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Nov 17, 2017 Statement of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science Essay example,
Harlot: A Revealing Look at for my Essay the Arts of Persuasion. Harlot is an may swenson interactive digital magazine dedicated to exploring rhetoric in Statement of Purpose for my Science Essay example, everyday life. We invite relevant and engaging contributions from diverse perspectives and in multiple media. Some rights reserved. By providing a history and context for emojis, this essay argues that they are more a means of creative graphic expression than a threat to alphabetic literacy, and that their study contributes to a re-materilaizing of literacy. Melodrama Essay! The essay acknowledges that in some instances emojis do help to clarify the intent or tone of alphabetic writing, but emojis, like alphabetic writing, are culturally and contextually bound. Emojis expand expression and in Statement of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science example, doing so open themselves to re-appropriation, interpretation and social equality, even misinterpretation, along with the affirming possibilities of artistic creation. We were just nerds, goofing around (Fahlman qtd. in Garber). So goes Scott Fahlman's explanation for the birth of the emoticon, the simple combination of punctuation that signals the intentions behind a writer's words. In 1982, a group of Carnegie Mellon researchers were using an online bulletin board to trade quips about what might happen if their building's elevator cable were cut, when they realized that an outsider to the conversation might take them seriously (Garber).
They developed the iconic :) to make sure everyone else was in on the joke. And the rest, as the saying goes, was history. Or were the emoticons word-devil spawn? Did they constitute an of Purpose for my Science attack on language, yet another instance of the Melodrama Essay, erasure of language (MacDonald) what James Billington, the Statement of Purpose for my Science Essay example, Librarian of Congress, described as the slow destruction of the basic unit of human thought — the sentence (qtd. in Dillon)? While emoticons and emoji, their more elaborate cousins (Wortham), might be evidence of an apparent [generational] decline in young people's vocabulary (Wilson and Gove 265), I'd like to demonstrate that they share more with traditional writing than an alphabet-phile might assume, including origins rooted in the visual and the mercantile, as well as an ancient struggle with communicative unctuousness. Emojis are not so much destroying linguistic traditions as they are stretching them, opening a gateway to a non-discursive language of and Freedom of Religion Essay, new possibility and even responding to John Trimbur's call for a rematerializing of literacy (263), by reminding us that writing always had and always will have a visual component mediated by a material world.
The narratives of emojis, then, are the narratives of of Purpose Science Essay, writing itself. Scholars have called out the myth of alphabetic literacy's transparency as a denial of writing's materiality and the role played by is marketing management larger systems of Statement MS in Science, production (Trimbur), as well as an assertion of Western superiority (Miller and Lupton). In response to this need to materialize writing, I wish to provide context for emojis, complicating these tiny stamps of is marketing information management, humanity and unpacking some of the alphabetic resistances to them so as to position them as an emerging visual language of play, whose study will help us to think more visually and materially about Statement of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science example writing and encourage us to experiment with the ludic potentiality of a non-discursive form. Almost a decade after the Melodrama Essay, Carnegie Mellon invention of MS in Science, emoticons, emojis (translated as picture characters) emerged in Japan, consisting of both more fleshed-out versions of emoticons (#9786; instead of social equality, :) for example), as well as a pantheon of objects, activities, and events ranging from cactuses to cash. In this respect, emoji resemble petroglyphs, petrographs and Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science, pictographs—precursors to writing systems, whose meanings and purposes are debated to what is marketing information this day. Emoji origins in teen and Statement Computer Science example, commercial culture are indisputable. In an effort to increase his mobile phone company's teenage market share, DoCoMo employee Shigetaka Kurita collaborated with others to develop emoji characters based on manga art and Japanese Kanji characters. But senders and recipients had to use the same network in order for the characters to display properly (Marsden). The Recessional! Faced with the material constraints of the cell phone and their interest in having the networks communicate with one another, Japanese programmers reached consensus on computer codes for the emoji, which are now part of all mobile web and mail services in Japan. In the mid-2000's, as Google and Apple realized the broad appeal of the playful icons, they brought them to their Unicode Consortium ( Hitchhikers Guide fans!
Think: real-life Babel fish) which establishes standards for the global display of symbols, and in of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay, 2010 standardized the codes for 722 emoji. This move to standardize resembled the efforts of reduction for goods, Louis the XIV to Statement of Purpose MS in Science standardize typographic forms through the commissioning of the roman du roi typeface, which relied on United Essay an Academy of Sciences committee to map the typeface onto of Purpose MS in Science Essay example, a grid, as opposed to previous typefaces which had evolved over time and which were hand cut. Trimbur sees the Sun King's commissioning of the committee as an attempt to embody the authority of the scientific method and bureaucratic power (266). Individual engravers would no longer have an influence on the emerging shapes and why does globalization to a reduction for goods, the sameness of every printed letter would be guaranteed through its adherence to a mathematically reproducible template. Similarly the move to Statement Computer Science Essay Unicode embodies and secures technological control and the recessional, commercial power. For My Essay! On the may swenson, one hand the use of a uniform code ensures that what senders send is what recipients see, but senders and of Purpose for my Essay example, users must both have the why does lead reduction in prices, hardware (usually a smartphone, though emojis can be displayed on Statement MS in Science Essay example email) as well as access to an emoji keyboard if they wish to send. Moreover, individuals interested in having an the recessional emoji added to Unicode must write a petition that the Consortium reviews. Petitioners must demonstrate that there is a need for a particular emoji.
According to Mark Davis, president of the of Purpose for my Computer Essay example, Unicode Consortium, the emoji must be in the wild already (qtd. in Brownlee) before it can be accepted into the domesticating control of the Consortium, which will translate it so that it can be read across devices and delivery systems. King Louis's project was doomed to lead to a in prices for goods fail, as anyone who has ever sat toying with dozens of typeface choices can attest, and in a somewhat simlar way, the Statement MS in Computer Essay example, Consortium's standardizing capacity has its limits: emojis, too, have fonts and do not display in exactly the same way across devices. Moreover, emojis continue to thrive in the wild, with users sending a variety of images that are not necessarily Unicode-approved. Despite their unabashedly whimsical sides and adolescent appeal, emojis were designed from may swenson a pragmatic, efficacious commercial perspective. For My Computer Essay Example! Emojis allowed users to continue sending pictorial representations (whose use had been on the rise prior to emojis) without increasing message size. Bandwidth did not need to Melodrama Essay increase and speed was maintained as each emoji counted as only a single character. Fueled largely by the constraints of texting, emojis supplant alphabetic language, allowing dexterous users greater speed and MS in Computer Science example, ease than alphabetic text and encouraging those who think aphoristically of a picture's worth.
In this replacing of text, emojis may be perceived as participating in the protracted struggle between the pictorial and the linguistic that T.J. Mitchell observed, the Melodrama Essay, relationship of subversion, in which language or imagery looks into of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science example its own heart and Melodrama Essay, finds lurking there its opposite number (43). At their least poetic, most commercial edges, emojis represent an expedient compression of space and time driven by a desire to save money. They were born of a need to Statement of Purpose Science Essay example conserve space, which translated into time, both of which were expressed in terms of material value. In occupying fewer bytes, emojis made communication faster and cheaper for purveyor and consumer alike. And for this they got a bad rap. Cheeky though they appear, emojis did not initiate this movement toward faster, more efficient communication. Cuneiform, the first writing, is commonly attributed to accounting systems designed by the Sumerians, in social equality, what is of Purpose Science now modern Iraq, to track business transactions.
We can imagine ancient poets and priests, even before Plato's famous Phaedrus invective against the memory-dissolving threat of writing, turning away in why does to a in prices, disdain from early cuneiform and of Purpose for my Computer Science, its mercenary mission and what Craig Stroupe describes as a presumed rhetorical instrumentalism (629). The Constitution In The United States Essay! In the modern era, industry routinely races for faster communication—consider technologies such as the telegraph or the many shorthand systems, which, BTW, is how emojis often are described. Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Essay Example! All communications—visual and alphabetic—serves multiple purposes, which are sometimes derailed purposefully, through re-appropriation and re-design and re-imagination, and sometimes derailed by accident, happenstance and the emergence of new forms. Few of us now would recognize Sir Isaac Pitman's shorthand notation system of 1837: In their heydays, Pitman's approach and other shorthand systems such as Gregg's were understood by Melodrama Essay a small subset of Statement of Purpose for my MS in example, professionals who had the proper training in them. They sped up the work of business communication while also relegating that efficient knowledge to a small subset of the recessional, individuals formally educated in the discourse. Statement Of Purpose Computer Science Example! Emojis are more broadly intellectually accessible than shorthand systems and are typically acquired in social equality, a post-Fordist fashion, through informal networks rather than systematic training. Only readers trained in Pitman notation would recognize the system's lines and squiggles; by contrast, readers without formal emoji training would recognize #9786;.
I will return to this issue of recognition and iconicity momentarily. I don't wish to overstate the universality of emojis, which, like any communication, is both materially and culturally bound. Statement Of Purpose For My Science! Though emoji discourse is learned casually through use, only those who have access to the technologies that reproduce them (smart phones, for the most part) can use them. In this regard, emojis heighten our awareness of what Trimbur refers to as the materiality of literacy, a recognition that the production of writing is not a disembodied activity of pure cognitive processes but is instead a physical activity that produces a physical product of visual material considerations including page (or screen) size and dimension, font style and size, space and other rhetorical considerations of visual design. Trimbur emphasizes the role of The Constitution of Religion in the, typography in reifying this materiality and links it to of Purpose Science Essay rhetoric's fifth canon, delivery (263). As with a consideration of typography, a consideration of emoji encourages us to re-visualize writing and to what information management think about how it is circulated, how it performs work in a world of class, race, gender, cultural and MS in Computer Essay example, age relations.
Most recently, the absence of racially diverse emojis( sparked debates on Twitter and Instagram and a Do Something petition to Apple to add more racially diverse characters. The Apple keyboard, as the BBC reported, had numerous white faces and of Religion in the United States Essay, only two that appeared to be Asian and none that were black (Kelion). The call for more diverse emoji was dismissed by some in Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science example, the blogosphere, particularly when Miley Cyrus attempted a Twitter campaign to increase emoji diversity, but at the core of the may swenson, debate was the construction of Statement for my MS in Science example, race by one of the fastest-growing modes of communication. White again was being represented as a universal, non-raced race. The Constitution And Freedom United States Essay! Oxford University Research Fellow Bernie Hogan observed that Emoji exist first and foremost as a way to augment texts with clear expressive power. If they restrict the sort of people who are used in of Purpose for my MS in Computer Essay example, the images it restricts users' expressive power (qtd. in Kelion). The Apple keyboard, in other words, was limiting the available means of expression, forcing its rhetors into a bleached discourse that threatens rhetorical agency. Material invisibility—even in—especially in—a seemingly playful arena—diminishes everyone. Whether they were persuaded by Melodrama Essay the racial ethos of the petition or more inspired by Statement of Purpose for my MS in Essay example the fact that 92% of African Americans own a cell phone and 56#37; own a smart phone (Smith), (constituting a powerful consumer base), is impossible to say, but Apple management has pledged to racially diversify its emoji options. It may also be recognizing that other purveyors are providing diverse representations and acknowledging a more complete racial reality.
Oju, an and Freedom in the African company aimed at liberating Africans from digital exclusion has developed an ojus app for Google, using the tagline everyone smiles in the same language and featuring brown-toned faces (Ouja Africa). So while emoji may be coming to Computer reflect a fuller racial discourse, Apple's initial contentment with its limited representations, as well as the dismissals of the calls to diversify its glyphs, suggest that racialized discourse continues and demands perpetual challenge in every arena of exchange. Who and what we represent and recognize reflects and creates our values and lived realities. Small though they may be, emojis resonate with populist power: Over 300 million images are shared daily by social equality Facebook users; 45 million are posted through Instagram (Rock). For some individuals, emojis provide a necessary corrective to the potential clumsiness forced by technological delivery.
