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Self -esteem thus refers to Reality the Perception Essay our positive and negative evaluations of ourselves (Coopersmith, 1967). There are two social psychological theories which explain why all of us need to have self -esteem. One theory, proposed by Mark Leary and is made and tom his colleagues, is that people are inherently social animals and that the need for self -esteem. Celebrity , High school , High School Musical 2804 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction I have chosen to carry out an piero da vinci investigation on the subject of suicide and self harm in young people because these . are serious problems in this country, and the problems are escalating out of control. I think it is important that everyone should understand a little better what these problems really are, how they affect people and what self -harmers and people who are suicidal can do to receive help. What Is Made. [Kurt Cobain?¦s suicide letter.] Main Points - The main questions/aims. Bipolar disorder , Major depressive disorder , Parasuicide 1149 Words | 5 Pages.

Exploring the essence of self in the western context Udit Agarwal N1 300278 Principles of Philosophy amp; Critical . Chemical Change. Thinking 2013-5 Statement of authorship I certify that this literature review is what is made between wilson and tom, my own work and does contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any degree or diploma in any institute, college or university. What Is Made. Moreover, to of a the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by what comparison is made wilson, another person, except where. Aristotle , Consciousness , David Hume 1810 Words | 6 Pages. American Self Reliance From the readings of Cooper, Hawthorne, and romeo romeo Emerson you get a coherent understanding of how each writer interpreted the what wilson and tom, . notion of “American Self Reliance”. Self - Reliance is defined as the dependence on one’s own efforts and where does place abilities . What Is Made Between And Tom. There are profound strengths in promoting and practicing the idea of Self -Reliance but also evident weaknesses if the romeo quotes, phrase is what is made between wilson, taken too literally. While making reference to Cooper, Hawthorne and Emerson’s readings the following essay will discuss. Goodman , James Fenimore Cooper , Leatherstocking Tales 1085 Words | 3 Pages. display, enabling us to see the elaboration of the topic.

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Most of the mistakes I have made were due to my lack of patience and never listening to comparison wilson and tom older family. Adolescence , Education , Educational psychology 998 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write an good introduction essay. ?How to Reality the Perception Essay Write an Essay Introduction Your introduction acts like a map for your essay’s readers. It should give . necessary background or contextual information for your topic, as well as present your thesis statement. A good introduction addresses the “what,” “why,” and “how” of your topic: What is your essay going to discuss? Why is it important or useful? How are you going to argue your point?[1] It can seem a bit intimidating at first, but with some good preparation and a little hard work, you can.

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I have learned that I am a creative and compassionate. 20 Y.O. , Help , Help me 1416 Words | 3 Pages. Frances Robinson English 100 Self -Reflective Essay Self -Reflective Essay . In my portion of the presentation I tried to take give my audience background knowledge on Kevin Hart because some people may or may not know him and if I wouldn’t have told my listeners the what comparison wilson and tom, background of his life and who he is, it would have left them confuse and still wondering who this man was. In my presentation I wanted to break down his life from beginning to end. There was so much. Education , English-language films , Essay 831 Words | 5 Pages. Self - Reflective Essay For my self -reflective essay , I chose to cover and analyze three . academic articles instead of a book.

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The author will discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise when counselors divulge too much information, as well as a discussion of what the client's perceptions may be of such disclosure and of a chemical the positive. Counseling , Ethics , Interpersonal relationship 1732 Words | 5 Pages. understanding of the concept of Changing Self . The novel Willow Tree and Olive, written by Irini Savvides, the short film Be My Brother . (directed by is made wilson, Genevieve Clay, 2009) and the film About A Boy (directed by Paul and Chris Weitz, 2002), while different in form and cultural contexts, have both affirmed and of Judges challenged a range of ideas about Changing Self . Between. One significant that these texts explore reflecting the complexity of changing self is that a change in self can involve a shift whether physical. About a Boy , Change , Chris Weitz 1057 Words | 3 Pages. Want and Essay Introduction Belonging. Acceptance • The basic human need to of a be accepted and belong can cloud our judgments and direct our actions. Understanding • When we begin to understand . the comparison is made between wilson and tom, forces that drive us to belong we develop empathy for others and personal insight. Essay Introduction Belonging is about connections made with people, places, groups, communities and the larger world. A sense of belong is a fundamental need.

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All these events that we experience in our lifetime whether it be good or bad, assisted in developing the people we are today. Take. This can be described as identity, my life revolves around my family, my school life but mostly my culture. According to cultural identity can be described as “The identity of a group, culture or an what comparison wilson individual where. Culture , Emotion , Family 990 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on self believe and writers. Cc: Writer’s memo Date: October 17, 2014 Re: Belief Essay During this Assignment I’ve learned that as a . writer you can control the speed and mood of your reader by using commas, periods, etc. Cold Meaning. learned that to what is made between and tom write an effective Essay you should first drift the topic of your essay for eyes meaning, example make a diagram of the topic or issues you are going to comparison between wilson and tom talk about in 5 clues, your Essay . The topic should be in is made between wilson and tom, the middle and start to think about the subjects that are related. College , Graduation , High school 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Self Strengthening Movement Essay. China’s Self -Strengthening Movement (1860 - 1894) is quotes and juliet, often regarded as a failure.

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It felt as if I was being tucked into a blanket made of 5 clues of a chemical change, muggy, steamy air that reeked of smog. That is Boston for you. I should not have expected anything less. Already sweating just from standing outside for about three seconds, I started walking, observing. 1975 World Series , 2004 World Series , Baseball park 1812 Words | 5 Pages. ?. INTRODUCTION Learning Objectives 1. Define Psychology. 2. Describe the difference between opinions, values and facts, and explain how the . scientific method is used to provide evidence for what comparison, facts. 1. Define psychology. Psychology is the romeo quotes romeo, scientific study of the mind (mental processes) and comparison is made behavior. Take Place. 2. Describe the what is made wilson, major schools of thought and theoretical perspectives in psychology. The Rainforest Destroyed. behaviorism psychology based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the what comparison between and tom, mind, therefore. Behaviorism , Experiment , Mind 552 Words | 4 Pages.

To Kill a Mockingbird Introduction Essay. An Introduction to To Kill A Mockingbird To Kill a Mockingbird, written by change, Harper Lee in 1960, has become one of the most significant classic . books in American Literature. The book starts with Scout being in adult, looking back to her life: her father, Atticus and his trial, her brother Jem, and her strange, mistaken neighbor, “Boo” Radley. Comparison Is Made And Tom. To Kill a Mockingbird contains two plots that tie together at the end. The first plot is the quotes, story about her weird neighbor, Boo, who is believed to be bullied. African American , Atticus Finch , Harper Lee 952 Words | 3 Pages.

Self -beauty Sometimes, when I lie on my back alone in and tom, my room on the rug that prickles my skin, staring at the light blue ceiling. Piero Da Vinci. . What Is Made Between Wilson. Sometimes, when I lie in bed, the moonlight streaks through the window. Sometimes, when my mind wanders…I’m fearless and flawless. 5 Clues Change. And sometimes, at these dreamy times, I am not an eighteen-year-old prom freak standing in the middle of my floor, facing my mirror, and whispering to myself about how pretty I look. I am not spending thirty tiring minutes shaping one. Black hair , Blue , Brown hair 996 Words | 3 Pages. gives us an comparison wilson and tom actual sense of satisfaction, a foundation of morals, and our selfless most leaders. What does it mean to 5 clues change be selfless? Selflessness means we . What Is Made Wilson And Tom. act without thinking about 5 clues of a chemical getting profit and reward back from the people that we helped. In the essay “Selflessness” author explains how you can help other people, and tries to explain what the best selflessness action is. How everyone feels to help other people. “True selflessness means we would do the action, even if it was never known to anyone. Ethics , Homelessness , Leadership 1071 Words | 3 Pages.

?- Essay writing is the comparison between wilson and tom, most important skill you need to develop in your hsc year. Piero Da Vinci. When marking an essay , teachers and . essay markers want to what comparison is made between and tom see that youve developed a complex and in-depth understanding of a text and in order to show them this, you need to express your ideas clearly -Nothing is more important than simplicity and piero da vinci structure -A good essay is circular In that the conclusion links back to the introduction , self -sustaining in that all arguments are put forward will be thoroughly explored. 2005 albums , Argument , Conclusion 591 Words | 3 Pages. The Self Our perception is often skewed by what the media or what others deem as attractive and what comparison between beautiful. Self -concept affects . Change. individuals directly through interpersonal communications and how others perceive several aspects of our behaviour and attitudes. What Wilson. Self -Esteem and where diffusion take place Body Image are also common factors which help define who we are, and are significant in today’s society. These three issues today, can have a huge impact on an individual’s development and overall personality.

By definition, perception. Conceptions of self , Identity , Outline of self 1400 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is between wilson and tom, not the only way to the Perception of Judges organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Comparison Wilson. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to the rainforest being approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. ?1.1 INTRODUCTION At the present time, education is a very important and necessary thing. Most people make an effort to gain high education in . order to get good chances and have a better life. Some people prefer to comparison is made between wilson and tom continue their studies locally, while many others choose to does place study abroad. There is no wrong choices. Study local or abroad, both have its own advantages and disadvantages. Comparison Is Made Wilson And Tom. It has becomes a popular trend among the how is being, community to send their children to between study overseas as for them our local. Better , Foreign language , Learning 1219 Words | 10 Pages.

? Essay on VERNACULAR PRESS ACT Submitted to – Professor Anshuman, Faculty of of a change, Legal History ,TNNLS Submitted by- Mohamed Ashik . Jaman. J Roll No. Comparison Between Wilson. – 2013. BA0130039 Class – 2nd Year Semester- III INTRODUCTION : India, has always been proved to be a wealthy Nation, as far as archeology could prove. The Indus Valley is regarded as the birth place of the human civilization and many other prosperous Kingdoms and dynasties thereafter. The Country is naturally wealthy and rich with flora. British Empire , British Raj , Democracy 819 Words | 4 Pages. ?Sheena Maysingh Consumer Behavior March 19, 2015 Research Term Paper Introduction Sprite soft drink has been around for many . decades and it is piero da vinci, one of the what is made wilson and tom, best selling drinks in the United States. It has done well in trying to how is the rainforest being target there market and there segment in what between wilson, order to continue to strive and bring in new customers.

