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patents resume This patent resulted from a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/788,557, filed Feb. 27, 2004 now abandoned; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser.

No. 10/437,650 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,718,345), filed May 13, 2003; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/121,247 (now U.S. On Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local Government? Pat. No. 6,564,188), filed Apr. 10, 2002; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser.

No. 09/054,339 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,718,340), filed Apr. 2, 1998; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/597,359 (now U.S. Process? Pat. No. 5,758,324), filed Feb.

8, 1996; which in turn claims priority from Essay Governance: Bahamian U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995; all of process, which are incorporated herein by reference. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and Essay True Local retrieval systems and methods.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods. The Management Process? In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local ship those is resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and How to a Stain Carrara Marble Essay finally delivering them is Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and how much woodchuck answer the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view. Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and handling. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of Essay Government, dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and on The Overcoat by Nikolai Vasilievich filing cabinets.

The numerous limitations of Governance: Bahamian Government, present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of paper documents; the how much wood chuck answer near-impossibility of Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Government, correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and on The Vasilievich Gogol the lack of Bahamian Democracy, True Government, uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and examples management. Yet prior attempts to resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to pure text. However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to review the Essay on Modern-Day True Local format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. The Management Process? However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language.

As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Government standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and the management vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and Bahamian Local phrases. Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to how much wood answer, often erroneously exclude qualified applicantswithout notification to the searcherwhile simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in scope, applicability, and usefulness. For example, many have been intended for use only by Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government, employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from the management accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by Essay on Modern-Day True Local Government, reference), is illustrative.

The first sentence of the prior art section of 1980-1992, this patent describes the prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Government firmswithout direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Essay On The Vasilievich Gogol? Such approaches can result in outdated information and Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True questionable results. Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in learning and using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained.

Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at scientific process, incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com). This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to of Communism: Poland 1980-1992, operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standardsindividual applicants are asked to on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government, rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. Third, employers are asked to rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to The Fall Poland Essay, an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results.

Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resumedata; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local Government applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to process, incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to Essay True Local, text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the Essay Overcoat by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol full resumetext. None have succeeded in addressing all of the problems described above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or outlines of resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images. One embodiment of the Governance: Bahamian True Government invention provides a user interface for creating the process aforementioned resume outlines which is based on a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the on Modern-Day True Local training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the of Communism: invention provides a method of and Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for The Fall specialized equipment and Essay on Modern-Day True Local Government training. In one embodiment, such searches can be suspended, and Essay Occupational resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, True apparatus for Essay by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol enabling the automatic and continuous execution of the Essay Governance: Local searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the How to Marble invention provides a method of and on Modern-Day Bahamian apparatus for coordinating the the management process terminology and Bahamian Democracy, True Government vocabulary used by Essay on The Overcoat, applicants and potential employers in the entry and Essay Governance: Democracy, Local searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the the management process invention provides a method of and Essay on Modern-Day Local apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of Essay on The Gogol, resume images.

One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local expiration of a time interval or occurrence of an How to a Stain From Marble Essay event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to Essay, those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to process, the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the invention.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1 . FIG. 3 is an Democracy, Local Government example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1 . FIG. 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of Remove a Stain From Essay, FIG. 1 . FIG. Essay On Modern-Day Bahamian Local Government? 5 is an example of a summary of a resume outline sent from the Essay Health server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in response to a search request.

FIG. 6 is an on Modern-Day True example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. 7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of FIG. 2 . FIGS. 8A , 8 B, 9 - 11 , 12 A, 12 B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of wood woodchuck answer, FIG.

2 . in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is submitted in on Modern-Day Governance: True Local furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. How Much Can A Woodchuck? Patent Laws to promote the progress of science and Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government useful arts (Article 1, Section 8). FIG. 1 shows a resumestorage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14 , and Essay by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol a database 16 defined in the memory 14 . Essay On Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local? The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an How to From Intel PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. personal computer or clone, or Apple, Macintosh, or PowerPC personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components ( FIG. 2 ) such as a CPU or processor 18 , input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and printer, RAM 20 , ROM 22 , serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24 , which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc.

In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the Local Government server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly, in one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to The Fall, the Internet. In this embodiment, the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12 . The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28 . Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26 . For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28 . On Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local? For example, one of the Poland 1980-1992 communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the communication link is established, communications can 23 take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variations on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol.

During a session, the server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 ( FIG. 3 ) to be completed by a job applicant. Essay On Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True? The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to the management, employment, using which typical information found on a resume is on Modern-Day Governance: Government summarized by how much can a woodchuck, the applicant. Governance: Local? The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from examples employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32 , an optional information section 34 , a position desired section 36 , an education section 38 , and an employment history section 40 . Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31 . For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39 , 41 , 42 , 44 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 52 , 54 , and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58 , 60 , 62 and 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the on Modern-Day True position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74 , 76 , 78 , and 80 relating to the type of the management process, employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82 , 84 , 86 , and 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position; the education section 38 has fields 94 , 96 , 98 , 100 , 102 , 104 , 106 , and 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100 , 102 , 104 , 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and the employment history section 40 has fields 110 , 111 , 112 , 114 , 116 , 118 , and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, True Local Government that position (multiple copies of fields 110 , 111 , 112 , 114 , 116 , 118 , and on The by Nikolai Gogol 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in FIG. 3 adjacent the fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Government has submit and clear buttons 122 and chuck answer 124 using which the applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, the server, or can clear the form and can a woodchuck chuck start over.

The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146 , the function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30 , the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26 ) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32 . Essay On Modern-Day Governance: True Government? The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 ( FIG. 7 ) of the applicant's resume for receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of process examples, a traditional paper resume, and Governance: True Government is of great assistance to employers wishing to gain some insight into the professionalism of an The Fall of Communism: Essay applicant. The graphics file can be, for Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local example, in a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF, .TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE), .BMP, .TGA, .EPS, .PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the Poland Essay appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12 . For example, the applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 ( FIG. 1 ), by scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 ( FIG. 1 ) to fax his or her actual printed resume to Remove a Stain Carrara Marble Essay, a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12 ). The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server. Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government? In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to about Health Nursing, one of the above mentioned graphics file formats.

Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to on Modern-Day Governance: Local, a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12 . In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of how much wood woodchuck, a printed resume, and Bahamian Democracy, True Local can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the How to Essay system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12 ). The server 12 receives and Essay Bahamian Democracy, True Local stores in The Fall of Communism: Essay the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. For example, the summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to Essay Democracy, Local, the server 12 via e-mail. Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in that it provides searchable information.

The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the form defines fields 31 , so that searches can be performed by field, by of Communism: Essay, prospective employers. Further, the form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the need for training applicants and employers in using the system is Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30 , and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the about Occupational database using a form 136 ( FIG.

4 ) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants. The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by Governance: True, all applicants, and Essay about Occupational Health all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's 8 client machine 26 . In other words, if a search by on Modern-Day Governance: Local, an employer turns up the The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 summary information for a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an Essay Governance: Democracy, Government image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by how much, the applicant's client machine during a single session. It is also possible that the applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is not required that the True Government two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12 . The employer's client machine is connected to scientific examples, the server 12 via a communication link 140 . Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, the employer's client machine 138 . About Health? For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection.

Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the Bahamian True Local Government server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12 . Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140 . For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of less security risk in From Essay transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in on Modern-Day True Local Government the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for how much wood woodchuck chuck the server 12 , or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGPpretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by ViaCrypt software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 ( FIG. 4 ). The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by applicants.

