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To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for a job in challenging and healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and knowledge efficiently for organizational organizational growth. To be an astute learner and the best performer in vegetarian your organization. So that I can build an innovative career in your esteemed organization by using my skills and other significant talents. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and earn a job Which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To work in pragmatic way in an organization where I can show my talent and enhance my skills to meet company goals and on The, objective with full integrity and zest. To succeed in an environment of vegetarian vs meat, growth and excellence and earn a job which provide me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals.

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To strive for excellence, to work in such an environment that will enhance my knowledge and career, where I can perform my management skills according to my strong Caliber and efficiency. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To live honest and Essay on The Importance, hard life to work in a highly challenging competitive environment for the enhancement of my creative abilities and optimum profitability of the organization. To work hard with full dedication for the achievement of organization objective under satisfying job contact, hence enhancing my skill and knowledge and ready to vegetarian learn new things. To serve the Organization as a hard worker in this competitive environment discharging all my professional skills. To be a part of Organization that provides an atmosphere of mutual growth and benefits, where I can show my talent and potential.

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Feminism/ Nellie Mcclung term paper 11132. We may yet live to see the vs meat day when women will no longer be news! And it cannot come too soon. And Weaknesses? I want to be a peaceful, happy, normal human being, pursuing my unimpeded way through life, never having to explain, defend, or apologize for my sex. - Nellie McClung 1929. Throughout her life, Nellie McClung strove to improve the quality of life not just for vegetarian women but for all Canadians. Her principle aim was to achieve recognition and self deluded, acceptance of women who had traditionally been denied a role in the institutions and organizations which governed both Canadian politics and culture. Vs Meat? An active suffragist, writer, prohibitionist, and political agitator, McClung's efforts brought about much change in Canadian society. While an examination of the reforms and movements she supported are obviously feminist in nature, it is difficult to determine the root of her feminist beliefs. At The Turn Twentieth Progressive Activists? Today's terms for first wave feminists were not used in Nellie McClung's era.

Now, these activists are labeled as either maternal or equal rights feminists and vegetarian, such a label would seem to dictate a distinct philosophy and motives for reform. Strengths And Weaknesses? McClung is difficult to label since she seems to vegetarian vs meat alternate between the Essay on The of Sleep two types of feminism. Vegetarian? The discussion of Importance of Sleep, first wave feminism is problematic as feminists are branded as maternal or equal rights feminists, terms which were not even applicable at the time. Maternal feminists, for example, sought the vote in vs meat, order to reinforce the influence of women and the family in self deluded, Canadian society, and to introduce feminine morality into Canadian politics. On the other hand, equal rights feminists fought for the vote based on the assumption that men and women are equal, and vegetarian vs meat, therefore everyone shares the right to participate in a liberal democracy. As Davis and Hallet point out, while the arguments used by self deluded, the women can be labeled, the women themselves cannot.

Such a statement is definitely applicable to Nellie McClung who embraced a multitude of causes, and vs meat, often took a different approach to each. Upon examining the causes she served and the roles she filled as a Canadian woman in the first half of the twentieth century, one discovers that Nellie McClung did not have a unified approach to reform of the life. Her involvement in the installation of women in structure, the United Church, prohibition, the suffrage movement, her family, and vegetarian vs meat, her writing, defy any restricting and self deluded, confining labels, while erasing the need to find one. Religion played a prominent role in the life of Nellie McClung since childhood. Brought up by an Irish father and Scottish mother in a Methodist household, Nellie formulated a strong system of Christian beliefs. The ordination of women in vs meat, the church began when women felt that they should have a voice in self deluded, church administration. Nellie supported this movement declaring that. 'God created man in his own image . . . male and female. He created them.' That is to say, He created male and female man. Further on in the story of creation it says: 'He gave them dominion etc.' It would seem from this, that men and women got away to a fair start. Vegetarian Vs Meat? There was no inequality to begin with.

God gave them dominion over everything; there were no favours, no special privileges. Whatever inequality has crept in since, has come without God's sanction. Nellie often used Biblical references such as the one above to justify her cause. Church boards delayed and self deluded, attempted to avoid the question of female ordination altogether. This did not really matter since no female candidate for ordination had come forward. As well, further negotiations with the Presbyterian and Congregational churches regarding unification meant the Methodist Church was reluctant to take a potentially inflammatory stance. Nellie criticized both the church and her fellow women stating: It (the church) preached resignation when it should have sounded rebellion. Many of the brightest women grew impatient and went out of church figuratively slamming the door behind them. Slamming an innocent door has always seemed to vegetarian vs meat me a misdirection of energy. It is better to linger after the sermon to interview the minister.

It was not until 1926 that Lydia Gruchy, the first female candidate, came forward, and not until 1936 that she was actually ordained. David Foster Wallace? In 1929, after Nellie McClung, Emily Murphy, and three other feminists won the Persons Case, it was declared that, Now only two great institutions wouldn't accept women on equal terms - the church and the beer parlour! Arguments declaring that women would not be as capable counsellors as men, and vegetarian, that female priests would act as temptresses, slowed action from the church. Nellie's participation in boundaryless organizational, the fight for the installation of women in the United Church was both extensive and influential. In this case, it is quite clear that her feminist arguments incorporated the ideals of equality and vs meat, fairness rather than voicing the maternal arguments that focused on the role and plans, significance of the mother and family in Canadian society. Nellie McClung was an avid believer in the necessity of reform policy which would bring Prohibition into effect. Vegetarian Vs Meat? McClung spoke frequently and adamantly of the evils of plans, demon liquor and its effect on the family. Vegetarian? Firstly, Nellie felt that alcohol primarily affected women and children as they suffered directly from self deluded excessive drinking on vegetarian vs meat the part of males. Domestic violence, physical and emotional abuse, and profanity caused turmoil in family life when alcohol was not effectively controlled. It was also argued that women who abused alcohol may have done so as a result of being denied an active role in society.

Frustrated and isolated, some women looked to alcohol as an escape from their boring, repetitive day to self deluded day lives. The stress of Nellie's argument for Prohibition was distinct from her approach to other issues. She would often take a humourous or sarcastic tone to make her point. On the subject of alcohol, she became very serious in order to emphasize the importance of vegetarian vs meat, her case, and to ensure that it would be taken seriously and professional, not brushed off as prudish or unimportant. In the case for Prohibition, an aspect of maternal feminism is evident in Nellie.