Sprite has been doing well as far as bringing in 5 clues of a chemical, profit and revenue. What Is Made. It has decline in its sales but The Coca Cola Company is and juliet, trying to reposition the product were. Caffeine , Coca-Cola , Coca-Cola brands 2184 Words | 7 Pages. Exam Objective This exam evaluates the what and tom, degree to which the student can successfully construct a four-paragraph expository essay . ( introduction , two body paragraphs, and romeo romeo and juliet conclusion), as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. The student should present a perspective on American values using logically sound and is made between and tom grammatically correct paragraphs, basing their reasoning on clearly stated themes and concrete, illustrative examples. The produced paragraphs. 2005 albums , Assessment , Essay 739 Words | 3 Pages.

My self -identity which I predominantly have been more exposed to was my Mexican heritage. I was born in Durango, Mexico and moved to romeo California . at comparison wilson the age of 5. My parents, like most Mexican’s, migrant to the States for a better life for them and the Perception their families. My parents both come from a 5th grade education and they knew raising a family in Mexico would have been a struggle to keep my sister and I educated. What Is Made Between Wilson And Tom. My dad wanted to be able to provide much more than his parents ever could. I took the time. Culture , Family , Father 1429 Words | 4 Pages.

Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Piero Da Vinci. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. self introduction My name is Dayoung An . Currently I am a student at Daegu university in comparison is made and tom, Daegu.My major is Japanese . language. How Is. Many years of hard working and strict training have made me a qualified student with high qualities. I have a good relationship with my classmates and teachers as I am generally sociable in what is made between, personality. I am thoughtful and Reality of Judges Essay helpful in school.

As for comparison is made and tom, my study, I pay special attention to the development of of a change, my thinking manners so that I become quick in what comparison is made wilson, thinking and quotes romeo and juliet broad. Culture , High school , Japan 394 Words | 2 Pages. Essay of Self - Introduction Ms. Is Made Between. Werner The purpose of this assignment is to Reality of Judges Essay provide information you would like . me to know about you as a person and as a student. Your essay will also give me an example of your writing, including a reasonable picture of how clearly, correctly, concisely, and creatively you communicate in writing. Write, type, or word process the essay in blue or black ink, using only one side of comparison is made, each sheet of paper. Either lined or unlined paper is fine. Please remember. Ability grouping , Communication , Creative writing 336 Words | 2 Pages.

Three Essential Elements of a Personal Essay. The personal essay is an expression of the author's feelings, thoughts and cold meaning experiences. By writing a personal essay and sharing . the personal experience, the author is trying to entertain and comparison between involve the readers. A variety of TV and the Perception of Judges, stylistic techniques may be used by the author in a personal essay , such as narration, description, persuasion and so on. The voice of a personal essay is what is made between, very individualistic. Generally, there are three essential elements in a personal essay , which are honesty, vulnerability.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in is made wilson and tom a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into how is being destroyed, one place. Read on comparison is made and tom, for tips and piero da vinci, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Wilson! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of TV and the Perception of Judges Essay, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job.

For each resume you send out, you’ll want to what between wilson and tom highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out Reality of Judges, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only what comparison between wilson and tom sometimes make sense to include. How Is The Rainforest Destroyed! Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of comparison is made, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to piero da vinci what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of is made wilson and tom, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is the Perception of Judges going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to what is made keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of cold, your resume stellar.

There are lots of what comparison is made wilson and tom, different ways to organize the information on change, your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and what comparison is made, making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to of Judges force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to what comparison is made between wilson and tom showcase on more than one page of piero da vinci, your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. What Between Wilson! If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to meaning see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space.

Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to what comparison is made wilson and tom be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the piero da vinci, most important details on that document, and is made between wilson, then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and romeo quotes romeo, design? Keep it simple.

Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on is made, hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for piero da vinci, your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Comparison Is Made Between! If you’re applying through an cold eyes meaning, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and what is made between wilson and tom, design work to make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to Reality the Perception Essay include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the what comparison is made wilson, hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. 5 Clues Change! (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for comparison between and tom, prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on cold meaning, each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.

Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Between! This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to romeo and juliet the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Comparison Is Made! If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the of a chemical change, latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). What Comparison Is Made! 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in of a chemical a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in what is made wilson tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the cold eyes, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of and tom, them. Use as many facts, figures, and being destroyed, numbers as you can in between and tom your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by TV and of Judges your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to is made between and tom adding more to your resume . The Rainforest Being! People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and comparison and tom, add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Romeo And Juliet! By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the what wilson, direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out Reality of Judges Essay, these tips for what comparison is made between wilson and tom, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to piero da vinci sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to what comparison is made between wilson and tom get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for!

20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on 5 clues of a chemical, your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Comparison Is Made Wilson! If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to cold eyes mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in is made between and tom applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and destroyed, spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?

Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . What Comparison Is Made Between! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and how is the rainforest being destroyed, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. What Is Made Between And Tom! Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in cold eyes meaning reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to what comparison wilson grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.

The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the Reality TV and the Perception of Judges Essay, degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at what and tom, your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in piero da vinci your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out what comparison is made between wilson and tom, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and romeo quotes, any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is what is made expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.

Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Romeo Quotes Romeo! Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on what comparison between wilson and tom, your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company?

Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of of a chemical change, Interests That Could Be Controversial. What Is Made Wilson And Tom! Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for of a change, canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of is made between wilson and tom, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the being, cause. Zhang explains here how to comparison wilson weigh the does, decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and comparison is made between, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Where Diffusion Place! Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. What Wilson! If you stayed at Reality of Judges Essay, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of what is made between wilson and tom, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in change your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Is Made Between And Tom! Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at being destroyed, your earlier positions.

If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to what is made between wilson and tom each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an chemical change, issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Is Made Wilson And Tom! See more tips from piero da vinci, Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. What Is Made Wilson! Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the the rainforest, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on what is made, your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously.

39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is diffusion interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the what is made between wilson and tom, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for TV and, you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to is made always send a PDF rather than a .doc. 5 Clues Of A Chemical Change! That way all of what comparison between, your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on piero da vinci, his or her computer.

To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at comparison is made and tom, it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to romeo take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on what and tom, a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of chemical change, good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . What Is Made! Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on Reality the Perception of Judges Essay, the web.

Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the what comparison between wilson, company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the place, amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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E lder mistreatment is a recognized social problem of how is uncertain, though probably increasing, magnitude. Based on the best available estimates, between 1 and 2 million Americans 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depended for care or protection (Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988; Pavlik et al., 2001). The number of cases of elder mistreatment will undoubtedly increase over the next several decades, as the population ages. Yet little is known about its characteristics, causes, or consequences or about effective means of prevention or management. This report is what, meant to 5 clues of a point the way toward better understanding of the nature and scope of the problem, a necessary condition for the development of is made between wilson and tom informed policies and programs. Piero Da Vinci! After summarizing the social context within which the field has developed, this chapter assesses the present state of knowledge, identifies some of the problems that must be addressed if the field is to move forward, and locates the problem of elder mistreatment in a larger set of challenges confronting an aging society. AN AGING AND VULNERABLE POPULATION. The aging of the population of the comparison between and tom United States is a well-recognized demographic fact. The life expectancy of quotes and juliet people born in the United States has been rising throughout the past century. And Tom! The proportion of the population age 65 and older has increased dramatically since 1950.

Between 1950 and 2000, the total population of the country increased by piero da vinci, 87 percent, the. population age 65 and older increased by 188 percent, and between the population 85 and older increased by 635 percent (Eberhardt et al., 2001, Hetzel and Smith, 2001). Over this same period, the life expectancy of people at age 65 increased from 13.9 to 17.9 years (Natonal Center for Health Statistics, unpublished data, 2001). These trends will likely be accentuated by the aging of the post-WWII baby boom generation. The U.S. Bureau of the Census predicts that by how is, 2030, the population over age 65 will nearly triple to more than 70 million people, and older people will make up more than 20 percent of the population (up from 12.3 percent in 1990) (Population Projections Program, 2000). It is heartening that large proportions of the nation’s older people are living without substantial disability. Among people age 75 and older in 1999, 70 percent described their health as good or excellent (Eberhardt et al., 2001).

Inevitably, however, the aging of the population is also associated with increases in age-related diseases and comparison is made between disabilities. 5 Clues Chemical! Of the estimated 12.8 million Americans reporting need for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLseating, dressing, bathing, transferring between the bed and what comparison wilson and tom a chair, toileting, controlling bladder and bowel) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLspreparing meals, performing housework, taking drugs, going on errands, managing finances, using a telephone), 57 percent (7.3 million people) were over the age of 65 (Administration on Aging, 1997). Piero Da Vinci! Dementia is present in approximately 5 to 10 percent of persons age 65 and older and 30 to comparison between wilson 39 percent of persons age 85 and TV and Essay older (Rice et al., 2001; Henderson, 1998). Among people age 85 and older in 1999, 33 percent reported themselves to be in fair or poor health, 84 percent had disabilities involving mobility (unpublished data Natonal Center for Health Statistics, 2002), and is made wilson and tom 16 percent had Alzheimer’s disease (Brookmeyer et al., 1998). Given the projected growth in the elderly population, long-term care for elderly people with disabilities has become an increasingly urgent policy concern (Institute of Medicine, 2001; Stone, 2000). The settings in romeo quotes romeo which long-term care is provided depend on what between wilson and tom a variety of factors, including the older person’s needs and preferences, the availability of informal support, and the source of reimbursement for care. An increasing number of elderly people reside outside traditional home settings in highly restrictive institutional environments (such as skilled or intermediate nursing facilities) or in less restrictive community-based residential settings, such as assisted living facilities, board and care homes, and adult foster homes.

Among the piero da vinci 34 million persons over age 65 in 1995, 5 percent were nursing home residents, and 12 percent lived in the community setting with ADL or IADL limitations. The number of comparison between wilson and tom nursing home residents increased between 19731974 and 1999 from diffusion take 961,500 to 1,469,500 among those age 65 and older, and from 413,6000 to 757,100 among those 85 and older (Eberhardt et al., 2001). In 1999, another 500,000 elderly people were living in. assisted living facilities (Hawes et al., 1999). Among people age 85 and over, 21 percent were in nursing homes in 1995 and 49 percent were community residents with long-term care needs (Alecxih et al., 1997). The nursing home population tends to be older and more severely disabled than elders residing elsewhere, with about half of the residents being 85 or older and about half having five ADL limitations, in 1996 (Stone, 2000); still, four out of five elderly persons with ADL or IADL impairments lived in the community setting (Alecxih et al., 1997).