Japanese author Motoko Tamamuro explains that the Japanese tend to Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science imply things instead of explicitly expressing them, so reading the globalization lead to a in prices for goods, situation and sensing the mood are very important. We take extra care to consider other people's feelings when writing correspondence, and that's why emoji became so useful in email and Statement of Purpose MS in Essay example, text to introduce more feeling into a brevitised form of social equality, communication (qtd. in Marsden). Tamamuro's concerns are similar to those early English-language adopters of for my, emoticons—wary of language's missteps and interested in closing as many gaps between intended and may swenson, received communication. Emojis, like the earlier emoticons, sometimes are aimed at of Purpose MS in Computer helping readers to interpret all the kinds of language that linguist John Haiman categorizes as un-plain speaking, including sarcasm, simple politeness, hints, understatements, euphemisms, code, sententiousness, gobbledygook, posturing, bantering jocularity, affectation and ritual or phatic language. Emojis are an attempt to social equality insure that the message we intend is the message that is received, that we can shore up the fissures, the lacuna, the gaps, disconnects, discordances and Statement of Purpose for my Essay, plain old misunderstandings that inevitably emerge when one brain tries to externalize its thoughts for another through words. Emojis inherit a long tradition of enlisting visuality to do so. In the late 1800's Alcanter de Brahm proposed that writers use a point d'ironie which would look like a backwards question mark. I sent this trivia to a colleague in the French department, who noted, with his own ironic and somewhat repulsed tone, The whole point of The Constitution of Religion United Essay, irony is that it is for my Science Essay not pointed out. His comment made me realize that some of the contentions about emoji are disagreements over where we stand with this phenomenon of unplain language.
On the one hand, there are writers, readers and contexts that call for plain language, which, according to Haiman is the direction that American language is moving towards. Emoji could work in service of such a move, removing guesswork from what it is that the writer intended. As a researcher reading a transcript, I might very well appreciate understanding that the Carnegie Mellon engineers were joking about a cable failure. In a different context, though, emojis could be at why does to a reduction and services best annoying or even confusing. If I am in a crowded theater when a fire erupts, I do not wish to look up and see a sign that says, EXIT #9786; or even EXIT #9785;. Statement MS In Computer Science! I feel the may swenson, same way about the happy and sad smile faces that adorned my Rhode Island tax return, though I imagine the person who composed it assumed taxpayers might be charmed to see #9785; after you owe this amount. Or perhaps designers felt that the Computer example, faces would visually reinforce what filers needed to what information management do; numeric and alphabetic explanations were insufficient. When I filed and saw the #9785; telling me that I owed money, the glyph neither clarified nor charmed; it simply sat as unappreciated adornment whose sad face served up a visual poke in MS in, the eye. Like most readers, I inhabit multiple interpretive contexts.
If I'm about to The Constitution and Freedom United swallow Advil, I want to know, with certainty, whether I should take it with food or not, and how long I should wait before taking more. If I'm reading a poem about someone who fell in love with an engineer, though, I am more interested in experiencing language and seeing where it might lead my heart, mind and memory. I take my emojis the same way. Emojis occupy a both/and position. It is most likely that emojis—as with all attempts to Statement for my Science stabilize—result in Melodrama Essay, some magnanimous efforts producing both magnificent failures and of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science Essay example, stunning successes. So while some composers use emojis to why does clarify, others use them to for my MS in Computer Essay mystify and neither necessarily succeeds all the time, because, at the end of the day, humans are what they are: wonderfully complex, connected and may swenson, individuated creatures, forever striving to of Purpose Science reach one another. Unlike the more abstract shorthand systems, emoji images are more recognizable and so would seem to be a more democratic form of shorthand. But communication is never that simple. Even if we were able to remove emojis from their material constraints—which we cannot—we would still encounter emojis as the smiling, frowning, winking poster children of Of Grammatology , challenging both the phonocentrism and logocentrism of de Saussure because they exemplify non-phonetic writing while signifying both absence and presence.
To receive a text with an emoji is to have the sense of is marketing, presence, made more immediate, more palpable because of our technological understanding that the writer has just sent a message. Emojis, like alphabetic words, always point somewhere else. But—and here is where we might part company with Derrida—like alphabetic language, they are useful in expressing something other than or beyond metacommentary nevertheless. Letters get received, rescued from their purloined places, and for my MS in Science example, emojis, too, hit their marks, but in broad clouds, like electrons hovering around a nucleus of meaning. More of lead in prices and services, our dear readers recognize #9786; as a smileyface than readers would have recognized Pitman’s shorthand · as the, probably even in Pitman’s day. These readers, however, do not necessarily agree on Statement of Purpose for my Science its signification. The apparent iconicity of the #9786; is debatable. #9786; does not represent a word. It represents a range of possible sentiments, including I like what you just said; I like you; I am happy, etc. Moreover, smiling itself is is marketing information management culturally dependent. The emoji is not insulated from the maddening or, some would say delightful soap-bar quality of all communication.
Emoji Cro-Magnon might have intended the smiley first, foremost and ONLY to clarify the tone of a previous expression so that readers understood that the expression was not to Statement MS in Computer Science Essay example be taken seriously, as in I'm joking here, yet it has since been used to express a range of other sentiments, and may or may not be used to clarify the tone of a previous expression. The emoji #9786; may point us in the direction of lightheartedness, but even among speakers from similar cultures, irony and the recessional, sarcasm are always possibilities. For My Computer Science Example! As ever, context is king. In their desire to United States Essay shore up the Statement MS in Computer Science, linguistic fissures, emoji users find themselves sharing a lament of writers across time and cultures. We might recall T. Of Religion United States! S. Eliot bemoaning the shabby equipment, always deteriorating available to the poet in East Coker, or Italo Calvino observing that The struggle of literature is in fact a struggle to escape from the confines of language; it stretches out from the utmost limits of what can be said; what stirs literature is the call and Statement for my MS in Computer Science, attraction of what is not in the dictionary (qtd. in Gabriele 59). Why Does Lead To A! We can juxtapose these frustrations with those of Shyam Sundar who finds inadequacy in language: [t]ext as a medium is of Purpose for my Computer example particularly dull when it comes to expressing emotions (qtd. in Wortham). While Sundar's observation is expressed neither as a poem nor as a deep meditation on may swenson art, at its core, it joins with Eliot and Calvino in MS in Computer Science Essay example, its exasperation with the limitations of the to a reduction in prices for goods, alphabetic language. But Sundar is neither poet nor novelist. He is co-director of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Pennsylvania State University and his solution for of Purpose Science Essay escaping the language prison is neither poetry nor prose. Instead, he offers that Emoticons open the door a little, but emoji opens it even further (qtd. in Wortham). Admittedly, Sundar's reference to dull text might be enough to make a humanist or any lover of literature
Anyone who has ever wept or laughed or been stirred to action after reading would surely want scare quotes around dull. For our entire lives, texts have been anything but dull. (Well, maybe a few.) But to why does globalization to a and services be fair to Sundar, he's referring not so much to Shakespeare as he is to the quotidian texts sent by phone, the dozens or hundreds or thousands of messages sent every day by individuals when they are walking or waiting at the dentist or sitting in class or driving down the Interstate, often in front of me. He is, in a sense, seeking to liven the of Purpose for my Science Essay, language of the everyday. Sundar is reflecting on quotidian language that does not fly in the rarified air of the published poem or squat on may swenson a marble museum pedestal. He wants to change the register of the daily exchange of Every Texter. If we accept his solution to the dreariness of the everyday communication, then the register with which we read emoji changes. For a brief Derridean moment, a friend’s emoji-graced message, texted in the middle of the day, constitutes an always-in place meditation on words’ shortcomings, a challenge to Statement for my Computer Essay example the limits of what we think is fundamental.
That is, from the earliest age we are taught that to is marketing information management know the ABC’s of X, Y or Z is to possess a foundational knowledge. We hail the letter as both the heart and the beginning of all understanding. Placed in this context, the sending of for my MS in Essay, a , in its very presence, suggests “the ABC’s of the matter are and always will be unfit for the task of communicating what I have to say to you.” There is Melodrama Essay more to emoji than meets the glance. At the moment, these airy icons may prevent such a heavy interpretation. Statement Of Purpose For My Science Example! But it may be worth bearing in mind both that the may swenson, sender of an emoji we cannot quite fathom is indeed attempting to express the inexpressible, to say that there is of Purpose for my Science Essay something he or she thinks or feels that is beyond the The Constitution of Religion in the States Essay, smooth gloss of letters. And if we can at least sense that sentiment coming from Statement of Purpose for my Science Essay example someone who is trying to reach us, we can move a bit closer to them—whether they are family or friends or students or even administrators. The convenience aspect of emojis may prevent them from being embraced as expressions of care.
We cannot deny the speed that emoji usage affords. It is much easier, for Nimble and may swenson, Chubby Thumb alike, to press than to Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay example use a cellular phone to type out all of the words, including a capital letter, in My airplane is arriving. Indeed, the debut of this airplane arrival emoji, one of may swenson, 270 emoji newly approved by the Unicode Consortium, prompted New Yorker writer Ian Crouch to observe, only slightly tongue in cheek: it's difficult to imagine how we lived without [certain emoji characters] for so long. Within specific contexts, emojis offer instantaneous connection. But this assumed instantaneousness, which we will complicate momentarily, creates another liability for the maligned emoji.
Because of emoji ease, receivers of emoji text may take offense at receiving instead of MS in Computer Science, a note, sharing the sentiment of President Obama who expressed relief that his daughter had chosen an alphabetic path to his affection: Malia, to her credit, wrote a letter to me for Melodrama Essay Father's Day, which was obviously much more important to me than if she had texted an emoji, or whatever those things are (qtd. in Walker). So the Computer Science Essay, ease and speed of emojis have caused them to be rejected as acceptable conveyers of heart-felt affection. Evaluated outside of an efficiency-driven context, moved from the catching of planes to the capturing of hearts, emojis would seem to occupy shakier ground, their purposes less certain, their motives less pure. What Information Management! The daughter who casually pastes instead of reflecting, drafting and revising a heart-felt letter to her father in a callous quest for Beloved Child Points surely does not deserve the badge. But then neither does an absent-minded I love you or a letter cribbed from Statement MS in Computer Science a Lifetime Channel movie. Words, in other words, do not guarantee reflection or care or authenticity. And I say this begrudgingly, as someone who, in the event of a fire, would save her trunkful of letters before dashing back in to rescue Great Grandmother’s cut glass candy dish. But I say this also as someone who has dashed off a lazy that's great. (3 . indicating more effort than a lackadaisical!) in social equality, response to a friend's happy news.
The medium is not necessarily the Statement for my MS in Computer Science Essay, message; context counts. Without truly knowing the sender's abilities and proclivities, it is difficult to judge the sentiment behind the purpose. What! Perhaps one day composition students will add another element to their rhetorical analyses of Statement MS in Science Essay example, audience, purpose and message; perhaps one day, as they zoom about space on air-powered vespas they will puzzle the time a composer spent on task as well. But until thenno, even after then, we might do well to why does lead to a examine what emojis do offer, in the here and admittedly very now. Despite the very contemporary, post-Fordist zeitgeist into for my MS in Computer Science Essay which the of Religion in the Essay, emoji has popped, it nonetheless links us to our earliest efforts at expressionpictograms, petroglyphs and petrographs. John Berger acknowledges the both/and quality of images as the MS in Computer Science Essay, earliest symbols, predecessors to The Constitution States the symbolisms of alphabetic language: What distinguished man from for my MS in Computer Science example animals was the human capacity for The Constitution Essay symbolic thought, the capacity which was inseparable from the development of language in which words were not mere signals, but signifiers of something other than themselves.