She advocated that women have a natural sphere to guide and sustain life, to care for vegetarian vs meat the race. Foster Consider? Although her argument is based on a stereotype which suggests that women are morally superior to men, Nellie felt that the role of females in Canadian society had to be extended in order to improve the living conditions of all. When faced with the proposition of female suffrage in the first decades of the twentieth century, most male politicians claimed that they respected women, yet the political spectrum was too harsh and vegetarian vs meat, corrupt for them. Premier Rodmond Roblin of Manitoba proved to Essay be a particularly resistant force on the question of female suffrage. He tried to manipulate maternal feminist rhetoric in order to establish his case: My wife is bitterly opposed to women suffrage.

I have respect for my wife; more than that, I love her: I am not ashamed to say so. Will anyone say that she would be better as a wife and vs meat, mother because she could go and talk on the streets about of the progressive local or dominion politics? I disagree. The mother that is worthy of the name and of the good affection of a good man has a hundredfold more influence in moulding and shaping public opinion around her dinner table than she would have in the marketplace, hurling her eloquent phrases to the multitude. It is in the home that her influence is exercised and felt. Nellie McClung was an active member of the Political Equality League which strove to counter this type of attitude.

P.E.L. Workers spoke and circulated petitions at many public events including stampedes and church bazaars. Vs Meat? In January 1914, a delegation from the P.E.L. approached the Manitoba legislature to boundaryless organizational present its case. The delegation included women of various ethnic backgrounds and classes. Nellie explained to the legislature: We are not here to ask for vs meat a reform, or a gift, or a favour, but for a right - not for mercy but for justice.

Roblin acknowledged that these women were in deadly earnest, but insisted that their logic was decidedly ineffective. The Premier's speech was so harsh and lacking in logic, that Nellie was delighted. Wallace Consider The Lobster? The following evening, the suffragists had planned a mock parliament in vegetarian vs meat, the Walker Theater in which all the politicians were to be female, and a delegation of self deluded, males would approach the female legislature and petition for suffrage. The first petition protested against vs meat men's clothing. Collars should be at least six inches and scarlet ties were to be outlawed. The second demanded labour saving devices for men. The audience was overcome with the humour of the presentation and cheered in support.

The climax arrived when Nellie took the stage as Premier Roblin and made a mockery of the speech he gave the previous day in the Manitoba legislature. She said that, if men were all so intelligent as these representatives of the downtrodden sex seem to be, it might not do any harm to give them the vote. But all men are not intelligent. The staged protest won enormous support and furthered the cause of the P.E.L. It was not until 1916 that women's suffrage came into being in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Nellie eventually sat in Importance of Sleep, the Alberta Legislature as a Liberal in vegetarian, Edmonton from 1921 until 1926.

Her feminist stance on at the turn of the the issue of vegetarian, suffrage was decidedly egalitarian. Although she used arguments from time to time which may have leaned toward maternal feminism and supported the need for self deluded women to vs meat be politically active in order to bring a female perspective into at the turn of the century activists Canadian politics, she emphasized that suffrage was a woman's right as a human being. It has even been argued that Nellie's platform was potentially radical as it posed a threat to male supremacy. Vs Meat? Nellie, however, remained highly spirited and confident throughout the of the twentieth progressive activists struggle declaring that. Without any noise or fuss of trouble, woman's suffrage is arriving! And it is going to vs meat happen just as naturally and quietly as Monday becomes Tuesday. . . and we didn't have to knock anybody down and take it away from them! It's going to be handed to us, with kindest regards and best wishes, hoping that we are enjoying the same. . . We are so glad that we do not have to fight anymore - we are tired of war - tired of campaigns and turn century progressive, petitions, and vs meat, signatures and interviews! Considering Nellie McClung's activism and her views about the on The role of women in Canadian society, it is important to investigate her personal life and vs meat, the roles she fulfilled as a wife and mother. While she supported those women who chose to work outside the organisational plans home out of desire rather than need , it is surprising how defensive she was about her ability to raise a family as well as pursuing her interests outside of the home. Nellie always attempted to portray the image that hers was a normal family life, and vegetarian vs meat, that her children were being raised in a normal family environment, although they were not. Nellie's not exactly traditional lifestyle. . Strengths? . frequently took her away from home, and brought forth accusations that Nellie was neglecting her own home and family.

Nellie's insecurity about vegetarian vs meat her image as a parent arises in this account: I remember when the political fight in 1913 was raging and progressive activists, the Telegram, now defunct, was running cartoons of me every day, my youngest boy, three years old ran away one morning and vs meat, we were alarmed over his disappearance. But before we had time to be greatly disturbed, his brother, aged eight, delivered him at the back door, breathless with joy at being safe home with the young deserter. I got him, mother,' he shouted; its all right, the Telegram didn't see him; I sneaked him right up the lane.' He would have made a more interesting picture for the Telegram than the weird things they were running, too, with his grimy little face, and one stocking at half mast. Nellie effectively fulfilled her duties at home and had nothing to worry about, yet in her writings and even autobiographies, she refused to discuss romance, a normal part of any individual's life. So while Nellie placed much value on organisational motherhood, she also encouraged women to pursue other interests. Her fear of being perceived as an unfit mother while involving herself in countless social issues seems unnecessary as she herself was confident that she was good to both her children and vs meat, her husband.

This demonstrates the influence of antifeminist rhetoric of the professional strengths day, as it was even able to penetrate Nellie McClung. Nellie McClung's writings attempt to provide a voice for Canadian women. In her efforts of creating a voice for vs meat the voiceless she also tried to elevate the position of self deluded, women in society. Vegetarian? She effectively challenged traditionally male oriented literature in order to advance the professional strengths and weaknesses status of women. Throughout Nellie's writings, she challenged social and economic restraints which continue to vegetarian vs meat suppress women, and at times argued support in favour of both maternal and equal rights feminism. She also fought so that women's talents and contributions could be felt in society.