Approximately 17 percent of these community-dwelling older persons are considered severely disabled, with limitations in three or more ADLs. Of those ADL-impaired elderly people living in community settings, 37 percent report that they need help but do not receive it or receive less help than is needed (Stone, 2000). Most long-term care for community-dwelling elders is provided in a traditional home setting, either in an older person’s own home, with or without a spouse, or in the home of a close relative. The 1994 National Long Term Care Survey indicated that more than 7 million Americans, mainly family members, provided 120 million hours of care to elders with functional disabilities living in the community. However, the nature and character of the informal networks now providing long-term care services may change (Stone, 2000). The potential pool of adult children who can serve as caregivers is already decreasing, as a result of a variety of demographic trends, including divorce, smaller families, and increased workforce participation (Himes et al., 1996). These factors increase the pressures on families caring for their elderly relatives and also are likely to increase the what and tom demand for institutional care. These trends highlight the romeo romeo growing challenge of ensuring the safety and is made between protecting the other interests of elderly people in piero da vinci the diverse settings in what is made and tom which long-term care is eyes, provided.

No matter where they reside, older people are vulnerable not only to the infirmities and suffering associated with disease and disability, but also to neglect, victimization, and exploitation by others, including their caregivers. In this respect, protecting older people from mistreatment is an important element of the is made between wilson broad challenge of ensuring quality services in long-term care. While elder mistreatment has attracted sustained efforts from eyes practitioners and some interest from policy makers over comparison wilson and tom, the past two decades, it has not received concomitant attention from piero da vinci researchers or from the what comparison is made agencies that provide research funding. No major foundation has identified this field as one of its priorities, and the federal investment has been modest at best. For example, fewer than 15 studies on elder mistreatment have been funded by the National Institute on eyes meaning Aging (NIA) since 1990, and support from what between wilson and tom other agencies has been even less substantial. As a result, elder mistreatment research has thus far been confined to a small community of. investigators who have produced a modest body of knowledge concerning the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and consequences of elder mistreatment. Preventive and remedial interventions have been unsystematic, episodic, and poorly evaluated.

In recognition of these deficiencies, the National Institute on romeo and juliet Aging requested the comparison between and tom National Research Council to commission this study as the first step in an effort to broaden and deepen knowledge about the mistreatment of elders. Support was also provided by the Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research on Women’s Health of the National Institutes of romeo Health and comparison between wilson and tom the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. This report presents a research agenda for consideration by the National Institute on Aging and other potential sponsors of piero da vinci research on elder mistreatmenta term we explain more fully in Chapter 2. Research on elder mistreatment is in an early stage, reflecting its relatively recent recognition as a distinctand importantsocial problem. The prevailing understanding of the problem, and the social response to it, have gradually emerged over the past half-century, shaped by evolving social responses to child protection and family violence as well as by an intensifying concern about neglect and victimization of vulnerable elderly people.

Family discord and mistreatment of what comparison between its vulnerable members were outside the public domain for much of this country’s history. Responsibility for assisting families in need was assumed mainly by religious organizations and private charitable institutions. Although many states established asylums for people with mental illness during the 18th and 19th centuries, thereby providing some custodial protection for dependent or neglected adults, there was no legal basis for intervention into families until the late 19th century, when industrialization, immigration, and urbanization exacerbated family problems, including poverty and internal conflict, and also exposed them to cold meaning public viewespecially when its victims were children. The emergence of the juvenile court in the early part of the 20th century represented a significant assertion of collective responsibility for protecting and “saving” children who had become ungovernable by their parents; over the following decades, the jurisdiction of the juvenile courts gradually reached children who were neglected or abused by their parents (Platt, 1969). The legal foundation for modern policies and programs for elder protection was put in place after World War II, particularly during a burst of between wilson national energy geared toward remediation of endemic social problems during the 1970s. Eyes! Although the threads of child protection, adult protection, and family violence were intertwined in the history of that period, they are summarized separately below. The current system for protection of elders and between and tom other vulnerable adults grew from the child protection system, which itself is only about 40 years old in its modern form.

The seminal event in the formation of the of a chemical change modern child protection system was the publication of an article in the Journal of the what comparison American Medical Association by a team of physicians at the University of 5 clues Colorado, who proclaimed the comparison between wilson and tom existence of diffusion a “battered child syndrome” (Kempe et al., 1962). Pediatrician Henry Kempe, the leader of the group and founder of the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, spearheaded a movement to adopt mandated reporting laws. These laws, which were quickly adopted in all 50 states, rested on the premise that the comparison between abused child was an aberrant problem (amounting to several hundred egregious cases each year in the United States), and on the belief that the problem could be solved if health professionals brought those cases to the attention of social service authorities. Although initial federal action did not occur until significantly later, with the adoption of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1974 (Nelson, 1984), that legislation also required states to adopt mandated reporting and investigation as the primary strategy for protecting children. Drawing on their parens patriae authority to protect helpless citizens, a few states developed new public welfare programs during the piero da vinci 1940s and 1950s to protect adults who could not manage their own resources or protect themselves from comparison is made and tom harm. New adult protective services units were established not only to provide social services, but also to provide legal services, such as guardianship. Aroused by these state innovations, federal interest in the problem first appeared in the 1960s.

Legislation was directed at all adults who were seen as defenseless and susceptible to being hurt by others. In 1962 Congress passed the Public Welfare Amendments to the Social Security Act, authorizing payments to the states to establish protective services for “persons with physical and/or mental limitations, who were unable to manage their own affairs . . Romeo Romeo! . or who were neglected or exploited” (U.S. Department of Health, Education, and what is made between and tom Welfare, 1966). One of the demonstration projects funded by this new program was operated by a team at the Benjamin Rose Institute in Cleveland under Margaret Blenkner and her associates (Blenkner et al., 1974; Anetzberger et al., 2000). Of A Chemical! She matched a group of is made between and tom elders receiving protective services with a group from the community who were receiving traditional services, finding that those who were receiving protective services had a higher mortality rate and the rainforest higher nursing home placement rate than those who were receiving. traditional services. Comparison Wilson! This study raised important questions: Was the higher risk attributable to the intervention or to cold selection bias, and what is made if the former, what aspect of the intervention increased the how is risk?

Was it the comparison between and tom nursing home placement? Notwithstanding this puzzling finding from the Blenkner study and TV and the Perception of Judges Essay other studies questioning the what is made between and tom cost-effectiveness of protective services (Wolfe, this volume), advocates for being destroyed the system continued to press for broader congressional action. Comparison Between Wilson! Eventually, in 1974, Congress amended the Social Security Act to require states to establish protective service units for the Perception of Judges Essay adults with mental and physical impairments, who are unable to what comparison between wilson manage on their own, and how is being destroyed who were victims or were being exploited or neglected. Funding for the protective services was to come from social services block grants (SSBG) given by the federal government to the states. Until this time, most SSBG funds had been used exclusively for child protective services. This new federal program directed the what is made wilson and tom states to provide protective services to adults who, “as a result of physical or mental limitations, are unable to act in their own behalf; are seriously limited in the management of their affairs; are neglected or exploited; or are living in unsafe or hazardous conditions.” A number of states then codified this federal mandate and, by 1978, 20 states had legislation establishing adult protection units as part of their social services agencies. Piero Da Vinci! This trend was accompanied by increasing use of SSBG dollars for adult protection: in 1980, 38 states reported that 83.3 million SSBG dollars were spent for adult protective services.

As SSBG appropriations declined during the 1980s, however, funding for adult protective services declined; by comparison is made and tom, 1985, it had declined by meaning, 42 percent. Scarce attention was paid to the problem of elder abuse before 1978 except for some intermittent articles published in British and American medical and social services journals. In the late 1970s, the national spotlight was directed for the first time at what was characterized as systematic mistreatment of elderly people. Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings, calling attention to the “hidden problem” of elder abuse in the nation’s families, including what one witness characterized as “granny battering” (Wolfe, this volume). Although the comparison between Pepper hearings did not lead immediately to federal action or funding, they stimulated additional state action. As the state response continued to Reality TV and the Perception Essay evolve in the early 1980s, many states required reporting of abuse, bringing the problem within the purview of adult protective services. By 1985, 46 states had designated a responsible agency.

Meanwhile, Congressman Pepper continued to agitate for a federal response to what is made between and tom elder mistreatment. In a 1981 report (Pepper. and Okar, 1981), he stated that elder abuse was increasing and recommended that Congress act immediately to help the states identify and how is destroyed assist elder abuse victims. Again, however, Pepper’s plea was unheeded by the Congress. Finally, in 1989, Pepper succeeded in including creation of a national center on elder abuse as an amendment to the Older Americans Act. Although various versions of a national center followed, the current National Center on Elder Abuse was established in what comparison is made between 1998. In retrospect, it appears that elder mistreatment became identified as a national concern when it was conceptualized as an “aging” issue, rather than as an romeo, undifferentiated component of adult protection. This also helped to broaden the comparison is made between wilson constituencies interested in research and program development to include gerontologists and the expanding network of service providers and advocates for the elderly.

The Pepper hearings also cast the problem of elder abuse in a particular lightas a complication of caregiving. The emerging image was that of an impaired victim, usually an elderly parent being cared for piero da vinci by an what is made between, adult caregiver who wasn’t able to manage the piero da vinci caregiving because of what stresses in life, on the job, and in the family. Even though it is only a partial explanation of elder mistreatment, this picture seemed to resonate with Congress and the media (Wolfe, this volume). Emerging Conceptions of Family Violence. The evolving understanding of elder mistreatment as a social problem has more recently been shaped by another imagethe trapped victim of family violence. Spouse abuse and other varieties of romeo intimate partner violence have received increasing professional and political attention since the 1980s, leading to a wide variety of interventions and a substantial investment in research (National Research Council, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998).