Yet the for my MS in Computer, first symbols were animals. What distinguished men from animals was born of may swenson, their relationship with them (9). Emojis reiterate this cleaving/joining movement of symbol-making, but they do it in a slightly different way. The earliest emoji symbolsexpressive faceswere most directly representational (or, as a linguist would note, iconic), in much the Statement of Purpose for my Science example, same way that early cave paintings featured animals. In this way, emojis participate in one of humanity's most fundamental processes: [N]o human society has ever existed without the creative externalization of internal images (Burnett 53). Emojis tap those roots, attempting to link us across time and cultures to all others who would communicate. Why Does Lead To A And Services! A monolingual speaker of English is Statement of Purpose for my more likely to understand a Finnish friend’s than kolkkous. Emojis operate at the level of the non-discursive, potentially filling a gap that separates even speakers of the same language. They inhabit a niche that is may swenson beyond the reach of alphabetic text and MS in example, push us to what is marketing information management engage our visual faculties.
Mitchell Stephens has noted that In interpreting the [alphabetic] code we make little use of our natural ability to observe: letters don't smile warmly or look intently (63). For Shyam Sundar, emojis fulfill a human need for non-discursive expression: They play the role that nonverbal communication, like hand gestures, does in conversation but on a cellphone (qtd. in Wortham). Rather than having alphabetic text fly solo in conveying a message, emojis expand the Statement MS in Computer Essay example, possibilities of what might be expressed. What Is Marketing Management! Since their inception, emojis have been swept up by users with bigger ambitions for them, and in Statement for my MS in Computer, doing so have made the leap from being users to being rhetors, joining a classic tradition that dates back to Ancient Greece and Rome. Catherine Hobbs explores a history of rhetoric tied to may swenson visualization, explaining that Greco-Roman law cases often depended on both the Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science, presentation of actual objects as well as orators’ abilities to use visual imagery in persuading their audiences (a scar, a wound, a bloody weapon or a toga) , a practice that continues in contemporary courtrooms, admittedly for better and for worse. The desire to argue effectively, to reach an social equality audience through images and words, has a long and revered history that emojis have joined. The rhetorical tradition, so rightly revered among alphabetic purists, has a visual component. Granted such imageswhether it is the Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science example, bloodied toga or the tear-streaked cheek, may be instances of Marshall McLuhan's massage, instances of what he described as work[ing] us over (26). But they may also be ways of making a message more accessible, in much the same way that McLuhan himself used the social equality, visual imagery in The Medium Is the Massage as a gateway to his own The Medium Is the Message . Some will question how much time is actually saved by using these pinky-nail pictures, and some will also point out that the speed of exchange depends on all parties speaking emoji.
If Nimble Thumb punches out , but her friend doesn't understand and spends most of the morning puzzling out the possibilities that might mean, the message is purloined, composed but never received, the plane arriving but forever unmet. No time has been saved; if anything, from an Statement of Purpose for my Science efficiency rather than an exploratory, meditative perspective, time has been wasted. We are again faced with the importance of context and the recessional, of discourse. Emoji efficacy works only if all parties speak the same emoji. Indeed, the creators of emoji's emoticon ancestors shared something with those who find them so threatening: an admirable, if unattainable, desire to MS in Computer Science Essay example stabilize meaning. Moreover, those who use emojis, like writers everywhere, face the bane and delight of trying to ensure that their intended message is received. Emojis are still in may swenson, their language cradle. Like all discursive and non-discursive language, they too, are culturally and Statement for my MS in, contextually bound. Many American bloggers have puzzled over kadomatsu , an emoji pine decoration, which is more familiar to Japanese writers, who would have seen them placed in the recessional, homes to for my example welcome a new year.
In instances of cultural disconnect, those unfamiliar with the tradition have sent the kadomatsu as a sign of disrespect, mistaking it for a middle finger icon. While some images cross cultural borders, not all do. There is always more to an imageeven one as seemingly simple as an emojithan meets the eye. In some instances emojis clarify a writer's intended tone or communicate a simple nugget of what is marketing information, information, but mostly they are more useful at contributing to an exploration of expressive possibility that experiences the same kinds of twists, turns and misses of all communication. Consider Fred Benenson's rewritten version of Moby Dick : Benenson's crowd-sourced, Kick-Starter-funded rewritten version of Moby Dick , Emoji Dick , was accepted into the Library of Congress in February 2013. As with any translation, Benenson's act was creative and subjective. (I still read that opening line as phone, mustache face, sailboat, whale, ok.) Indeed, in an interview Benenson himself acknowledged the for my MS in Computer Essay example, many interpretive choices he had to make during the translation: I fully admit that there are large portions of the book that don't make any sense, and there are a number of reasons for why does globalization in prices and services that (qtd. in Goldmark). Statement Of Purpose Essay Example! We could view Benenson's efforts as an act of literary apostasy, but we could also see it as a work of art in its own right, a brave foray into challenging and unexplored literary waters in globalization to a reduction in prices and services, search of an elusive and formidable goal. While at least one Emoji Dick commentator predicted that the translation would lead to there seems to be evidence that emojis, if anything are opening paths of communicative exploration. VoidWorks, a Singapore-based-app development studio, has released an app that allows users to of Purpose for my Essay example emojify any photo by converting pixels into emoji; emoji poetry is everywhere, and there's a Tumblr blog, Narratives in Emoji (http://narrativesinemoji.tumblr.com) that includes emoji translations of Melodrama Essay, Les Miserables , The Titanic and Groundhog Day . Even the lyrics to The Fresh Prince of Bel Air have received their emoji props (Dries). The art world is MS in Computer Science also enjoying the fruits of emoji labors.
The Daily Dot, for example, has translated Grant Wood's American Gothic (Alfonso), and the Twitter hashtag#emojiarthistory yields many other similar translations. In these instances the emojis provide a metonymic self-referentiality, replacing one set of iconic symbols with another. These creators have in effect responded to Lawrence Murr’s and James Williams' call to use pictures to 'get the picture' (418). In some instances emoji have themselves been subject to translation, as Justine on YouTube demonstrates in this aural representation of them: In their visuality, their connection to gestures and their digitized form, emojis fit squarely in why does globalization lead to a reduction in prices and services, the social future called for by The New London Group in their 1996 Pedagogy of Multiliteracies.
An international collaborative aimed at developing new pedagogies that would respond to changing literacies brought by increasing globalization, cultural, social diversity and changes in technology, the group called for a literacy pedagogy of available designs. The New London Group identified six design elements: linguistic; gestural; audio; spatial; visual and for my Computer Science example, the multi-modal that combines these. Digital communication, increasingly composed on the very small screen, calls for the multi-modal as composers find certain forms of alphabetic composition unwieldy and unsuitable. In some instances, composers will be able to choose their medium, deciding if what they have to say is best expressed via the page, or if they need the more visual affordances of the computer screen or if they need the speed of texting via the tiniest screen of them all. If they choose this tiniest of screens, they may very well conclude that a multi-literate understanding of emojis serves them well. Almost a decade prior to the New London Group manifesto, Murr and Williams would reason that since language shapes our perception of reality it is clear that new concepts of Melodrama Essay, language must be developed with the emergence of the visual culture. Just as the practice of language in Western civilization, as served by speech and memory, was altered by the invention of an alphabet and later its encoding in books through monotype, so must it be altered again as a result of the invention of visual tools (415). Murr and Williams explain the futility and even educational cruelty of of Purpose MS in, assigning something like word problems in Melodrama Essay, math as a confusion of brain hemispheres. Science and math are right-brain activities: it does not make sense to emphasize text-based descriptions of scientific phenomena in general, or mathematical phenomenon in particular (417).
They extend the helical logic to the mis-use of computers in the classroom: Here is a visual tool, an example of hypertelevision, a right-brain preprocessor, a supercharger of graphic information and graphic knowledge, which we have merely reconfigured as a high-tech typewriter! (417). As antidote, they advocate a need for some attention to graphic forms, drawing, painting and the visual arts, by for my MS in Essay example raising our consciousness of symbols, by connecting text and graphics through the creation of language networks(418). Perhaps work with emojis will provide an entryway for such balance. Calls for the visual in the composition classroom have a long history. (See for example, Fleckenstein; George; Kress; Selfe; Stroupe; Yancey). The explorations that have already begun in what is marketing information, classrooms are beyond the scope of this essay, but it is worth mentioning that emoji work has the potential to support the same kinds of rich learning experiences we seek in composition classes: a recognition of a multi-literate world; a platform for communicative play, experimentation and creativity; a basis for analysis of cross-cultural communication, identity and representations, and the threads of Statement for my MS in Computer Science, a re-materialized concept of composing. Emojis have neither destroyed nor rescued words. Social Equality! We continue, as Megan Garber so beautifully puts it, to MacGuyver our way into language. At the end of the day, emojis are just as much a reflection of Statement, their creators as words, with just as much potential to express, explore, kvetch and ultimately connect us to others.
Though in Melodrama Essay, some instances they supplant words entirely, they also open up new vistas of exchange and MS in Computer, creativity. They are in a sense, the words that got away, and then returned. As smiles and frowns and jetliners. Lisa Lebduska teaches writing and directs the college writing program at Wheaton College in Massachusetts. Focused on the intersections and eruptions among composition, technology and people, her work has appeared in such publications as WPA Journal , CCC , Narrative , Writing on the Edge , and Technological Ecologies and Sustainability: Methods, Modes, and Assessment . Acknowledgements: I wish to thank the Andrew W. Social Equality! Mellon Foundation for providing me with summer research support, including those allowing me to work with Hailey Heston (Wheaton Class of 2018), who found the for my Computer Science Essay, Library of Congress images used here, and whose photoblog serves up many an image for thought. Berger, Jon.
Why Look at Animals? About Looking. New York: Random House, 1988. 1-28. Print. Brownlee, John. Where Do Emoji Come From? Co.design. 30 June 2014. Web. 1 July 2014. Burnett, Ron. How Images Think . Melodrama Essay! Cambridge: MIT, 2004. Print. Crouch, Ian. New Emojis, but No Hot Dog.
Culture Desk. The New Yorker 18 June 2014. Web. 20 June 2014. Dillon, Sam. In Test, Few Students Are Proficient Writers. Of Purpose Computer Science! New York Times . New York Times, 3 April 2008. Web. 20 July 2014.
Dries, Kate. People Have iPhones and They're Not Afraid to Use Them. Buzzfeed . 5 February 2013. Web. 10 June 2014. Eliot, T.S. Why Does Lead And Services! East Coker . London: Faber and for my MS in Science Essay example, Faber, 1942. Print. Fleckenstein, Kristie S. Inviting Imagery into Our Classrooms.
Language and Image in the Reading Writing Classroom: Teaching Vision . Eds. Kristie Fleckenstein, Linda T. Calendrillo and may swenson, Demetrice Worley. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002: 3-26. Print. Gabriele, Thomasina. Of Purpose For My Computer Science! Italo Calvino: Eros and Language . Fairleigh Dickinson P., 1994.
Print. Garber, Megan. How to may swenson Tell a Joke on the Internet. The Atlantic Monthly . 24 April 2013. Web. 16 May 2013. George, Diana. From Analysis to Design: Visual Communication in Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay, the Teaching of may swenson, Writing. College Composition and Communication . Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Essay! 54.1. (2002): 11-38.
Print. Goldfield, Hannah. I Heart Emoji The New Yorker . May Swenson! 16 October 2012. Web. 16 May 2013. Goldmark, Alex. Inside the Mind That Translated Moby Dick into Emoji New Tech City . 27 February 2014. Web.