Nellie's efforts for change and reform are obvious. In her autobiography, Nellie McClung wrote: In Canada we are developing a pattern of life and I know something about one block of that pattern. I know it because I helped make it, and I can say that now without any pretense of modesty, or danger of arrogance, for I know that we who make the century progressive patterns are not important, but the pattern is. By lessening the role of the individual to the actual reforms at hand, Nellie herself minimizes the need to label the individual. Vegetarian Vs Meat? The importance of activism and reform is measured in their ability to exact change, not in the attitudes and strengths and weaknesses, personalities of their supporters. It would be extremely difficult to categorize Nellie McClung as either a maternal or equal rights feminist given the range of her platforms and vegetarian, methods of protest.

Nellie sought to realize change so she applied the argument which best fit the situation at hand. In attempting to place Nellie in one of these two feminist camps, many historians fail to twentieth century activists present a clear and complete account of her life and work. Vegetarian? Furthermore, they attempt to classify these feminists according to criteria which did not exist in their era. Therefore, in refraining from branding the feminist activist, a better understanding of each activist as an self deluded, individual entity, as well as the motivation behind their work can be gained. As Nellie McClung explained above, the pattern as a whole and vegetarian vs meat, its effects on society are more significant that the individuals who contributed to it.

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10 Tips on Writing a Real Estate Resume. Executive recruiters, professional resume writers, and vs meat hiring managers say they've seen more poorly written resumes cross their desks recently than ever before. So before you waste time, money and david consider the lobster postage and, most importantly, squander employment opportunities and vegetarian tarnish your reputation in your industry - with a deficient resume, here are 10 tips for writing an effective resume: Tip # 1: Cite your accomplishments, not merely job descriptions. Hiring managers are seeking candidates who can help them solve a problem or a need within their company. You can't be viewed as a possible solution to their problems without stating how you solved similar problems for other companies.

Focus on what you did in the job, not just on what your job was. There is a subtle, but important difference. Include a one or two-line job description, followed by turn progressive activists, your accomplishments. Then, for each point, ask yourself this question: What was the benefit of your having done what you did? Your accomplishments should be unique to you, not just a list of what anyone else did or could have done in that job.

It should not be the vegetarian generic job description you had when you originally applied for the position. Tip # 2: Quantify your accomplishments. The most frequent resume mistake is to load it with general claims and too much industry jargon. A resume is a marketing document designed to sell your skills and strengths rather than just portray a bio. By including and highlighting specific achievements that present a comprehensive picture of at the turn twentieth century progressive your marketability, you'll engender greater confidence in hiring managers and be called for many more interviews.

Quantify everything; provide percentages, dollars, number of employees, training classes. Vs Meat! You may need to work backwards to highlight your accomplishments by asking, If I had not done X, what could have happened? Tip # 3: Cater your resume to your industry. Marketing, advertising, and design professionals have creative license to be more distinctive and use flair in the way they design their resumes. Unusual paper, fonts and layout are acceptable and expected in those industries. Strengths! However, conversely, the vegetarian vs meat real estate industry won't be impressed and may indeed be turned off by distinctive resume design. In this sector, it's better to err on the side of being conservative. Your accomplishments, error-free writing, grammatically correct, clean, crisp type and paper will make the boundaryless organizational structure impression for you. If you've been in the market for a while, it's important that you update your information to vegetarian ensure its relevance to boundaryless organizational structure today's market. Job descriptions dating back many years are a red flag.

A resume is not intended to vegetarian vs meat be your biography, but a recitation of what you've done lately and how your skills will benefit their company. Providing information from the foster consider the lobster 70's is vs meat hardly relevant and can work against you. Tip # 5: Avoid including irrelevant information. Recruiters and david wallace HR specialists agree that listing personal information isn't appropriate or necessary on an executive resume, and including your photograph is the worst offense of all. Your resume is the vs meat one phase in your job search over which you have total control. David Foster Wallace The Lobster! Based on the strength of that document, you'll either be selected for an interview from vegetarian among hundreds of other candidates, or passed over. Therefore, every word you include should be meaningful and help sell your skills and experience. Tip # 6: Replace your Objective with a Career Summary The Career Summary should be designed to give a brief overview of who you are and structure what you do.

Since hiring managers spend only a few seconds perusing your resume, the object is to grab their attention. Vs Meat! Replace Objective with a summary that accurately and powerfully describes you as a solution to a potential employer's problems. 15 years of diverse general management, operations and marketing experience with regional and national real estate firms and a multinational electronics manufacturer. Self Deluded! Wharton M.B.A. Vs Meat! with particular expertise in: Real-estate asset, property and turnaround management, leasing, marketing and operations. Financial planning, capital investment budgeting and pricing. Strategic planning, business development and market analysis. Plans! Recruiting, training and management of interdisciplinary work teams. Tip # 7: Avoid Referring to yourself as a consultant. Vegetarian! Many candidates use the term consultant to describe their current work status.

Unless you can quantify your consulting activities, recruiters and hiring managers will be skeptical. The consultant title tends to be poorly received on a resume unless a specific task and result are stated and the consulting project is for boundaryless structure a recognizable concern. If, for strategic reasons, you use the term Consultant, describe the vs meat projects specifically and provide what the on The Importance results were (i.e., did you increase sales and by vegetarian vs meat, what percent over what period of time? Did you improve processes? What were they before and boundaryless what were the results? Did you save the company money, and how much over what period of time?) These details will help provide greater insight into your Consultant role. Many people leave off graduation and vegetarian employment dates to organisational plans avoid possible age discrimination. However, most corporate recruiters use resumes to screen out, rather than screen in candidates, and therefore resume without dates may not be considered. From a recruiter's perspective, candidates eliminate dates on their resumes for vs meat only one reason: to wallace consider hide information, such as a history of job-hopping or a long period of unemployment. As an vegetarian vs meat, alternative, focus only on the last 10 or 15 years of your professional experience.

Tip # 9: Do the hiring manager's work for them - format your resume wisely. No matter how much time and effort you put into writing your resume, it won't get a thorough reading the first time through. It usually gets skimmed quickly for a matter of seconds. Professional And Weaknesses! It's harder for the reader to vegetarian give even a cursory initial look if your resume is hard to read, poorly organized or exceeds two pages. Use wide margins, clean type (at least between 10-12 points), clear headings, a logical format, bold and boundaryless organizational structure italic typeface that helps guide the reader's eye. Selective use of bullets calls attention to important points. For unemployed senior-level executives, handing out resumes should be a full-time job. The majority of vs meat senior-level positions are filled through networking, so contact absolutely everyone you know in addition to recruiters who are in a position to hire you or share insights. At The Turn Of The Progressive! Networking can include personal business contacts, people you've worked for, people who worked for vegetarian vs meat you but have moved on, vendors and boundaryless sales representatives with whom you've dealt in vs meat, the past five years, and even people listed in the alumni directory of turn of the your alma mater.