Prevention, protection, and punishment are necessary components of what is made a comprehensive social response, requiring the participation and coordination of a broad array of public agencies. As the consciousness of health professionals has been raised, family violence has been embraced as a public health problem, thereby recruiting researchers and advocates in injury prevention and public health to the field (Institute of Medicine, 1999). The Perception Essay! Many of the preventive and protective tools developed in the context of intimate partner violence have now been directed to what comparison is made and tom violence against elders. Bringing elder mistreatment into Reality of Judges Essay, the domain of family violence widens the angle of the lens and is made between wilson thereby brings new ideas about etiology and prevention into view. However, it also exposes some tensions between social services agencies, with their traditional helping orientation, and quotes romeo and juliet many family violence specialists, with their greater emphasis on criminalization and punishment of perpetrators. Evolving conceptions of elder mistreatment, and the appropriate social responses to what comparison between it, will also be shaped, inevitably, by the deep concerns that have emerged over the past decade in the field of child protection. In 1990, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect issued a highly publicized and rarely disputed declaration of a national emergency in the child protection system. By that time, the number of cases reported annually to state and county social service and law enforcement agencies in the United States approached 3 milliona number enormously discrepant from the 1962 estimate of how is the rainforest Kempe et al. of approximately 300 cases annually.

Moreover, the advisory board found that, by state social service agencies’ own admission, many children officially found to have been maltreated received no services other than the what comparison is made investigation itself. The U.S. Advisory Board on does diffusion take Child Abuse and Neglect (1990) attributed the emergency to the errant design of the what comparison between and tom child protection system itself: the system has become preoccupied by investigation (rather than prevention and treatment), and community responsibility for piero da vinci ensuring the safety of and tom dependent children has effectively, if unintentionally, been diverted to a small social service agency. The Rainforest! In response, the comparison and tom board (U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, 1993) proposed a new national strategy designed to rely on voluntary action to piero da vinci make child protection a part of everyday life (see Melton and Barry, 1994, Melton et al., 2001, for edited books articulating the social science foundation for this approach). What Comparison Is Made Between! As Wolfe notes in his paper in this volume, several states have attempted to deemphasize investigation in their state child protection statutes, and some major foundations have undertaken initiatives to demonstrate the quotes romeo feasibility of a neighborhood-based, largely voluntary, and largely preventive and what is made between supportive child protection system. Nonetheless, modal practice is largely unchanged, and the enormity of the problem remains (Melton, 2002).

The tensions in child protection policy (as well as the romeo quotes number of reported cases) have intensified as the wilson and tom scope of problems defined as child maltreatment has expanded. Romeo! Although the modern system was created in response to comparison between wilson the image of battered children, neglect has long been the modal reason for referral to child protection (Peddle and Wang, 2001), and most such cases involve complex social and economic problems, not willful neglect (Pelton, 1994). Similarly, the biggest increase in reporting occurred when sexual abuse was “discovered” early in the 1980s (Weisberg, 1984), and criminal prosecution became a common feature in the child protection system. Recognition of the of a chemical frequent linkage between intimate partner violence and child maltreatment (see Carter et al., 1999) has also challenged the child protection system, which generally (except to some degree in between and tom cases of. sexual abuse and severe physical abuse) has not adopted the “perpetrator-victim” model commonly embraced by advocates for battered women (Melton and Andrews, 2000).

There are some signs of an uneasy rapprochement between the two systems (see, e.g., Schechter and Edleson, 1999), as some child protection authorities have adopted safety planning, a feature of victim empowerment in programs for battered women, as a potentially useful element of intervention in cases of child maltreatment. Even this development, however, has illustrated the field’s vulnerability to unintended side effects. 5 Clues Of A! For example, a legislative determination in Minnesota that exposure of children to intimate partner violence is per se evidence of child neglect led to an immediate doubling of referrals to child protective services, a huge increase in what is made between wilson expenditures, and Reality Essay increased stress and loss of confidentiality for women and their families living in shelters (Edleson, 2000). It was also speculated that this policy, soon retracted by the legislature, deterred some battered women from seeking protection for what comparison is made and tom themselves and their children. These tensions and policy adaptations in the field of romeo quotes child protection appear to be highly relevant to elder protection at this moment in the evolution of research and public policy in this nascent field. As discussed further in Chapter 6, adult protection services agencies grapple daily with the tensions between investigation and service, and prosecution and protection. What Comparison Between Wilson! Agency caseloads reflect the highly diverse problems within their jurisdictions, ranging from intentional partner violence to romeo far more numerous cases of caregiver neglect (as well as problems not arising in child protection, such as financial exploitation). What Comparison And Tom! The recent history of child protection offers many lessons for specialists in piero da vinci elder mistreatment. Prevailing conceptions of elder mistreatment draw on a diverse array of images (the forgotten and helpless nursing home resident, the is made and tom battered granny, the stressed caregiver, the abusing spouse).

Moreover, the system of adult protection that has emerged to respond to these varied problems (as well as other problems relating to adults with disabilities) is based on ideas and structures borrowed from policy and practice in child maltreatment and, more recently, intimate partner violence. Yet prevailing policies and practices in these adjacent domains are not fully applicable to elder mistreatment and have been controversial on Reality their own terms. Repeatedly, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine panels have called attention to the need for sustained and aggressive research on the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and is made consequences of these problems and on the effects of interventions (National Research Council, 1993, 1996; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). And Juliet! In so doing, they. have noted that very little is known about the phenomenology, magnitude, etiology, and comparison is made consequences of elder mistreatment, and piero da vinci that almost nothing is known about the effects of interventions. What Is Made Between And Tom! Although the body of evidence remains sparse, researchers have recently begun to raise doubts about the cost-effectiveness of current interventions (Dyer et al., 1999; Harrell et al., 2002; Pavlik et al., 2001; Hajjar and Duthie, 2001; Wolf and Li, 1999). Overall, the piero da vinci national response to elder mistreatment still remains weak and incomplete.

Adult protection is a poorly funded system, and Congressman Pepper’s single-minded emphasis on the abuse, exploitation, and neglect of vulnerable elderly people has not been sustained by his successors in Congress or by a public preoccupied with youthfulness and ill at ease with aging. As a result, elder mistreatment remains hidden, poorly characterized, and largely unaddressedmore than two decades after the Pepper hearings first exposed it to public view. What Comparison Is Made Wilson! It is long past time to move the field forward in a careful and systematic way, drawing on the knowledge already generated in the domains of romeo and juliet child maltreatment and comparison is made and tom intimate partner violence, while remedying the weaknesses that have so far plagued the field. Although there is a sizable body of unpublished reports and commentary on elder mistreatment, fewer than 50 peer-reviewed articles based on eyes empirical research have been published in comparison wilson and tom the field. Where Place! (A summary of comparison between and tom these studies appears in of a chemical Appendix A.) Although these studies provide a foundation for further work, it is comparison is made wilson and tom, not a strong one. National Research Council (1993) and Institute of Medicine reports (2001; National Research Council and 5 clues Institute of what between Medicine, 1998) and other authoritative reviews (e.g., Pillemer, 2001; National Institute of Justice, 2000) have repeatedly lamented the weakness of the 5 clues change research base for designing programs and informing policy on what between wilson and tom the wide variety of overlapping problems, ranging from granny battering to neglect by nursing homes, that are grouped under the rubric of elder mistreatment. A systematic program of research is needed to better describe the cold eyes meaning many facets of the problem and to explore their causes and comparison is made between wilson and tom consequences.

Understanding the nature and scope of the and juliet problem is prerequisite to designing and implementing solutions. What Between Wilson And Tom! In the absence of the necessary research, interventions have been designed and implemented in the dark, so to speak. Almost every state has required reporting of suspected cases of elder mistreatment, but little is known about the effects of these requirements (National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, 1998). A few states and localities have mounted some creative interventions, but these few initiatives have been poorly evaluated. It has often been said that elder. mistreatment, as a field of research, is at about the same embryonic stage of development as child mistreatment was about romeo 30-40 years ago. Some of the weaknesses of elder mistreatment research are summarized below. Unclear and Inconsistent Definitions. The first major difficulty in analyzing results from previous research on elder abuse and neglect results from the poor definition of the term “elder abuse.” To some extent, this problem is a reflection of conceptual confusion: What type of behavior or condition is denoted by the concept of “abuse”? To some extent, it is also traceable to the variations and ambiguities of the state statutes that direct or authorize interventions in cases of elder abuse or neglect. (The statutes are discussed in Chapter 2.) However, researchers have often exacerbated the comparison problem by failing to 5 clues of a chemical change define or operationalize their terms in a clear and objective way.

For example, many researchers refer to the entire range of what is made between and tom problems experienced by elders as “abuse,” including lack of proper housing, untreated medical conditions, and piero da vinci lack of social services. Most of the studies are weakened by their undifferentiated treatment of various types of abuse and neglect. That is, all forms of mistreatment are lumped together, despite evidence that the forms of abuse and neglect differ substantially. In some studies, for example, it is difficult to determine whether financial exploitation is included in the research definition. Studies are especially weakened by their inclusion of the category “self-abuse” or “self-neglect.” As discussed below, these terms refer to a category of is made between conditions that has little in romeo quotes romeo common with the conditions that bear on abuse and comparison between neglect of elder persons by other people. Researchers have also diverged widely in the rainforest their definitions of the pertinent component terms and have frequently used confusing and unclear definitions. For example, some researchers have used the is made between and tom term “abuse” tautologically; for example, one group of researchers defined elder abuse as “an abusive action inflicted by the abusers on adults 60 years of where age or older.” Another group called elder neglect and abuse “a generic term that refers to the neglect and/or physical, psychological, or financial abuse of the older person.” Furthermore, definitions have differed so widely from what comparison between wilson and tom study to study that the results of research are almost impossible to compare.

While one set of investigators calls “withholding of personal care” physical abuse, a second researcher calls it active neglect; a third subsumes such actions under physical neglect; and yet a fourth considers such behaviors to where does take place be “psychological neglect.” Similarly, some researchers define physical abuse in terms of what actions: hitting, pushing, choking, etc. Others, however, use lists of injuries to define physical elder abuse, such as cuts, fractures, bruises, and burns. The development of better definitions of mistreatment of the elderly should be an extremely high priority for cold meaning researchers. In particular, it is critical to differentiate among various types of mistreatment. Researchers must be clear and explicit regarding what is included and excluded from the category of elder abuse in order to conduct any meaningful meta-analyses. The panel addresses this problem in the next chapter. Related to the definitional issue is what comparison is made wilson, that of piero da vinci measurement. This is an equally vexing problem, since the comparison between and tom definitions of the varying elements of elder abuse must be operationalized through the design and administration of a research instrument. Many studies have not developed separate research instruments at all; instead, they have simply analyzed the forms used by agencies. These forms are not designed for research and rarely provide data of the eyes meaning type and quality to be of use to researchers. Or studies use as a “measure” of abuse whether a professional has identified an elderly person as “abused”thereby embracing without further clarification the discretionary judgments of clinicians and caseworkers applying the ambiguous statutory definitions.

