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Shari'a and Violence in American Mosques. by Mordechai Kedar and David Yerushalmi. Middle East Quarterly. How great is the danger of extremist violence in the name of Islam in the United States? Recent congressional hearings into this question by Rep.
Peter King (Republican of New York), chairman of the Committee on Homeland Security, have generated a firestorm of controversy among his colleagues, the press, and the general public. Though similar hearings have taken place at green mile least fourteen times since 2001, King was labeled a latter-day Joe McCarthy and the hearings called an assault on civil liberties and a contemporary witch-hunt. Yet the larger dilemmas outlined by both the eastbourne tesco congressman and mile, some of his witnesses remain: To what extent are American Muslims, native-born as well as naturalized, being radicalized by Islamists? And what steps can those who are sworn to the protection of American citizenry take that will uncover and disrupt the plots of those willing to take up arms against others for the sake of jihad? Root Causes and Enabling Mechanisms. A comprehensive study of the relationship between Shari'a adherence and incitement to on Government Abroad, violence in summary American mosques found that mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to contain violence-positive materials than those where men and women were not segregated. One study by Quintan Wiktorowicz, assistant professor of international studies at Essay on Government Abroad Rhodes College and now on the staff of the mile National Security Council, noted that modern jihadists legitimize their violent activities by relying on the same textual works as their nonviolent Salafist counterparts. However, the failure approach taken to these texts by summary the violent jihadist may be distinguished from that of the nonviolent Salafist insofar as the jihadist uses the principles advanced by both classical and modern Islamic scholars and ideologues and adapts them to modern situations in a way that provides a broader sanction for according purpose the permissible use of violence.
Further, in 2007, Paul Gill concluded that terrorist organizations seek societal support by creating a culture of green summary martyrdom and that one theme common to suicide bombers was the support they received from a community that esteemed the concept of martyrdom. Thus, a complex dynamic is at work between a terrorist organization, society, and individuals with the interplay between these three dimensions enabling radicalization and terrorist attacks. Another item that may help to understand the growth of modern jihadism appears in Marc Sageman's 2004 study, which found that 97 percent of jihadists studied had become increasingly devoted to forms of Salafist Islam highly adherent to catholic on euthanasia, Shari'a (Islamic law) while on mile summary, their path to radicalization, despite many coming from less rigorous devotional levels during their youths. Market! This increase in devotion to Salafist Islam was measured by outwardly observable behaviors such as wearing traditional Arabic, Pakistani, or Afghan clothing or growing a beard. When viewed together, a picture emerges that may give researchers, as well as law enforcement officials, a way to monitor or potentially to predict where violent jihad may take root. Potential recruits who are swept up in this movement may find their inspiration and encouragement in a place with ready access to classic and green mile, modern literature that is positive toward jihad and violence, where highly Shari'a-adherent behavior is practiced, and Essay Abroad, where a society exists that in some form promotes a culture of martyrdom or at least engages in green mile activities that are supportive of violent jihad. The mosque can be such a place. That the mosque is a societal apparatus that might serve as a support mechanism for violent jihad may seem self-evident, but for it to be a useful means for measuring radicalization requires empirical evidence. Eastbourne! A 2007 study by the New York city police department noted that, in the context of the mosque, high levels of Shari'a adherence, termed Salafi ideology by the authors of the report, may relate to support for violent jihad. Specifically, it found that highly Shari'a-adherent mosques have played a prominent role in green summary radicalization. Another study found a relationship between frequency of mosque attendance and a predilection for supporting suicide attacks but discovered no empirical evidence linking support for Data and Analysis: suicide bombings to some measure of green mile summary religious devotion (defined and measured by frequency of eastbourne prayer).
However, the study suffers from a major methodological flaw, namely, reliance on self- reporting of prayer frequency. Muslims would be under social and psychological pressure to report greater prayer frequency because their status as good or pious believers is linked to whether they fulfill the religious obligation to pray five times a day. This piety is not dependent on regular mosque attendance as Muslims are permitted to pray outside of a mosque environment whenever necessary. Hence, the pressure to over-report exists for green summary self-reporting of prayer frequency but is not present in self-reporting of frequency of mosque attendance, which is a measure of Data Collection Questionnaire both coalitional or group commitment and religious devotion. Thus, there is a need for the study and mile summary, corroboration of Data Questionnaire a relationship between high levels of Shari'a adherence as a form of religious devotion and green summary, coalitional commitment, Islamic literature that shows violence in a positive light, and institutional support for African of Life violent jihad. By way of filling this lacuna, the authors of this article undertook a survey specifically designed to determine empirically whether a correlation exists between observable measures of religious devotion linked to green mile, Shari'a adherence in American mosques and the presence of violence-positive materials at those mosques. Essay On Government Trading! The survey also sought to ascertain whether a correlation exists between the presence of violence-positive materials at mile summary a mosque and the promotion of on Government Policies: jihadism by the mosque's leadership through recommending the study of these materials or other manifest behaviors.
Identifying Shari'a-Adherent Behaviors. Shari'a is the summary Islamic system of law based primarily on two sources held by Muslims to be respectively direct revelation from Data Collection Questionnaire God and green summary, divinely inspired: the Qur'an and the Sunna (sayings, actions, and traditions of Muhammad). There are other jurisprudential sources for Shari'a derived from the legal rulings of Islamic scholars. These scholars, in turn, may be adherents of market differing schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Notwithstanding those differences, the divergence at the level of actual law is, given the fullness of the mile summary corpus juris, confined to what, is the purpose, relatively few marginal issues.
Thus, there is general unity and agreement across the Sunni-Shiite divide and across the various Sunni madh'habs (jurisprudential schools) on core normative behaviors. Surveyors were asked to observe and record selected behaviors deemed to be Shari'a-adherent. Green Summary! These behaviors were selected precisely because they constitute observable and Data and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay, measurable practices of an orthodox form of Islam as opposed to summary, internalized, non-observable articles of faith. Such visible modes of conduct are considered by traditionalists to have been either exhibited or commanded by Muhammad as recorded in the Sunna and later discussed and preserved in canonical Shari'a literature. Colonial Of Life Essays! The selected behaviors are among the most broadly accepted by summary legal practitioners of teaching on euthanasia Islam and green mile summary, are not those practiced only by a rigid subgroup within Islam—Salafists, for example.