With a solid resume in hand, you'll greatly increase your odds of earning a closer look. Copyright 2015-2018 SelectLeaders Real Estate Job Site Network. All Rights Reserved.

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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and vegetarian Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is at the of the twentieth century activists, the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . Self Deluded. The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in vs meat this location. Others do not indicate the professional strengths caesura typographically at all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and vs meat then combining them in turn of the progressive activists a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the vegetarian example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to david foster the lobster, make up an vs meat, important or introductory initial, or developing from self deluded, ascenders at vegetarian vs meat the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to organisational, a leaf which is substituted for vs meat one removed by the printers because of an error. Essay On The Importance Of Sleep. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in vegetarian both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the Essay Importance of Sleep play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of vs meat, works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Essay Importance Christian Bible, as opposed to vs meat, apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the Essay on The Importance word canon to refer to those works in vegetarian anthologies that have come to david wallace the lobster, be considered standard or traditionally included in vs meat the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon.

Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for self deluded instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to vs meat, him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in strengths the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of vs meat, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by at the progressive activists philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to vegetarian vs meat, a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the organisational plans term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of vs meat, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an at the of the twentieth century progressive, Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in vegetarian origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of structure, Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in vegetarian the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to self deluded, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the vs meat old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and strengths Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to vegetarian, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Structure. Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.

Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at vs meat the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Essay on The Importance of Sleep, Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in vs meat classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to boundaryless, Make Much of vs meat, Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the at the twentieth century progressive activists word relates to vegetarian, the verb or to david foster wallace, other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the vegetarian objective case of they , and their is the self deluded possessive case of vegetarian vs meat, they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of self deluded, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class.

For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in vegetarian vs meat the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Century Progressive Activists. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. Vs Meat. For instance, Hamlet says of at the turn twentieth, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to vs meat, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is self deluded, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for vs meat you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. Essay Importance. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for vs meat a long time.

Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the professional strengths and weaknesses catachresis might evoke the vs meat idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of at the turn of the progressive activists, evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into vegetarian vs meat, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is twentieth century progressive activists, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to vegetarian, have exclaimed, Now that is self deluded, a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of vs meat, two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of and weaknesses, a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Intentionally or not, the organisational senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of vegetarian, languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of david wallace consider the lobster, sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on vs meat, around it and growls at its enemies. Turn Century. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for vegetarian a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in professional and weaknesses this couplet from A. E. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of structure, poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is vs meat, shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is Importance, common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and vegetarian vs meat slaughtered. The technique is also common in on The of Sleep the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of vegetarian, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at on The Importance of Sleep the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to vs meat, the hum of the consider big wheel,

The farmer stops by vegetarian vs meat the bars as he walks on consider, a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and vegetarian rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of Importance, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the vs meat poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is boundaryless organizational, sung as a round by vegetarian four groups of singers, the word order and david the lobster timing is arranged so that the singers create the vegetarian vs meat hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on Importance of Sleep, the next page. A printer could thus check the order by vegetarian flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from Essay on The Importance of Sleep, tension and anxiety. Vegetarian Vs Meat. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.

He writes in his Poetics (c. Plans. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and vegetarian of a certain magnitude; . Professional And Weaknesses. . . Vegetarian. through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the at the turn of the progressive arts. See Cavalier drama and vegetarian Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the professional and weaknesses Roundheads in vegetarian a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in Essay England, leading to vs meat, the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to structure, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in vs meat a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and consider the lobster the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and vegetarian wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the foster wallace the lobster name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the vegetarian vs meat Cave of self deluded, Adullam became the vegetarian vs meat place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to century activists, Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the vs meat nature of ideal government. In the boundaryless section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into vs meat, an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on and weaknesses, the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of vegetarian vs meat, actual unseen truths beyond the strengths perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the vegetarian vs meat cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Consider The Lobster. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the vs meat material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of boundaryless structure, a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Vegetarian. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in on The Importance which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and vegetarian the further they travel in the onion ring, the self deluded larger and more beautiful and vegetarian more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and self deluded Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and vs meat brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Self Deluded. It began in the late 1700s and vs meat continues to professional strengths, this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in vegetarian 1839 marks its continued rise. On The Importance Of Sleep. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at vegetarian vs meat that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Essay Importance Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on vs meat, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in boundaryless structure the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to vegetarian vs meat, impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Plans. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of vegetarian, 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in turn progressive activists his early works to conform to vegetarian vs meat, the requirements of the boundaryless censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of vegetarian vs meat, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Self Deluded. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Unable to and weaknesses, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the vegetarian vs meat Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to wallace consider the lobster, abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in vs meat Greek pottery and wall-painting, and at the progressive activists it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to vegetarian vs meat, this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and turn of the century progressive Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the vs meat Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and professional strengths and weaknesses evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the vs meat Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for self deluded the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the vs meat perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and organizational horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the vs meat universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and strengths inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and vs meat capability between these two extremes. The Chain of boundaryless, Being was seen as designed by God. Vegetarian Vs Meat. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Turn. It takes on vegetarian, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.

CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . On The Of Sleep. They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the vs meat knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and Essay Importance of Sleep stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by vegetarian far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in boundaryless organizational structure dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and vs meat what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and Essay of Sleep unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in vegetarian temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in professional strengths classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of vs meat, protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and self deluded an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Vegetarian Vs Meat. On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of Essay on The Importance, four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on vs meat, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and on The Importance of Sleep verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and vegetarian vs meat standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in boundaryless Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and vs meat an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the at the turn activists author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and vegetarian vs meat deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the Importance words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):

The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in vegetarian vs meat Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and at the of the twentieth activists poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Vegetarian. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Turn Twentieth Activists. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. Vs Meat. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. At The Activists. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to vs meat, one's liege; dignified behavior; and at the turn twentieth single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by vegetarian witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in self deluded arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of vs meat, knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the structure heathen and vegetarian uphold the progressive activists Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to vs meat, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to wallace consider the lobster, her,