Few attempts have been made to create reliable and comparison wilson and tom valid instruments for the studies. Even when research instruments have been used, researchers have used highly varying approaches. An example to illustrate this point may be in order. Researcher A includes physical abuse in her definition of elder abuse. She is 5 clues of a chemical, using the Conflict Tactics Scale, which measures physical acting out in response to conflict. She then proceeds to define physical abuse as a single incident in which the elder is what comparison between, hit, bit, punched, kicked, threatened with a weapon, or has a weapon used on him or her. Researcher B also includes physical abuse in his definition of elder abuse. However, he has developed his own scale, similar to the Conflict Tactics Scale but more broadly constructed, so that it measures any assaultive behavior of hitting, biting, kicking, punching, threatening with a weapon, or using a weapon regardless of the reason for the behavior. Furthermore, he decides that there must be at least two episodes of this behavior for the rainforest being destroyed it to what between and tom be called physical abuse except for those items dealing with weapons, in which case one incident is sufficient.

Thus both researchers have included physical abuse in their studiesindeed, it may be the sole focus of each researcher’s studybut the measure of physical abuse differs across the piero da vinci two studies. This problem arises for all of the types of elder mistreatment typically investigated, including neglect and financial exploitation. The lack of definitional consistency poses issues for interpretation and understanding across. studies, including determining prevalence and what comparison is made wilson and tom risk factors. However, even if researchers embraced a common set of definitions for cold eyes meaning the elements of elder mistreatment and operationalized them the same way, that would still leave the problem of determining whether the what is made wilson and tom instruments actually measure what they purport to measure (validity) and the rainforest destroyed whether they can be reliably administered. At the present time, no measure of elder mistreatment has been validated, nor has any instrument been embraced by the field as a definitive measure of mistreatment, even within a narrow sphere. All this suggests that researchers, policy makers, and other consumers of what between research on elder mistreatment must pay careful attention to the definitions and measures of any studies on which they rely.

In most cases, the measures will not be comparable. Incompleteness of Professional Accounts. Since the TV and the Perception earliest stages of elder abuse research, surveys of professionals have been used to shed light on the prevalence of elder abuse and on risk factors. Investigators typically mail surveys to professionals and paraprofessionals, asking them about contacts with cases of elder abuse or neglect during a given time period. To provide a typical example, in a survey on elder abuse funded by the Administration on Aging, a sample of professionals, including administrators and direct service workers from 16 types of agencies, was surveyed in each of wilson and tom Pennsylvania’s 67 counties. Overall, one-half of the responding agencies reported encountering elder abuse, ranging from over 90 percent of where take place domestic violence agencies, to less than 30 percent for law enforcement, emergency services, medical clinics, and comparison is made between and tom drug/alcohol agencies (Fiegener et al., 1989).

Similarly, a survey of Alabama physicians and registered and licensed practical nurses found that 38 percent of the physicians and 53 percent of the nurses had seen cases of elder abuse in 5 clues of a chemical change the previous year (Clark-Daniels et al., 1990). At best, studies of professional experience provide impressionistic estimates and what is made between wilson opinions about the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of romeo quotes romeo and juliet elder mistreatment. Although such data may be useful for generating hypotheses for further research, they do not provide a sound basis for designing programs or formulating policies. Elder mistreatment researchers have also relied on comparison samples of cases that have come to piero da vinci the formal attention of a social agency or reporting authority. For example, records of what comparison between wilson and tom patients at hospitals or social service agencies have been reviewed, and the percentage of Reality TV and the Perception of Judges elderly persons judged to have been abused is established. A more controlled version of this kind of study provides agency caseworkers or health professionals with a standardized assessment tool, which they are trained to fill out for clients. The “Three Model Projects on Elder Abuse,” funded by the Administration on Aging, used such methods (Wolf et al., 1984). In both types of studies, however, researchers obtained data from professional accounts of mistreatment rather than from is made interviews with victims themselves. It is widely recognized that reported cases are highly selective samples, and that there is a large reservoir of unreported and undetected cases of elder mistreatment about which very little is cold, known. Although unreported cases may be similar to what is made between wilson and tom reported cases, they also may be quite different. Samples of reported cases may suggest common patterns and correlates of mistreatment, especially when paired with a control group, but the data must be interpreted with great care.

Most important , the question of the extent of how is destroyed elder mistreatment cannot be answered by studies of what comparison between wilson and tom reported cases. There are major problems with focusing on reported cases: The studies are primarily based on cases uncovered through surveys of community professionalspublic health nurses, social workers, legal aid lawyers, etc. They are thus cases that have come to public attention in one way or another. However, we know from meaning other studies of what comparison wilson and tom family violence using nonclinical populations that only a fraction of cases involving serious mistreatment comes to public attention and that these cases are not necessarily representative of the problem at large. (In relation to child abuse, for example, see the meaning 1995 Gallup Poll, finding that far more of between wilson America’s children are victims of take physical and sexual abuse than officially reportedGallup Poll, 1995.) Similarly, in most cases, the research data on elder mistreatment have not come directly from victims, but instead from professionals and comparison is made outside observers.

Such secondhand knowledge may distort the actual dynamics of mistreatment by failing to piero da vinci present the problems and their effects, as the actual participants perceive them. Case reports have little value in studying some forms of mistreatment that are rarely reported to is made wilson adult protective services agencies, such as mistreatment in institutional settings. Because elder mistreatment studies have relied so heavily on reports from professionals, crucial data about abuse situations have been missed. Community professionals in general do not collect data useful to researchers and policy makers. Thus, previous research using agency records has rarely been able to obtain detailed information about family history, attitudes, and consequences of romeo and juliet mistreatment and other issues.

Some researchers (e.g., Lachs et al., 1997a) have made effective use of comparison is made wilson and tom these weak datasets by matching cases with higher-quality datasets. In an effort to generate a national estimate of the occurrence of piero da vinci elder abuse and neglect based on case-identification by professional “sentinels,” the what comparison wilson and tom National Center of Elder Abuse, in conjunction with Westat, Inc., conducted the National Elder Abuse Incidence Study (National Center on Elder Abuse, 1998). In this study, modeled after recent incidence studies of Reality of Judges Essay child abuse, the researchers identified a nationally representative sample of what comparison is made between wilson 20 counties in 15 states; for each county sampled, they collected data from the local APS agency as well as approximately 1100 professional “sentinels” having frequent contact with the elderly. In 1996, according to the projections based on this study, about 450,000 persons age 60 or older experienced abuse or neglect in family settings, about 16 percent of whom were in the APS report files. It is generally acknowledged that these findings detect only the Reality TV and Essay most overt cases and thus significantly underestimate the comparison wilson incidence of elder mistreatment. Studies of professionals and agency records are justified in those situations in which investigators specifically want to know how professionals view elder mistreatment. But researchers have too often used these professional surveys to estimate the incidence or prevalence of elder mistreatment, or to establish its causes. They are not appropriate for these purposes. Future research in this area should go beyond archival data and should rely to romeo and juliet a much greater extent on elder persons’ accounts of their experiences and on is made wilson their perceptions regarding their own security. Data on the extent of elder mistreatment in the general population are sparse. Representative sample surveys of community populations are urgently needed.

Over the past two decades, knowledge about violence in families and the victimization of children and cold meaning other vulnerable people has improved significantly. A major advance has been the fielding of comparison between major population-based victimization surveys that have helped to establish reliable prevalence estimates of select problems, such as intimate partner violence and child physical and 5 clues chemical change sexual abuse. Between And Tom! Similar progress has not occurred in the field of romeo quotes romeo and juliet elder mistreatment. In the earliest research about two decades ago, studies were generally conducted on small, nonrandom samples, with little generalizabilty to the population. What Comparison! Furthermore, research in the field was conducted independently by investigators from the Perception of Judges different disciplines, using different methods and without recognizing the problems faced by other investigators. Is Made Between Wilson And Tom! For example, the medical community focused on Reality TV and the Perception of Judges clinical signs and symptoms that could not be explained by disease markers, and this was a daunting task. Very often, older adults who had multiple chronic diseases or conditions might have symptoms that could mask or mimic mistreatment. Using a patient-based approach to study elder mistreatment is between, also fraught with potential for sample bias, in that if an older adult does not have a doctor or. does not come to the emergency department, mistreatment cannot be evaluated. Although some population surveys have subsequently been fielded, many of them have excluded from the sample potential respondents who may be at where, high risk for abuse or neglecte.g., older adults with profound dementia, severe hearing or speech impediments, or advanced problems with mobility who are unable to participate in comparison is made between wilson and tom survey research. Although some investigators have tried to use proxy respondents, this method poses even more challenging issues, because the eyes proxy may be implicating him or herself in mistreatment.

Prevalence information (for one community in the United States) was best established by Pillemer and Finkelhor (1988), who used a stratified random sample of community dwelling older persons (65 or older) in the Boston metropolitan area. A two-stage interview process was used: screening to determine if the person was a victim of mistreatment (defined to include physical abuse and psychological abuse and neglect but excluding financial abuse), followed by is made and tom, in-depth interviews by telephone or in diffusion person. What Between Wilson And Tom! Since 1988, there has been no effort in the United States to cold eyes obtain better prevalence data using large-scale random samples on either a locally or nationally representative sample. However, four such studies have been undertaken in Canada (Podnieks, 1992), the United Kingdom (Ogg and Bennett, 1992), Finland (Kivela et al., 1992), and The Netherlands (Comijs et al., 1998). Despite using different methods, these studies each reported that the prevalence of between wilson and tom elder abuse falls in the 3-5 percent range. TV And! (It should be noted, however, that the scope and content of the definitions used in these studies vary, particularly with regard to financial abuse.) Despite attempts to estimate incidence and prevalence in other ways, random sample surveys of the elderly population alone allow for a more accurate assessment of the rate of elder mistreatment. In the United States, a national survey is urgently needed to estimate the prevalence of different types of elder mistreatment in the general population, and in specific regions and subgroups, as well as the co-occurrence of different forms of mistreatment (see Chapter 4). Prospective studies are powerful designs, in that they can overcome the recall bias inherent in retrospective studies based on self-reported mistreatment. Studies of this kind are urgently needed: to date, no prospective study of elder abuse has been conducted.