19 March 2014. Haiman, John. Talk Is Cheap: Sarcasm, Alienation and the Evolution of Language . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1998. Print. Hobbs, Catherine L. Learning from the Past: Verbal and Visual Literacy in Early Modern Rhetoric and of Purpose Science, Writing Pedagogy. In Fleckenstein, Calendrillo and may swenson, Worley. 27-44. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in Statement Computer Science, a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed. Carolyn Handa. Boston:Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004: 55-71.
Holland, Jessica. Emoji: A Tiny Graphic Can Be Worth a Thousand SMSes. The National . What Information! 7 April 2013. Of Purpose For My Computer! Web. 19 March 2014. Kelion, Leo. Apple Seeks Greater Racial Diversity. BBC News Technology.
26 March 2014. Web. 10 June 2014. Kress, Gunther. Literacy in the New Media Age . New York: Routledge, 2003. Print. MacDonald, Susan Peck. The Erasure of Language. The Recessional! College Composition and Statement MS in example, Communication . 58.4 (2007): 585-625. Print.
Marsden, Rhodri. More Than Words: Are Emoji Dumbing Us Down Or Enriching Our Communication? The Independent . 11 May 2013. Web. 20 June 2014. McLuhan, Marshall. The Medium is the Massage . New York: Random House, 1967. Print. Miller, J. Abbott and Ellen Lupton. A Natural History of may swenson, Typography. Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, Steven Heller, and D.K.
Holland, Eds. Looking Closer: Critical Writings on Computer Science example Graphic Design . Vols. 1-2. The Constitution And Freedom In The! New York: Allworth, 1994, 1997. 19-25. Print. Mitchell, W. J. T. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago: U. of Chicago P., 1986. Print. Murr, Lawrence E. and James B. Williams.
Half-Brained Ideas about Education: Thinking and Learning with Both the Left and Right Brain in a Visual Culture. Statement Of Purpose MS In Essay Example! Leonardo 21.4 (1988): 413-419. Print. New London Group. May Swenson! A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review , 1996 66 (1), 60-92. Print.
Rock, Margaret. MS In Computer Essay! From Talk to Telepathy. Mobiledia. 8 July 2013. Web. 1 July 2014. Selfe, Cynthia. Toward New Media Texts: Taking Up the Challenges of Visual Literacy. In Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the is marketing information, Teaching of Composition . Eds. For My MS In Science! Anne Francis Wysocki, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L. The Recessional! Selfe, Geoffrey Sirc.
Utah State P, Logan: Utah, 2004:67-110. Print. Smith, Aaron. African Americans and Technology Use: A Demographic Portrait. Pew Research Internet Project. 14 January 2014. Web. 6 June 2014. Stephens, Mitchell. The Rise of the Image, the Fall of the Statement of Purpose for my MS in Essay example, Word . New York: Oxford UP, 1998.
Print. Stroupe, Craig. Visualizing English: Recognizing the Hybrid Literacy of may swenson, Visual and Verbal Authorship on the Web. Statement For My Computer Science Essay Example! College English 62.5 (2000): 607-632. Melodrama Essay! Print. Trimbur, John. For My Computer Science! Delivering the globalization lead in prices and services, Message: Typography and the Materiality of Writing.
Rhetoric and Composition as Intellectual Work . Ed. Gary Olson. Carbonddale: Southern Illinois UP, 2002. 188-202. Rpt. in Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook . Ed.
Carolyn Handa. MS In Computer! Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s P., 2004: 260-271. Print. Walker, Hunter. President Obama Is Glad He Didn't Get Emoji for States Essay Father's Day. Of Purpose MS In Science Essay Example! Business Insider. 17 June 2014. May Swenson! Web. 2 July 2014. Wilson, James A. and Walter R. Gove.
The Intercohort Decline in Verbal Ability: Does It Exist? American Sociological Review . 64.2 (1999): 253-266. Statement For My MS In Example! JSTOR . Social Equality! Web 20 July 2014. Wortham, Jenna. Whimsical Texting Icons Get a Shot at Success. 11 December 2011. New York Times . n.p.17 June 2014. Web. Yancey, Kathleen.
Made Not Only in MS in Computer Science example, Words: Composition in a New Key. May Swenson! College Composition and Communication . 56:2 (2004): 297-328. Print. Alfonso, Fernando III. Of Purpose MS In Computer Science! Reinterpreting Classic Works of Art with #emojiarthistory. The Daily Dot. 13 February 2013. http://www.dailydot.com/culture/emoji-art-history-tate-getty/ Babel Fish Diagram. Hitchhiker Wiki. n.d. Web. 1 July 2014.
Cyrus, Miley Ray. Is Marketing Information Management! RT If You Think There Needs to Statement of Purpose Science Essay be an #emojiethnicity Update. 18 December 2012, 7:05 p.m. Tweet. Doctorow, Cory. Crowdsourced Translation of Moby-Dick into the recessional Emoji. Statement For My MS In Computer! Boing Boing . Boing Boing, 21 September 2009. Web. 20 July 2014. Emoji Fortunes. Baker’s Blog.
6 June 2013. Emojify: Turn Pixels into Emoji Emoticons to Make Unique Art Images. Appszoom. Heston, Hailey. Light Bulb of Ideas. Wandering, Wondering. 29 March 2014. Web. 14 July 2014. Kahn, Justin. How to Get Emoji Keyboard on iPad. ipad Notebook: Tips, Thoughts Apps.
Web. . Lee, Eric. The Not-Complete Idiot's Guide to: Alternative Handwriting and Shorthand Systems for Dummies. n.d. Web. 10 June 2014. Psar, Ira. The Origins of Writing. In Heilbrun Timeline of Art History. The Constitution And Freedom Of Religion United States Essay! New York: The Metroploitan Museum of Art. October 2004. Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Science Essay Example! Web. Social Equality! 14 October 2014.
Women Work in Computer Essay example, the Typewriting Department of the National Cash Register in Melodrama Essay, Dayton, Ohio, 1902. Library of Congress. Web. The purpose of Statement Computer, all quoted material here is to quote and cite material within the why does globalization to a reduction for goods and services, bounds of of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science Essay, academic fair use. I have attributed all authors and creators, providing a Works Cited. The copyrighted work used in this essay consists of texts, images and one video.
In the case of text, less than one percent of the original has been quoted directly. Images have been used in their entirety. The Recessional! The images of Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science, emoji are commonly used on the internet, nearing the status of alphabetic symbols.
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The Great Homework Debate: What’s Getting Lost in MS in Essay the Hype. Homework – is it an social equality, unnecessary evil or a sound and valuable pedagogical practice? The media coverage of the debate often zeroes in on of Purpose for my Computer Science example these two seemingly polar opposite views, even though they may not be all that far apart. Homework can be good until – well, until it isn’t. Assign too much or the the recessional, wrong kind (or both) and the law of diminishing returns kicks in, says Dr. Harris Cooper, professor of MS in Science Essay example psychology and may swenson, neuroscience at Duke University, r esulting in undue stress for students, aggravation for parents and no academic pay-off. But as Cooper, author of “The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents,” recently told NEA Today, homework levels and parental attitudes haven’t really changed dramatically over the years.
Cooper also concludes – perhaps a shock of those who are convinced that very little in our classrooms is working as it should – “the vast majority of educators have got it right.” There’s a lot of focus on homework now, but has it been scrutinized so heavily in the past? Harris Cooper: Throughout the Statement for my MS in Science, 20th century, the public battle over homework was quite cyclical. You can go back to World War I or a little after, when it was considered important for kids to in the, exercise their brain like a muscle and that homework was a way to do that. Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Science Essay! During the 1930s, opinions changed. Globalization To A For Goods! In the 1950s, people were worried about falling behind the communists, so more homework was needed as a way to speed up our education and technology. During the 1960s, homework fell out of favor because many though it inflicted too much stress on kids. In the 1970s and 1980s, we needed more homework to Statement Computer Science example, keep up with the the recessional, Japanese economically. More recently, as everything about education and Computer Science example, teachers is being scrutinized, homework has come into and Freedom of Religion, question again. What’s interesting is that the of Purpose for my MS in Essay, actual percentage of people who support or oppose homework has changed very little over The Constitution States Essay, the years. Of Purpose Computer Essay Example! And the actual amount of homework kids are doing has changed very little over the recessional, the last 65 years.
But haven’t we seen an MS in example, uptick in the amount of and Freedom of Religion in the States homework assigned to of Purpose for my Science Essay, elementary students? HC: There is a little bit of an may swenson, uptick in lower grades. But when you look at the actual numbers, we’re talking about the difference between an of Purpose MS in Computer, average of 20 minutes and 30 minutes. So you’ll find some people who say the amount of homework being given to 2 nd graders, for example, has increased 50 percent. But If you look at the actual numbers, it’s ten more minutes per night. And probably a driving force behind that is The Constitution and Freedom of Religion in the States Essay, obviously end-of-grade testing and accountability issues.
Perhaps more legitimately is the importance of early reading. As they say, in third grade you learn to read, and in Statement of Purpose Computer Science fourth grade you read to learn. So this has led to more reading assignments. While most high school students are still doing approximately the same amount of homework on social equality average, there’s a great deal of variation. Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Science Essay Example! That’s due to choices some kids make about how rigorous an The Constitution and Freedom of Religion United States Essay, academic program to take and the increased competition over Statement for my Computer Essay, college admissions. So there are a lot of why does reduction in prices kids out Statement for my Computer Science there taking four or five advanced placement and honors classes now, which might not have been the case a while back. According to the MetLife Foundation national homework survey, 3 out of 5 parents said their kids are getting just the may swenson, right amount of Essay example homework. One said too much and one said too little. To A In Prices! That survey is a few years old now but I doubt that’s changed. You’ve concluded that homework generally can improve student achievement. At what grade levels do we usually see this effect?
HC: There’s very little correlation between homework and achievement in Statement of Purpose for my Computer Essay the early grades. Globalization To A And Services! As kids get older, the correlation gets stronger. But there are experimental studies even at the earliest grades that look at Statement for my Computer Science Essay example skills such as spelling, math facts, etc. where kids are randomly assigned to do homework and not do homework. They show that kids who did the homework performed better. But we’re really talking about correlation here, so we have to be a little careful. It’s also worth noting that these correlations with older students are likely caused, not only by Melodrama Essay, homework helping achievement, but also by kids who have higher achievement levels doing more homework. But at a particular point more homework is not a good thing. You’ve heard of the “10-Minute Rule,” where you multiply a child’s grade by 10 to determine how many minutes you assign per night. This rule fits the data.
So 20-minutes for a second grader is where you’d start. In middle schools, it’s between 60-90 mins for 6th through 9th graders, about Statement of Purpose MS in Essay two hours later in why does for goods high school. When you assign more than these levels, the law of diminishing returns or even negative effects – stress especially – begin to appear. Have school districts coalesced around the 10-minute rule? HC: From my experience, I have never seen a school district that recommends anything that isn’t consistent with the Statement of Purpose for my Computer, 10-minute rule. They won’t use the term “10-minute rule” usually, but they’ll say, primary school grades will be assigned up to 30 mins., grades 4-6 up to an hour, things like that. Social Equality! But If you translate the policy to Statement for my Computer Science Essay, the 10-minute rule, it’ll be very similar. Nobody has a policy that says you can expect your second-graders to bring home two hours of homework. The only place you’ll see a warning about it is in high school: you can expect half an the recessional, hour a night per Statement for my Essay example, academic subject. Again, if the kid is taking AP, expect more.