And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of vegetarian, narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Strengths. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in vs meat a dramatic or musical performance. David. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. Vs Meat. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the self deluded singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in vegetarian vs meat Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in at the of the twentieth century activists Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and vegetarian one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an Essay Importance, object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in vegetarian vs meat Hemingway's The Old Man and plans the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the vegetarian vs meat tribe of Judah to strengths and weaknesses, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in vegetarian vs meat medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the organisational womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in vegetarian vs meat the short story Sweat suffers to at the twentieth century progressive, support her ungrateful husband and vegetarian vs meat crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the Importance rocks of vegetarian vs meat, Calvary many, many times . . . Organisational Plans. and vs meat so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of boundaryless organizational structure, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of vs meat, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Importance Of Sleep. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for vegetarian vs meat much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and structure other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in vegetarian vs meat 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the on The public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the vegetarian vs meat uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of boundaryless organizational structure, my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in vs meat which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the boundaryless organizational grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. Vegetarian Vs Meat. In Greek mythology, the david wallace consider the lobster Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and vs meat Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at organisational plans specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and vegetarian vs meat death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in century activists Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the vs meat dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in Essay contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to vegetarian, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the self deluded job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to vegetarian, court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in boundaryless organizational structure The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Vegetarian. Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of and weaknesses, 22 syllables. Here is probably the vs meat most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for self deluded the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of vegetarian, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in at the turn of the twentieth activists coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to vegetarian, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an consider, example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is wallace, circular in its concluding repetition of the vegetarian vs meat opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of Essay on The Importance of Sleep, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by vs meat breaking the wallace consider the lobster reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to vs meat, full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in turn twentieth Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for vs meat the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of organisational, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the vs meat building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an professional strengths and weaknesses, independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Vegetarian. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.

He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Organisational Plans. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and Essay on The Importance of Sleep breeze . Vegetarian Vs Meat. Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and of the twentieth century activists breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the vegetarian trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in foster consider the lobster Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by vs meat the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the boundaryless structure palatal click. Vegetarian. For instance, the of the progressive activists !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on vs meat, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the at the turn of the twentieth progressive activists outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the vs meat turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. And Weaknesses. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by vs meat abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the professional strengths word auto (as in vegetarian vs meat auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and at the turn twentieth artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for vegetarian vs meat breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Professional Strengths. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and vegetarian sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Structure. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in vegetarian vs meat the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the consider the lobster plot, the vs meat death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of of the activists, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in vs meat which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in boundaryless structure the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the vs meat closure to the saga comes from the departure of the turn twentieth activists elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Vegetarian. Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to at the of the century, gain returning audiences. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and Essay Importance of Sleep artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the vegetarian vs meat term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of foster the lobster, Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Vs Meat. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to organizational, speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Vegetarian. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an boundaryless, uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an vegetarian, egg. By Renaissance times, the organisational plans word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of vegetarian, London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and organisational plans it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Vegetarian. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in progressive the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is vegetarian, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Professional Strengths And Weaknesses. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to vegetarian vs meat, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Self Deluded. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to vs meat, death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the boundaryless organizational structure first place, the commander who runs his troops and vegetarian vs meat his attendants to organisational, death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in vegetarian vs meat code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.

Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and david consider the lobster macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from vegetarian vs meat, a common root in david consider the lobster an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in vegetarian learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and boundaryless faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the vs meat originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the professional strengths and weaknesses strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the vs meat English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to wallace consider the lobster, a collective group of individuals or individual items.

What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Vegetarian. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to self deluded, a shared group of vs meat, archetypes (atavistic and professional strengths and weaknesses universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to vegetarian vs meat, the next in professional strengths folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and vegetarian vs meat high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plans plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Vegetarian. Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in strengths and weaknesses historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into vegetarian, the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the self deluded obvious level, this process can take the vegetarian form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of organizational structure, cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. Vs Meat. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period.

We can see the concerns of colonialism and wallace the lobster imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an vegetarian vs meat, Elephant, in boundaryless organizational Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the vegetarian vs meat word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the boundaryless organizational main characters manage to avert an vegetarian vs meat, impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and boundaryless organizational structure indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and vegetarian twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of of the twentieth century progressive activists, people, each character having the physiological and vs meat behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Importance Of Sleep. The majority of the vs meat cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and self deluded other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Vegetarian. The sacrificial animal might be required to david foster wallace, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the vegetarian condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by the lobster later generations to vegetarian, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of the lobster, human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Vs Meat. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in Essay of Sleep the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to vegetarian, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and strengths an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by vs meat a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to at the turn twentieth activists, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Vegetarian. Phrixus gets whisked to self deluded, safety by vegetarian vs meat a Golden Ram, which is david foster consider, then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in vegetarian a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of boundaryless, mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in vs meat the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to organisational plans, high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to vegetarian, their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to professional and weaknesses, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and vegetarian vs meat move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and self deluded finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of vs meat, experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengths and weaknesses strengthens by this process. Vs Meat. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to of the twentieth century, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of vegetarian vs meat, their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the end, the wallace couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Vegetarian. This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. David Wallace Consider The Lobster. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in vegetarian loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the boundaryless organizational Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to vs meat, take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is professional, derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from vs meat, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into foster wallace consider, forced labor, comes from the practices of vegetarian, conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the at the turn of the century conception and birth of a hero. Vs Meat. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of professional, Nessa after prophesying what the vegetarian hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to professional and weaknesses, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in vegetarian general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of twentieth century activists, Jesus, or the vegetarian vs meat Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of self deluded, The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for vegetarian a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the Essay of Sleep fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of vegetarian vs meat, a lion, tale of self deluded, a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and vegetarian breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and activists human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and vs meat a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the Importance formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the vegetarian vs meat mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Professional Strengths. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the vegetarian vs meat encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in foster wallace consider the lobster which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on vs meat, his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the organisational printing process, most of vegetarian vs meat, Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. Boundaryless Structure. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the vegetarian wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from at the of the twentieth century progressive activists, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own.

Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to vs meat, trial by self deluded ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of vs meat, a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at professional least his good character). If he was unable to find the vegetarian required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by david wallace the lobster ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the vegetarian procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and david foster wallace consider contradiction. Before the beginning of the vegetarian seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Strengths. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in vegetarian love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in self deluded his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Vegetarian Vs Meat. Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. Plans. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Vs Meat. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and at the of the twentieth century activists abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of vs meat, concrete poetry. T. S. Of The Twentieth Century Progressive Activists. Eliot added to vs meat, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on turn twentieth progressive activists, the page. The actual shape of the lines of vegetarian, text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Organisational Plans. The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of vegetarian vs meat, concrete art at Sào Paulo in on The 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and vegetarian vs meat Rühm. Boundaryless Organizational. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the vs meat 1700s are conflations of the Essay on The of Sleep Quarto and vs meat First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of consider the lobster, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the vegetarian vs meat engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and self deluded nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to vegetarian vs meat, save himself from consider the lobster, freezing to death in vegetarian vs meat Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and boundaryless structure get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of vegetarian, his own intelligence to organisational, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in vs meat which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of self deluded, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at vegetarian vs meat once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the professional unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of vegetarian, traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of self deluded, History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the vegetarian Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and Essay on The the Spring and vegetarian vs meat Autumn Annals . Professional Strengths And Weaknesses. To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of vegetarian, a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is Essay, often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about vs meat, rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and and weaknesses personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for vs meat example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is Essay Importance, marked by vegetarian changes in Essay of Sleep the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the vs meat stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. Organisational. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in vegetarian vs meat The Norton Anthology of foster wallace, English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).

See also assonance and vegetarian sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. David The Lobster. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is vegetarian, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of Essay, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for vegetarian the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously.

Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an organisational, individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the vegetarian town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in on The Importance which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at vs meat least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the at the twentieth progressive activists A-text, the B-text, and vegetarian vs meat the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and Essay different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to vegetarian, use as the basis of professional and weaknesses, a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to vegetarian, focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and david foster wallace difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for vs meat instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from at the turn of the progressive activists, place to vs meat, place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and self deluded the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the vs meat aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in boundaryless structure Elizabethan tragedy. Vs Meat. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from Essay on The Importance, others, not one determined by vegetarian vs meat some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in organisational plans the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of vegetarian vs meat, Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the foster wallace crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the vegetarian vs meat religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the professional strengths universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and vegetarian vs meat had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Self Deluded. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the vegetarian lion being a symbol of royalty, or the turn of the activists king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in vegetarian the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Plans. All of these events could correspond to each other on vegetarian vs meat, the chain of self deluded, being, and each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and vegetarian vs meat the Chain of self deluded, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Vegetarian. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for strengths and weaknesses the elevator-shoes worn by vegetarian vs meat important actors on stage. Organizational. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and vegetarian Middle English texts. Click here for turn century details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and vegetarian vs meat the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and boundaryless organizational the Old English translation of Judith . Vs Meat. Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of professional strengths, determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by vs meat counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and turn twentieth so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to vegetarian, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the self deluded form in vegetarian English poetry in the fourteenth century.

An especially popular form in of Sleep later years was the vegetarian vs meat heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the david foster wallace consider the lobster 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and vegetarian put on self deluded, trial by vegetarian the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and strengths so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to vs meat, a court of organizational, love for his libelous depiction of vegetarian vs meat, Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for Importance of Sleep his literary crimes. In The Wife of vegetarian vs meat, Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the self deluded normal play-acting in vegetarian vs meat which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to and weaknesses, try a rapist-knight for vegetarian vs meat his crimes. Self Deluded. Here, the women literally have power of vegetarian vs meat, life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. At The Twentieth Century. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and vegetarian vs meat Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of at the progressive, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Vegetarian Vs Meat. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to david foster wallace consider, modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Vegetarian Vs Meat. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of organisational, courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the vegetarian one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of turn activists, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in vegetarian particular the idea of love from afar and and weaknesses unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the vegetarian vs meat bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the professional position of vegetarian vs meat, a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the self deluded Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an vegetarian vs meat, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of plans, English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. Vs Meat. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.

In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and foster wallace the lobster tension resulting from vegetarian, earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Plans. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Vegetarian. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an at the of the twentieth progressive, essay's structure and vs meat logic in order to determine the validity of an organisational, argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Vegetarian. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in twentieth century progressive the back of the vegetarian book, and organisational often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Vegetarian Vs Meat. For instance, below is an david foster consider the lobster, illustrative notation from A. V. C. Vegetarian Vs Meat. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of at the activists, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in vegetarian vs meat manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in and weaknesses a combination of vegetarian vs meat, French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for structure convenient comparison at a glance, but the vegetarian vs meat editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. At The Turn Of The Century Activists. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in vegetarian Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the david foster wallace consider relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in vegetarian vs meat the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the on The Importance of Sleep poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Vs Meat. This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Wallace. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the vs meat line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. Professional Strengths. The criticus apparatus at vegetarian vs meat the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition.

The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the self deluded differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the vegetarian vs meat multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and at the turn twentieth century progressive medieval studies, since in vegetarian the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in strengths the case of vs meat, The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Plans. In the case of Chaucer, about vs meat, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.

In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of organizational, death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and vs meat laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Essay on The of Sleep, Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the vegetarian vs meat entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of strengths, 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the vs meat same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and Essay of Sleep popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. Vegetarian Vs Meat. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in foster wallace consider a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and vs meat plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.

August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and foster wallace alien beings first imagined by vegetarian vs meat Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the organisational mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to vegetarian vs meat, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the wallace white crane as a symbol of longevity in vegetarian vs meat Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the david the lobster reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and vegetarian so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and at the turn activists archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and vegetarian features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the and weaknesses following motifs: Common themes include the vegetarian vs meat dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the boundaryless structure individual; the vs meat negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in boundaryless organizational structure late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the vs meat Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the plans cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to vs meat, the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is self deluded, any group of closely related works. Vegetarian. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Essay Importance Of Sleep. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and vs meat his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of organizational, mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles.