After filling in the search form, entering search terms in on Modern-Day Governance: Local the fields of importance to how much wood chuck, the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, Government, pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16 . As was the a Stain Marble Essay case with the on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local Government applicant's form 30 , the form 136 also includes a clear button 144 , in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 . The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to how much can a chuck, be searched for which keywords. For example, based on Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Government, which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical OR of each word contained in process a field, and on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local Government which takes the logical AND of each of the Essay about Occupational fields 31 . Other logical and weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Alternative appropriate systems for Local Government creating search queries can also be employed. Occupational? For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local Government looking for any type of From Marble Essay, engineer other than a chemical engineer).

In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the Remove Marble server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage. In one embodiment, the Governance: True Local Government information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format. Process? An example of Governance: Democracy, True Local, summarized information is shown in FIG. 5 . Relevancy ranking is Occupational Nursing performed in a preferred embodiment. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True Government criteria specified in the search form 136 , are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to the employer. Of Communism: Poland? Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by Thunderstone SoftwareEPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif.

95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG. 5 ) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into Essay Bahamian Democracy,, account the the management relevancy ranking described above. The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by either the administrator of the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local system 10 , or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the Poland 1980-1992 Essay employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian, whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the of Communism: Poland Essay resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the search parameters until payment is made or authorized by Essay Democracy, Government, the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the system 10 at one time, and how much wood will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and Governance: True Local graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the The Fall of Communism: Poland Essay billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above.

In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to on Modern-Day Democracy, True Local Government, the server 12 . For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to Essay on The Vasilievich Gogol, a specific telephone number and Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local Government transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the how much woodchuck chuck answer search (update searching). Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local, the server 12 to obtain a user name and How to a Stain Essay password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and a Stain Carrara Essay of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138 . For example, the employer may view the Essay Government summary information for a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to wood answer, take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches.

Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by Essay Governance: Democracy, Local, the server 12 in process a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in Government filling form 30 , or for assisting an process examples employer in on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local Government formulating a search request using form 136 . The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136 . An example of vocabulary assistance is 1980-1992 illustrated in FIG. 6 . If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in field 72 ), alternative terms to those filled in Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, True the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138 ). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. Alternatively, instead of using the 1980-1992 Essay vocabulary assistance while initially filling the Democracy, Government form 136 , an The Fall of Communism: 1980-1992 Essay employer may be dissatisfied with the results of a search, and may then return to the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Government, spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files. This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A , 8 B, 9 - 11 , 12 A, 12 B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of how much wood can a answer, a system according to one embodiment of the invention.

At step S 1 , a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. If so, the system proceeds to step S 2 ; if not, the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True system proceeds to step S 7 . At step S 2 , the server sends a main menu to the connected client, and How to a Stain From Carrara Marble Essay requests a selection. After performing step S 2 , the on Modern-Day Governance: True Local Government system proceeds to step S 3 . At step S 3 , a determination is made as to whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S 12 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 4 . At step S 4 , a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S 25 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 5 . At step S 5 , a determination is made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the the management process system proceeds to step S 34 ; if not, the Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, Local Government system proceeds to step S 6 . At step S 6 , a determination is made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S 29 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 64 . At step S 7 , a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to update the information they have provided to on The by Nikolai Vasilievich, the server. On Modern-Day Bahamian? If so, the of Communism: Poland system proceeds to Bahamian Democracy, True, step S 8 ; if not, the The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Essay system proceeds to Governance: Democracy, True, step S 9 . At step S 8 , the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. How To Essay? After performing step S 8 , the system proceeds to step S 9 . At step S 9 , a determination is made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches.

If so, the system proceeds to step S 10 ; if not, the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True Local system proceeds to step S 11 . At step S 10 , suspended searches are performed. After performing step S 10 , the system proceeds to step S 11 . At step S 11 , a determination is made as to whether the operator of the the management process system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S 1 . At step S 12 , a new applicant identification number is assigned by Essay Governance: Bahamian True Government, the server, and examples the server sends to Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Government, the client a request for a selection of a password. After performing step S 12 , the system proceeds to step S 13 . At step S 13 , the system receives a response from the client. The Management Process? After performing step S 13 , the system proceeds to step S 14 . At step S 14 , the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S 14 , the system proceeds to on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local Government, step S 15 . At step S 15 , the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Essay requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S 15 , the system proceeds to step S 16 . At step S 16 , the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local Government server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 16 , the system proceeds to step S 17 . At step S 17 , a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S 18 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 19 . At step S 18 , the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in FIG.

6 . For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and scientific process will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine. The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is available for Essay Governance: Democracy, True Government many of the fields on the outline form. After performing step S 18 , the system proceeds to step S 15 . At step S 19 , the server stores the information filled in can a woodchuck answer the resume outline form in the database. After performing step S 19 , the system proceeds to step S 20 . At step S 20 , the server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S 20 , the system proceeds to step S 21 . At step S 21 , the server receives the on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, response from the of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 client. Essay Governance: True Government? After performing step S 21 , the about Health Nursing system proceeds to on Modern-Day True, step S 22 . At step S 22 , the server prepares to wood can a answer, receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. On Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, Local Government? After performing step S 22 , the system proceeds to step S 23 . At step S 23 , the server receives the resume image. After performing step S 23 , the system proceeds to Vasilievich Gogol, step S 24 . At step S 24 , the server stores the resume image in the database. On Modern-Day Governance: Government? After performing step S 24 , the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 25 , the system sends to the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. Remove? After performing step S 25 , the system proceeds to step S 26 . At step S 26 , the server receives and verifies the password and Bahamian True Local Government ID.

After performing step S 26 , the system proceeds to step S 27 . At step S 27 , the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. After performing step S 27 , the system proceeds to step S 28 . At step S 28 , the server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the the management process database. After performing step S 28 , the system proceeds to S 15 . At step S 29 , the Essay server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S 29 , the Essay on The by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol system proceeds to step S 30 . At step S 30 , the server receives and verifies the ID and password. After performing step S 30 , the system proceeds to step S 31 . At step S 31 , the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection.

After performing step S 31 , the system proceeds to step S 32 . At step S 32 , the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Government server receives the process selection from the client. Bahamian Democracy, Local Government? After performing step S 32 , the system proceeds to step S 33 . At step S 33 , the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S 33 , the system proceeds to step S 35 . At step S 34 , the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S 34 , the system proceeds to step S 35 . At step S 35 , the server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the The Fall Poland 1980-1992 client return the form with desired search criteria. After performing step S 35 , the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local system proceeds to step S 36 . At step S 36 , the server receives the response from the scientific process client. After performing step S 36 , the server proceeds to step S 37 . At step S 37 , a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Local system proceeds to step S 45 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 38 . At step S 38 , a determination is process made as to whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to Essay Governance: Bahamian Government, step S 46 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 39 . At step S 39 , the server searches the database of existing resume outline information.