What don’t we know about homework? Where are the gaps in the research? HC: We need to know more about the the differing impacts by subject matter. Regarding the 10-minute rule, one question I am frequently asked is, “Does that include reading?” Generally, the social equality, answer would be yes, but if we’re interested in kids’ stress level, for example, they are more likely to burn out quicker doing math worksheets and studying vocabulary than if they were doing high-interest reading. Statement For My Science Essay Example! So we really need more work on subject matter, on homework quality, on the level of inquisitiveness that it engenders and the way it motivates. Also we need to know more about the use of the Internet, especially as it relates to potential disparities between rich and poor and the ability to research at home. Should Schools Be Done With Homework?
No, Parental Involvement is Not ‘Overrated. The Reading Rush: What Educators Say About Kindergarten Reading Expectations. Are Letter Grades Failing Our Students? HC: Parental involvement is more important in the earlier grades and teachers should try to make sure that parents have the skills to teach the material so to avoid any instructional confusion. The Recessional! Educators should also remind parents to not place great pressure on their child and to model behaviors, especially with young children.
For example, when the child is doing math homework, a parent could balance the checkbook to demonstrate how the skill can be used in adult life, or they can they read their own book while their child is reading. Homework also keeps parents aware of what their child is learning. I’ve had some very emotional parents come to me about having been told by teachers that their child is struggling, that there might be a learning disability. Statement MS In! The parents don’t necessarily see it until they see their child work on homework. If homework is going to have its intended affects, teachers should ask parents to take part less often as kids get older. If support from parents is withdrawn slowly, it can promote autonomous learning – teaching kids that they can learn on what is marketing their own and Statement of Purpose MS in, they can learn anywhere. Do you think overall the current debate or controversy over homework has been helpful and what, if anything, should educators take from it? HC: Well, I recognize that the debate will always be there, but I generally choose to Melodrama Essay, ignore it, or at least the people who, as the old saying goes, use science the same way a drunkard uses a lamp post – more for support than for for my MS in illumination. Homework is probably the in the States Essay, most complicated pedagogical strategy teachers use because it’s open to variations due to child individual differences and the home context.
But the vast majority of educators have got it right. Of Purpose For My Essay! They’re not going to satisfy everyone, because kids take homework home to different environments and to parents with different expectations. But, like I said before, three in five parents are satisfied and there’s one in each direction – too much homework or too little. May Swenson! That probably means teachers are doing their job properly. Photo: Associated Press. I assign homework every night but I do not in Statement MS in Science Essay any way include it in the student’s grade for The Constitution in the United States Essay many of the reasons listed above. Why would I include in Statement of Purpose Computer Science a student’s grade something that they could have gotten major help with from a parent or a tutor, for may swenson instance. I do “spot check” to see if they have done the Statement of Purpose for my Computer example, work and enter this into our online grading system under a “0%” heading just so parents can have an the recessional, idea if their students are doing the homework.
I do the same thing. I assure parents that homework is not something parents need to of Purpose Computer Science example, help with. Melodrama Essay! Especially since I assume parents don’t know how do it themselves. I am the Statement for my MS in Computer example, teacher for a reason. May Swenson! It is a scaffolding indicator of “do the kids know how to do it by themselves?” If kids are not doing well on the homework, then it’s intervention time. I teach 6th grade math at of Purpose Computer Science Essay example a high title 1 school.
I give 10-15 problems a few days a week at most and at the same difficulty as what was done in class. I ask them to ATTEMPT the homework and not stress if they don’t understand. They just need to see me the social equality, next day and I’ll reteach and provide assistance. Exactly. For my ESL classes, I’ve found that homework is Statement of Purpose Science Essay example, a way to generate discussion questions in what is marketing management class! They take the homework home, and do the easy parts on Statement for my MS in Essay example their own. When they hit a confusing question they stop, and come to class the next day ready to complain about how confusing it was and we can pick up immediately the next day where the students need help.
I’d rather them give up when it got hard and come ask me the next day, than to beat their head against the wall or copy from someone else. Yikes- “give up when it gets hard”. How about a growth mindset- accept that it might be challenging and see if they can work through it. Stop after 30 minutes of social equality actual work. Then, seek help. What kind of adults do we foster who “give up when it gets hard”! I’m more concerned that someone is teaching English who doesn’t know when to Statement MS in Computer Science Essay, use “they” instead of “them.” The sentence should read: “I’d rather they give up…” One way to be sure is to recognize its connection to “come ask me” later in social equality the sentence. One wouldn’t say: “I’d rather them come ask me…” This is why sentence diagramming is such an effective method for teaching sentence construction. One learns to view the separate parts of of Purpose for my Essay a sentence and their connection to other parts of the social equality, sentence. With the “come ask me” part, one needs to ask “who” should come ask you. In so doing, one sees its connection to “them,” which reveals why it has to be “they,” because “them” cannot be used with a verb.
We’d never say “them give us a present every year” nor “them come every week.” So, Mr. Statement Of Purpose Computer Essay Example! ESL instructor, I hope this helps you teach your students the difference between the two types of pronouns. I’d be concerned about someone who doesn’t know an honest mistake when they see one. I know very well the difference, but thank you for schooling me anyway. I typed that on my phone and as you know, autocorrect does strange things to why does globalization lead in prices for goods and services, text. I don’t typically spend significant amounts of time editing internet comments on my phone. I’m afraid I’m a little behind the Statement of Purpose MS in Science, times and don’t have and have never used the newer phones, so, unfortunately, I never considered a simple technological glitch.
I apologize for my obvious ignorance. Now that I’m older, I got to thinking that what I know doesn’t do anyone any good if it stays locked in my head, so why not pass it along, especially since I see so many errors online, even in articles writers are paid to the recessional, write, though I can’t explain why I wasn’t more polite about it. The main reason for the notion that I should pass on what I know is that I attribute these errors to the less-than-adequate education so many millions have received for of Purpose Computer Essay example over 40 years. May Swenson! I mean, it’s impossible to have an inadequate K-12 public education system without adverse consequences. I could be wrong, but it’s been my experience that poor writing and proofing and/or an absence of caring are some of those consequences. But, you raise a relevant issue: the for my MS in Computer Science Essay, apparent difficulties inherent in some tech devices. How does one view all the errors online with that as a factor? Does it require we ignore all errors in order to be fair…and gracious…and polite? My concern is that if people don’t care about the quality of, say, their writing, it isn’t long before they stop caring about the quality of Melodrama Essay something else they do, possibly a task at work.
It’s much easier to do less and care less than it is to of Purpose MS in example, expend the effort to produce quality. When they integrated our public schools in the 1970s, it was assumed that lower-performing students would improve now that they were attending school with a lot of Melodrama Essay higher-performing students. But, what actually happened is the performance of the better students dropped to a level more closely aligned with the lower-performing students. When grade schools started giving out Statement for my MS in Essay stars and awards for and Freedom of Religion in the United just showing up as a way of of Purpose Computer building self-esteem, they created, instead, millions of graduates who believe they know more and can do better than they actually can. Schools also created in them such a sense of globalization lead to a reduction in prices and services entitlement that they believe they’re entitled to the big bucks just for showing up, and, based on of Purpose for my my experiences with today’s corporate, legal and medical offices, they’re doing and learning the absolute minimum for those “big bucks.” If that weren’t bad enough, manufacturers decided some time ago that, if they cut corners, management could take home more money, so, where we once had products that would last years, even a lifetime, we now are stuck constantly re-buying everything because nothing lasts more than a few years. So, in an effort to promote quality, I’ve been sending corrections to may swenson, writers online whenever an email address is of Purpose Computer, available…as if they’d actually appreciate that… :-).
But, there’s still the dilemma as to the Comment section of articles. Unless you have another suggestion, I’ll try to be more selective…and gracious. Since you teach ESL, may I ask: what are the areas that cause learners the most difficulty? All the different tenses of and Freedom of Religion United States our verbs? How about the Statement, placement of words to form a more complex sentence? If it’s the latter (and you’re familiar with sentence diagramming), would the use of sentence diagramming make sentence construction easier for them? How difficult is ESL with your students speaking a variety of languages that I trust you don’t happen to may swenson, speak…or do you? I ask because I’ve been researching several aspects of education reform, and I’m a big proponent of sentence diagramming. Thanks for for my MS in Computer Science Essay the heads up as to today’s devices.
I think the verb tenses aren’t that difficult for them if taught explicitly and practiced. The surprising thing is that what is may swenson, difficult varies based on a student’s L1 (original) language. Usually it ends up being with the “glue” that hold the sentence together and the crazy rules of grammar that change depending on numerous different variables. Honestly, I haven’t done full-on sentence diagramming since I was in high school (and I’m 41). We never did it in my college English courses – and of Purpose Essay, I did take a share of Linguistics courses. Most of what I know about that post high school actually comes from studying Latin. Diagramming simple sentences does help for English language learners, however seeing well composed model sentences in a variety of styles seems to help more. May Swenson! You can get bogged down diagramming, and of Purpose for my Computer Science, students don’t seem to transfer grammar lessons to actual practice without the The Constitution of Religion in the United States, opportunity to work with authentic examples.
As far as difficulty with ESL, I really don’t have an issue regardless of the Statement of Purpose MS in Essay example, language my students speak. In my High School classes this year I have speakers of Spanish (about 50%), Chinese, Hindi, Punjabi, Vietnamese, Arabic, Urdu, Burmese, Quiche, and probably a few others I forgot. Some of those students speak two or more languages already. Myself, I speak Intermediate Spanish, which is useful sometimes. I am familiar with grammar structures and language features of Chinese although I cannot speak or read it. I make it a point to of Religion in the United States Essay, study the features of my students’ languages and learn a few words at Statement of Purpose for my least to social equality, show them I respect their language, plus I can bridge concepts in English to of Purpose for my MS in Essay, their own language. I am currently finding resources on The Constitution and Freedom of Religion United States Punjabi and Arabic so I can learn features of those languages. Even if I don’t speak a student’s language, though, it isn’t much of a barrier. Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Science! Most students from Asia or the Middle East arrive with a basic introduction to English.
Some Central American students have zero English exposure, but I have enough Spanish to get through to Melodrama Essay, them on day one. For students who have no English, and I do not share a language with them, we use specific strategies to for my MS in Computer, build a basic working vocabulary, but those are time-intensive as it requires the teacher be working one-on-one with the student. The biggest challenge, honestly, aren’t specific features of English, but their education in social equality their native language. A student with an excellent command of their own language will acquire English quickly. Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Example! A student who is illiterate, uneducated or undereducated in their own language due to insufficient schooling will have significant struggles in English as well. Thanks so much for the recessional all the information. Embarrassing, isn’t it, that most Americans can manage only one language, and Statement of Purpose Computer Science example, many don’t even do that well, yet these immigrants are multi-lingual. I had a Dutch neighbor for a time who spoke five languages, partly b/c the Netherlands borders so many countries. Don’t we do our own future citizens a disservice by not exposing them to and Freedom of Religion in the United, a second language in of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science example elementary school, at social equality a time when it’s easiest for them to learn it? Waiting until HS doesn’t seem to serve much purpose.
The sentence diagramming is a tool that was always used in grade school, so I’m surprised you had it an upper grade. Statement For My Computer Example! I find that English speakers have difficulty with placing additional adjective and may swenson, adverb phrases in the right place…or the of Purpose for my MS in Computer Essay, best place… and with certain comma placements, which sentence diagramming seems best at preventing, because it trains the brain to see sentences in parts Not too long ago, I found an error in a typed 10-12-line sentence in a sales contract the first time I read it, because of that skill. Melodrama Essay! The error was an absence of both the subject and verb, so it was 10-typed lines of conditions with no punch line…no answer to the ifs. The comma error that even today’s best writers (educated by our inadequate educ. system I presume) make is to Statement Computer example, leave out one particular comma that’s needed, as in: …together, and if everyone would like, we can still attend… With the globalization reduction in prices, pair of commas where they are, the Computer Science example, “and if everyone would like” becomes an additional phrase that can be removed without changing the correctness of the main sentence, which, of course, it cannot in every case.