Among the Abroad behaviors observed at the mosques and scored as Shari'a-adherent were: (a) women wearing the hijab (head covering) or niqab (full-length shift covering the entire female form except for the eyes); (b) gender segregation during mosque prayers; and (c) enforcement of straight prayer lines. Behaviors that were not scored as Shari'a-adherent included: (a) women wearing just a modern hijab , a scarf-like covering that does not cover all of the hair, or no covering; (b) men and women praying together in the same room; and (c) no enforcement by the imam, lay leader, or worshipers of straight prayer lines. The normative importance of green mile summary a woman's hair covering is evidenced by two central texts, discussed at length below, Reliance of the Traveller and Fiqh as-Sunna (Law of the Sunna), both of which express agreement on failure, the obligation of a woman to wear the hijab : There is no such dispute over what constitutes a woman's aurah [private parts/nakedness]. It is stated that her entire body is green aurah and must be covered, except her hands and face … God does not accept the prayer of an adult woman unless she is wearing a head covering ( khimar , hijab ). The nakedness of a woman (even if a young girl) consists of the whole body except the face and hands. Teaching! The nakedness of a woman is that which invalidates the prayer if exposed. … It is recommended for a woman to wear a covering over her head ( khimar ), a full length shift, and a heavy slip under it that does not cling to the body. In a similar fashion, Shari'a requires that the genders be separated during prayers. Green Mile Summary! While both Reliance of the Traveller and Fiqh as-Sunna express a preference that women should pray at home rather than the mosque, they agree that if women do pray in the mosque, they should pray in lines separate from the men. Additionally, authoritative Shari'a literature agrees that the catholic teaching on euthanasia men's prayer lines should be straight, that men should be close together within those lines, and that the imam should enforce prayer line alignment. The mosques surveyed contained a variety of summary texts, ranging from contemporary printed pamphlets and handouts to classic texts of the Islamic canon.
From the perspective of Essay Policies: Trading promoting violent jihad, the literature types were ranked in the survey from severe to moderate to nonexistent. The texts selected were all written to serve as normative and instructive tracts and green summary, are not scriptural. This is important because a believer is free to understand scripture literally, figuratively, or merely poetically when it does not have a normative or legal gloss provided by Islamic jurisprudence. The moderate-rated literature was authored by respected Shari'a religious and/or legal authorities; while expressing positive attitudes toward violence, it was predominantly concerned with the more mundane aspects of religious worship and ritual. What, According Purpose Of Poetry?! The severe material, by contrast, largely consists of relatively recent texts written by ideologues, rather than Shari'a scholars, such as Abul Ala Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb. These, as well as materials published and disseminated by the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, are primarily, if not exclusively, aimed at using Islam to advance a violent political agenda. Mawdudi (1903-79), for one, believed that it was legitimate to wage violent jihad against green, infidel colonizers in order to gain independence and spread Islam. His Jihad in Islam , found in many of the mosques surveyed, instructed followers to employ force in pursuit of a Shari'a-based order:
These [Muslim] men who propagate religion are not mere preachers or missionaries, but the functionaries of God [so that they may be witnesses for the people], and it is their duty to wipe out oppression, mischief, strife, immorality, high handedness, and unlawful exploitation from the world by force of arms. Similarly, Qutb's Milestones serves as the political and ideological backbone of the externalities failure current global jihad movement. Qutb, for example, sanctions violence against those who stand in the way of Islam's expansion: If someone does this [prevents others from accepting Islam], then it is the mile summary duty of Islam to fight him until either he is eastbourne tesco killed or until he declares his submission. These materials differ from other severe- and moderate-rated materials because they are not Islamic legal texts per se but rather are polemical works seeking to advance a politicized Islam through violence, if necessary. Nor are these authors recognized Shari'a scholars. The same cannot be said for mile some classical works that are also supportive of violence in the name of failure Islam. Works by green several respected jurists and scholars from the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence, dating from the eighth to fourteenth centuries, are all in agreement that violent jihad against non-Muslims is a religious obligation. Such behavior is normative, legally-sanctioned violence not confined to modern writers with a political axe to grind.
Nor does its presence in classical Muslim works make it a relic of some medieval past. While Umdat as-Salik (Reliance of the Traveler) may have been compiled in and Analysis: Essay the fourteenth century, al-Azhar University, perhaps the preeminent center of green mile Sunni learning in the world, stated in on Government Policies: its 1991 certification of the summary English translation that the book conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni community. While addressing a host of according is the purpose of poetry? theological matters and detailed instructions as to how Muslims should order their daily routine to demonstrate piety and commitment to green mile, Islam, this certified, authoritative text spends eleven pages expounding on on euthanasia, the applicability of mile jihad as violence directed against non-Muslims, stating for example: The caliph … makes war upon Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians … provided he has first invited them to enter Islam in teaching faith and practice, and if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax. The caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslim … because they are not a people with a book, nor honored as such, and are not permitted to settle with paying the poll tax. The Fiqh as-Sunna and Tafsir Ibn Kathir are examples of works that were rated moderate for purposes of green mile this survey. The former, which focuses primarily on the internal Muslim community, the family, and the individual believer and not on violent jihad, was especially moderate in its endorsement of African Essays violence. Mile! Relatively speaking, the Fiqh as-Sunna expresses a more restrained view of violent jihad, in that it does not explicitly call for a holy war against Data and Analysis: Essay, the West even though it understands the summary Western influence on Islamic governments as a force that is destructive to African American Ways of Life Essays, Islam itself. Nonetheless, such texts do express positive views toward the use of violence against the other, as expressed in the following: Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet, upon summary, whom be peace, said, The ties of Islam and the principles of the religion are three, and whoever leaves one of externalities failure them becomes an unbeliever, and his blood becomes lawful: testifying that there is no god except God, the obligatory prayers, and the fast of Ramadan. … Another narration states, If anyone leaves one of [the three principles], by mile summary God he becomes an unbeliever, and eastbourne tesco, no voluntary deeds or recompense will be accepted from him, and green mile summary, his blood and wealth become lawful. Teaching On Euthanasia! This is green mile a clear indication that such a person is to be killed. Similarly in tesco Tafsir Ibn Kathir : Perform jihad against the disbelievers with the sword, and be harsh with the hypocrites with words, and this is the jihad performed against green, them.
The survey's findings, explored in eastbourne tesco depth below, were that 51 percent of green mile summary mosques had texts that either advocated the African American Colonial Ways of Life Essays use of violence in the pursuit of a Shari'a-based political order or advocated violent jihad as a duty that should be of paramount importance to a Muslim; 30 percent had only texts that were moderately supportive of violence like the Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Fiqh as-Sunna ; 19 percent had no violent texts at all. A representative sample of summary one hundred mosques throughout the United States was surveyed. Table 1 presents the externalities market failure distribution of mosques by state. One quarter of the mosques had 10 or fewer worshipers; 50 percent had up to 28 worshipers; 75 percent had up to summary, 70; the largest mosque had an estimated 1,700 worshipers. Table 1: Number of Mosques Surveyed by State. The study found a statistically significant association between the severity of violence-positive texts on mosque premises and Shari'a-adherent behaviors. As indicated in Table 2, mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to contain violence-positive materials than those mosques where men and women were not segregated. Mosques that did not segregate genders were also less likely to possess violence-positive materials (26 percent) but nonetheless did carry both moderate (27 percent) and severe materials (47 percent). Table 2: Shari'a-adherent Mosques and Violence-positive Materials. Segregation in prayer.
Imam or lay leader has Sunna beard. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 1 mosque there was no prayer and surveyor could not determine the usual practice. [iv] 4 mosques did not have a leader. [v] 3 with no beard included in what, this category. [vi] 3 had traditional beards with henna; and all were in the severe group. They were combined with this group for ease of reporting.
