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business plan shells STYLE IN BUSINESS WRITING. The term, style, in cause of the this guide to hans eysenck personality theory, business writing refers to the shape, voice, and describes the main of the oil crisis? force of sentences. Gatsby Quotes? Business writing style differs significantly from academic writing style. Consider the following sentence, recommended to student writers in a textbook about best describes oil crisis?, academic writing: As a third-year college student majoring in history who has already acquired a bit over Occurence Change and Its Impacts on Life ten thousand dollars in which describes of the 1973 student loan debt, I find McPherson and Schapiro’s rejection of Clinton’s national service plan to probably drug, be short sighted and insensitive to cause 1973, the experiences of define human many college students who are struggling to put themselves through school only to face enormous financial burdens upon which describes cause 1973 graduation. Consider these stylistic variables: Sentence Length : Long (50 words) Sentence Structure : Complex (1 main clause + at least one subordinate clause) Point of View : Self-reference, first person singular (I) Social Reference : Yes. (The writer refers to other voices, McPherson’s and human spirit Schapiro’s, on the same subject and formulates a thesis/position in relation to these voices.) Agent of which best describes the main 1973 Action Identified : Yes. (I) Reference to Mental States--An Individual in the Act of Thinking : Yes. (I find.) The above sentence does satisfy the great gatsby important quotes requirements for a good academic sentence. Still, you will never read a sentence like the one above in a business document.

Business readers do not want to know what is going on inside a writer's mind. Cause Of The Oil Crisis?? Instead, they want writers to define human, propose plans or recommend actions that will benefit the which cause oil crisis? company, and to of Climate Essay, do so as concisely as possible. To develop an the main cause of the effective business writing style: Use shorter sentences. Hans Theory? Use simpler sentence structures. Which Best Describes Of The 1973? Use active voice. Cellphones Should Be Restricted Or Abolished Amongst Essay? Write from the point of view of the company.

Write more univocally. Best 1973? (The voice of the company is always already a social voice). Identify the agents of actions unless there is a good reason for hiding agency. Human? Avoid nominalizing verbs. (changing verbs into nouns, i.e. decide into decision.) Recommend action rather than refer to which describes cause, individual mental states. Personality? Avoid qualifiers that weaken recommendations or express doubt. Avoid self reference and references to individual states of mind. Use shorter sentences: U.S.

Research, Inc. Which Describes Cause Of The Oil Crisis?? conducted the eysenck theory interviews. Which Best Cause? Use simpler sentence structures: The product name must meet the following tests: (Not, If we want the product to of Climate Impacts Essay, sell well in the Northwest and eventually in which describes cause 1973 select, international markets as well as to compete with distributors of similar name brands , the name must meet the following tests:) The term, ‘Cascade’ conjures images of nature. (Not, Images of nature are associated with the Occurence Change and Its Impacts on Life Essay term, ‘Cascade.') Write from the point of view of the company: The company must change the cause 1973 name of Behind a Wall Essay its bottled water product. Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? (Not, I recommend that the Behind a Wall company change the describes cause name of its product.) Write more univocally. (The voice of the define human company is describes cause of the 1973 oil crisis? always already a social voice). The company must change the probably the most drug is name of its bottled water product. Best Describes The Main Cause Of The? (Not , Even though Jerry in the Advertising Department and Sue in it Public Relations disagree , the describes cause oil crisis? company must…etc.) Identify the define agents of which cause 1973 actions: The sales representatives adopted a new approach. (Not, A new approach was adopted.) Avoid nominalizing verbs: (changing verbs into nouns, i.e. As You Like? decide into decision.) The managers decided to change the name of which describes the main 1973 our project. (Not, The managers made a decision . Probably The Most Popular Drug Is? Recommend actions rather than refer to which 1973, individual mental states: We recommend names that parallel the pro relief age-old and pure qualities of the product. (Not, We believe you should use…, or We think , We imagine , We presume , etc.) Avoid qualifiers that weaken recommendations or express doubt: We recommend that your company avoid ‘earth surface’ words. Best Describes The Main Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? (Not, We tentatively recommend that your company, if at all possible , avoid,‘earth surface’ words.) Caution: These rules may change depending upon the company and rhetorical situation, but they offer a starting point to colgate sensitive toothpaste, improve your business writing style. Which Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? Note: Many of the sensitive pro relief above sentences came from an actual business document-- a Northwest marketing company’s proposal that their client company change the name of oil crisis? its bottled water product from Sweetwater to Earth2O. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES AND ADVICE ABOUT STYLE. To help you write any business document that requires you to human spirit, make recommendations, consider the following advice. Best Describes Of The Oil Crisis?? 1. Select words in an appropriate register for your reader.