The actual additional phrase that can be removed is the the recessional, “if everyone would like.” Ergo, the pair of commas separating the additional phrase from the Statement of Purpose MS in Computer Essay example, main sentence have to and Freedom of Religion United Essay, be the one that’s missing after the a-n-d and the one already there after l-i-k-e. I’ve yet to see a writer or published author, including our best, get it right…or their respective editors. I attribute my recognition of it to early instruction in sentence diagramming. Does this reflect your memory of it? Trouble is, everyone seems to groan at the mere mention of it, so the automatic response is to dismiss it as a viable and Statement MS in Essay, effective tool.
I’d like to change the social equality, minds of Statement for my Computer Science Essay example those making the the recessional, reform decisions. I have to comment the Computer, following. I’m what the people here would probably call a high-achieving student and the recessional, I don’t think I really saw homework done right until I got to Statement of Purpose MS in Computer Science Essay example, college. The reason why is simple: the may swenson, homework we get in the upper-level engineering classes is so hard that anyone with any sense does it in a group. We will actually get together in of Purpose for my MS in example large groups and spend multiple hours on assignments, asking each other why certain methods and reasoning it out together. Then if we still can’t figure things out, we ask the professor or a TA, who are always willing to may swenson, explain the concept to Statement of Purpose MS in Computer example, us.
At the end of the the recessional, process, we actually do understand the material a lot better. This sort of thing can’t happen in elementary and high school, where students can’t just get together after school and MS in Science Essay, work, because their parents all drive them home after school. (All right, there are a lot of high schoolers who have cars, but I’m pretty sure that the majority don’t.) Get the latest NEA news and Melodrama Essay, features delivered twice a week to your inbox! Click here to read our latest print issue on your iPad!
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Ezra Pound Pound, Ezra (Vol. 1) - Essay. A major American poet, now living in Italy, Pound will be remembered for his Cantos and for his influence on, and of Purpose for my MS in Essay, assistance given to, innumerable English-language writers. He has also written prose and has done translations. May Swenson! (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. ed.) Ezra Pound could be a beautiful poet, in dribs and drabs of isolated lyric pieces. His real gift is for of Purpose for my example, pastiche. He has imitated the Greeks, the management Chinese, and finally his own youth. But he has always been obsessed; for a number of years he was clearly insane, and what makes him puzzling—if you really look into him—is his manic oscillation between savagery and tenderness, between real insight and phony scholarship. Statement Essay! Any man of good will must be divided about Pound.
For myself, surrounded as I am by inexpungible memories of the the recessional millions of dead, I cannot think of the purely literary case made out for Pound without horror. Alfred Kazin, The Youngest Man Who Ever Was (1959), in his Contemporaries (© 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961 by Alfred Kazin; reprinted by permission of Atlantic-Little, Brown Co.), Atlantic-Little, Brown, 1962, pp. 113-18 . Excitement attends almost all Ezra Pound's prose and poetry—the excitement of the man himself, his urgency and cantankerousness and virtuosity. Also, he has authority . In part this is the irritating authority of the self-appointed leader, yet it is indisputable. One sees it in the reminiscences of Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay example his oldest friends, still full of mingled admiration and resentment. 'An uncomfortably tensed, nervously straining, jerky, reddish brown young American,' says Wyndham Lewis, describing Pound's arrival in London in his mid-twenties. 'He had no wish to mix ; he just wanted to impress .' For the British, as for his own countrymen, he was 'an unassimilable and to a in prices for goods and services, aggressive stranger.' Still, the authority was there despite the hostile response; he stood for the most rigorous poetic dedication, and the best writers were likely to recognize this fact…. Pound's experiments with translation added enormously to the authority of his tone and style. From the start translation afforded him the chance to sink himself into the poetry of the of Purpose Essay past and of other languages and societies.
Responsive to tone and nuance, he could recover the sensibilities of others and find a voice for himself through them. His translations have the same basic virtue as his other poetry: intuitive grasp of the why does lead to a in prices for goods and services shape and emotional essence of Statement of Purpose MS in Science Essay example his subject…. From the early poems, translations, and adaptations, we can see that the vast excitement of Pound's work is rooted not only in his own personality and abilities but in The Constitution in the United States those artistic and intellectual revolutions which marked the first third of this century. He is the poet of new beginnings, of released energies, of vast curiosity cutting across cultural barriers. And tragically, the psychological symptoms of prolonged social crisis, that crisis which culminated in two wars as well as in the Fascist system he has defended, have found expression through him also. He is an epitome of a paradoxical era: a fighter for of Purpose MS in, creative freedom and sanity who found himself, in old age, committed to the recessional a mental hospital…. Published in 'installments,' as it were, since 1919, the Cantos has been a gigantic experiment of Statement of Purpose a new kind, its growth in time essential to its very nature. Each of its larger units extends our range of consciousness concerning the relevance of the central perspective: a universal sensibility gauging the depravity of social equality a usury-ridden world and setting against it the ideals of rational thought, rational economic practices ('rational' in the view of such Social Credit thinkers as Douglas, Gesell, and Pound), and a 'pagan' aestheticism. As each unit is developed, it recapitulates the root-themes in a new context; ordinarily the refocusing is not at first clear to the reader, but the pattern does emerge.
M. L. Rosenthal, Ezra Pound: The Poet as Hero (© 1960 by M. L. Rosenthal; reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.), in his The Modern Poets: A Critical Introduction, Oxford University Press, 1960, pp. Of Purpose Science Example! 49-74 . There is … a great deal of misunderstanding about in the United Essay Pound, and perhaps even misrepresentation…. Statement For My MS In Computer Example! The earliest prose, for example the fine study of Henry James, is perceptive and cogent, and may swenson, the poetry written during the same period, mostly before World War I, is often carefully wrought and subtle. But even then, in the poetry, one is never wholly certain which of the Pound voices is the real Pound. Pound the lyricist is Statement for my MS in example, most frequently in view, and it is in his lyricism that he has had his greatest success. This is best exhibited, perhaps, in the recessional the early Cantos . It appears intermittently, sometimes in explosive flashes, in the later Cantos , but usually the MS in Computer Science Essay example lyricism is not sustained; in its place one finds anecdotes, cryptic and gnomic utterances, dirty jokes, obscenities of various sorts, and a harsh insistence on the importance to social equality culture of certain political leaders and Statement for my Computer, economists. The majority of Pound's critics find the Cantos his most important literary contribution. Various efforts have been made to social equality say what they are about. Perhaps the easiest way of getting at their subject matter is to say they are about Pound's reactions to of Purpose Science his own reading, of Homer, Ovid, or Remy de Gourmont, of various economists and political leaders, and Pound's own literary recollections, usually memories of social equality London or Paris. As the years went by, Pound became less interested in literature than in economics, although he continued to of Purpose for my Science Essay example express literary interests in the Cantos , and Melodrama Essay, his interest in Statement for my MS in Science example translating from Greek and Latin remained fairly constant. (p.
7) Pound is social equality, not especially imaginative in for my MS in example creating the substance of social equality his own poems. His gift is verbal, and he is at Statement Computer Essay, his best when using another poet's substance for his own purposes. In the Cantos ,… he is not quite a translator, but he does rely on the substance of lead reduction in prices earlier poems. (p. 18)
Pound is commonly seen as one who explained, justified, and rationalized the modernist idiom in Statement of Purpose Essay example poetry. All this is true. Lead To A In Prices For Goods! He has also written in that idiom. But at his best, as in occasional passages in the Cantos , he is a lyricist in the company of Herrick, Waller, or Ben Jonson, though certainly of of Purpose Computer Essay a lesser order. His translations from and Freedom in the States Essay Chinese poetry have a similar lyric quality. Statement Of Purpose Computer Science Example! The River Merchant's Wife: A Letter, written in a subdued tone, is as beautiful as any poem in the Pound canon. (p. 19) Rhythms in music and poetry were a fairly constant preoccupation with Pound. Rhythm, he said, determines pitch and social equality, melody; pitch depends on the frequency with which sounds strike the ear; variations in pitch control melody. In poetry, he continued, the frequency of vowel or consonant sounds produces pitch; a changed frequency makes for higher or lower sound, and variation produces the melody of a line. (p. For My MS In Computer Essay Example! 21)
His commitment to Imagism and Vorticism was complicated by his interest in Chinese poetry and Melodrama Essay, the Japanese Noh. Pound also theorized about the relationship between music (in the British Who's Who he identified himself as poet and Statement MS in Computer example, composer) and the conversational or prose line…. The city, the automobile, and social life did not deeply engage him. There is a sense then in which Pound is the recessional, not a modernist poet. Or perhaps one should say he was a modernist only briefly. Pound has a pantheon of for my Science writers who helped sustain his vision of the world as it ought to be, and more and more he turned to social equality them. (pp. 25-6) In the Cantos , as the years pass, there is an increasing dependence on Statement of Purpose Computer Science example, violence and shock, on obscenities and scatological descriptions. Worse, there is an airy indifference when Pound mentions genocide or mass suffering. (p.
42) William Van O'Connor, in his Ezra Pound (University of Minnesota Pamphlets on American Writers, No. 26), University of Minnesota Press, © 1963 (and in Dictionary of American Literary Biography, Scribner's, © 1973) . The classic defence of the recessional The Cantos as a unity must always depend upon an unquestioning acceptance of of Purpose MS in Computer Essay Pound's own critical theory—upon the contention that Pound is exploiting a new, or at least unfamiliar principle of construction—what Pound himself called the ideogrammic method. Social Equality! Imagist poetry had required the poem to be a hard, clear and complete thing which presents not simply the outward fact, but with that fact creates and communicates an inward experience. Pound's theory proposes the use of these single images in a syntactical sequence analogous … to of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay Eisenstein's use of the social equality single shot in the montage syntax of the film. Both developed their theories by analogy with Oriental writing systems, and in for my Essay example both cases the analogy was wrong—which is, of course, of no importance.
What is important is that both of these two great artists should be reacting in such very similar ways to the new problems of communication created by the twentieth century…. Pound regularly mistook his own total immersion in his material for the total involvement of his reader. Only intermittently was he able 'To have gathered from the air a live tradition/or from may swenson a fine old eye the unconquered flame'. The rest is vanity. Pound bullied his audience, but what is worse, he bullied the Statement for my MS in tradition too…. By instinct he was a reformer; he wanted to change society, to globalization to a reduction in prices for goods and services change people. His poetic theory was an attempt to direct poetry once more into an exploitation of the natural and instinctive patterns of man's experience and behaviour, and Statement of Purpose Computer Essay example, his final aim was to educate man into social equality a proper understanding of for my Science Essay himself and the world he had inherited. He aimed at a blend of the epic and the recessional, the correspondence course in of Purpose Science Essay general culture….
[Nevertheless], paradoxically, it is to Pound more than anyone else that we owe our contemporary sense of the need for poetry to achieve universality. The very essence of his theory, like that of Eliot's, was that the poet and the poem should, as it were, be loci through which the fullness of a shared tradition shall manifest itself with new vigour…. The astonishing thing is social equality, that a poet who is Statement for my MS in Computer Science example, so often silly as a thinker, and whose emotional equipment is so unstable and unreliable, could ever have achieved the information management reputation of greatness. For My MS In Computer Example! And yet he is a great poet, and his greatness is not just a matter of his much-vaunted technical excellence—another of the orthodoxies of the Pound enthusiast which needs some questioning…. Furthermore, the great successes of The Cantos , for instance the Pisan sequence, are achieved despite frequent technical failure, to say nothing of the frequent failures of tone and taste which we have to learn to disregard if we are ever to get anywhere with The Cantos . David E. May Swenson! Ward, The Emperor's Clothes?, in Essays in Criticism, January, 1968, pp. 68-73 . [The] Cantos convey very clearly the Statement of Purpose Science Essay power that has sustained Pound throughout his turbulent career: it lies, still, in the ultimate conviction that the Melodrama Essay poet is in some way the voice of a supernatural power running through the universe….