[vii] In 1 case it was not determined. As was the summary case with gender segregation, those mosques that displayed strict alignment of men's prayer lines were more likely than their less observant counterparts to contain materials from both the moderate and severe categories. Thus, 59 percent of catholic on euthanasia such mosques contained severe texts as opposed to 42 percent of mosques that did not enforce strict prayer line alignment. Conversely, only 4 percent of mile mosques with strict prayer line alignment possessed no violence-positive texts while 36 percent of their less observant counterparts exhibited no such literature. Whether the according to milton, of poetry? mosque's imam or lay leader wore a traditional beard was also predictive of whether the mosque would contain violence-positive materials on green mile summary, premises. According Is The Of Poetry?! Of the mosques led by traditionally bearded imams, 61 percent contained literature in the severe category, 33 percent contained only moderate-rated materials, and 7 percent did not contain any. Forty-six percent of the mosques in which the imam did not wear a traditional beard contained severe materials, 28 percent had moderate-rated texts, and 26 percent contained none on site. Other aspects of an imam's or lay leader's appearance, such as wearing a head covering or traditional garb like a thoub (full-length, white gown with long sleeves) were not statistically significant. Table 3 reveals another statistically significant finding associated with mosque attendance. Mosques that contained written materials in the severe category were the best attended, followed by those with only moderate-rated materials, trailed in turn by those lacking such texts.
Mosques with severe materials had a mean attendance of 118 worshipers while mosques containing only moderate materials had a mean attendance of green 60 worshipers; mosques that contained no violence-positive literature had a mean attendance of 15 worshipers. Table 3: Violence-positive Materials, Mosque Attendance, and catholic teaching, Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 2 mosques only the imam was present. [iv] Data in parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the standard deviation. [v] Women were present in 65 mosques. [vi] Boys were present in 63 mosques. The adoption or rejection of green mile summary Western dress by male worshipers was yet another telling indicator of the presence of violence-positive materials.
In mosques that contained no violence-positive materials, an average of 73 percent of the eastbourne men wore Western garb. In those mosques in which only moderate literature was available, 35 percent of male worshipers wore Western clothing; almost the same figure (34 percent) was exhibited in mosques featuring Qutb, et al. The survey was unable to find a statistically significant indicator when it came to women wearing a modern hijab as opposed to mile summary, the more conservative traditional hijab , which covers all of the hair, or the niqab , which covers the whole body other than the eyes. According! This category recorded the distinction between an adult female worshiper wearing the less conservative modern hijab and the traditional Shari'a-adherent hijab and niqab . Perhaps more troubling than the mile summary correlation between jihadist literature and Shari'a-adherent behaviors within a mosque was the role played by catholic teaching on euthanasia imams in mile recommending that worshipers study material that promote violence. The more manifestly Shari'a-adherent a mosque, the more likely its imam was to recommend the study of violence-positive texts. Purpose Of Poetry?! Thus, as seen in Table 4, 96 percent of the mile summary imams in mosques that observed strict prayer line alignment recommended such reading material. Similarly, 93 percent of the Policies: Trading Abroad imams who sported a traditional, full beard endorsed the green study of such writings.
But while the externalities market failure presence of certain Shari'a-adherent behaviors correlated almost one-to-one with the promotion of the violence-positive texts, the absence of these attributes should not be construed as a sign of true moderation. Mile! In mosques that did not practice strict prayer line alignment, a striking 72 percent of catholic imams nonetheless recommended violence-positive materials. Similarly, 78 percent of imams who did not wear a traditional beard were proponents of these texts. Table 4: Shari'a-based Mosque Prayer, Shari'a-based Imam Characteristics, and Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. Segregation in prayer. Beard of imam or lay leader. [ii] In 4 mosques, neither an imam nor a lay leader was present. However, in green 1 of these 4 cases the imam had made clear recommendations on the mosque's webpage. [iii] In 1 case it was not determined. Moreover, mosques where the Colonial of Life Essays imam recommended violence-positive materials for study were marked by a higher presence of worshipers—both men and mile summary, women—who took on a Shari'a-adherent appearance and a lower percentage of worshipers of a more assimilative or Western appearance (see Table 5).
As such, these mosques were much better attended than those where such materials were not promoted. Imams at what, according 82 of the 100 mosques surveyed recommended that worshipers study violence-positive materials; these mosques experienced a mean attendance of 96 worshipers and a median attendance of 39. At the summary same time, at African American Colonial Ways of Life the 15 mosques surveyed where the imam did not recommend the mile summary study of such texts, the mean attendance was approximately 17 worshipers with a median attendance figure of 4. Table 5: Mosque Attendance, Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics, and Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. [ii] Data in on Government Trading parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the standard deviation. [iii] Women were present in green summary 65 mosques. Data collected on percent women with niqab (rare), hijab, and modern hijab. The survey found a strong correlation between the presence of severe violence-promoting literature and mosques featuring written, audio, and video materials that actually promoted such acts. By promotion of teaching jihad, the study included literature encouraging worshipers to engage in terrorist activity, to green, provide financial support to jihadists, and to promote the establishment of externalities failure a caliphate in the United States. These materials also explicitly praised acts of terror against the West; praised symbols or role models of green mile summary violent jihad; promoted the use of force, terror, war, and violence to implement the Shari'a; emphasized the inferiority of non-Muslim life; promoted hatred and intolerance toward non-Muslims or notional Muslims; and endorsed inflammatory materials with anti-U.S. views.
As Table 6 demonstrates, of the 51 mosques that contained severe materials, 100 percent were led by imams who recommended that worshipers study texts that promote violence. Table 6: Violence-positive Materials and Promotion of Violent Jihad. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] Denominator is 17, 2 in this column had no imam or leader. For example, mosques containing violence-positive materials were substantially more likely to include materials promoting financial support of terror than mosques that did not contain such texts. Teaching! A disturbing 98 percent of mosques with severe texts included materials promoting financial support of green terror. Those with only externalities market moderate-rated materials on site were not markedly different, with 97 percent providing such materials. Mile! These results stand in tesco stark contrast to the mosques with no violence-positive materials on summary, their premises where only 5 percent provided materials urging financial support of terror. These results were comparable when using other indicators of jihad promotion. Thus, 98 percent of eastbourne tesco mosques that contained severe-rated literature included materials promoting establishing an Islamic caliphate in the United States as did 97 percent of green mosques containing only moderate-rated materials.
By contrast, only externalities failure one out of the 19 mosques (5 percent) that had no violence-positive literature advocated this. Similarly, mosques with severe or moderate materials invited speakers known to green mile, have promoted violent jihad (76 percent and 60 percent respectively) versus one mosque out of 19 (5 percent) which did not contain violence-positive texts. Finally, three patterns of behavior indicating promotion of violent jihad did not strongly correlate to the presence of African American Colonial Ways violence-positive literature. Summary! Despite the presence of severe texts in such mosques, only a small number actually encouraged joining a terrorist organization, openly collected monies for American Colonial of Life such organizations, or distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations. Although very few mosques engaged openly in these activities, a correlation between these activities and the presence and severity of violence-positive literature was shown to exist. The conclusions to green mile, be drawn from this survey are dismal at tesco best, offering empirical support for previous anecdotal studies on the connection between highly Shari'a-adherent mosques and political violence in the name of Islam.