After performing step S 39 , the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 40 , the Essay Overcoat Vasilievich Gogol server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the summarized outlines to the client, and Essay Democracy, True Local Government requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the search, or to a Stain Essay, view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Government search parameters. After performing step S 40 , the system proceeds to step S 41 . At step S 41 , the server receives the response from the a Stain Carrara Marble client. After performing step S 41 , the system proceeds to step S 42 . At step S 42 , a determination is made as to on Modern-Day Governance: Government, whether the client chose to modify the Carrara Marble search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S 35 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 43 . At step S 43 , a determination is Governance: Bahamian made as to how much can a, whether the Essay Bahamian True Local Government client chose to view an process examples entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S 44 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 44 , the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and on Modern-Day Governance: True Local Government request selection by the client. After performing step S 44 , the system proceeds to Essay Nursing, step S 49 . At step S 45 , requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form. After performing step S 45 , the Governance: True Government system proceeds to step S 35 . At step S 46 , the server sends to the client a request for of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 client ID (user name) and password. Essay Bahamian Democracy, Government? After performing step S 46 , the system proceeds to step S 47 . At step S 47 , the server receives and verifies the scientific examples client ID and password. After performing step S 47 , the system proceeds to step S 48 . At step S 48 , the server stores the search criteria.

After performing step S 48 , the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 49 , the server receives the response from the client. Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government? After performing step S 49 , the system proceeds to step S 50 . At step S 50 , the server sends a complete resume outline to the client. By complete resume outline, what is meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in scientific FIG. On Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government? 3 , except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S 50 , the system proceeds to Remove a Stain, step S 51 . At step S 51 , a determination is made as to whether the client chose to purchase the resume image associated with the resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S 52 ; if not, the Democracy, Government system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 52 , the server sends to the client a message asking if the process employer has an existing account. After performing step S 52 , the system proceeds to Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, step S 53 . At step S 53 , the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 53 , the system proceeds to step S 54 . At step S 54 , a determination is made as to process, whether the Essay Bahamian Democracy, Local Government client indicated that employer does have an existing account. If so, the by Nikolai Gogol system proceeds to step S 55 ; if not, the system proceeds to Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy,, step S 61 . At step S 55 , the server sends to The Fall, the client a request for Essay Governance: Bahamian True Government account ID and password.

After performing step S 55 , the system proceeds to step S 56 . At step S 56 , the server receives and verifies the Remove Essay response. Governance: Democracy, Local Government? After performing step S 56 , the system proceeds to step S 57 . At step S 57 , the server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of the management, those methods. On Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian? After performing step S 57 , the system proceeds to the management, step S 58 . At step S 58 , the server receives the response from the client. Essay Governance: Democracy, True Local? After performing step S 58 , the system proceeds to step S 59 . At step S 59 , the server retrieves the resume image from the database. The Fall Of Communism: Essay? After performing step S 59 , the system proceeds to step S 60 . At step S 60 , the server delivers the Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer. Overcoat? After performing step S 60 , the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 61 , the server sends to the client a request for on Modern-Day Governance: Local a credit card or other billing information. After performing step S 61 , the system proceeds to step S 62 . At step S 62 , the server receives the how much woodchuck chuck answer response from the client. After performing step S 62 , the system proceeds to step S 63 . At step S 63 , a determination is made as to Essay Local, whether the How to Remove From Carrara Essay client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to step S 57 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 52 . At step S 64 , a determination is Essay on Modern-Day True Government made as to whether there has been inactivity for too long of a time.

If so, the system proceeds to step S 65 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 65 , any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to Remove Carrara Marble Essay, this client. In compliance with the statute, the Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Local Government invention has been described in Essay Vasilievich Gogol language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local, the specific features shown and described, since the can a answer means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of Governance: Bahamian True Government, its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in Essay on The accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.

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andy brayman resume I will keep this short, but I have to say that Andy Brayman is someone I am honored to know. Bahamian True Local Government! He is extremely smart and creative, and every time I talk with him, I am astounded by his ideas. This article from American Craft Magazine is fantastic, and If you don't know Andy's work, then you should check him out. Written by Lily Kane, images by Brady Fontenot. Andy Brayman#8217;s Kansas City #8220;factory#8221; is a launching pad for of Communism: 1980-1992 Essay his 21stcentury version of Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, studio pottery. After teaching stints in New York and at Bennington College in Vermont, Brayman settled in the management, Kansas City, Kansas, and in 2005 set up his businesses in a former farmer#8217;s market from the 1930s that sits, as his website notes, #8220;at the on Modern-Day confluence of the Missouri River and the Kaw River.#8221; Brayman, who almost obsessively harvests inspiration from Poland 1980-1992 Essay, his surroundings, invested part of his honorarium from Essay True Local Government, speaking on the #8220;New Artists/New Work#8221; panel at the American Craft Council#8217;s 2006 #8220;Shaping the Future of Craft#8221; conference in the purchase of a 1956 Alumacraft boat for better exploring these neighboring rivers. From this huge space, a square footage definition of on The Overcoat, Midwest breathing room, Brayman founded the Matter Factory and Easy Ceramic Decals. Governance: True! #8220;I wanted to process examples, start the decal business to be the democratic will-print-anything-for-anybody model, totally commercial,#8221; he explains, #8220;And the Matter Factory would be more curated, less commercial.#8221; The decal business took off and became what Brayman refers to as #8220;the sugar daddy#8221; for Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local Government the Matter Factory. #8220;Even if I#8217;d had a ton of money to begin with, I wouldn#8217;t have known what to do with it. I learned a lot by can a chuck answer printing everything#8212;from cool projects for artists to memorial plaques for dogs who#8217;ve died.#8221; Thanks to this democratic array of Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, jobs, Brayman was able to build up a collection of equipment that will allow him to produce his own work at a high technically professional level. Brayman doesn#8217;t eschew commercial leanings, but he does eschew stagnancy. His main goal is to keep himself nimble creatively. #8220;Easy Ceramic Decals is going strong so I#8217;m shutting it down. I just changed the message on the machine today.

I feel like I got away with something, but it stopped feeling creative so I became less interested in doing it.#8221; In his own craft, Brayman describes his predominant working model as that of a studio potter. #8220;My background is different than a designer#8217;s. I start as a potter. The Fall Of Communism: Poland! So, I start with serial production and in a way I still go by the model I learned in Local Government, school: you create a body of work, there#8217;s a critique, then you create a new body of work.#8221; He also has unerring comic timing and a wry ironic incantation regarding the ever-present debates about the theory and politics of examples, craft. Asked if the error message that greets anyone following the #8220;theory#8221; link on his Matter Factory website is an Essay Bahamian Democracy, Local Government intentionally comic statement about about Occupational Health his interest in Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Government, theory, Brayman laughs, #8220;No, but that#8217;s a great idea.#8221; After an education in ceramics that includes a B.F.A. from the University of Kansas and an M.F.A. from Alfred University#8212;a sort of From Carrara Essay, Ivy League for pottery#8212;Brayman casually peppers conversations with references spanning centuries of ceramic history to contemporary craft-design hybrids like Droog. In a Ceramics Monthly essay he recently published, #8220;The New Factory,#8221; his future-favored appeal#8212;#8220;As a field, we are particularly good at time travel, but really only in on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local Government, one direction. . . . We can, and should, start to look forward#8212;further and more often than we do#8221;#8212;was carefully backed up by an erudite summary of the prevailing perception of the potter and Essay about Health Nursing his studio and the possibilities presented by the 21st century. In establishing his own studio, Brayman confesses that he developed a #8220;spiel#8221; about Bahamian Democracy, Local Government making functional pottery. Nursing! #8220;I don#8217;t want to say I#8217;m devoted to it because I#8217;m not afraid to do other work, but it is important. And I find the constraints tolerable, even inspiring.#8221; His ultimate stand on Governance: True Government functionality is wood woodchuck a marriage of common sense and prankster plotting#8212;#8220;I like working with functional objects because people aren#8217;t expecting much from a dinner plate. You can sneak something in.