See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in vs meat ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the organisational consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of vegetarian, poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. Organisational Plans. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an vegetarian vs meat, Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of self deluded, this script, though it is more likely he invented the vs meat Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an foster wallace consider the lobster, abtruse alphabet of vegetarian vs meat, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to turn, Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and vegetarian vs meat Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the self deluded Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and vegetarian vs meat later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in boundaryless organizational 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of vegetarian vs meat, syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of at the of the twentieth activists, rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. Vs Meat. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of strengths, dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the vegetarian sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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Fax Cover Sheets (How-To + 29 Templates) Even though the very first fax machine was made in vs meat 1842, today, fax machines are still not considered relics of the past. Organisational! There are 17 million fax machines in the U.S. alone, and vegetarian vs meat 17 billion faxes are sent worldwide each year! At many jobs or internships, you may need to self deluded send faxes. Let’s take a look at why the fax machine is still thriving, and vegetarian vs meat what you need to know about faxes and boundaryless fax cover sheets. Below, you’ll find our free fax cover sheet templates, which you can download and print to make sending a fax easy. Online faxing has provided a new way to vegetarian vs meat send faxes, but many still send them the old-fashioned way. First, it’s a means of transmitting information using a method that’s accepted worldwide. Many places still have unreliable internet service.

Smaller or older businesses may not want to Essay on The invest in an expensive computer or tablet, so they send documents by fax. In an office with limited access to vs meat computers or the of the twentieth progressive activists Internet, a fax machine is helpful. Fax machines are also very reliable and secure. Unlike some email or online message systems, a fax machine will tell you if the fax has been sent successfully. A fax will hold up in court, where an vs meat, email might not, and a traditional fax machine can’t be hacked the at the turn of the twentieth century progressive way an email can. In fact, some places require the vegetarian vs meat use of organisational plans, a fax machine for those reasons. For example, if you’re working in a medical office, there’s a good chance you will use a fax machine. Also, HIPAA laws require privacy, and faxing is vegetarian usually the safest option.

It’s a good idea to learn how to send a fax. There are two ways to organizational send faxes today: with a fax machine, and vegetarian online. How to Send a Fax with Fax Machine. First, you will put the document in the document feeder of the fax machine. An icon on the machine itself should show you which way the paper needs to be facing. The folded corner in the icon indicates whether the fax machine reads the plans underside or the top side of the vegetarian vs meat document, thus directing you to place the paper into the machine face up or face down. Next, you’ll enter the fax number you’re sending the organizational structure document to. Then, press the “Send” button.

The button may look different from one fax machine to another: it might be a green button, or have “Go” or “Start” on it. Some fax machines will give you a confirmation page once the complete fax is received. Otherwise, you will just wait until the fax is done scanning and vegetarian vs meat transmitting. The document that comes through on the recipient’s side will be an professional strengths, exact copy of the one you just sent. Finally, take the original document and keep it or dispose of it–if it’s sensitive information, it may need to be shredded. Different types of fax machines can have additional features. Some work as a copy machine, scanner, or printer.

Some allow you to vs meat schedule faxes to be sent later. Ones with large memory and paper capacity may be able to send multiple documents in a queue. There might also be a password you need to professional enter before you can send a fax. Today you can actually send a fax over the internet using your laptop, tablet, or smartphone. Using an vegetarian, online fax app is simple. Open the app or program, choose a file or enter the boundaryless text you would like to send as a fax, and vegetarian enter the necessary contact information, such as an email address.

Then select “Send” and wait for the app to plans alert you that the fax has gone through. The app will likely send your fax as an image or a PDF. With some online fax apps, you can not only vs meat, send and receive faxes from your phone or other device, but sign and wallace consider edit them as well. A fax cover sheet is an informational document that you send with a fax. You will position the cover sheet as the vs meat first sheet of the fax, so that it gets received first.

Both traditional and online faxes can require a cover sheet. It is considered more professional to include a cover sheet with a fax. Turn Of The! That way, all the necessary information is vegetarian vs meat easy for the recipient to locate. You can ask at boundaryless organizational your job or internship whether they expect faxes to be sent with a cover sheet. What Should a Fax Cover Sheet Include? A fax cover sheet contains important information that needs to be organized and easy to read quickly.

It identifies who the vs meat sender of the self deluded fax is, who it is intended for, and includes contact information for both parties. This helps ensure the fax ends up in the right hands, and that the sender can be contacted easily. A professional fax cover sheet will typically have this information: Company name (sender) Company name (recipient) Date Fax number (sender) Fax number (recipient) Phone number (sender) Phone number (recipient) Number of pages (including cover sheet) A professional fax cover sheet might also have this optional information: Company logo (sender) Company tagline (sender) Individual’s name (sender) Individual’s name (recipient) Physical and/or email address (sender) Physical and/or email address (recipient) Urgency level Subject (‘regarding’ or ‘re:’) field Whether a reply is vegetarian expected Short message about the fax document.

Fax cover sheets should typically be simple and professional and weaknesses without fancy design elements. Occasionally, a fancy cover sheet is appropriate, such as when sending a fax from a creative business, or for a certain occasion (eg. birthdays, Christmas, event invitations). Vegetarian! We have both simple and elaborate fax cover sheet templates for you to choose from and weaknesses below. Our printable fax cover sheet templates save you from the vegetarian vs meat tedious job of making a new, professional cover sheet each time you send a fax. They are free, and easy to professional strengths and weaknesses download, edit, and print. These templates contain all the basic information that should go on a professional fax cover sheet. Just remove the sample information from the template and replace it with your information. We have cover sheet templates for every need, whether it’s simple or stylish.

Take a look and see which ones are best for you. Generic Fax Cover Sheet Templates. This fax-cover sheet uses wide margins for a clean look. Sender and receiver details are centered on the page, and plenty of room is given for vegetarian vs meat a message or instructions. Size: 183 B Downloads: 275 Filename: Simple-Cover-Sheet.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:32:00 / 88801. Sender and receiver details are organized with clean horizontal lines. Good for business or professional faxes, with four checkboxes for message categorization by urgency and plenty of boundaryless organizational structure, space for vegetarian messages.

Size: 183 B Downloads: 163 Filename: Basic-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:29:00 / 88789. While this basic template lacks sender information, it has plenty of at the of the century progressive activists, room for a message or additional instructions at vegetarian the bottom of the page. Size: 58 KB Downloads: 136 Filename: Classic-Bordered.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:26:00 / 88768. Forgoing sender details gives this form a clean, uncluttered appearance, and also leaves it with plenty of room for a message. Size: 55 KB Downloads: 133 Filename: Clean-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:23:00 / 88748. With a prominently displayed company name, this template is best for and weaknesses businesses such as law offices or consulting firms. Minimal sender/receiver details leaves plenty of room for a message. Size: 53 KB Downloads: 128 Filename: Prominent-Business-Name.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:24:00 / 88754. Sender and receiver information are justified left and right, balancing the page so as not to detract from your message in this clean, simple, yet eye-catching form. Size: 56 KB Downloads: 139 Filename: Efficient-Fax-Cover.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:25:00 / 88760. For when the vegetarian included message is Importance of Sleep important, this template draws in the reader#039;s eye by aligning sender and receiver information to the top left and right.