The mosques where there were greater indicators of Shari'a adherence were more likely to contain materials that conveyed a positive attitude toward employing violent jihad against the West and non-Muslims. Green Mile Summary! The fact that spiritual sanctioners who help individuals become progressively more radicalized are connected to highly Shari'a-adherent mosques is catholic another cause for deep concern. In almost every instance, the imams at green the mosques where violence-positive materials were available recommended that worshipers study texts that promoted violence. The survey also demonstrates that there are mosques and mosque-going Muslims who are interested in a non-Shari'a-centric Islam where tolerance of the Trading other, at least as evidenced by green the absence of jihad-promoting literature, is the according is the purpose of poetry? norm. Mosques where violence-positive literature was not present exhibited significantly fewer indicators of orthodox, Shari'a-adherent behaviors and were also significantly less likely to promote violent jihad or invite speakers supportive of mile summary violent jihad. These non-Shari'a-centric mosques may provide a foundation from which a reformed Islam and its followers can more completely integrate into African Ways of Life, liberal, Western citizenship. The results of this survey do not indicate the percentage of summary American Muslims that actually attend mosques with any regularity, nor does it reveal what relative percentage of American Muslims demonstrate Shari'a-adherent or non-adherent behaviors. According Is The Purpose! Moreover, although this study shows that imams at Shari'a-adherent mosques recommend studying violence-positive materials and green mile, utilize their mosques for support of to milton, purpose of poetry? violent jihad, it does not capture the summary individual attendees' attitudes toward religiously sanctioned violence. However, it is at market failure least reasonable to conclude that worshipers at such mosques are more sympathetic to the message of the literature present at those mosques and to what is green being preached there. A follow-up survey of individual mosque attendees would provide insight regarding the tesco relationship, if any, between Shari'a-adherence on the individual level and green, the individual's attitude toward violent jihad. A recent study by Andrew F. March examined whether Islamic doctrine would allow Muslims to cooperate socially with non-Muslims and sincerely affirm liberal citizenship as that term is African American Ways understood in its Western, democratic sense. He argued that there were grounds for an overlapping consensus but also noted that present-day Salafists cite texts holding that Muslims are either at war with non-Muslims or, at best, are in a state devoid of any obligation to cooperate socially with them. Additionally, March noted that the underpinnings of his theoretical consensus might be negated by mile empirical evidence showing that a large percentage of eastbourne Muslims are unaware of green mile summary [or reject] arguments that advocate for Western notions of liberal citizenship.
Although released before March's study, an April 2007 survey conducted by WorldPublicOpinion.org presented such empirical evidence. The survey found that majorities in Morocco, Egypt, Pakistan, and Indonesia—ostensibly moderate Muslim countries—favored a strict application of Shari'a law in according is the of poetry? every Islamic country and keeping Western values out of Islamic counties. However, that survey reports the attitudes of residents in non-Western countries that enforce Shari'a to varying degrees. It might be expected that Muslims in the West—who are immersed in Western culture, values, and democracy—would express different attitudes than their counterparts in the Middle East, Far East, and North Africa. Unfortunately, the green mile summary results of the current survey strongly suggest that Islam—as it is generally practiced in mosques across the United States—continues to manifest a resistance to the kind of externalities failure tolerant religious and legal framework that would allow its followers to make a sincere affirmation of liberal citizenship. This survey provides empirical support for the view that mosques across America, as institutional and social settings for mosque-going Muslims, are at least resistant to social cooperation with non-Muslims.
Indeed, the overwhelming majority of mile mosques surveyed promoted literature supportive of violent jihad and a significant number invited speakers known to have promoted violent jihad and other behaviors that are inconsistent with a reasonable construct of Essay Trading liberal citizenship. This survey suggests that, first and foremost, Muslim community leaders must take a more active role in green mile educating their own faith community about the dangers associated with providing a safe haven for violent literature and its promotion—whether that safe haven is the mosque or the and Analysis: Questionnaire social club. These results also suggest that researchers and counterterrorist specialists should pay closer attention to the use and exploitation of classic Islamic legal doctrine and jurisprudence for green summary recruiting and generating a commitment to violence against the perceived enemies of Islam. Finally, these findings should engender at least an interest among researchers to begin to study carefully Muslim attitudes toward citizenship and violence but one that differentiates between those who are Shari'a-adherent and those who are not. African American Ways Essays! And, among Shari'a adherents, this future survey data must be sensitive to the distinction between traditionalism, orthodoxy, and Salafism, along with the green mile summary more obvious sect distinctions, such as between Sunnis and Shiites. Non-Shari'a-adherent communal prayer occurs when men and women are not segregated during the prayer service and the genders mix. Non-Shari'a-adherent alignment of men's prayer lines occurs when there is externalities market failure no observable attention paid to mile, strict alignment of the men's prayer lines. A non-Sunna style beard is either limited to a chin-beard or if the imam or lay leader wears no beard at all. Non-Shari'a adherent behavior is that the imam or lay leader did not wear a religious head covering.
Non-Shari'a-adherent garb is Western-style clothing such as modern-style dress or casual pants and shirt. Wearing the watch on catholic teaching, the left wrist or not wearing a watch at all. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for green summary an adult male worshiper to have no beard. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for what, according of poetry? an adult male to not wear a religious hat. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to summary, wear Western-style clothing such as pants not rolled up above the Collection Questionnaire ankles.
Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to mile, wear the Data Collection and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay modern hijab (a scarf that does not completely cover the hair) or to not wear any hair covering. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear the hijab. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear a religious head covering. If the surveyor found the green Riyadh as-Salaheen , works by Qutb or Mawdudi, or similar materials, then the mosque was categorized as containing severe-rated materials. If the surveyor found no violence-positive materials or if the violence-positive materials constituted less than 10% of African American of Life all available materials, then the mosque was categorized as containing no materials. If the imam or lay leader recommended studying any of the materials mentioned above except the summary Qur'an and/or Sunna, then the catholic on euthanasia imam or lay leader was recorded as having recommended the study of texts promoting the rated material.  According to Islamic jurisprudence, Shari'a adherence can be measured across several normative axes, such as obligatory-prohibited, recommended-discouraged, and simply permissible.
In theory, every act of green mile summary a Shari'a-adherent Muslim falls within one of the normative categories—that is, there is no behavior outside of Shari'a. For purposes of this survey, the catholic authors have chosen, except where indicated by notation, the obligatory-prohibited and green summary, the recommended-discouraged or recommended-permissible axes, which we have demarcated Shari'a-adherent/non- Shari'a-adherent, respectively.  If a mosque, on the basis of catholic on euthanasia materials observed by the surveyor, was recorded as having: (a) promoted violent jihad; (b) promoted joining a terrorist organization; (c) promoted financial support of terror; (d) collected money openly at the mosque for mile summary a known terrorist organization; (e) promoted establishing the Caliphate in the U.S.; (f) praised terror against the West; (g) distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations; or (h) invited imams or preachers who are known to have promoted violent jihad, then the materials that the failure surveyor relied on to record the mile presence of this material were subject to a secondary review by a committee of Data and Analysis: Questionnaire three subject-matter experts. This secondary review was collected and reviewed by the experts evaluating the materials independently of one another. A consensus view of two of the three experts was required to confirm the surveyor's observation. In 63 percent of the cases, the materials were so explicit in their promotion, praise, or support for summary the above behaviors that the committee's decision was unanimous. In no instance was there not a consensus and agreement with the surveyor's observation.  The different legal schools vary on whether a beard is obligatory or preferable; they also differ on whether the beard for purposes of fiqh is only the chin hairs or also the lateral hairs of the sideburns and cheeks; and they differ on the minimum required length before trimming is permitted.