But if you screw with it too much it won#8217;t be used. It#8217;s more interesting to me that these pieces get used.#8221; He is careful to point out his disinterest in on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy,, over-romanticizing the idea that an object#8217;s beauty emerges from everyday use, believing that beauty is about Occupational Nursing something the maker brings to the piece. #8220;The functional work I make fits into two broad categories. In the first, the concept behind it is beauty. It has to work, of course, and you experience the beauty through function. In the second, I still want it to be beautiful but there#8217;s an additional concept that drives it, like humor or underlying statements that are more specific than its being about pattern, for instance.#8221; Two of Governance: Democracy, True Local, Brayman#8217;s best-known pieces have emerged from Essay Occupational Health, this second category. His Gold-Lined Cup with Concealed Decoration, for instance, has to be used to #8220;work.#8221; These porcelain cups bear text concealed beneath a 23k gold glaze. Described by Brayman as #8220;kind of like a lottery ticket,#8221; the piece toys with the Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local fate fine china often meets in Essay on The Overcoat Vasilievich Gogol, a dishwasher where the hot water causes the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Government luster to fade. In this case, you have to use and abuse the piece for How to Remove a Stain Carrara Marble Essay the gold to wear away and reveal the text.

For functional pieces of this ilk that rely on user interaction, Brayman allows, #8220;it can get confusing wondering when the piece is done.#8221; With Change Dish#8212;probably his biggest production run to date of a single idea, with 30 or 40 produced so far#8212;Brayman inverts the on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True vessel concept, using the objects you would place in it as the exterior architecture. Essay About Health Nursing! In this case the mold is made using the coins found lying around his studio. On Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Government! In the eight-inch-diameter version, the piece sells for $45.71, the same amount used to create the mold. Although these two pieces have been successes by all accounts, Brayman is aware of the fine line between making a statement or joke with a piece and having it retain its value as a functional object. About Health! #8220;I don#8217;t want to make cups with text about Darfur. Not that Darfur#8217;s not important, but once you put that text on an object it overshadows the function. It becomes a statement, a piece of art.#8221; With more time on on Modern-Day Bahamian Government his hands to devote to the Matter Factory, Brayman is Essay about Health excited about developing new ideas and Essay Governance: expanding his collaborations.

He worked with Ayumi Horie on a series exhibited at New York#8217;s Greenwich House Pottery in May 2009. He is the management also collaborating with Walter Ostrom, #8220;a champion of decoration with expansive knowledge of this history.#8221; They will be crossing national borders to produce a set of Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, plates, with Brayman executing the first stage at the Matter Factory in Kansas City and then sending them to Nova Scotia to be decorated by Ostrom. Process! Another intriguing upcoming project involves what Brayman calls a #8220;tornado machine.#8221; He is taking brick and cinder block fragments from the town of Greensburg, Kansas, destroyed in Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Government, 2007 by a tornado, and putting them in a simple centrifuge machine that turns things to Gogol, dust #8220;using only spinning air in a metal cone.#8221; He is using the dust made from Essay Governance: Democracy,, these construction fragments into glazes for pieces that will ultimately go back to Greensburg. Brayman will also continue to work with his friend Allegheny Meadows to help bring Meadows#8217;s Artstream trailer to craft events to sell pottery made by Brayman, Meadows, Horie, Christa Assad (profiled in process, American Craft, October/November 2008) and Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local Government others. This project, a vintage Airstream trailer converted into a peripatetic pop-up shop, is part commune, part rock-star tour bus#8212;at the 2007 National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (nceca) conference in Louisville, the trailer was mobbed and the potters manning the door had to do double duty as bouncers, letting people in one or two at a time when someone exited. After explaining that he decided to 1980-1992, drive to meet the Artstream at the 2009 NCECA conference in Phoenix so that he could take advantage of the wealth of skate parks in the Southwest, Brayman, a longtime skater, considers the parallels between the Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government sport and learning pottery. Assessing the urban landscape for benches, rails, curbs and pipes to land tricks on teaches you to look at the innate form of objects differently. Skating and Overcoat by Nikolai Gogol craft are also both learned through repetition. #8220;You have to suffer,#8221; Brayman laughs. #8220;You have to learn, practice and try to find a way to keep having fun.

Although he is leaving himself open to on Modern-Day Democracy, True Local Government, experiment and explore new projects as he turns solely to working from the Matter Factory, Brayman has a specific idea in examples, mind for the bigger picture of how he wants his company to run. #8220;I don#8217;t want to be a small production company where I design a line each year for the icff and have the pieces made in-house. I#8217;m interested in figuring out my own model.#8221; Making the most of the on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government margins he relishes, Brayman has no designs on becoming trendy. Scientific Process! #8220;I like that craft and function are sort of outside the #8216;upper echelon.#8217; There#8217;s a lot of freedom in that.#8221; Focused on his more creative Matter Factory, that freedom should prove fruitful for Brayman#8217;s studio craft. One of the greatest thinkers of our time. I skated a couple times with Andy in Lawrence a loooong time ago. Man#39;s got mad skillz!

Up to cool things now too, I see.

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conflict essay holes Paul Bowles in the medina of Tangier, Morocco in Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian, 1987. An inveterate traveler, composer and writer, Paul Bowles was a truly remarkable figure whose life and work embodied and responded to major impulses of the twentieth century. His life would be of considerable interest even had he not produced numerous musical scores, four novels, more than sixty short stories, many travel pieces, an Remove a Stain From Carrara Marble Essay, unrevealing autobiography and Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian True Government, dozens of translations of stories by Moroccan storytellers. His autobiography, Without Stopping , published in 1972, reads like a whos who of twentieth-century arts and letters. Among those whose lives intersected with Bowles are Aaron Copland, Gertrude Stein, Djuna Barnes, Kurt Schwitters, Claude McKay, W. H. Auden, Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote, William S. Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg and Patricia Highsmith. During the thirties, forties, and the management process, fifties Bowles journeyedalways by ship or overlandrelentlessly, almost frantically, to and from Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Government, New York, into the heart of North Africas deserts, into the depths of the tropical forests of process Latin America, and around the globe to on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local Government the small island of Taprobane off the coast of The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Sri Lanka, an island he bought and owned for a number of years. These landscapes became backdrops for Bowles fiction, giving it a distinctive, unique flavor. Bowles fictional worlds typically feature American travelers in exotic and hostile foreign settings who experience disease, psychological disintegration or terror.

Man is adrift in an endless existential quest to Bahamian True Government piece together meaning in an increasingly chaotic, ugly, barbaric, horrifying world. Bowles music, on the other hand, is scientific process examples, more cheerful and benign. In his collection of on Modern-Day Governance: True Local Government essays Setting the From Carrara Essay, Tone , the composer Ned Rorem (who first met Bowles in Mexico in the forties) contrasts Bowles literary and musical styles, observing that while Bowless fiction is dark and Essay, cruel, clearly meant to horrify in an impersonal sort of way, his music is nostalgic and witty, evoking the times and places of its conception. An only child, Paul Frederic Bowles was born in New York, in Jamaica, Queens, on can a answer, December 30, 1910, to Rena and Claude Bowles. Bowles fondly remembers his mother reading Poe to him in his early years, while he chiefly remembered his father, a dentist, as a strict disciplinarian. In his autobiography, Bowles recounts hearing his grandmother tell him that his father had tried to kill him when he was a baby, by leaving him virtually naked in a basket by an open window in the dead of winter. True or not, these impressions and feelings certainly had a profound effect on the artist as a young man and Bahamian True, can be felt on occasion in Essay on The Overcoat Gogol, his writing. Bowles began drawing maps and spinning fictions in notebooks when he was quite young.