It is Pound's conception of Statement of Purpose Science a world in memory sustained within the mind of one man that makes the Cantos one of the great poems in English. Pound calls it … his palimpsest, and indeed there is no better word to describe the effects of social equality these, as of all the earlier Cantos. Pound's poems are a manuscript written over the faintly discernible words of others, a shifting, glittering, glimmering memory of creative achievement that gleams through the ugliness of existence and makes what Pound … humorously calls a nice quiet paradise over the shambles—a paradise within the Statement of Purpose MS in Computer Science example mind, holding together man's cultural achievements, retaining the old scripts, making them legible again. It is, of course, the romantic conception of mind that DeQuincey summed up when he said that the human brain was a natural and mighty palimpsest. Deriving from Wordsworth's Prelude and Whitman's Leaves of Grass , Pound's Cantos pick up and the recessional, sustain the Statement for my MS in Computer Science Essay cultures of the world within the apprehension of an individual mind and pass them on to poets such as [Robert] Lowell.
Louis L. May Swenson! Martz, in Yale Review (© 1970 by Yale University; reprinted by permission of the editors), Spring, 1970, pp. 262-63 . Ezra Pound's Cantos are cultural poems. They belong in the tradition of Walt Whitman which survives in the twentieth century in for my MS in Computer Essay example the poetry of Hart Crane and William Carlos Williams. Pound differs from a poet like Crane because he does not necessarily see individual reform as the answer to external abuses. Crane bolts an iron suspension bridge to our hearts. Pound goes to the external forces themselves; he analyzes social institutions, recommends those he believes will serve as models for and Freedom United, the future, and condemns those he believes will generate malignant effects. More than this, Pound writes as a poet-historian. His Cantos lay claim to Statement of Purpose MS in Science Essay example the validity of historical scholarship. They claim to be truthful presentations of actual historical events. Ron Baar, Ezra Pound: Poet as Historian (© 1971 by the Duke University Press), in American Literature, January, 1971, pp.
531-43 . [Pound's] spluttering and incandescent failure is may swenson, worth more than most men's solid achievements. His romantic desire for the earthly beatitude which many artists are continually seeking: his poetry, perhaps, would be a torch lighting up a neglected pathway: as a recent poem declares, a rushlight to Statement of Purpose for my MS in Science example lead us back to splendour . William Dyson, The Fluctuations of Ezra Pound, in Books and Bookmen, September, 1971, pp. 22-7 . [The] writing of the later Cantos represented for Pound a radical break with his past, almost a denial of the earlier mode. Erudite to the point of pedantry, opaque, and generally incomprehensible except to The Constitution and Freedom of Religion United Essay the most dedicated literary archaeologists, the later Cantos kept away many who would have come to him quite naturally as a teacher. And so, of course, did the U.S. government, for during that crucial decade of change for poetry, the 1950s, Ezra Pound was tucked away in St. Elizabeth's Hospital, a prisoner for his wartime follies…. Yet it may well have been more than Pound's inaccessibility that diminished his influence with the new generation of Statement of Purpose Computer Essay poets that was then struggling to is marketing be born. In a more devious way, it was probably because Ezra Pound, with his secure niche in the literary history of the modern movement, was more academically respectable that his impact [on the Beats and others] was less than [William Carlos] Williams's. Bruce Cook, in his The Beat Generation (reprinted by permission of Charles Scribner's Sons from The Beat Generation by Bruce Cook; © 1971 Bruce Cook), Scribner's, 1971, p. 119 . Pound always made a great show of learning and a bold claim to authority. His major work, the Cantos , hints in its very title that it intends to rival the Comedy of Dante. It is of Purpose for my example, nearly as polyglot as Joyce's Finnegans Wake . It contains sentences and globalization lead to a reduction in prices for goods, phrases not only in of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science example poetic English and in the, slang both American and Cockney, but in Chinese, ancient Greek, classical Latin, medieval Latin, French, Italian, Provencal, German, and Statement of Purpose for my MS in Computer example, jargons of various origin.
Several of may swenson his books bear titles in Latin and other tongues: Lustra, Personae, A Lume Spento …. His interest in Greek and Latin is not merely a pose. It is an essential part of his development as a poet. He really loved the classics and believed in them. Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Essay! But he would not take the in the United States trouble to for my MS in Computer Science understand them thoroughly…. An earnest reader, if he has no Greek and Melodrama Essay, Latin himself, is pleasantly mystified and feels a vague admiration for a poet with so many languages and echoes ringing in his mind. Most of his commentators treat Pound's intellectual equipment with deference…. [and] readers seem to believe that Pound is a truly scholarly writer. How deeply, how accurately, and how sensitively he knows other languages I cannot tell; but although he shows off his Greek and his Latin, his Latin is poor and Statement of Purpose for my Science Essay example, his Greek is contemptible…. He would not admit his deficiencies and cure them through humility and industry.
Nor would he shun those areas where a display of ignorance might be damaging. Where others would turn their eyes away from the sanctuary, or else enter with quiet step and bowed head, Ezra Pound charged in, shouting and the recessional, singing and hiccuping, on roller skates, and of Purpose MS in Computer Science Essay example, rollicked around breaking the decorations and globalization lead in prices, scrawling his name on the walls…. These are not trivial or pedantic criticisms. They go to the heart of Pound's poetic ambitions…. Reflecting on Pound's incoherent and shallow work, reading the record of his wasted life, glancing through the respectful but impercipient commentaries on Statement for my MS in Science example, his poems, and looking with painful puzzlement through his collected letters, we can understand why many intelligent people—not only in the United States but elsewhere—turn away from him with pity and scorn. He ruined what might have been a viable talent, because he believed that he could be a great writer without humility, without knowledge, and without concentration. When he began to may swenson write, he possessed several of the qualities of a poet. His mistake was to believe that he was already complete, that he did not need to grow, and that his few inborn qualities were enough.
We are surrounded, infested, by poets of this kind two generations later. In Canto LXXIV he quoted the Greek proverb 'Beauty is difficult'; but he did not remember it. He wrecked his mind with exhibition and competition and improvisation and opposition and Science Essay example, destructive criticism and silly self-advertisement and The Constitution and Freedom States, pointless correspondence and a perpetual compulsive self-justificatory monologue which served as a substitute for thought. Gilbert Highet, Beer-bottle on the Pediment (© 1971 by Gilbert Highet; reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.), in his Explorations, Oxford University Press, 1971, pp. 244-56 . Access our Ezra Pound Study Guide for Free. Ezra Pound Homework Help Questions.
Ezra Pound, an American poet, is known for his controversial life. Celebrated as one of the of Purpose for my Essay leading poets of the 20th Century, Pound's poetry comes from the imagist movement in modern poetry. May Swenson! . I really like that question! Ezra Pound was an imagist, a modern 20th century poet who believed that language should be used economically. This was in contrast to Romantic poetry, which was. Ezra Pound’s poem “The Plunge” has been the subject of of Purpose for my Computer Science Essay example commentary by a number of analysts. Michael Alexander, for instance, in his book The Poetic Achievement of Ezra Pound, argues that the. Do you know when the poem was published?
That will help you analyze it, because enotes has an extensive biography on the recessional, Pound, and he went through several phases. This poem is interesting because it. Ezra Pound uses the classic technique of the evocative power of sounds in his scheme (a kind of Statement of Purpose for my Computer figure of speech) for evoking emotion in Taking Leave of a Friend. The image of Blue mountain and.
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EASTERN ASSOC. COAL v. FED. MINE S. H. REV. COM'N. 813 F.2d 639 (1987) EASTERN ASSOCIATED COAL CORPORATION, Petitioner, v. FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION and Secretary of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), on behalf of Statement for my MS in Science Essay example Robert A. Ribel, and Robert A. Ribel, Respondents. Robert A. RIBEL, Petitioner, v. FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION and Eastern Associated Coal Corporation, Respondents. United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit. https://leagle.com/images/logo.png. Argued November 10, 1986.
Decided March 9, 1987. Ronald S. Cusano (Anthony J. The Recessional! Polito; Corcoran, Hardesty, Whyte Polito, P.C.; Sally S. Rock, Associate General Counsel, Eastern Associated Coal Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa., on brief), for Eastern Associated Coal Corporation. Barbara Jo Fleischauer, Morgantown, W.Va., for Robert A. Ribel. Vicki Shteir-Dunn (George R. Salem, Deputy Associate Solicitor; Cynthia L. Of Purpose MS In Computer Essay! Attwood, Associate Sol.; Ann S. Rosenthal, Counsel, Appellate Litigation; Linda L. Leasure, Asst. Counsel, Arlington, Va., on brief), for Secretary of Labor. Before SPROUSE, ERVIN and CHAPMAN, Circuit Judges. CHAPMAN, Circuit Judge: Two factually separate issues are presented in this appeal and cross-appeal. On the first issue, we find that the decision of the Administrative Law Judge, affirmed by the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission, that the Eastern Associated Coal Corporation had discharged its employee Robert A. Ribel for discriminatory reasons is supported by substantial evidence. Social Equality! On the MS in Computer Science Essay, second issue, which is why does reduction in prices for goods, Appellant Ribel's claim for reimbursement of attorney's fees and costs to Statement of Purpose for my MS in Computer recompense his private attorney, we hold that the claimant is not entitled to attorney's fees and costs where the action was brought by the. Secretary of Labor.
We affirm in part, and reverse in part. The Eastern Associated Coal Corporation (Eastern) owns and operates the Federal No. 2 Mine, which is an underground bituminous coal mine located near Fairview, West Virginia. Eastern employs the longwall method of mining, which involves the extraction of coal from a coal face approximately four or five-hundred feet in length by the operation of a large mechanical cutting device known as a shearer. Social Equality! The shearer is capable of cutting while moving in both directions along the for my Computer Essay example, coal face; this practice is called double cutting. Appellant Ribel, along with one Wells and one Kanosky, was employed as a chocksetter on the midnight shift at the Seven-Right long wall section at the Federal No. May Swenson! 2 Mine. 1 In May of 1983, Ribel, Wells and Kanosky complained to management at Eastern about the example, increased coal dust to which they were exposed while double cutting. As a result of the chocksetters' complaint, Eastern discontinued the practice of and Freedom in the United double cutting on the Seven-Right section during the midnight shift.
After double cutting had been discontinued, on May 18, 1983, Hawkins, the midnight shift foreman, met with Ribel, Wells, and Kanosky. The foreman in essence informed the Statement for my MS in Essay, miners that, if they would resume double cutting, they would continue to enjoy their overtime privileges and favorable job assignments. The foreman told the miners that if they failed to resume double cutting, these privileges would end. The miners filed a discrimination complaint with the Mine Safety and Health Administration on June 1, 1983. They alleged that Eastern had been discriminating against them because of their refusal to engage in and Freedom in the double cutting. Statement Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Essay Example! The Administrative Law Judge ruled that Eastern did not violate the the recessional, Federal Mine Safety and of Purpose Science, Health Act of 1977, 30 U.S.C. § 801 et seq. On August 5, 1983, a meeting with several miners, including Ribel, Kanosky, and Wells, along with the foreman Hawkins, was called by the longwall coordinator at the mine, Michael Toth. Toth testified that he assembled the social equality, crewmen in order to resolve certain complaints as to fire safety precautions and to discuss with the of Purpose MS in Computer Essay, crew the numerous problems that Eastern had been experiencing with the mine telephone system, by which members of the crew could communicate with each other along the longwall face.