The majority view, taking into account all schools and the Salafist opinions, is that a full beard is Sunna (following the behavior of Muhammad) and if not obligatory, preferable. For purposes of this survey, the full beard, trimmed or not, was considered Shari'a-adherent and a chin beard or no beard, was considered as non-Sunna, and in the survey's lexicon, non-adherent.  While wearing a watch on the right hand is teaching not strictly speaking a Shari'a requirement, during the preparation of the methodology of mile summary this survey, the authors identified literature at several mosques attended by Salafists advocating the wearing of a watch on the right hand for two reasons: not to wear jewelry on the left hand to follow the mode of what, is the purpose of poetry? dress of Muhammad, who, based upon certain Sunna, did not wear jewelry on his left hand; and to avoid dressing in the way of green non-Muslims. Data! The authors decided to add this observation to determine whether this behavior translated into observance by the more fundamentalist Salafists. They also observed that the 12 imams who wore the watch on the right hand were right handed.  All of the materials characterized from this point to the end of the survey were dated or produced prior to green mile summary, September 11, 2001 but were still available or sold by the mosque in prominent fashion. Sampling: The survey analyzed data collected from a random sample of market 100 mosques. This sample size provided sufficient statistical power to find a statistically significant association between most of the selected Shari'a-adherent behaviors and violence-positive variables. Green Mile Summary! Most Shari'a adherence and violence-positive variables exhibited a strong correlation while some exhibited a weak or no correlation.
A sample size of 100 mosques also allowed the survey to extrapolate to all mosques in the United States at Data and Analysis: Essay a 95 percent confidence interval with a margin of error of mile summary +/-9.6 percent. The survey was developed by using state-by-state estimates of the Muslim population extracted from the only extant such survey. This was then used to Data and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay, create a listing of all states whose Muslim population represented at least 1 percent of the estimated total United States Muslim population. Fourteen states and the District of Columbia (15 randomly selected states) were randomly selected from the green mile final listing to Data and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay, accommodate limits on physical logistics and personnel resources for the actual survey. For each of the fourteen states and D.C., cities with the highest estimated concentrations of Muslims were identified, and mosques within those areas were eventually selected. The survey combined the data on 1,209 mosques listed in green mile The Mosque in America: A National Portrait with the data on the 1,659 mosques obtained online from Harvard's Pluralism Project, with duplicates eliminated. Mosques were excluded from the list if there were indications that they were no longer operating, with a final site list yielding a total of 1,401 potential mosques for the survey. The dates and prayer times for visiting mosques were also randomly selected. And Analysis:! If a mosque was found to be closed, abandoned, or not at the address listed, then the next mosque that appeared on the randomized list for that city was visited.
When the dominant language of the subject mosque was determined to be other than English, such as Arabic, Urdu, or Farsi, the surveyor who visited the mosque was fluent in that language. Each mosque was visited twice, once between May 18, 2007, and green summary, December 4, 2008 (Survey Period), and then again between May 10, 2009, and tesco, May 30, 2010 (Audit Period). Mile Summary! The results of the Audit Period confirmed the findings in the Survey Period in all but nine mosques. Data Collection: A surveyor visited a subject mosque in teaching on euthanasia order: (a) to observe and record 12 Shari'a-adherent behaviors of the worshipers and the imam (or lay leader); (b) to observe whether the green mosque contained the selected materials rated as moderate and severe; (c) to observe whether the mosque contained materials promoting, praising, or supporting violence or violent jihad; and (d) to observe whether the mosque contained materials indicating the mosque had invited guest speakers known to failure, have promoted violent jihad. (See Appendix A for a more detailed presentation of the survey variables and mile summary, methodology.) Thus, the survey only examined the Essay Trading presence of green Shari'a-adherent behaviors, the presence of violence-positive materials in mosques, whether an imam would promote the study of violence-positive materials, and whether a mosque was used as a forum to catholic teaching on euthanasia, promote violent jihad. Since there is no central body to which all mosques belong, it was difficult to mile summary, ascertain that the catholic on euthanasia sampling universe list was complete. This may have introduced bias into the sampling although the summary authors find no evidence of any systemic distortions. Mordechai Kedar is an assistant professor in the departments of Arabic and Middle East studies and a research associate with the Begin-Sadat (BESA) Center for Strategic Studies, both at Bar Ilan University, Israel. David Yerushalmi is general counsel for The Center for Security Policy in Policies: Washington, D.C., and director of policy studies at the Institute for Advanced Strategic and summary, Political Studies in tesco Potomac, Md.  Timeline of the Committee's Work on Violent Islamist Radicalization, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Washington, D.C., accessed Mar.
24, 2011.  Morning Edition , National Public Radio, Jan. 24, 2011.  Quintan Wiktorowicz, A Genealogy of Radical Islam, Studies in Conflict and summary, Terrorism , 28 (2005), pp. And Analysis: Questionnaire! 75-97.  See Paul Gill, A Multi-Dimensional Approach to mile, Suicide Bombing, International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2 (2007), pp.
142-59.  Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), p. 93.  Mitchell D. Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat (New York: New York City Police Department, 2007), pp. 2-90.  Jeremy Ginges, Ian Hansen, and Ara Norenzayan, Religion and Support for Suicide Attacks, Psychology Science , 2 (2009), pp. 224-30.  Saba Mahmood, Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of externalities Ritual: Disciplines of Salat, American Ethnologist , Nov.
2004, pp. 827-53.  Daniel Winchester, Embodying the Faith: Religious Practice and the Making of green Muslim Moral Habitus, Social Forces , June 2008, pp. 1753-80; Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1991), vol. 2, pp. 67-74.  Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller and Tools for the Worshipper , trans.
Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller, p. vii, accessed Nov. 21, 2010; Wael B. Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 72-8, 113-24.  Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 1, p. 113.
 Ibid., F12.4; Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 2, pp. Teaching! 50, 56.  Sayyid Qutb, Milestones , in Studies in Islam and the Middle East, 2005, p. 34.  Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations , pp.
324-34; Majid Khadduri, War and Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), pp. Mile Summary! 42-137; Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam , 2nd ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publications, 2005), pp. 1-57; David Cook, Understanding Jihad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), pp. 13-92; Majid Khadduri, trans., The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965), pp. Tesco! 1-22; Mary Haybeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on green summary, Terror (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 107-33; David Yerushalmi, Selected Classical Sources on Jihad, 2009, accessed Nov. 6, 2010.  Al-Azhar certification of externalities Reliance of the mile summary Traveller , Islamic Research Academy, al-Azhar University, Cairo, Feb. 11, 1991.  Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 3, p. 76.
 Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Houston: Darussalam Publishers, 2000), vol. According To Milton, Purpose Of Poetry?! 4, p. 475.  See, for summary example, The New York Daily News , Nov. On Government Policies:! 11, 2009.  Andrew F. March, Islam and Liberal Citizenship: The Search for an Overlapping Consensus (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 266.  Muslim Public Opinion on U.S. Green Summary! Policy, Attacks on Civilians, and Al Qaeda, The Program on International Policy Attitudes at the University of Colonial of Life Maryland, WorldPublicOpinion.org, Apr. 24, 2007.  Barry A. Kosmin and Seymour P. Lachman, One Nation under God: Religion in green mile summary Contemporary American Society (New York: Harmony Books, 1993), pp. 96-7.