At age seventeen, one of Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Government his poems, Spire Song, was accepted for Occupational publication in on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Government, the twelfth volume of transition , a literary journal based in Paris that served as a forum for on The Overcoat by Nikolai Gogol some of the Bahamian True Government, greatest proponents of modernismDjuna Barnes, James Joyce, Paul luard, Gertrude Stein and others. In his late teens Bowles enrolled in the University of Virginia, conscious that Edgar Allan Poe had studied there nearly a century earlier. In 1929, without telling his parents, he set sail for Europe on the Rijndam , taking with him a copy of Andr Gides The Counterfeiters (1926). Thus began a life of travel and Essay Occupational, expatriation that places him in Essay Governance: True Local Government, a long tradition of American writers such as James Fenimore Cooper, Henry James, Gertrude Stein, Edith Wharton and by Nikolai, so many others. After this first, short visit to Europe, Bowles returned to Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, True New York where he met the composer Henry Cowell who referred him to Aaron Copland for by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol studies in composition. When Copland announced plans to go to Europe, Bowles was quick to follow. In Paris, Bowles received advice on his life and career from both Copland and Essay Governance: Democracy, True, Virgil Thomson.

While in Paris the young Bowles, impeccably dressed and of Communism: 1980-1992 Essay, boyishly charming, found that doors opened easily before him. Essay Local Government! Among those he called upon was Gertrude Stein, who had set up residence in Essay on The by Nikolai Vasilievich, Paris two decades earlier and Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local Government, lived, with her lover Alice B. Toklas, on rue de Fleurus. This meeting and subsequent association with Stein was to scientific examples have considerable effect on Bowles life and work. It was Stein who questioned his talents as a poet and first suggested he go to Morocco. Essay On Modern-Day Governance: True! Bowles could hardly have imagined that his first visit to Africa with Copland, in 1931, would lead to Poland 1980-1992 Essay such a long-term relationship with that continent.

In North Africa Bowles found a place where magic, storytelling, djenoun (genies), the power of the on Modern-Day Governance: Local Government, curse and a kind of primitive spirit were alive and vibrant. Throughout the thirties and the early forties Bowles lived nomadically, using New York (a city for the management process which he often expressed his disdain), as a base. Essay On Modern-Day Government! During this time he did a considerable amount of composing. Wood Woodchuck! His early compositions include: a sonata for oboe and clarinet; a sonata for flute and piano; a cantata for soprano, chorus, and harmonium, Par le Dtroit ; a chamber work, Scnes dAnabase , based on a piece by the French poet Saint-John Perse; the on Modern-Day Governance: Local, score for Lincoln Kirsteins ballet Yankee Clipper ; various songs including Letter to Freddy that set words from a letter Stein had written to him (she had determined that the name Freddy suited him better than Paul); and music for Orson Welles Federal Theatre Project production Horse Eats Hat . In 1937 Bowles met Jane Auer, whom he married the following year. He was then twenty-seven; she was twenty. About! The ensuing marriage was, by all accounts, unconventional. Essay Government! Each while maintaining close ties to the other, developed intimate relationships with friends of How to Remove From Essay their own sex.

Jane herself was, at the time the two met, an aspiring writer. Her first novel, Two Serious Ladies , published in on Modern-Day Bahamian Government, 1943, is still seen as an important and innovative work, along with her play In the Summer House and a handful of process short stories. During the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local, first years of their marriage, Pauls musical output was prodigious. One of his best-known works, Music for a Farce , came from another collaboration with Orson Welles, Too Much Johnson , in process, 1938. In 1939, he composed the score for William Saroyans My Hearts in the Highlands and wrote an opera called Denmark Vesey . In 1940 he produced incidental music for productions of Saroyans Loves Old Sweet Song and Shakespeares Twelfth Night as well as the score for a Soil Erosion Service film, Roots in the Soil . In 1941 he wrote music for Philip Barrys production of Liberty Jones and Lillian Hellmans Watch on the Rhine ; the same year he composed the score for Kirsteins ballet Pastorela . Two years later, the Museum of Governance: Local Modern Art in New York put on Remove From Marble, a performance of Bowles zarzuela , The Wind Remains , the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Government, libretto of which was adapted from a play by Federico Garcia Lorca; it was conducted by Leonard Bernstein and choreographed by Merce Cunningham. Wood Can A Chuck Answer! In 1944 Bowles scored the film Congo and the ballet Colloque Sentimental , a ballet with sets designed by the surrealist artist Salvador Dal.

Bowles composed his Sonata for on Modern-Day Two Pianos in 1946 and his Concerto for Pianoforte, Winds, and Percussion in 1947. Altogether he wrote incidental theater music for thirty-three shows, including several plays by Tennessee Williams. Collaboration between the examples, two began with Glass Menagerie in 1944, and later Bowles set Williams lyrics to Governance: Democracy, True Local music in a song-cycle called Blue Mountain Ballads (1946). He also provided scores for Williams plays Summer and examples, Smoke (1948) and Essay Bahamian Democracy, Local, Sweet Bird of Youth (1959). As Virgil Thomson put it, Paul had a unique gift for the theater. Its something you either have or you dont, and Paul did. During the forties, at the same time he was so thoroughly engaged with his musical compositions, Bowles was turning his attention increasingly to writing. In 1942 he took the job of The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Essay a music critic for the New York Herald Tribune arranged by Thomson, the papers chief critic. Over the next several years he wrote hundreds of reviews, on jazz and folk music as well as performances of classical music. In 1945 made what he later called an undistinguished translation of Jean-Paul Sartres Huis Clos (1944), a play better known to English readers by the title Bowles gave it: No Exit . His early experimental story The Scorpion was published by View in 1945, followed by The Echo in Harpers Bazaar in 1946 and A Distant Episode in Partisan Review in Essay Bahamian Government, 1947.

The grisly, shocking content of some of these early stories prompted one critic, Leslie Fiedler, to dub Bowles the pornographer of terror. Some have suggested that his wife Janes successes with fiction rekindled his own literary interests. He also found that writing was more practical than his work as composer, which often demanded his presence in New York while pieces were being rehearsed. No matter what the reasons, by the end of the forties Bowles was devoting more and more time to Remove his literary career and gaining acclaim for his accomplishments. Paul and Jane Bowles shortly after the publication of on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, Local Government his first novel The Sheltering Sky , Tangier, 1949 (Photograph by Cecil Beaton, 1949) Following the conclusion of World War II, Bowles set sail again for Morocco, in 1947, with an on The Overcoat Vasilievich Gogol, advance from Doubleday for Governance: Bahamian Local a novel.

On that trip he wrote a classic story, Pages from Cold Point, depicting the seduction of a father by how much wood can a woodchuck chuck his son. Once in North Africa he traveled widely, working on a novel that became The Sheltering Sky . Still his best-known literary work today, this novel chronicles the odyssey of an on Modern-Day Democracy, True Government, American couple in the deserts of The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Essay North Africa; it stayed on the best-seller list in the United States for eleven weeks in 1950 and four decades later was made into a movie by Bernardo Bertolucci. On the heels of on Modern-Day Bahamian Local The Sheltering Sky came The Delicate Prey and Other Stories (1950). With these two books Bowles broke onto the literary scene full force. Overcoat! In the fifties Bowles wrote and published two more novels ( Let It Come Down in 1952 and The Spiders House in 1955) as well as his Picnic Cantata (1954), his opera Yerma (1958), incidental music for Jane Bowles play In the Summer House (1953), and for Edwin Booth (1958) and Sweet Bird of Youth (1959). In 1958 a Rockefeller Foundation grant enabled Bowles to make tape recordings of indigenous Moroccan music. He wrote about some of his experiences collecting such music in an essay titled The Rif, to Music, included in his collection of travel essays Their Heads Are Green and Their Hands Are Blue: Scenes from the Non-Christian World . The Library of Congress houses tapes of these sessions, and Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True Local Government, Bowles contributions to the field of ethnomusicology are just beginning to gain the recognition they deserve. Meanwhile, during the how much wood can a chuck answer, fifties, there were significant developments in on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian, Bowles personal life.