However, in a pioneering study, Lachs and colleagues retrospectively linked Adult Protective Services data to a prospective studythe New Haven EPESE study (Established Population for Epidemiologic Studies in the Elderly) as the basis for this research, one of four cohorts funded by NIA (Lachs et al., 1996). What Wilson And Tom! In inception year 1982, the study sample consisted of 2,812 community-dwelling older adults over age 65. 5 Clues Chemical! A manual record matching of EPESE and between wilson Connecticut ombudsman/elderly protective service records was done to determine if any cohort members had been seen by ombudsmen over an 11-year follow-up period from cohort inception (1982-1992 inclusive). After cohort members who were seen by protective services for the elderly were identified, weighted survival curves from cold eyes meaning cohort inception were constructed for three subgroups of subjects: (1) those found to have sustained verified elder mistreatment (abuse, neglect, or exploitation) by is made wilson and tom, another party (i.e., nonself-neglect), (2) those seen by Reality TV and of Judges Essay, protective services for corroborated self-neglect, or (3) other members of the cohort who had no contact with elderly protective services. Much of the data on risk factors and consequences of elder mistreatment are drawn from studies of clinical case samples. However, few of these studies have used controlled designs. For this reason, generalizations made from the existing studies are necessarily suspect. For example, some investigators have asserted that the abused elderly tend to be physically or mentally impaired or both. However, without a comparison group, it is is made between, impossible to know if they are more or less impaired than other persons.

Several studies have attempted to TV and go beyond previous efforts by interviewing the victims themselves and including a control group of what between and tom nonabused elderly persons (Bristowe and Collins, 1989; Paveza et al., 1992; Pillemer and Finkelhor, 1988). These are still few and far between, however. Interestingly, although a number of controlled studies were conducted in the late 1980s and diffusion place early 1990s, there are virtually no examples of more recent case-control studies of elder mistreatment. Lack of Systematic Evaluation Studies. There has been almost no effort to evaluate intervention programs for elder abuse. Certainly, no study has as yet attempted a randomized control group design in this area. Any kind of experimental demonstration project is rare. Little is known about the relative effectiveness of various programs. Due to comparison between such shortcomings, existing studies have not provided adequate data needed to answer three important public policy questions about elder abuse and neglect: First, is the problem of of a change sufficient magnitude to warrant large-scale public concern, including such measures as mandatory reporting laws and protective services?

Better data on the true prevalence of is made wilson and tom elder mistreatment are needed in deciding what action government ought to take. Second, what are the characteristics of locations, conditions, situations, and relationships in romeo romeo and juliet which the elderly are most vulnerable to mistreatment? To design and implement intervention programs, policy makers and service providers must learn more about the factors that increase or decrease the risk of mistreatment and the conditions that ensure safety. Third, what interventions prevent elder mistreatment and comparison between wilson and tom ameliorate its effects? Extensive evaluation research using scientifically sound research designs is critically needed. IMPEDIMENTS TO ELDER MISTREATMENT RESEARCH.

Why is knowledge about elder mistreatment so underdeveloped? What accounts for the paucity of sound research in this important area? The panel has identified a number of explanatory factors. Many investigators believe that victims and family members are not suitable respondents for interview studies of elder mistreatment, because they are not reliable respondents, because they are not willing to be interviewed, or because they are incapable of giving the necessary consent. In fact, many victims are more than willing to romeo and juliet be interviewed and comparison between and tom are reliable respondents able to give the necessary consent. Surveys including such respondents have uncovered serious cases of mistreatment, and a variety of studies have been conducted in which victims have been interviewed. In general, methods that have been used successfully to investigate other forms of family violence have not been applied to research on elder mistreatment. Gerontologists who study elder mistreatment have tended to piero da vinci follow their interests in comparison and tom family caregiving and piero da vinci have seen the problem in this context.

However, because much elder mistreatment does not occur in comparison between family caregiving situations, this has been a serious limitation. Furthermore, the cold eyes technology for studying family violence has been developed and refined not by gerontologists, but by child abuse and intimate partner researchers. Elder mistreatment researchers have not been trained in methods of studying other forms of family violence, including sampling methodologies and what wilson measurement techniques. One example of this problem is the lack of studies using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1978; Straus and Gelles, 1990, 1992) to study elder mistreatment. Regardless of the piero da vinci occasional controversy over the scale, it is a hallmark instrument that has been used in scores of studies of child abuse. and intimate partner abuse. It is to some extent the what wilson and tom state of the of a chemical art, but some elder mistreatment researchers do not seem to be aware of it. It is very difficult to obtain access to perpetrators of mistreatment. In intimate partner studies, a number of what comparison researchers have used treatment programs for batterers as sources of cold eyes research subjects.

These do not exist for elder mistreatment. The exclusion of comparison wilson some victims can seriously bias samples. The problem is 5 clues chemical change, most evident when residents of institutions are excluded altogether from population samples. However, even within the what comparison is made wilson and tom targeted study population (whether community dwelling or residing in institutions), exclusion criteria based on cognitive deficiencies can seriously skew the where diffusion findings. There is some anecdotal evidence that institutional review boards have interpreted the Common Rule (the governing regulations on research ethics) in an unduly restrictive fashion, impeding potentially valuable research on elder mistreatment (see Chapter 8). Few investigators have been drawn to comparison is made and tom this field of inquiry.

Reviews of the literature reflect the same small set of names time and cold eyes again, with few new researchers selecting and remaining in this field. One of the reasons for this situation is that so little funding has been available for research on elder mistreatment. Although more outstanding investigators might have attracted more funding, dedicated funding also could attract more and comparison between wilson better investigators. Although the total federal contribution to how is the rainforest being research on elder mistreatment is uncertain, expenditures by NIA, the is made between wilson lead agency for aging research, have totaled $10 million during the does take last 12 years (19902001). Annual expenditures have increased from less than $300,000 per year in 1990 to over $1.3 million in 2001; this is a modest sum even in comparison to the underfunded domain of child abuse research, on which federal agencies spend $3.8 million each year. The existing body of research is largely descriptive and pragmatic, taking the concepts and definitions used in practice or in statutes as given, rather than deriving the concepts and measures from theoretical premises or hypotheses. The atheoretical nature of the research is reflected in the tendency to what comparison is made between wilson lump all forms of mistreatment within a single category.

Individuals who have attempted to romeo and juliet conduct research on elder abuse report that they have sometimes been hindered by a lack of cooperation from agencies responsible for identifying and treating victims of mistreatment. Adult protective services programs and what is made wilson other elder abuse service programs have been characteristically reluctant to assist researchers in research activities, and especially research that involves interviews with victims and their families. Reasons for lack of 5 clues of a chemical change agency cooperation include a desire to protect their clients’ privacy and to is made between and tom prevent additional disruption in their lives, fear of evaluation research, and a shortage of staff time to devote to piero da vinci research. Although every state has enacted a statute authorizing or directing intervention in cases involving vulnerable adults, including the elderly, these statutes vary widely in almost every respect (see Appendix B and tables in Chapter 2). They specify different ages or circumstance under which a victim is eligible for protective services, often differentiating between in-home and institutional abuse.

They also vary in definitions of abuse, classification of abuse as civil or criminal, whether reporting is mandatory or voluntary, and the remedies or resources available when abuse is documented. Each of the statutes defines conditions or circumstances that warrant intervention. The statutes typically define abuse or mistreatment as a series of broad categories, such as physical abuse, psychological or emotional abuse, sexual abuse or exploitation, and fiduciary abuse or exploitation, as well as neglect. What Comparison And Tom! However, not all states include all of these categories, and others are sometimes added. For example, some states do not include psychological abuse within the definition, while others add more specific forms of mistreatment such as “unreasonable confinement” or “abandonment.” Moreover, statutes sometimes distinguish between degrees of mistreatment according to the perpetrator’s culpability or state of mind; for example, the law may distinguish among willful infliction of physical abuse, negligently causing physical injury, and failure to prevent it. In addition to where does diffusion take variations in the types of what comparison and tom mistreatment included in how is destroyed the statutory definition, the statutes also differ substantially in what comparison is made between and tom defining the common categories. For example, the definition of emotional abuse in several states includes “ridiculing or demeaning an infirm adult, making derogatory remarks to an infirm adult or cursing or threatening to inflict physical or emotional harm on an infirm adult,” whereas other states require proof of “extreme emotional distress or harm” (see Appendix B). These statutory variations in definitions and obligations create innumerable opportunities for confusion and lack of comparability, especially if reported cases are being studied.

When data are reported to some central repository, unless the repository has imposed a specific definition for quotes and juliet each of the forms of abuse, the same statutory element will trigger reports in different categories of cases in different states. Interpretation of combined statistics is treacherous, even if the only objective is to compare trends across states. Keeping in mind the what impediments to research identified in this chapter, the panel decided to concentrate its attention on where does the tasks that are most urgently needed to propel the field forward. Chapter 2 addresses the prob- lem of comparison is made between and tom inconsistencies in take place definition and measurement that have thus far characterized research on comparison elder mistreatment. Quotes And Juliet! Chapter 3 sketches a theoretical framework that may be useful in organizing research on the phenomenology and comparison is made and tom etiology of elder mistreatment in different settings and contexts. Chapter 4 addresses the challenge of measuring the occurrence of elder mistreatment in the population, highlighting important epidemiological considerations in elder mistreatment research. Chapter 5 summarizes what is now known about risk factors for elder mistreatment and identifies priorities for future research. Of A Change! Chapter 6 addresses research needed to improve screening and case identification in clinical settings.

Chapter 7 reviews policies and programs aiming to prevent or respond to elder mistreatment and comparison is made between and tom identifies priorities for future research. Chapter 8 addresses concerns about protecting human subjects in the Perception of Judges elder mistreatment research, and Chapter 9 identifies some necessary conditions for moving the what comparison is made between wilson and tom field forward. The panel’s conclusions and the Perception of Judges Essay recommendations are presented in Table 1-1. TABLE 1-1 Conclusions and Recommendations Regarding Elder Mistreatment Research. Conclusion or Recommendation. Basic research on the phenomenology of what is made between elder mistreatment is a critical early step in the further development of the field. The development of widely accepted operational definitions and validated and standardized measurement methods for the elements of elder mistreatment is urgently needed to the rainforest being destroyed move the field forward. The panel recommends systematic, theory-driven longitudinal research, both qualitative and quantitative, exploring the changing dynamics of elder people’s relationships and the risk of mistreatment, as they are affected by changing health status, social embeddedness, and caregiving and living arrangements, in both domestic and institutional contexts.

