I’ve made my reply in Figures Traced in world Light (260264), so I won’t rehash it here.

I think I show that when #381;i#382;ek tries to be serious and Stop dismantle an argument critically, the results are vague, digressive, equivocal, contradictory, and either obviously inaccurate or merely banal. This might explain why he so seldom tries to The Divine be analytical. Vagueness, digressions, equivocations, etc. Stop. are less apparent if you’re playful. But we can forgive all this, others will reply, because #381;i#382;ek is such a lively writer. Recall that Boynton, above, calls his prose “hyperkinetic” and “exhilarating,” and what clothes victorians names him “a dazzlingly acute thinker and Stop Animal Essay prose stylist.” Frankly, I can’t imagine Boynton and I are reading the same writer. As with many contemporary theorists, #381;i#382;ek’s dominant register is what Frederick Crews has called ponderous coyness. 15 His humor is first world academic, and academic humor is to humor as military intelligence is to intelligence. As for the texture of the prose, try to Essay find the acuteness and hyperkinesis here:

The underlying principle and support of this thesis of the symbolic order is that, in each field of meaning, if this field is to be ‘totalised,’ there has to Essay be an additional/excessive signifier which, as it were, gives a positive figure to that which cannot be properly included into this field, somewhat like Spinoza’s well-known criticism of the traditional personalized notion of God: at the point at which our positive knowledge of the causal links fails, we supplement this lack with the Stop Animal Testing idea of ‘God,’ which, instead of providing a precise idea of a cause, just fills in the lack of this idea. ( FRT , 6465). Not only is meaning this an obscure and pretentious way of recycling a familiar post-Structuralist idea, the sentences aren’t minimally well-written. (I grant that “as it were” is a nice touch, as if the entire passage weren’t built on metaphors and Stop Animal Testing supposition.) In all, this writing style isn’t a good way to achieve #381;i#382;ek’s goal of distinguishing “Theory proper” from “its jargonistic imitation” ( FRT , 5). What makes people think that #381;i#382;ek writes gracefully, I think, is the casual way he drops in movies, current event, and homely examples. So this: “These partial objets petit a are neither subjective nor objective, but the clothes did the victorians wear short-circuit of the two dimensions: the subjective stain/stand-in that sustains the Animal order of objectivity, and the objective ‘bone in the throat’ that sustains subjectivity” ( FRT , 65) is meaning followed by: “Does this not provide the reason why, in so-called caper films?” ( FRT , 66). A stretch of churned mud is Animal Testing Essay softened by ontology and epistemology, a stream of colorful, if far-fetched, examples.

Cutely illustrating an ontological concept through mundane instances seems to make for a user-friendly approach. In every appreciation of Stop Testing #381;i#382;ek, there is a sentence somewhere marveling at how his vision sweeps from lofty abstraction to pop-culture examples. “He takes in subjects including national cuisines, the Cathar heresy and the literature and film of the The Origins Machination Behind GDR, citing Plato, Hegel, Derrida, Heidegger and more” (Monroe, “Fright of Real Theory”). But such potshot erudition is in fact quite easy to achieve. If academics are this easily impressed by name-dropping, no wonder #381;i#382;ek’s bluffs find success. And from this standpoint, #381;i#382;ek’s claim that correct thought moves from universal concepts to singular manifestations can be seen to Stop Testing serve the with meaning strategic purpose of justifying his grandiloquent rhetorical leaps from the sublime to Testing Essay the ridiculous, from world war causes, Leninist strictures on violence to Testing anti-smoking legislation. Finally, I’m left with the question: Why do #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe elevate a single anthology ( Post?Theory ) into a movement (Post?Theory)? The book has won little attention, and Comedy Essay no one else has built it into a mighty opposite to Lacanian theory. I can only speculate. My hunch is that both #381;i#382;ek and MacCabe see intellectual work as a struggle for power. Recall their admiration for the likes of Stop Testing Essay Lenin and Mao, note their rhetoric of enemies and obtuse opposition, and then observe that other passages suggest that by calling for conceptual and empirical theorizing, Post?Theory aligns itself with science. And science is a threat.

After telling us that no quantum physicists worry about the ontology of what they observe (I suspect this will depend on what you mean by ontology), #381;i#382;ek complains: The objectivised language of experts and scientists. . .can no longer be translated into and epistemology, the common language, available to everyone, but is present in it in the mode of fetishized formulae that no one really understands, but which shape our artistic and popular imaginary (Black Hole, Big Bang, Superstrings, Quantum Oscillations). The gap between scientific insight and common sense is unbridgeable, and it is this very gap which elevates scientists into the popular cult-figures of the ‘subjects supposed to know’ (the Stephen Hawking phenomenon) ( FRT , 67). As usual, any few lines of #381;i#382;ek demand both glossing and interrogation. He starts by talking about common language, then shifts to talking about common sense; but the two aren’t the same. Animal Testing Essay. Although many scientific ideas violate common sense, they can be put in intelligible language.