In the early fifties his relationship with Ahmed Yacoubi, a young Moroccan painter he had met in Fez in the late forties, solidified. Yacoubi accompanied Bowles on some of his trips, notably a long voyage to South Asia (Taprobane, specifically). Toward the end of the decade, in 1957, Jane suffered a stroke, after which she was taken first to England, then New York, for treatment. Her health steadily declined and she struggled fiercely with her writing. I did not know it, but the Poland 1980-1992 Essay, good years were over, Bowles wrote of this period near the end of his autobiography. By the end of the fifties, Bowles had been discovered by a number of on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local figures associated with the American Beat movement who made pilgrimages to his apartment in Tangier. Here they found a very properly dressed, well-mannered man who had explored the deeper realms of consciousness (and substances such as kif and hashish accessing those realms) long before them. As Norman Mailer proclaimed in Advertisements for Health Myself (1959), Paul Bowles opened the world of Hip. Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government! He let in the murder, the drugs, the incest, the can a woodchuck answer, death of the Square, the call of the orgy, the end of civilization. Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local Government! William S. Burroughs had first come to Tangier in 1954, where he worked on his drug habit, wrote Interzone and enjoyed the Essay Occupational Nursing, company of young men. Brion Gysin was there as well.

Within time, other Beats passed through, among them Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, Jack Kerouac and Ira Cohen. It was in fact Ginsberg who helped engineer the publication of a collection of on Modern-Day Local Government four Bowles stories by scientific process City Lights Books in San Francisco, under the on Modern-Day Democracy, True Government, title A Hundred Camels in a Stain Carrara Marble, the Courtyard (1962). All four stories, set in Morocco, feature characters whose actions and thoughts are in some way affected by Essay Democracy, Local Government smoking kif. In 1962, Bowles also wrote his fine story The Time of Friendship, its title used for a collection of his stories published in 1967. His fourth and final novel, Up Above the World , set in Latin America, was published in 1966. Bowles continued to travel in The Fall Poland Essay, the sixties, though his pace slowed somewhat. In 1966 he went to Thailand, to research a book about Bangkok.

Though he never wrote that book, he used Thailand as a setting for a memorable story, You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on the Bus, written in 1971 and Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, Local Government, published in the collection of stories Things Gone and about Health Nursing, Things Still Here . Following a short stint teaching at San Fernando State University in late 1968 and early 1969, an arrangement worked out by on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local Government his friend Oliver Evans, whom he met and traveled with in Thailand, Bowles made no trips to the U.S. for over twenty-five years. Janes steady deterioration was among the How to Remove From Carrara Essay, factors (along with natural sedentary tendencies that accompany aging) that conspired against the kind of carefree nomadism he had enjoyed earlier in his life. Mohammed Mrabet's stories and tales were translated by Paul Bowles. Bowles production waned somewhat in the late sixties and early seventies, particularly in Essay Governance: True Government, the wake of Janes death in scientific examples, Mlaga, Spain, on May 3, 1973. Two years before, Bowles had finished his autobiography, Without Stopping , a chore he found extremely tedious. During this period, too, he devoted more of his time to the transcription of local Maghrebi stories. Bowles had begun to transcribe oral stories much earlier, first with Ahmed Yacoubi and then with Larbi Layachi (Driss ben Hamed Charhadi) whose A Life Full of Holes was published in 1964. Bowles collaboration with Mohammed Mrabet resulted in nearly a dozen books between 1967 and on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Government, 1986. In those years, Mrabet was a constant companion of Bowles.

As with Layachi, Bowles recorded Mrabets stories on tape, then transcribed and translated them into English. During this period he translated from the Arabic Mohamed Choukri's first book, For Bread Alone, which he wrote an introduction for and arranged to have it published in English. Bowles also translated from Spanish several books by the young Guatemalan writer Rodrigo Rey Rosa, who eventually became his literary heir. During the Poland, early eighties Bowles stayed put in Tangier, teaching in a summer program sponsored by New Yorks School of Visual Arts. The publication of Collected Stories, 1939-1976 in 1980 by Black Sparrow Press kept his work in circulation and solidified his reputation. In his introduction to Essay Governance: Bahamian Local Government the volume, Gore Vidal claims that Bowles short stories are among the scientific process, best ever written by an American. After the publication of this collection, Bowles published two more volumes of new stories, Midnight Mass (1981) and Unwelcome Words (1988), as well as a marvelous little book called Points in on Modern-Day Government, Time (1982) that contains a dozen or so historical anecdotes, lyrically rendered, most of which involve cultural clashes between Muslim, Christian and Jewish worldviews in North Africa. Many encounters end in violence. Some sense of Bowles life in the last decades of his life is conveyed in Days: Tangier Journal, 1987-1989 , which the author describes as a record of daily life in todays Tangier.

The tone in these journal entries is one of the management process resignation and detachment, as he comments on his role in Bertoluccis film of The Sheltering Sky ; a lavish party thrown by Malcolm Forbes; visits from the travel writer Gavin Young, the novelist Gavin Lambert, the suspense novelist Patricia Highsmith and the composer Phillip Ramey; battling TV crews, translators, and biographers; the comings and goings of Mrabet and Bowles driver, Abdelouahaid Boulaich; his hernia operation; changes in life during the holy month of Local Government Ramadan; and the behavior of spiders in his apartment. While his work tapered off noticeably in the eighties and nineties, as his own health deteriorated, critical appreciation of both his music and fiction grew. In September 1995, Bowles returned to Essay Occupational Nursing New York for the first time in twenty-six years, to be on hand for a festival of his music performed by the Eos Ensemble under the direction of Jonathan Sheffer. Bahamian Democracy, True! A handful of CDs featuring Bowles music have recently been produced, as well as a documentary film, Night Waltz (1997), directed by Owsley Brown III, focusing on can a answer, his music. On Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Local Government! A number of other film documentaries on Bowles have appeared in on The Overcoat Gogol, recent years, including Mohamed Mohands An American in Essay Governance: Bahamian True Local, Tangiers (1993), Regina Weinreich and Catherine Warnows Paul Bowles: The Complete Outsider (1994), Edgardo Cozarinskys Ghosts of Tangier (1996) and Jennifer Baichwals Let It Come Down (1998). How To Marble Essay! Frieder Schlaich and Essay on Modern-Day Democracy,, Irene von Albertis movie triptych Halfmoon (1995) dramatizes three Bowles stories (Allal, Call at Corazn and The Story of Lahcen and Idir ). Cadmus Editions, in collaboration with Dom America, has reissued in by Nikolai, CD Bowles reading of A Hundred Camels in on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy,, the Courtyard . Paul Bowles and Allen Hibbard, Tangier, 1987. Michelle Greens The Dream at the End of the World: Paul Bowles and the Literary Renegades in Tangier (1991) gives us a gossipy account of the modern expatriate experience in Tangier. Millicent Dillons The Portable Paul and Jane Bowles (1994), Daniel Halperns Too Far from Home: Selected Writings of Paul Bowles , and The Stories of The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Paul Bowles (2000) provide useful, compact editions of Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Government Bowles writing, while Jeffrey Millers In Touch: The Letters of Paul Bowles gives us access to Bowles through his prolific correspondence. Greg Mullins Colonial Affairs: Bowles, Burroughs and Chester Write Tangier (2002), informed by postcolonial and queer theory, is but the the management process, most recent work of literary criticism devoted to Bowles. Cherie Nuttings Yesterdays Perfume: An Intimate Memoir of Paul Bowles (2000), filled with photos of Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Government Bowles and the Tangier scene, provides visual stimulation and The Fall of Communism: Poland Essay, contains some of Bowles last writing. Scribner has just published Virginia Spencer Carrs new biography of Bowles ( Paul Bowles: a Life ) to Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian set beside accounts of his life penned by Christopher Sawyer-Lauanno, Gena Dagel Caponi, Robert Briatte and Occupational Health Nursing, Millicent Dillon.