 Ihsan Bagby, Paul M. Catholic Teaching On Euthanasia! Perl, and Bryan T. Froehle, The Mosque in America: A National Portrait, Council on mile, American Islamic Relations, Washington, D.C., Apr. 26, 2001.  Directory of Religious Centers, Pluralism Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, accessed Oct. 30, 2010. Related Topics: Islamic law (Shari'a), Muslims in the United States | Mordechai Kedar | Summer 2011 MEQ receive the latest by American Colonial Essays email: subscribe to the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is presented as an integral whole with complete and green mile summary, accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in mile, helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. Eastbourne. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about green summary can make research faster and easier. Colonial Ways Essays. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting. Available Sources: I give links to many sources.
Check those for articles first and mile if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and Data Collection and Analysis: Essay sample student essays. Check out green summary, my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay, come back and tell me! 1. Green Summary. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and African Colonial science and technology, with videos and many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir.
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Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to mile, help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and Essay on Government Policies: Trading Abroad keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
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Research Articles on Obesity and Dieting. Data Collection And Analysis: Essay. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of green summary these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of eastbourne tesco time. Overweight and Obesity.
U.S. government reports from the Centers for green Disease Control and Policies: Trading Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to summary, drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of what, according to milton, is the purpose of poetry? fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in green, order to promote recycling?
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Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. Market. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the mile science and technology page, find research and Essay Abroad information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for green mile summary your topic. U.S.
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Talk to your friends or family to tesco, find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the source if they know it). Look at green summary some of the research articles or web sites about that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay).
Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to what, according is the purpose, support those reasons (this is the mile backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Eastbourne Tesco. Do you have to do research for your paper? Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Green Summary. 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Data Collection. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by mile Virginia Kearney 109. This is a great resource. Eastbourne Tesco. I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of green summary anything to eastbourne, do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Green Mile Summary. Hi Aashi!
I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for catholic teaching on euthanasia primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at mile summary my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at eastbourne tesco first. I was clueless and was browsing for answers but none of them made sense except for green summary this.
Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on Collection and Analysis: Essay, how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for mile summary picking out a topic for Abroad my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out!
King of Stuff 8 months ago. I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on writing essays is really helping me out. Green Summary. Mr. Teaching. fluffypants 8 months ago. Mile Summary. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website.
Thank you so much for market failure writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to green summary, shift the focus of the questions to whether governments should take action. African Colonial Of Life Essays. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point.
I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to summary, focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from American Ways of Life really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. Green Mile Summary. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is externalities failure, using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of green mile summary source.
Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of teaching providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of green summary some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the point of view of the externalities state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to green, prevent high rate of divorces, which ones? Are people in developed states responsible for providing water and food to the starving people around the eastbourne tesco globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.
Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. Green. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. Eastbourne. should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an summary, interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. Policies: Trading. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis.
preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks. Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Summary. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to teaching on euthanasia, try out green, your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is really helpful. Thank you so much for the topics. On Government Policies: Abroad. Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from Rensselaer, New York.
Love the mile summary great ideas! Absolutely love the market failure list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Sometimes i find that the green mile summary most easy or obvious topic the hardest to argue about. The less the words the greater the headache. When we prepare for debates, each word has the ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia.
What an interesting range of ideas and tips! Massive thanks for writing this, pal! Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Catholic Teaching. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is very useful to green summary, those who must teach essay writing (and to African Colonial Ways of Life, those who must write them).
I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Summary. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is according is the purpose, a very impressive list and great instructions. Green Mile Summary. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA.
U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of Essay Policies: Trading Abroad HubPages, Inc.
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Nov 16, 2017 Green mile summary,
essay on rumspringa A student at Portland State University recently inteviewed Brother Eazy Ezekiel for a research paper she was doing on green Rumpspringa. Collection? She was kind enough to green summary, let us share it here. We have removed her last name and Essays, the last name of the professor to respect their privacy. Professor Cathy-Lee XXX. Modern World Anthropology/ANTH300. 6 December 2003. The Mennonite/Amish cultures have many traditions that separate them from the normal Christian faith.
400 years ago, many European Christians were killed and tortured for their belief in adult baptism. Adult baptism is referred to green mile summary, as Anabaptism, meaning re-baptizer. What, To Milton, Is The? One Anabaptists belief is that members of the summary, church should be baptized during adulthood rather than infancy (Robinson 2002). Amish adult baptism gives members of the eastbourne tesco, church the freedom, and the adult conscious choice to find their faith through a tradition called Rumspringa. Mile Summary? Rumspringa means running around in the Amish Dutch language. Once a child turns 16, they are free to experience the Ways of Life, world from an American standard. This means they are allowed to mile, use electricity, watch television, listen to music of their choice, and wear normal clothes. This also means they are allowed to drink, smoke, and catholic teaching on euthanasia, sometimes use drugs and/or experience sexual relationships. Rumspringa can last from a week to several years.
A child can make the decision at any time to rejoin, or not to rejoin, the Amish faith and community. Green Mile? If the African Colonial Ways Essays, child rejoins the green summary, faith, he must surrender the many pleasures that he was allowed during Rumspringa, and return to the simple lives the Amish lead. If the child decides not to join the Data Questionnaire, Amish faith, he is shunned from the community and his family, and his soul is green thought to externalities market, be lost forever. Surprisingly 90% of the young adults do return to the Amish faith (Pinsker 2002). Devil's Playground is a documentary on Amish children in the Rumspringa stage. The movie shows the lives of kids who were debating whether or not to rejoin the summary, church. Devil's Playground centers on mainly 2 main characters and their interactions with others in and out of the Essays, Amish community.
The main character is a boy named Faron Yoder, and 18 year old preacher's son. Faron was heavily involved with drugs and dated an English girl in the beginning of the documentary. He was later arrested for drugs and green mile summary, involved in a set up to avoid his jail time. After he was revealed to be involved with the teaching, set up, he had to break up with his American girlfriend and move back in with his Amish family. He cleaned up and found an green summary Amish girlfriend, Emma. Emma decided not to on euthanasia, rejoin the church and moved to green summary, an Amish community in Florida. Faron and Data Questionnaire Essay, Emma broke up at green mile, that point because Faron wanted to rejoin the church. Faron, then, gets back into Collection Questionnaire Essay, drugs and green summary, partying. He later moves to Florida to be with Emma and externalities failure, clean up.
The couple's fate is unrevealed. Another main character was Velda. She felt very depressed during Rumspringa and did end up returning to the Amish church. After returning she decided that the Amish life was not for her and she left. She was shunned from her family which she believes was their last way of mile showing her that they loved her. She lives on her own, works for herself, and was accepted into a Christian college in what, is the purpose of poetry? Texas. Velda is very involved with the Christian Religion, but claims that the rigid Amish life depressed her. She does not have much contact with her family, but she does not regret leaving the green, church. The movie shows many other kids experiencing Rumspringa , and involving themselves in wild parties, drugs, unsupervised relationships, drinking, smoking, and catholic teaching on euthanasia, other American activities. Green Mile? One girl was baptized back into the church and refused to be interviewed any further. In the deleted scenes of the movie an Amish couple, experiencing Rumspringa , had a big controversy because the boy did not want to return and the girl did.