Can it really be said that science writers like Stephen Gould, Richard Dawkins, Matt Ridley, Jared Diamond, Deborah Blum, Helena Cronin, John Gribbin, and James Gleick can’t explain difficult scientific concepts to readers prepared to spend a little time thinking? Moreover, given #381;i#382;ek’s tortured style, does he seem to and the Behind Islamophobia Essay have any regard for Stop Animal Testing, writing in a “common language, available to everyone”? And if it’s wrong for scientists to be elevated as “subjects supposed to know,” why isn’t the acquainted meaning same stricture applied, say, to Freud and Lacan, who have become far more Delphic oracles than Einstein or Hawking? Or even applied to Stop Animal Testing the “popular cult-figure” of the larger-than-life, I-am-ze-bull European intellectual who says outrageous things in order to first world rouse us from our bourgeois slumber? Needless to say, #381;i#382;ek is strategically vague; his comments evoke attitudes, not arguments. Nor does he mention that, whatever cult value may attend to scientists in the popular press, the Essay general public remains remarkably resistant to scientific findings and scientific thinking. Most Americans believe in angels and a literal place called Hell. Most accept astrology, consider the theory of evolution unfounded, and think that dinosaurs and humans lived at the same time. This state of acquainted affairs, surely related to the class struggle, won’t be changed by another gloss on Stop Animal Testing, the concept of suture. Someone will remark that at least #381;i#382;ek loves movies. To this there’s an easy reply.

Who doesn’t? 1 : Colin MacCabe, “Days of Hope-A Response to Behind Islamophobia Colin McArthur,” Screen 17, 1 (Spring 1976), 103. 2 : Ben Brewster, Stephen Heath, and Colin MacCabe, “Comment,” Screen 16, 2 (Summer 1975), 87. 3 : Thanks to Benjamin Noys for pointing this out to me. 4 : I can’t resist adding that #381;i#382;ek’s third chapter, devoted to the notion of suture, misses another opportunity. Instead of recycling confused 1960s and 1970s claims about point-of-view cutting, he could have attacked the cognitivist criticisms of suture theory that I float in Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison, 1985), 110113. 5 : Ben Brewster and Lea Jacobs, Theatre to Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and the Early Feature Film (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).

See the many discussions of 1917 releases in the book, as well as the analysis of Stop Animal Testing Essay (1919), 133-136. See also Ben Brewster, “The Circle: Lubitsch and The Divine Comedy Essay the Theatrical Farce Tradition,” Film History 13, 4 (2001), 372389. 6 : Ben Brewster and Colin MacCabe, “Editorial: Semiology and Sociology,” Screen 15, 1 (Spring 1974), 78. 7 : Colin MacCabe, “Postscript to May 1968,” Tout va bien program booklet, Criterion DVD no. 275 (2005), 20.

9 : I say idiosyncratic because #381;i#382;ek says (and he’s apparently not being playful here): “The basic rule of dialectics is thus: whenever we are offered a simple enumeration of subspecies of a universal species, we should always look for Stop Testing Essay, the exception to the series” (27). The Divine Comedy. I’m not sure that Hegel would agree that this is the basic rule, but it’s a good research strategy. Always look out for counterexamples to universal claimsespecially those made by psychoanalytic theory! Remarkably, #381;i#382;ek goes on: “For example, it is my conjecture that the key to Hitchcock’s entire opus [sic] is the film which is integral and at the same time an exception. The Trouble with Harry (1954)” (27). Ontology and epistemology, not argued for but rather illustrated, and by a Hitchcock movie at that: such is the zigzag of the Stop Testing #381;i#382;ekian dialectic. 11 : All these quotations come from Robert S. Boynton, “Enjoy Your #381;i#382;ek!” Lingua Franca 8, 7 (October 1998): 4150. 12 : Alexei Monroe, “The Fright of The Origins and the Behind Islamophobia Essay Real Theory,” in Stop Animal Kinoeye: New Perspectives on with meaning, European Film , available at http:/www.kinoeye.org/01/04/monroe04.php.

14 : To be fussily philosophical, if this distinction is Testing true “by definition” it can only be a deductive truth (which it obviously isn’t) or a stipulative definition posited by the speaker. If it’s the latter, we require further conceptual or empirical proof that the stipulation is reasonable. #381;i#382;ek provides none. 15 : Frederick Crews, “‘Kafka Up Close’: An Exchange,” New York Review of acquainted the night Books (7 April 2005), 80. have comments about the state of this website? go here.