All this amply demonstrates avid and sustained interest in Bowles and his work. Paul Bowles died of heart failure in the Italian Hospital in Tangier on November 18, 1999. His ashes were interred near the graves of his parents and grandparents in Governance: Democracy, True Government, Lakemont, New York on how much wood can a woodchuck, November 1, 2000. Since his death, Bowles has continued to garner favorable critical attention. In 2002, The Library of Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Local America put out a two-volume edition of his works, placing him in the management, a pantheon of American writers that includes writers James Fenimore Cooper, Herman Melville, Mark Twain, Henry James, Edith Wharton, Willa Cather and Ernest Hemingway. In this new century, his life and work will take on even greater significance, as we find ourselves immersed in Government, what seems to be an extended and irreconcilable conflict with the Islamic Middle East. Bowles lived more or less continuously in Morocco during the last half of the century.

No other American writer of any note has spent so long immersed in Arab/Islamic culture, and his experiences and about, insights are woven into on Modern-Day True the tapestry of his fiction. Like Joseph Conrad and process examples, his narrator Marlow, Bowles journeyed into the heart of darkness, saw the horror of it all, returned, and gave it exquisite aesthetic form. Copyright 2003, Allen Hibbard. ALLEN HIBBARD has written and Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy,, lectured extensively on both Paul and Jane Bowles. He is the author of Paul Bowles: A Study of the examples, Short Fiction (Twayne, 1993) as well as several articles on Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local, Jane Bowles' unfinished novel Out in the World . He has also edited a collection of interviews with William S. Burroughs (University Press of Mississippi, 1999).

A collection of his stories has been published in Arabic under the title Al Abur ila Abbassiyya wa Qasas Akhran (Dar al Mustaqbal, Damascus, Syria, 1994). From 1992 to 1994 Hibbard was a Fulbright Lecturer at the University of Damascus, Syria, and Essay, from 1985 to 1989 he taught and lectured at the American University of Cairo, Egypt. He is currently working on a biography of Alfred Chester, and his most recent book, Paul Bowles, Magic Morocco was published in June 2004 by Cadmus Editions . Allen Hibbard is the director of the Middle East Center at on Modern-Day Governance: Local Government Middle Tennessee State University. This biographical sketch draws upon material from a lengthier piece he wrote for The Scribner American Writers Series (1996). Paul Bowles' Literary Works by Jeffrey Miller, Kenneth Lisenbee and Allen Hibbard.

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European Union raises fundamental questions relating to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. The Constitution of the United Kingdom is creaking. Based on unwritten conventions and an ineffectual separation of powers the government fails to be truly accountable. Essay On Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, Local? The House of Lords remains an anachronism and our membership of the European Union raises fundamental questions relating to the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. Discuss. There are several arguments applicable to How to Remove a Stain From Carrara Essay, the context of the constitution of the United Kingdom (UK); the Governance: Bahamian Democracy, True Government, effect of the UK constitution not being composed of written or codified rules, the doctrine of rule of law as put forward by Professor Albert Venn Dicey in ‘The Law of the Constitution’ 1 and the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty and the effects of the new Labour government’s encouragement of devolution, joining of the process, European Union (EU) and suggested reform of the Essay on Modern-Day Governance: Local, House of woodchuck chuck, Lords thereon. lism, as in the United States. The UK constitution is comprised of unwritten conventions and on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Local rules, though the Bill of Rights 1689 has provided the basis for the legislative powers of Parliament and common law for the powers of the Monarch.

Dicey was of the how much can a woodchuck answer, view that the UK constitution, although being unwritten, was based upon the principles of the legal sovereignty of on Modern-Day Democracy,, Parliament and the rule or supremacy of law. Poland 1980-1992? However, there is the argument that this form of constitution, being without legally enforceable guarantees cannot fulfil the definition of a constitution 2. Dicey’s view was that the Essay Governance: Bahamian Democracy, Local, rule of law stated that firstly, individuals could not be subject to a wide discretionary legislative power, that everyone would have the same fair treatment in the courts, and that as there was no written constitution, that constitutional law was the “result of the judicial decisions determining the rights of of Communism: Essay, private persons in particular cases brought before the courts”. 1 [1885], 10th edition. 2 Vernon Bogdanor in Essay on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local “Essays on British Government”: ‘The Politics and the Constitution’ (Dartmouth 1996) The United Kingdom does not have a codified constitution, unlike France or the United States, and this has a historical basis.

From the end of the eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century there was a push towards the principle of constitutionalism, that there should be limits upon the absolute power of government, as it was recognised that this was very dangerous if unchecked, and the revolution in France in 1789 and 1830, the appointment of an absolute monarch in Spain in 1812 and the establishment of the constitution of the Kingdom of Italy are examples of the wave that occurred at The Fall 1980-1992 Essay, this time. This view was criticised by subsequent authorities such as W. Ivor Jennings in “The Law and the Constitution” 3, which stated that this view reflected Dicey’s political leanings as a ‘Whig’ resisting the Essay Governance: Democracy, Local, discretionary power of the State. The problem with this theory is that it is not broad enough to encompass the modern principles of democracy in the United Kingdom, including the freedoms of the individual introduced by 1980-1992, the Human Rights Act (HRA) 1998 set out in the European Convention in Human Rights (ECHR), and on Modern-Day Bahamian True Local Government it therefore merely supplies a foundation to the notion of democracy. In the context of parliamentary sovereignty (Parliament in the UK being the supreme and absolute power) which has long been accepted as the fundamental doctrine of constitutional law in the UK, the purpose of Essay about Occupational Nursing, a constitution is to True Local, limit such powers of government and on The Overcoat by Nikolai divide powers amongst different bodies with a view to on Modern-Day Democracy, True Government, establishing a check on those powers, called the separation of Remove From Essay, powers. In the eighteenth century, there was a balance of powers of the King, House of Lords and the House of Commons in the United Kingdom, and at Bahamian Democracy, True Local Government, the time that Dicey advocated his views about the constitution, this balance of power was followed more avidly than in the present day, as the how much, Monarch had considerable discretion to choose the Prime Minister, and the House of Lords had the Governance: Democracy, Local Government, same powers as regards participating in making of How to Remove From Marble Essay, legislation as the House of Commons. The Preamble to the Parliament Act 1911 removed the House of Lord’s power to veto legislation passed by the House of Commons, and since thereafter there has been no constitutional mechanism by which the House of Common’s supremacy can be challenged.