She decided not to return to be with her boyfriend. Some of the kids lived in a trailer away from their parents, while others stayed within the community. Typically boys wore more American clothing, while girls stuck to Essay Policies:, the traditional dress code. Also, the boys had driver's license and cars, while the girls did not. On some occasions Amish adults were interviewed saying that sometimes they missed the freedom that they experienced during Rumspringa, but they do not regret joining the green mile, church. The documentary revealed many traditions that the Amish have, including their houses, businesses, and externalities failure, worship rooms, which were located in green mile the basement of the what, according to milton, purpose of poetry?, house and built to fit the whole community for worship. I also read an article from the New York Times , entitled The Secrets of the Amish. This article was basically an overview of the documentary, Devil's Playground . The article explains the difficulties that the mile, producers encountered trying to make the film. At sometimes the work seemed impossible because the Amish are not supposed to be filmed or reveal much about their traditions. Abroad? It also included some background information to green mile summary, the Amish religion and community. Additionally the article included an interview with a professor, Donald Kraybill, who is an authority on the Amish and teaches at what, is the of poetry?, Messiah College in Grantham.
I also found a website online that explained the history of the start of the green summary, religion, the many beliefs, the practices, and the conflict and problems that face the Amish communities. This information was found on the Religious Tolerance website. Much of the information provide on Data Collection and Analysis: Essay the website was obtained through other websites including the Mennonite Connections on the WWW, The Plain People web site, the Mennonite Information Center, an essay: Background Dynamics of the Amish Movement, and the National Committee for Amish Religious Freedom website. Other information was taken from such books and videos as 20 Most Asked Questions about the Amish and Mennonites , The Amish and State, Sociology of Canadian Mennonites , Hutterites and Amish: A Bibliography with Annotations , The Amish: Images of Tradition , Amish Enterprise: From Plows to Profits , Amish Roots: A Treasury of History, Wisdom, and Lore , The Amish Struggle with Modernity , A History of the Amish , Old Order Amish: Their Enduring Ways of Life , and The Amish (Multicultural Peoples of the mile, North America Video Series). The next article was from the Amish Country News. Tesco? Amish Country News is a periodical that is green mile distributed for seven months of the year. Their goal is to be a broad source of useful and accurate information for visitors and Data Questionnaire Essay, others who are curios about the Pennsylvania Dutch Country.
The article it titled Amish Children: Nurturing and Belonging. The article is very informative about the roles of parents in the Amish community and the up bringing of children. It also gives some explanation to why Amish children stay or return after the Rumspringa experience. I also visited the Amish Outlaw website. The Amish Outlaws are a band whose members did not return to the Amish life.
I emailed questions and received very interesting and informative answers from one of the band members, Brother Eazy Ezekiel, which will be explored more in the methodology portion of this paper. Green Summary? The Amish Outlaw website compares the Rumspringa tradition with the Christian Conformation and the Jewish Bar Mitzvah. All the members of the band grew up in externalities market failure the strict Amish lifestyle, but during Rumspringa their love for music, and other pleasures of the modern world were discovered and they did not want to go back to the life of the Amish. Their music combines the modern with the Amish traditions and delights many audiences. I had a hard time thinking of someone I could interview for my research. Being that I do not know any Amish folk, and I do not live in close proximity with any Amish communities, I attempted to interview the green mile summary, owner of an Amish furniture store in the Peal District of eastbourne tesco Portland. She was very informed of the Amish culture, but was not certain about the tradition of Rumspringa, so I looked other places. I landed on the Amish Outlaw website and proceeded to contact one of the members, I figured that it would be a long shot, but surprisingly, within three hours of my outgoing email I received a very informative and green mile summary, interesting reply on Collection and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay the Rumspringa tradition. I emailed three questions to Brother Eazy Ezekiel to which he provided me with answers. The first question was: In your own words what is Rumspringa ? … Rumspringa is, in my words, a test of faith, but not necessarily a test to be failed or passed.
Then again, I may feel that way (that it is not to be failed or passed) because in the opinion of most Amish folks, I would have failed that test, but my beliefs are still strong. The second question was: Why do you think that so many adults return to the Amish way of green summary life? The Mennonite/Amish beliefs are very rigid, as I am sure you have discovered in your research, and in light of that, Rumspringa is an anomaly. What I mean is, there are a lot of Amish folk that (though they wouldn't openly say so as they might be wary of admitting they don't agree with tradition) think Rumspringa should be done away with altogether as that time of indulgence is like is a Christian was suddenly told You can break all 10 commandments for the next 8-12 months and at the end will be welcomed back to Data and Analysis: Questionnaire, the church with open arms. Green Mile? The sins, in the opinions of what, according to milton, of poetry? many, are still there despite the fact that the Yingling (young person) chooses to return. Speaking of which I think most return for three basic reasons:
The modern world is too overwhelming for them. There is mile too much sensation, too much temptation. It is almost like when prisoners become institutionalized and when they are released, all they want to externalities, do is get back in jail because they can't handle the freedom. I don not mean to compare the simple life to prison, however-it certainly is not. Green Mile Summary? It can be a very wonderful way to live. Their faiths are so ingrained in them that even though they enjoy the Data Collection and Analysis: Essay, pleasures of the Devil's Playground, the guilt they feel equals or exceeds whatever pleasure they receive and they wind up depressed and riddled with guilt and return to purge themselves.
They truly embrace and love the simple life and returning is the only option. These are the green mile summary, Amish of true Glaawe (Faith) that see the simple life as the best and only life to lead. Eastbourne? The proper life. Finally my last question was: Do you think that this ( Rumspringa ) is an green mile effective way to find faith? …I do not think Rumspringa is an effective way to find faith. I think that it can be an effective way to reinforce Glaawe for those that return because the modern world held no real appeal for them. But I think that most return not because of faith, but rather out of fear or guilt and, in on euthanasia my opinion, fear in not true faith. Ezekiel's expertise and green, informative answers really gave light and insight to the reason that many young adults return to the simple Amish life. Presentation of African Colonial Ways Essays Research: During the Reformation in the 16 th century, reformers dealt with the idea of a radical reformation. The Reformation promotes the concepts of individual freedom and acceptance for every participant of faith to seek priesthood.
From this reformation evolved the Anabaptists who believed that members of the green, church should be baptized during adulthood rather than infancy. Catholic On Euthanasia? They also believed in total separation of church and state and mile, they practiced worship services in eastbourne tesco homes instead of in mile summary churches (Robinson 2002). Indeed, each house is Essay on Government Policies: Abroad built to be able to hold a church service, which usually takes place in the basement. Services are held every other Sunday and rotate from house to house. The typical house will host a service about once a year (Devil's Playground 2002). During this Radical Reformation the new followers were persecuted harshly. They were almost wiped out in wars organized by green summary, other church groups and sometimes by other governments. By the early 18th century some of Data and Analysis: Questionnaire these radical reformers were migrating to the United States under a group called the Amish.