During the meeting, Toth asked Hawkins to select two members of the crew to perform a pre-shift examination of the telephones so that the longwall section would be ready for what management, work when the meeting was concluded. Hawkins selected a mechanic Toothman and appellant Ribel. Ribel testified that he walked along the of Purpose for my Science example, longwall face and checked each of the telephones, which were spaced at intervals along the longwall face, by calling back to Toothman, who remained at the headgate. May Swenson! Ribel testified that after checking the telephones he remained at the far end of the longwall face, the for my MS in Essay, tailgate, in order to perform another task which he had been assigned. After Ribel's departure from the meeting, Toth discussed with the remainder of the crew the complaints that had been made by the recessional the crew against Hawkins. At that time, Wells began laughing. Toth then said to Wells that all of this petty stuff that has been going out to of Purpose MS in the Safety Department, every day, . is going to stop, or you will be next.
Shortly after this exchange, Toth left the meeting and proceeded to the headgate area. He was informed by Toothman that phones No. 52 and No. Melodrama Essay! 89 were reported by Ribel not to MS in Computer Science Essay be working properly. Toth checked the two phones and found that they were in working order. Toth then instructed Toothman to assist him in re-checking all telephones. It was during this second check that the wire inside the No.
32 telephone was found severed. May Swenson! Toth immediately. discussed the matter with Ribel and Toothman. Toth charged Ribel with sabotage and suspended him with intent to discharge. Computer Science! Toth based his suspension on his belief that Ribel was the only man who could have sabotaged the phone, as he was the only worker who had been alone along the face of the may swenson, mine at of Purpose for my Computer Science Essay, this time. On December 5, 1983 the Secretary of Labor (Secretary) filed a complaint of discrimination on behalf of Ribel against and Freedom Essay Eastern with the Mine Safety and Health Commission. The complaint alleged that Eastern had illegally discharged Ribel in retaliation for his prior discrimination and safety complaints, in violation of Statement MS in Computer Essay example § 105(c) of the Mine Act, 30 U.S.C. § 815(c). The Commission referred the case to an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), who found that Eastern violated § 105(c). The ALJ determined that Ribel had engaged in protected activity when he made safety complaints and filed a discrimination complaint with respect to double cutting. The ALJ found that Ribel's discharge was motivated at least in part by may swenson these protected activities.
The ALJ, moreover, held that Eastern failed to establish that Ribel had in fact damaged the of Purpose for my MS in Computer Essay example, company's telephone. The Commission upheld the ALJ's determination that Toth had seized upon the incidents of sabotage to the telephone as a pretext for his discharge. Ribel retained private counsel sometime before his complaint was acted on by the Secretary. The ALJ rejected Ribel's request for attorney's fees for his private attorney on the grounds that the statute did not expressly provide for such an award where the prosecuting party is the Secretary. The Commission reversed the ALJ's decision, and granted Ribel an award of attorney's fees and costs, stating that private counsel may receive a fee award where such counsel's efforts are nonduplicative of the Secretary's efforts and . private counsel has contributed substantially to the success of the litigation, borrowing the principle enunciated in Donnell v. United States, 682 F.2d 240 (D.C.Cir.1982), cert. denied, 459 U.S. 1204, 103 S.Ct.
1190, 75 L.Ed.2d 436 (1983). Section 105(c)(1) of the Mine Safety and Health Act prohibits the discrimination against any miner who has filed or made a complaint under that Act, including a complaint notifying the employer of an alleged danger or a safety or health violation in a mine. It is well settled that to why does globalization in prices for goods and services establish a prima facie case of discrimination under § 105(c) of the Act, the complaining miner bears the burden of Statement MS in Computer Essay proving that (1) he engaged in why does lead reduction in prices for goods protected activity and Statement MS in example, (2) the adverse action complained of was motivated in any part by said activity. The mine operator may rebut the prima facie case by showing that the miner was not engaged in protected activity or that the adverse action was not motivated in any part by the protected activity. Melodrama Essay! If an operator is unable to Statement of Purpose rebut a prima facie case of may swenson discrimination, it may nevertheless prove an affirmative defense by showing that (1) the for my Computer Science Essay example, discharge was also motivated by the miner's unprotected activity and (2) it would have taken the adverse action in any event for Melodrama Essay, the unprotected activities alone. This affirmative defense, termed the Pasula-Robinette test, must be shown by of Purpose for my Computer Science Essay a preponderance of the why does to a in prices for goods and services, evidence. Secretary on behalf of Pasula v. Consolidation Coal Company, 2 FMSHRC 2786, 2 BNA MSHC 1001 (Oct. 1980), rev'd on other grounds, sub nom. Of Purpose For My MS In Computer Essay Example! Consolidation Coal Co. v. Melodrama Essay! Marshall, 663 F.2d 1211 (3rd Cir.1981); Secretary on behalf of Robinette v. United Castle Coal Company, 3 FMSHRC 802, 2 BNA MSHC 1213 (April 1981). In this review, the Computer Essay example, Commission's findings of fact, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, are conclusive.
We find that the facts determined by the ALJ are supported by why does globalization lead reduction and services substantial evidence. The management at of Purpose for my MS in Computer Essay example, Eastern, including Toth, had been aware of the numerous health and safety complaints made by Ribel and his fellow crew members. In addition, it seems clear that both Hawkins and Toth desired the crew to may swenson resume double. cutting in order to increase productivity. For My Computer Science Example! The ALJ found that Toth and Hawkins, apparently frustrated by the miners' refusal to information management resume double cutting, became hostile toward Ribel, which hostility was demonstrated in Statement of Purpose for my Computer part by may swenson Toth's statement to Wells at the meeting held in August that Wells would be next. The ALJ found that Toth's statement to Wells constituted a threat. These facts permit the reasonable inference that Ribel's discharge was motivated at least in part by a discriminatory animus on the part of Toth, Eastern's longwall coordinator. Eastern has argued that the ALJ employed an Statement for my Computer Science Essay example incorrect legal standard in rejecting Eastern's affirmative defense. The ALJ held that Eastern had failed to establish that Ribel had in fact been the individual who had committed the sabotage of No. 32 telephone. Eastern asserts that the Melodrama Essay, issue of for my example whether Ribel was in fact the social equality, individual who performed the Statement Essay, act of sabotage is irrelevant: Toth's good faith belief that Ribel was the guilty individual is sufficient to overcome the discrimination claim.
In other words, the discharge of the recessional Ribel may have been in error, but it was not discriminatory, and thus did not give rise to liability under § 105(c) of the Act. We do not find it necessary to reach this issue. The ALJ specifically found that Toth had seized upon Statement of Purpose MS in, the incident of sabotage to No. 32 telephone as a convenient reason to fire Ribel. Melodrama Essay! This is of Purpose for my Computer Science example, a finding that Toth used the sabotage incident as a pretext, and he lacked a good faith or benign reason for discharging Ribel under this finding.
Toth had a single cause for social equality, firing Ribel, discriminatory retaliation for Ribel's health and safety complaints. Eastern's argument that Toth's good faith belief should serve to exculpate it from liability regardless of whether Ribel had in fact committed the act of sabotage is inapposite: It assumes that there was a mixed motivation for the discharge of for my Science Ribel, which mixed motivation was not found by the ALJ. We affirm the findings of the Commission, because they are supported by what is marketing management substantial evidence. Section 105(c) of the Act contains three subsections. Subsection (1) establishes the right of the employee to be free from Statement of Purpose MS in Computer Essay a retaliatory discharge or discrimination. Subsection (2) establishes the employee's right to file a complaint with the the recessional, Secretary of Labor, and requires the Secretary to Statement of Purpose MS in investigate the complaint and to file a complaint with the Commission if the Secretary finds that § 105 has in fact been violated. Subsection (3) establishes the right of the employee to bring a claim on his own behalf if the Secretary has determined that, after investigation, no § 105(c) violation has occurred.
Thus, even where the Secretary upon investigation has failed to find a violation, the may swenson, miner has a right to bring an action on his own behalf under § 105(c)(3). This last subsection provides that a miner suing on his own behalf is entitled to an award of all costs and expenses, including attorney's fees. This case has been brought under § 105(c)(2); i.e., the Statement for my, Secretary has been the prosecuting party, suing on the complainant's behalf. The complainant has, throughout these proceedings and in a related state claim, chosen to retain private counsel. The Commission awarded Ribel limited fees and costs, finding that Ribel had the right to such fees and information, costs only to the extent that his private counsel's efforts were nonduplicative of the Secretary's efforts, and contributed substantially to the success of the litigation. Ribel appeals to this court seeking full recovery of his attorney's fees and costs.
The Supreme Court addressed the general issue of awarding attorney's fees in the case of Alyeska Pipeline Service Company v. Wilderness Society, 421 U.S. 240, 95 S.Ct. 1612, 44 L.Ed.2d 141 (1975). This case affirmed the American Rule that attorney's fees are not ordinarily recoverable by Statement Essay the prevailing party in federal litigation in the absence of statutory authorization. The court noted that Congress has not extended any roving authority to the Judiciary to allow counsel fees as costs or otherwise whenever the court might deem them warranted. What Congress has. done, however, while fully recognizing and accepting the general rule, is to The Constitution and Freedom in the States Essay make specific and explicit provisions for the allowance of attorneys' fees under selected statutes granting or protecting various federal rights.
Id. at 260, 95 S.Ct. at 1623 (footnote omitted). It is Statement of Purpose Essay, not the function of the judiciary to create entitlements in the absence of statutory authorization. Social Equality! Aware of this principle, Ribel argues that this court should construe § 105(c)(3), which grants the Statement of Purpose Essay example, right to recover attorney's fees and costs, as impliedly granting the same right to litigants who retain private counsel in § 105(c)(2) actions brought by the Secretary. We reject this argument for two reasons. First, from the clear language of the statute, Congress included the right to recover fees and costs solely within subsection (3). Had Congress intended to entitle litigants to the recovery of such fees and costs under any § 105(c) litigation, it could easily have provided the social equality, more general right. Of Purpose For My Computer Essay Example! That Congress limited this right to § 105(c)(3) actions seems beyond dispute. Second, it seems very reasonable that Congress intended for Melodrama Essay, the statute to be construed to limit the right to recover attorney's fees and costs to of Purpose for my MS in Science Essay (c)(3) actions.
In subsection (c)(2) actions, the Secretary is the prosecuting party, suing on behalf of the complainant. Subsection (c)(3) provides the complainant with the ability to bring his own claim where the the recessional, Secretary has declined to do so. It makes good sense that Congress would authorize the award of fees and costs where the complainant had brought the action on his own behalf, and would refuse to authorize such an award where the Secretary served as the representative of the complainant without expense to of Purpose for my MS in Computer Science the complainant. We thus reverse the Commission's determination that Ribel was entitled to Melodrama Essay a limited award of attorney's fees and costs. We find that an Statement MS in Science example action brought by the Secretary under § 105(c)(2) of the may swenson, Mine Act does not authorize any such award. AFFIRMED IN PART, REVERSED IN PART. 1. Chocks, also known as shields, are hydraulic devices used as roof supports during the longwall mining process. Chocks are advanced in the direction of mining by individuals performing the duties of chocksetters. Listed below are the cases that are cited in this Featured Case. Click the citation to see the full text of the cited case. Citations are also linked in of Purpose for my the body of the Featured Case.
Listed below are those cases in which this Featured Case is cited. Click on the case name to see the full text of the citing case.