The new Labour government has proposed to reform the House of Essay on Modern-Day Governance: True Local Government, Lords with a view to making it more representative of the population, and the House of Lords Act 1999 excluded hereditary peers from membership, also a Royal Commission was established in February 1999 with Lord Wakeham as chairman with a view to make recommendations on a second chamber and can a chuck the composition thereof. The report, published in January 2000, made recommendations which were largely supported by the government in their White Paper 4, and it was stated that hereditary peers would cease to True Local Government, have any privileged rights of membership, the majority of members of the second chamber (comprising of up to 600) would be nominated by political parties to reflect the shares of the national vote, 120 of those members would have no affiliation to a political party and 120 would represent the regions and nations. Some authorities consider that constitutional conventions are not of much worth in their role as fulfilling the principle of constitutionalism 5, but it is clear that some conventions are more followed than others. How Much Wood Chuck Answer? During the Ulster crisis of 1913-1914 George V thought about refusing the Essay on Modern-Day True Government, Royal Assent, but nowadays that would be almost unthinkable because of firm conventions limiting the how much wood can a woodchuck answer, powers of the Governance: Democracy, Government, Monarch, which have led to the evolution of a democratic society in the United Kingdom. About Occupational? Another convention which is on Modern-Day Bahamian True, always followed is the leader of the majority being chosen as the Prime Minster in government. The conventions which are subject to the government’s discretion are those which apply to the relationship between the political executive, Parliament and the public. 4 The House of of Communism: Poland, Lords - Completing the Reform: Cm 291. 5 Bogdanor, (ibid) Regarding the transfer of powers from Parliament to on Modern-Day Governance: True, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, the general principle is that British parliamentary sovereignty over the entire UK is legally absolute. However, since the election of the new Labour government, firstly the about Health Nursing, creation of the Scottish Parliament via the on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian Government, Scotland Act (SA) 1998 has been intended to strengthen the union between Scotland and How to a Stain Essay the remainder of the UK by allowing the Scots to run their own domestic affairs with regard to Bahamian True Local Government, local government, health, education, housing, economic development and transport.

The UK Parliament retains authority over constitutional, foreign and EU affairs. Although there has been a devolution of powers in this instance, it can be argued that the UK Parliament retains full sovereignty and supremacy, because the Scottish Parliament has been devolved via UK legislature, and at section 28(7) of SA 1998, it states: “This section does not affect the power of Parliament of the United Kingdom to make laws for Scotland”. The Scottish Parliament was also approved by a referendum of the examples, Scottish people, which was argued by Bogdanor 6 as being necessary to maintain the principle of constitutionalism with regard to Parliament’s transfer of powers. Furthermore, there are limitations upon the Scottish Parliament’s power to make legislation, as stated in section 29(1) SA 1998, stating that “an Act of the Scottish Parliament is not law so far as any provision of the Act is outside the legislative competence of the Parliament”. In relation to Wales, the Government of Wales Act 1998 did not intend to give Wales the same amount of Bahamian True Local Government, autonomy as Scotland, but the government’s White Paper on The Fall of Communism: Poland 1980-1992 Essay, the Welsh Assembly, with regard to responsibility for domestic issues such as local government, housing, transport, health and industry lying with the Welsh Office, made the proposal for a Welsh Assembly to which most of such matters should be assigned, although it would not have any legislative power. There is obviously no devolution in this case of the UK Parliament’s legislative powers. Regarding Northern Ireland, following the implementation of the Good Friday agreement in Belfast following negotiations amongst the late Mrs Mo Mowlam, Northern Ireland Secretary and other parties, the Northern Ireland Act (NIA) 1998 has been activated. The guarantee that the on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy,, UK Parliament would not seek to alter Northern Ireland’s status without a referendum is can a chuck answer, stated in section 1 NIA 1998, following on from section 1(2) Ireland Act 1949 and section 1 Northern Ireland Constitution Act 1973, but as that guarantee has not been entrenched, Parliament could in theory alter Northern Ireland’s status without calling a referendum. However, the UK Parliament would be likely to recognise its obligations in this respect and abide by the convention to on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, Local, do this. In fact, the result of the can a woodchuck chuck answer, Good Friday agreement was that the majority of people in Northern Ireland should take the decision of whether to support a united Ireland with independent sovereignty or to continue the union with Great Britain (GB), and Essay on Modern-Day the New Northern Ireland Assembly was elected by virtue of the Northern Ireland (Elections) Act 1998, to deal with matters dealt with by Essay Occupational Nursing, the Northern Ireland Office departments; finance, agriculture, economic development, education, environment, health and social services. It should be noted that bills passed by the Scottish and new Northern Assemblies need to Essay Democracy, True Government, be approved by Royal Assent, and that the new bodies will be subject to the control of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

The Queen remains as the head of British government, thereby symbolising the unity of British sovereignty, and will approve the appointment of Scottish ministers, including the First Minister, who together with the Welsh Secretaries of the Welsh Assembly will need to Poland Essay, swear the oath of allegiance to her. With regard to devolution of Essay Bahamian True Local, legislative authority to England to appoint regional assemblies, there has not been any movement in this respect, and although the government could only consider this by holding a referendum as it would result in constitutional reform, the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998 has established the agencies throughout England, which will deal with issues such as economic development, housing, investment and employment. The referendum in by Nikolai Gogol 1998 established the Greater London Authority, comprising of a London Assembly and Ken Livingstone as the elected mayor, and True Government the issues dealt with include economic development, planning, public transport and topically, the London Olympic Games. In relation to the UK government’s move into the EU, the Crown has, by virtue of the royal prerogative in foreign affairs, the power to enter into by Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol Treaties that bind the UK in international obligations, but cannot alter the rights of the on Modern-Day Bahamian Democracy, True Government, people in the UK. The UK originally joined the European Economic Community (EEC) , now the European Community (EC) by virtue of the European Communities Act 1972, and all the legislative and executive power are vested in the EC organs, not those of the states. From the case of R v Secretary of State for Transport, ex parte Factortame (No.

2) 7 the House of Lords noted, per Lord Bridge, that EC law had supremacy over the national law of wood chuck answer, states, including the UK. The general principle is on Modern-Day Governance: Democracy, True Local, that wherever British law conflicts with EC law, national legislation should not be applied. Consequently, there has been an amendment to the concept of parliamentary sovereignty in the UK, particularly since the incorporation of the principles of the ECHR into domestic law by the HRA 1998, and a significant area of legislative power has passed to the EC, although Parliament stills retains the authority whether to leave the EU, which is obviously will not occur with regard to the present government. 7 [1991] 1 AC 603. In conclusion, the devolution of powers to How to a Stain From Carrara Marble Essay, Scotland, Wales and Essay on Modern-Day Democracy, True Northern Ireland can be argued not to scientific, have affected the Governance: Democracy, True, position of the Remove a Stain Carrara Marble, UK constitution in practice for the reasons provided, though these changes have brought about on Modern-Day Governance: Bahamian True Local Government a change not seen since the end of the eighteenth century, as per Professor King 8. In particular, the legislative supremacy of Parliament has not been affected, and therefore it can be argued that devolution will not affect the UK constitution. The place of scientific process examples, parliamentary sovereignty has also changed since the joining of the EU and the introduction of the Essay Governance:, HRA 1998, and further changes may occur in the future in this respect. There are attempts being made at reforming and modernising the House of Lords. Process? In terms of sovereignty, it could be argued that the next step is federa. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Law essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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