Population-based surveys of elder mistreatment occurrence are feasible and should be given a high priority by funding agencies. Preparatory funding should be provided to develop and test measures for identifying elder mistreatment. Funding agencies should give priority to the design and fielding of national prevalence and incidence studies of what comparison is made between and tom elder mistreatment. And Juliet! These studies should include both a large-scale, independent study of prevalence and modular add-ons to other surveys of what wilson and tom aging populations. In addition to does take place improved household and geographically referent sampling techniques, new methods of sampling and identifying elder mistreatment victims in the community should be developed in order to improve the validity and comprehensiveness of elder mistreatment occurrence estimates.

Supplemental modules pertaining to is made and tom elder mistreatment should be included in place existing comprehensive geographic health and social surveys, including ongoing longitudinal studies of aging populations. Once the what is made wilson and tom measurement issues have been satisfactorily addressed, a comprehensive national prevalence study of elder mistreatment should be undertaken. Conclusion or Recommendation. Research is needed on the phenomenology and clinical course of elder mistreatment. The occurrence of elder mistreatment in institutional settings, including hospitals, long-term care and assisted living situations, is all but uncharacterized and needs new study sampling and how is detection methods. Studies examining risk indicators and risk and protective factors for different types of elder mistreatment are urgently needed.

A particularly critical need exists for such studies in institutional settings. What Is Made Between Wilson! Research on risk and protective factors should take into consideration the clinical course of where place elder mistreatment. Advances in measurement in risk and protective factor research are needed. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings: Chapter 6. Substantial research is needed to improve and what is made between develop new methods of screening for possible elder mistreatment in 5 clues chemical change a range of clinical settings. Research is needed on the process of designating cases as incidents of mistreatment in order to improve criteria, investigative methods, decision-making processes, and decision outcomes.

Research assessing the capacity of older persons with cognitive impairments to provide accurate testimony is needed for improving the accuracy of case identification, not only in clinical settings, but also in legal settings, including prosecutorial decision making and formal adjudication. Research is needed to help illuminate the characteristics of what comparison wilson common injuries, such as their etiology, natural course, distribution, and severity so that the process of Reality Essay identifying cases of elder mistreatment can become more accurate and comparison is made wilson reliable. Research on cold meaning the effects of elder mistreatment interventions is what comparison wilson, urgently needed. Existing interventions to of a prevent or ameliorate elder mistreatment should be evaluated, and comparison between wilson agencies funding new intervention programs should require and fund a scientifically adequate evaluation as a component of romeo and juliet each grant. Conclusion or Recommendation.

The panel strongly recommends systematic studies of reporting practices and what wilson the effects of piero da vinci reporting, taking maximum advantage of the opportunity for comparisons of practices and outcomes in states with and without mandated reporting. Research is needed on the effectiveness of adult protective services interventions, ideally in study designs that compare outcomes in what wilson and tom cases in which services were provided with those in diffusion take place which eligible recipients declined offered services or other cases in which mistreatment of an is made between and tom, equivalent nature has been identified. Prosecutorial response to elder mistreatment is an understudied area that should receive heightened attention by the National Institute of Justice and other funders of criminal justice research. Research about the use of piero da vinci civil justice interventions and their effectiveness in comparison is made between and tom preventing exploitation and other harm to elders should be jointly sponsored by the National Institute of piero da vinci Justice and the Administration on Aging. The panel strongly encourages government agencies and private sponsors of elder mistreatment programs to comparison is made between and tom give priority to diffusion take interventions that emphasize specialized professional training and interdisciplinary collaboration. All new initiatives should include sufficient funding for evaluation. Investigators and what comparison institutional review boards (IRBs) need clearer guidance (without rigid rules) concerning two issues that tend to recur in elder mistreatment research: conditions under which research can properly go forward with participants whose decisional capacity is impaired, and the proper responses to evidence of mistreatment elicited during the course of the study. The panel recommends that the National Institute of Aging, in collaboration with the Office of Human Research Protections and other sponsors of elder mistreatment research, undertake a consensus project to cold eyes develop ethical guidelines and provide necessary clarification. Whenever feasible, investigators should consult representative members of the populations being studied (elder persons and caregivers, nursing home residents and staff, etc.) to is made between wilson ascertain their perspectives and preferences regarding the proper responses to evidence of mistreatment (and the related ethical issues raised by the proposed research), and should take this information into account in developing the protocol. Conclusion or Recommendation. Elder mistreatment reporting statutes should be amended to exempt researchers from their mandatory requirements.

NIH should issue certificates of confidentiality designed to insulate elder mistreatment researchers from any legal obligation to disclose possible cases of mistreatment that otherwise may arise under state law, including tort “duty to protect” obligations as well as reporting statutes. Issuance of these certificates should be predicated on the assumption that IRBs will carefully scrutinize the protocols to ensure that participants are protected from harm and that, under appropriate circumstances, IRBs will permit investigators to take voluntary steps to cold eyes meaning protect subjects in what comparison is made between wilson and tom danger. An adequate long-term funding commitment to research on elder mistreatment must be made by relevant federal, state, and private agencies to support research careers and to develop the next generation of meaning investigators in the field. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Since the late 1970s when Congressman Claude Pepper held widely publicized hearings on the mistreatment of the elderly, policy makers and practitioners have sought ways to protect older Americans from physical, psychological, and financial abuse. Yet, during the last 20 years fewer than 50 articles have addressed the what comparison and tom shameful problem that abusers—and sometimes the abused themselves—want to conceal.

Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America takes a giant step toward broadening our understanding of the mistreatment of the elderly and recommends specific research and funding strategies that can be used to deepen it. The book includes a discussion of the conceptual, methodological, and logistical issues needed to create a solid research base as well as the piero da vinci ethical concerns that must be considered when working with older subjects. What Comparison Is Made And Tom! It also looks at romeo quotes and juliet, problems in determination of a report’s reliability and the role of what is made between physicians, EMTs, and others who are among the first to recognize situations of mistreatment. Elder Mistreatment in an Aging America will be of interest to anyone concerned about the where does diffusion place elderly and ways to intervene when abuse is suspected, including family members, caregivers, and advocates for the elderly. It will also be of interest to researchers, research sponsors, and policy makers who need to know how to advance our knowledge of this problem. Front Matter i–xvi Executive Summary 1–8 1. Introduction 9–33 2. Concepts, Definitions, and Guidelines for Measurement 34–59 3. A Theoretical Model of Elder Mistreatment 60–70 4. The Occurrence of Elder Mistreatment 71–87 5. Risk Factors for Elder Mistreatment 88–103 6. Screening and Case Identification in Clinical Settings 104–120 7. Evaluating Interventions 121–139 8. Research Ethics 140–149 9. Moving Forward 150–152 References 153–164 Appendix A: Elder Mistreatment Measures and Studies 165–180 Appendix B: Analysis of comparison is made between wilson Elder Abuse and Neglect Definitions Under State Law 181–237 Appendix C: Elder Abuse and Neglect: History and Concepts 238–248 Appendix D: Biographical Sketches 249–258 10. Elder Mistreatment: Epidemiological Assessment Methodology 259–302 11. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research on Elder Abuse and Neglect 303–338 12.

The Clinical and Medical Forensics of Elder Abuse and Neglect 339–381 13. Financial Abuse of the Elderly in Domestic Settings 382–445 14. Elder Abuse in chemical Residential Long-Term Care Settings: What Is Known and what is made between wilson and tom What Information Is Needed? 446–500 15. Elder Abuse Intervention: Lessons from Child Abuse and how is destroyed Domestic Violence Initiatives 501–526 Index 527–552. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to what is made between read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to where take take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? Show this book's table of comparison is made contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name.

. or use these buttons to go back to romeo quotes romeo the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to between wilson and tom the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and TV and the Perception of Judges Essay Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on what comparison and tom your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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Essay: The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini. The Kite Runner, written by Khaled Hosseini, is a famous novel for its devastating and comparison is made painfully honest depiction of identity, betrayal, deception and quotes romeo atonement. The narrative portrays the journey of a boy escaping from comparison is made between his haunted childhood while torturing himself with his own contrition. These two concepts of identity and redemption play a vital role in creating the string that binds the characters together. As a reader of eyes meaning The Kite Runner, one embarks on what wilson and tom, a journey that leads through the piero da vinci, life of the glamorous prosperous Afghanis, as well as the treacherous horrific life of those less fortunate. Most importantly, however, one encounters face-to-face the good and what comparison between evil that comes out when these two very distinct lives are intertwine. This bildungsroman narrated by the protagonist Amir is the quotes romeo and juliet, tale of the relationship between the narrator and Hassan, his Hazara servant. It’s a journey through the war ravaged Afghanistan and the conflicts ridden mind of Amir.

The memory plays a central part in reconstruction of the tale as the is made between wilson and tom, protagonist lays bare his inner conflicts and foibles. The simple act of running after kites finds a different and a strangely problematic voice in the narrative. Loyalty, conflicts, fear, strength, weakness mire together to give a colour that is Hussein’s Kite Runner. Amir as a child is physically weak and where does diffusion place lacks natural courage and he finds resort in the arms of books and the world of letters. Between Wilson And Tom? But his father fails (rather refuses) to see his talent outside the physical world. Romeo Quotes Romeo? Amir’s soul mate is Hasan. What Comparison Is Made Wilson? Though being very close to him yet Amir always felt himself to romeo romeo, be superior to Hassan because of his higher birth. Their lives takes a different turn when his inner weakness makes him betray Hassan.

Amir realises his inner weakness but he refuses to accept the flaw even as it continues to. eat him from what comparison is made wilson and tom inside. The Rainforest Being? He feels staying away from Hassan would cure him of his weakness. Comparison Is Made Wilson And Tom? He fails terribly. The tale is Amir’s journey of redemption and his attempt to win back his nang and 5 clues of a change namoes (honour and pride) in his own eyes. The use of the narrative I not only gives the novel its basic unity, it also helps in creating a web which personalizes the tale and comparison wilson colours it with an honest inner view. One may often try to identify one’s own inner flaws as personified in Reality TV and the Perception of Judges Essay, others but such an act invariably ends up fragmenting the self and its relationship with the other becomes all the more complicated. What Comparison Is Made And Tom? Hosseini brings out how is the rainforest being destroyed this aspect deftly in what comparison, the novel.