They migrated primarily as an experimental settlement through William Penn's Experiment on religious tolerance. Amish groups settled in parts of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. The Amish settled with a set of strict rules pertaining to the outside world, better known as the Amish belief system. They believe in the separation of the green mile summary, Amish culture and the rest of the world. They reject any involvement with the military or warfare. Unlike many Christian groups the Amish do not try and convert anyone to the Amish religion and they live only amongst Amish people and culture. Marriage outside of the Amish faith is not allowed (Robinson 2002). Only about 10% of the Amish populations are converts (Devil's Playground 2002).
Usually conversion into the religion is not favored. Amish communities typically do not use electricity, radios, or automobiles. They wear plain clothes. Women appear in long sleeve dresses with bonnets and aprons. If the woman is married she wears a white apron, otherwise she wears black. Men typically dress in plain suits. Instead of a ring, married men will grow a beard (Devil's Playground 2002). The Amish believe in market a self sustaining community. They rely on green everyone in the community to help one another out. Unlike other Christian establishments the Amish only give money to the church twice a year.
The money given to the church is only used in case of an emergency. Emergencies include sickness of a member, land, crop, or production failures, and other disasters (Robinson 2002). The Amish believe that their purpose in life is to catholic on euthanasia, be faithful to green mile, God and to be an example to their children. Essay On Government Policies: Trading Abroad? Amish families spend most of their time together. They eat most meals together, and the only green mile summary, time the children are ever away from the family is when they are at school. Children typically go to school until the eighth grade. After the eighth grade they are expected to drop out and learn a trade. Children have many chores and very structured lives. The boys usually work with their fathers in factories or on farms. The girls will stay home with the market, mothers and cook, sew, and tend to summary, the younger children. Typically Amish families are large, with an average of seven children to a family.
Children have no contact with the outside world until the age of sixteen. At the age of sixteen children practice a ritual called Rumspringa (Igou 2001). Rumspringa literally means running around in on Government Trading the Amish language. It is a time in a child's life when he is allowed to leave home and explore the green mile, English way of life. During this time, teens are able to wear normal clothes, go to the movies, listen to music, watch TV, drive automobiles, play video games, date, smoke, and drink. This time is also referred to as the and Analysis:, Devil's Playground by summary, the Amish people. Rumspringa is not supposed to be discussed out of the Amish community and is thought of and Analysis: Questionnaire Essay as sinful. Green Summary? During Rumspringa , many teens experience with alcohol, cigarettes, drugs, and sex. They are allowed to what, is the purpose of poetry?, act as any other American teen would act, and they have no supervision (Pinsker 2002). During Rumspringa young adults are supposed to make the decision whether or not to join the Amish church.
Rumspringa can last several years, until the participant is willing to make a decision to either join or reject the Amish faith. If they decide to mile summary, join the Amish faith they have to give up all their American privileges and return to the Amish way of teaching on euthanasia life. They will also be baptized into the church and become a member. More then likely, the young adults who join back into the faith do so once they have found and chosen a mate to marry. Rumspringa puts a lot of pressure on summary young adults to find a mate to marry because joining the faith of the Amish has a great emphasis on family value. An individual should be ready and willing to devote his life and fate to Amish family and Amish community (Devil's Playground 2002). If a young adult chooses not to join the Amish faith, he is shunned from the community. They must move away from the community and are excommunicated. They are on catholic on euthanasia their own once they renounce their faith. They do not receive any support, be it moral or financial.
Sometime young adults will join the green, Amish faith and then leave after being baptized. This is looked down upon and very sinful. Leaving the church once one has been baptized is the most sinful thing a member could do. The Amish believe that renouncing your faith will deny your entrance to heaven. Essay Trading Abroad? If a child dies before he is baptized into the Amish religion then the Amish believe that his soul is lost forever (Devil's Playground 2002). Rumspringa is a very difficult time in young Amish lives. They are exposed to many temptations that they have never experienced before, and that are forbidden in the Amish culture.
Kids throw huge parties on their parent's land. It is said that over 1500 kids may show up at green mile, the parties from Amish communities all over the nation. The new Rumspringers usually are shy at the beginning of the party, but after drinking and/or doing drugs the kids loosen up and usually end up leaving with a member of the opposite sex (Devil's Playground). Externalities Market Failure? Some of the kids do not live with their parents during Rumspringa ; usually it is the boys who live outside of the family. Boys typically act more American or English during Rumspringa . The boys wear common clothes, buy automobiles, and live outside of the community on mile their own; while the Essay, girls usually stick to their traditional clothing, do not drive automobiles, and green summary, live with their families in the community.
Some kids date members outside of the Amish community, but if they decide that they want to on euthanasia, join the Amish faith they must leave their American mates and eventually marry an Amish person. With all the temptation and freedom that young adults are given, it is hard to believe that the most of the young adults do rejoin the Amish Church. About 90% of young adults end up being baptized back into the religion, and the cultural ways of the Amish life. There are many speculations to why such a large percentage of green mile people go back to the Amish church after being exposed to the pleasures, dangers, temptations, and privileges that Rumspringa offers them. Policies: Trading? Many Amish folk say that it is the family life, the support, and their faith in God, that directs them back into the faith. Sometimes young adults join back to regain the life and stability they had before Rumspringa. Green Summary? Young adults realize the harshness and dangers of the outside world and on Government Policies: Abroad, know that the simple Amish life is protection to mile summary, them. Sometimes they rejoin because they want a match with a mate. I believe the biggest reason that Amish kids become baptized into Essay on Government Trading Abroad, the faith is green mile summary because it is all they know.
For all their lives they grew up knowing only one faith, and the little time that they have away from their faith is not going to break their devotion that had been ingrained into them since birth. The guilt of their families would be too great and, they do not want to disappoint there family and their communities so they do what they believe is right in on Government the eyes of the Amish. Summarize in Relation to Literature: The literature and research done around the subject of Rumspringa provides excellent information to mile, the different views about why children return. Looking at catholic teaching on euthanasia, the material obtained from Amish based information sites, I found that the reason that young adults returned was because of their faith and their commitment to the community. On the other hand, in my interview with Brother Eazy Ezekiel and mile, the information I received from the documentary, Devil's Playground, young adults return not because of catholic teaching on euthanasia faith, but because the mile summary, Amish life is teaching all they know. They cannot face the complexity of the green summary, modern world and guilt they would feel for not returning and from their families and their communities is too great.
The Amish culture is a very strict culture filled with many rituals and traditions. They have survived the torture of the European Reformation, the Data Questionnaire, move to mile, the Americas, and the survived as a culture separated from their surrounding environment. They are sustained by the return of their young folk who endure a complex adventure filled with temptations and pleasures that are outside of the traditional Amish life. Whether it is fear, guilt, normality, or true faith that leads these young people back to the open arms of the Amish culture, they seem to survive and maintain a simple society. 2000 (Sept.) Amish Children: Nurturing and Belonging. Amish Country News Cover Article. 2002 (May 29) The Secrets of the externalities, Amish.
The New York Times. 2003 (Nov. Summary? 13) The Amish: Beliefs, practices, and conflicts. Religious Tolerance.org. Click here to book The Amish Outlaws. for info and quilt patterns, contact us. The Amish Outlaws® is a registered trademark.
All contents of this web site © 2003 beyond.