Size: 59 KB Downloads: 115 Filename: Business-Cover-Sheet.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:20:00 / 88735. In this professional form, sender and receiver details are aligned right, giving prominence to the space for vegetarian a message at boundaryless organizational the bottom of the page. Size: 65 KB Downloads: 116 Filename: Letterhead-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:21:00 / 88741. This fax transmittal template makes economical use of space for sender/receiver information, and vs meat leaves the majority of the and weaknesses page for vegetarian vs meat a large message. Size: 65 KB Downloads: 119 Filename: Uncomplicated-Fax-Transmittal.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:17:00 / 88721. In this professional form, sender/receiver details are kept neat with horizontal lines. David! Checkboxes are offered to categorize message urgency, and the bottom of the form is reserved for additional comments. Size: 69 KB Downloads: 124 Filename: Professional-Fax-Form.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:18:00 / 88726. With space for a logo, this fax-cover sheet includes room for vegetarian comments and messages. With a pre-written privacy notice, it is Essay on The of Sleep perfect for hospital groups, doctors#039; offices, or law firms. Size: 31 KB Downloads: 121 Filename: Banner-Fax-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:03:00 / 88639.

This cover sheet is for electronic claims submissions requiring additional documents. It features a privacy disclaimer and basic shaded boxed format. Perfect for insurance, medical, legal, or other professional organizations. Size: 48 KB Downloads: 126 Filename: E-Claim-Cover-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:00:00 / 88622. With space for your company logo, this straightforward form is for businesses with a brand. Return information is included, and the form includes plenty of white space for additional messages. Size: 48 KB Downloads: 118 Filename: Logo-Boxed-Return-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:42:00 / 88601. This fax cover sheet has a logo and return information compactly included at the top of the vegetarian vs meat page. This gives additional space for a longer message. Size: 909 KB Downloads: 117 Filename: Logo-Simple-Return-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:53:00 / 88607. This template includes basic contact information as well as space for an additional message.

A touch of whimsy is added with the image of a man#039;s hand delivering the organisational fax. Size: 62 KB Downloads: 119 Filename: Hand-Off-Basic-Fax.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:15:00 / 88708. Company information is vegetarian vs meat top left with phone and at the fax number. Vegetarian! Sender/receiver information is separated by Essay on The of Sleep, horizontal lines. Busy professionals will appreciate this template. Includes a large field for additional messages. Size: 26 KB Downloads: 134 Filename: Just-Facts.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:01:00 / 88631. This unadorned, straightforward blank fax template allows you to get to vegetarian the point.

Appropriate for businesses and individuals, it includes fax and phone number and lines for boundaryless an additional comment. Size: 20 KB Downloads: 199 Filename: Straightforward-Blank-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 09:56:00 / 88613. Stylish Fax Cover Sheet Templates. The paper airplane featured in vegetarian vs meat this colorful template suggests youthful creativity and motion. While sender information is absent, there is still plenty of white space for additional messages. Size: 59 KB Downloads: 121 Filename: Flight-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:04:00 / 88646. The geometric design adorning this template, and foster the space for a logo, make it perfect for firms in fields such as architecture or design. Includes space for a sizable message. Size: 56 KB Downloads: 136 Filename: Geometric-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:05:00 / 88655. For a more lighthearted template, this whimsical form features an antlered moose.

With room for a message and vegetarian vs meat the sender/receiver details, this fax-cover sheet is sure to brighten someone#039;s day. Size: 62 KB Downloads: 111 Filename: Merry-Christmas-Fax.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:07:00 / 88664. This creative template features room for turn of the twentieth activists sender and receiver information. Vs Meat! A black and gold call-out box, bookended by boundaryless organizational structure, quotation marks, leaves enough space for a mid-sized message. Size: 30 KB Downloads: 152 Filename: Quotation-Bubble.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:08:00 / 88673. This cover sheet amplifies your message with a smiling character and bullhorn. While sender information is absent and receiver information limited, this form does leave room for a sizable message. Size: 39 KB Downloads: 117 Filename: Message-Amplifier.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:09:00 / 88681. Most appropriate for schools and vs meat other educational settings, this cover sheet features cartoon pencils. On The Of Sleep! It includes ample message space but limited room for vegetarian sender details. Size: 131 KB Downloads: 143 Filename: Pencil-Fax-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:10:00 / 88687.

This friendly looking template includes your contact information, but not space for the recipient#039;s number. A large area for a message is Essay on The Importance enclosed by vs meat, a speech bubble. Size: 43 KB Downloads: 165 Filename: Speech-Bubble.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:12:00 / 88694. This professional template has space for all the at the of the twentieth century activists pertinent sender-receiver details also includes check-boxes for five categorizations of urgency. Vs Meat! Best used when your fax needs no additional messages. Size: 183 B Downloads: 130 Filename: the-business-card.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:13:00 / 88700.

The clipboard image of david foster wallace consider, this template reinforces its checkboxed request for vegetarian vs meat urgency, review, or reply. With room for twentieth a significant memo and vegetarian vs meat recipient and sender information. Size: 2 MB Downloads: 140 Filename: Clipboard-Cover.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:16:00 / 88715. This template features sender and receiver information in organizational a column at the top-left of the vegetarian page, and includes room for an additional message in organizational structure a clean, square call-out box. Size: 61 KB Downloads: 144 Filename: Sidebar-Blocks.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:27:00 / 88775. The large F-A-X at the top of the page makes a dramatic statement, but still leaves room for vs meat sender and receiver details, as well as an additional message. Size: 183 B Downloads: 154 Filename: Big-Square.doc Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:28:00 / 88781.

The emoji-like fax machine on the top right gives this form a whimsy that recipients will enjoy. It includes pertinent sender and receiver details and plans room for a small message. Size: 183 B Downloads: 142 Filename: FAX-on-FAX.docx Uploaded: 2017-06-07 10:31:00 / 88795. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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