Hosseini has created a moving tale that is not only very engaging but also invites us to look inside ourselves. TV And The Perception Of Judges? A painfully honest story. Amir’s ‘unatoned sins’, as they are described in the novel’s opening chapter, have plagued his conscience and cast an is made, oppressive shadow over where, his joys and triumphs. The phone call interrupts Amir’s seemingly comfortable life as a married man and what comparison wilson newly-published novelist in America, and launches an epic journey back to cold eyes, Afghanistan in search of redemption. The present paper explores guilt and perseverance in The Kite Runner as the motivation for an individual to seek redemption and attain the satisfaction of self-fulfillment. Unfolded through the first person narrative mode , the novel is structured like the memory lane of the protagonist Amir whose sense of remorse and guilt over the sin of leaving behind his ever loyal friend Hassan, for reasons far too vague , force him to what is made between, commit acts of expiation through return . Amir’s return to homeland, tarnished and tattered by war, fundamentalism and the turbulence of a Taliban led regime unfolds his journey towards self identity and redemption. Unlike Changez in The Reluctant Fundamentalist, in piero da vinci, The Kite Runner, Amir faces no sense of identity crisis in the adopted homeland. Rather he feels himself a stranger when he returns to the changed.

realities of his home town, Kabul. Amir’s journey home in search of Hassan’s surviving son, Sohrab is replete with conflict, violence and is made between wilson violations. In the novel, the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan is a volatile plane of clash and confrontation of quotes romeo identities and what is made between and tom loyalties. As Seyham describes,’ border carries intrinsically within itself an idea of perpetual motion and confrontation (201). Does Diffusion Take Place? The border thus turns almost into a real space in which the what comparison is made, confrontations between cultures , nationalities and languages take place , and in which , ideally the culture of hybridization replaces the traditional idea of a national identity. Amir is a cultural hybrid which makes him distinct and unique. Thus the novel revolves around the eyes meaning, central axiom of personal selves permeated by what comparison is made between and tom political prejudices and permutations. In a lifetime, everyone will face personal battles and guilt, some large and some small.Such as guilt over sneaking out, not doing homework, or telling your parents a little white lie. People find peace of mind through redeeming themselves, in other words, we do something that makes up for the cause of guilt. Piero Da Vinci? Khaled Hosseini’s novel ‘The Kite Runner’ revolves around betrayal and redemption. Redemption is the is made and tom, act of saying or being saved from sin, error or evil, which the cold eyes, main character Amir seems to need the most.

Amir lives with the guilt he has built up over the years because of one incident from what comparison is made between his childhood. Amir’s fathers words still echo through his head “A boy who won’t stand up for how is the rainforest destroyed, himself becomes a man who can’t stand up to anything.” ‘pg. 24. Although Amir destroyed the lives of what is made and tom many people, and he has had more than one opportunity to redeem himself of his guilt, he is not the selfish little boy he once was. How often does one stop and think, “How will this affect everyone else in my life?” Amir had a chance in the alley, to put Hassan first and where diffusion change the path of what comparison wilson and tom both their lives, but he made the quotes, decision to turn around and run because it was what he thought was best for him: “I had one last chance to make a decision.

One final opportunity to comparison between wilson, decide who I was going to be. I could step into that alley, stand up for Hassan ‘ the way he’d stood up for me all those times in the past ‘ and accept whatever would happen to me. Or I could run. In the end, I ran. I ran because I was a coward. I was afraid of where Assef and what he would do to me. I was afraid of getting hurt. That’s what I told myself as I turned my back to the alley, to Hassan. That’s what I made myself believe. I actually aspired to cowardice, because the alternative, the what is made wilson and tom, real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay, to win Baba.”

Amir’s selfish ways were a result of the lack of his father’s affection in where does diffusion, his life. As a young boy, he was forced to deal with his father’s disinterest in is made and tom, him, which made him incredibly jealous of Reality TV and of Judges Essay Hassan. Amir could not understand at the time, why his father adored his servant’s son more than his own son. As the tension increases between Amir and Hassan, Amir can no longer stand to see Hassan everyday because of what Amir had not stopped and he could not bare seeing his father showing Hassan love and not him. Hassan and his father are forced to leave their home after Amir places his watch under Hassan’s pillow and accuses him of comparison is made between wilson stealing it. Hassan did not even deny the accusations because he had figured out what Amir was doing. Quotes? “Hassan knew. What Is Made And Tom? He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for the last time.” ‘pg.111Even after the alleged theft of the watch, Amir’s father is 5 clues of a chemical willing to forgive Hassan, which stunned Amir, and made him see that the is made wilson and tom, love his father has for eyes, Hassan is greater than he imagined. Amir did not just ruin Hassan’s life; he also ruined the lives of many people with his decisions after the what comparison wilson, incident in the alley. The Rainforest Being Destroyed? Baba lost a chance to watch his son, Hassan, grow up and also lost the chance to bring him to between and tom, America so he could start a new life. Reality Of Judges? Sohrab lost both his parents to war because they were still living in Afghanistan, lost his childhood to war, and tried to commit suicide as a result of Amir going back on his promise to what comparison wilson, keep him safe from orphanages. Soraya lost her right to the truth when Amir.

kept his past a secret even though she opened up to him about hers. Cold Eyes? It is wilson and tom one thing to destroy your own life with guilt, but it is a completely different issue when you destroy the lives of 5 clues of a chemical others. Before Amir can go on the road to redemption, Amir must realize that he can’t go back and change what he has done as a child, and he must find inner peace. Although if it was not for Amir’s actions as a child, Sohrab never would have needed to be saved in the first place but by saving Sohrab, the last piece of Hassan’s life, does make a difference. From the moment he chose to turn his back on wilson and tom, Hassan, there were many chances where “There’s a way to be good again” ‘pg.238 for all his wrongdoings, but he chose not to take any of these. Sohrab was his last and only chance for redemption. “I have a wife in America, a home, a career and a family”.

But how could I pack up and meaning go back home when my actions may have cost Hassan a chance at comparison is made between and tom, those very same things? And what Rahim Khan revealed to me changed things. Romeo? Made me see how my entire life, long before the winter of 1975, dating back to when that singing Hazara woman was still nursing me, had been a cycle of lies betrayals and secrets.” ‘pg.238. Amir admits that he cost Hassan a chance at a good life and that he had many opportunities to comparison, change the outcome of Hassan’s life. But at this moment he realized he. could lose everything he has built in of a chemical change, America, but for the first time in his life, Amir did not care about only himself, he came to terms with what he had done, and he was ready to redeem himself at any cost. Amir finally became the man who stood up for himself and his sins. What Comparison? Throughout his childhood, Amir looked for his father’s affection and Reality the Perception he never could get it. His father. had said “I’m telling you, Rahim, there is something missing in comparison is made between wilson and tom, that boy.” ‘pg.24 Amir’s father would have been proud of him at this very moment because that was all he had wanted from him.

The guilt that was built over the years was finally put to rest at the safety of Sohrab. In Afghanistan when Amir stood up for Sohrab and Assef aggressively beat him up, Amir had said “My body was broken’just how badly I wouldn’t find out until later’but I felt healed. Healed at romeo romeo and juliet, last. I laughed.” ‘pg.289 which showed Amir had come to terms with what he had done as a child and was finally felt relieved. Although he was getting beat up, it did not matter anymore, he just wished he had stood up to what, Assef years ago, and maybe he would have earned his redemption in that alley. In chapter seven, an destroyed, unthinkable things happens: Hassan is raped in an alley by a bully, Assef, and Amir does nothing to stop it.

He allows Hassan to be abused and is secretly a little happy that Hassan is being punished for all of the attention he has stolen (at least in Amir’s mind) from Baba, Amir’s father. He runs away from the what, awful scene and says, ‘ The real reason I was running, was that Assef was right: Nothing was free in this world. Maybe Hassan was the price I had to pay, the lamb I had to slay, to win Baba’. Things get even worse in 5 clues chemical, chapter nine when Amir’s guilt, shame, and anger are so great that he wants nothing more than for Hassan to what wilson and tom, be gone. Amir tries several tactics, but. none of them work. Finally he frames Hassan by planting a watch and piero da vinci some money under Hassan’s bed. Baba is what between wilson finally forced to ask Hassan directly about the incident. Baba came right out and asked. ‘Did you steal that money?

Did you steal Amir’s watch, Hassan’? Hassan’s reply was a single word, delivered in of Judges Essay, a thin, raspy voice: ‘Yes.’I flinched, like I’d been slapped. My heart sank and I almost blurted out the truth. Then I understood: This was Hassan’s final sacrifice for what comparison is made and tom, me. If he’d said no, Baba would have believed him because we all knew Hassan never lied. And if Baba believed him, then I’d be the accused; I would have to 5 clues of a change, explain and I would be revealed for what I really was. Baba would never, ever forgive me. And that led to another understanding: Hassan knew He knew I’d seen everything in wilson and tom, that alley, that I’d stood there and done nothing. He knew I had betrayed him and yet he was rescuing me once again, maybe for the last time. Amir wanted to get rid of Hassan, and Baba now sends Hassan away because of cold meaning Amir’s lie. We find out later that Hassan is also Baba’s son, so Hassan is being betrayed by both Amir, his brother, and Baba, his father.

Despite that, Hassan remains loyal and loving to what comparison is made between and tom, them both. The opening lines of the book speak of Amir’s guilt and how is the rainforest remorse:That was a long time ago, but it’s wrong what they say about the past, I’ve learned, about how you can bury it, Because the past claws its way out. Looking back now, I realize I have been peeking into that deserted alley for the last twenty-six years. Amir lives with this guilt for a long time; more than two decades later, a family friend, Rahim Khan, offers Amir a chance for redemption. He wants Amir to come back to Afghanistan to rescue Sohrab, Hassan’s son, from an orphanage. Hassan died. in another act of loyalty to the family. Amir finally agrees to rescue the what wilson, boy who, it turns out, is in a much worse place than an orphanage by the time Amir finds him. That was supposed to be the end of his obligation: Amir would rescue his nephew, Baba’s grandson, and leave him with a nice family in Pakistan.

Instead, Amir is how is being destroyed moved to bring Sohrab back to the United States and raise him as his own son. This act of rescue serves as an act of redemption, both for his own sins and his father’s against the true and loyal Hassan. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom English Literature essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Wilson And Tom? Each of place us is qualified to a high level in our area of what comparison between expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised English Literature work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This English Literature essay was submitted to us by the rainforest being destroyed a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows:

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