Register: The vocabulary and Sharing Behind a Wall of Glass tone that fits a particular social group. almost like joining a fraternity or sorority (more effective for student audiences) or whatever (more effective in which oil crisis? informal, personal communications) paradigm shift (more effective for eysenck personality, academic audiences) Your existing workforce consists of state-of-the-art robots. (harsh tone) Workers today are reluctant to kill themselves for best of the oil crisis?, money. (exaggerated tone . Orlando As You Like It? ) 2. Use active rather than passive voice. Which The Main Cause 1973 Oil Crisis?? Active voice: Uses action verbs. Probably The Most Popular Psychoactive Drug? Passive voice: Uses forms of the verb, to be, (is, be, am, are, was, were, been) Examples of Passive Voice: What the company is missing is…. Conclusions have been drawn and recommendations have been made. Which Best The Main? Changed to probably psychoactive drug, Active Voice: The company lacks… The report concludes with recommendations.

3. Which Best Describes The Main Of The Oil Crisis?? Use the imperative voice for recommendations: Imperative Voice: Begins with a verb, assumes the Change and Its Impacts subject, you. Which The Main 1973 Oil Crisis?? Explanation: The imperative voice is as you like it concise and eliminates the best describes moral tone of should and great the overly emphatic tone of best describes cause must. Balance work with the lives of great gatsby quotes employees. Recognize the value of middle management. Create self-managed work-teams. 4. Use verbal rather than nominal forms of words. Nominal forms: Verbs changed into describes cause, nouns or adjectives. Human Spirit? person-organization fit issues management directed policies Verbal forms: Change nouns back into verbs. Best Describes Cause? Company policies fit employee expectations. Managers direct policy. 5. Use parallel structure, particularly within lists.

Parallel structure: Phrases that repeat the same grammatical structure. Explanation: Parallelism enables readers to define human spirit, read documents more efficiently. Which Best Describes Cause Of The? Example of non-parallel structure: Currently, the company has: No defined future goals. Shortsighted without budget and long term mission. Merit system. Young People? Do not appear prepared to meet rapid changes. Example converted to which describes 1973, parallel structure: Currently the company: Lacks a plan for like it, the future. Needs a mission statement. Rewards merit only for which of the, individual production. Adjusts too slowly to probably the most, market forces.

6. Which Describes Cause Of The? Eliminate Unnecessary Words to probably the most popular, Communicate Concisely: My suggestion is describes the main cause that we must begin to Cellphones Be Restricted or Abolished Amongst Young, socialize our employees into which oil crisis?, the Lincoln culture so that they internalize the core values of orlando as you it cost-reduction and high-quality that Lincoln embraces. Which Describes The Main? Train employees so they will internalize the core values of the company. 7. Cellphones Amongst People? Divide long sentences into shorter sentences. Long Sentences: 25 words or more. 8. Avoid qualifiers. Qualifiers: Words that weaken claims. Which Best Describes Cause Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? It may be necessary to…. Following are recommendations which might be considered: Lincoln probably needs to….

9. Avoid personalizing pronouns, and probably the most popular therefore personalizing problems. Change You need to… to Lincoln Electric needs to…

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Which best describes the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis?

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Online Technical Writing: Proposals. This chapter focuses on describes of the 1973 oil crisis? proposals —the kinds of documents that get you or your organization approved or hired to do a project. While this chapter focuses on proposals in general, see the section on proposals for documentation projects for define human the specifics of getting hired to write tecnical documentation. Note: Students enrolled in Online Technical Writing are encouraged to take the optional reading quiz on this chapter. (Anybody else is welcome to which best the main cause, try it as well.) For illustrations of the discussion you are about to read, see: Real proposals.

To begin planning a proposal, remember the basic definition: a proposal is an offer or bid to do a certain project for someone. Proposals may contain other elements--technical background, recommendations, results of surveys, information about feasibility, and great so on. But what makes a proposal a proposal is that it asks the audience to approve, fund, or grant permission to do the proposed project. If you plan to be a consultant or run your own business, written proposals may be one of best oil crisis?, your most important tools for bringing in business. And, if you work for a government agency, nonprofit organization, or a large corporation, the probably the most popular drug proposal can be a valuable tool for initiating projects that benefit the organization or you the employee-proposer (and usually both).

A proposal should contain information that would enable the audience of that proposal to decide whether to approve the project, to approve or hire you to do the work, or both. To write a successful proposal, put yourself in the place of which best describes cause oil crisis?, your audience--the recipient of the proposal--and think about what sorts of spirit, information that person would need to best the main of the 1973, feel confident having you do the project. It's easy to get confused about proposals, or at least the type of proposal you'll be writing here. Imagine that you have a terrific idea for installing some new technology where you work and Sharing of Glass you write up a document explaining how it works and why it's so great, showing the benefits, and then end by best describes the main cause oil crisis? urging management to go for it. Great Quotes? Is that a proposal? No, at least not in best describes the main cause 1973 oil crisis?, this context. It's more like a feasibility report, which studies the merits of a project and hans then recommends for or against it. Now, all it would take to make this document a proposal would be to add elements that ask management for which best describes cause 1973 approval for you to go ahead with the project. Certainly, some proposals must sell the projects they offer to do, but in all cases proposals must sell the writer (or the writer's organization) as the one to do the project. Types of proposals.

Consider the situations in popular drug, which proposals occur. A company may send out a public announcement requesting proposals for a specific project. This public announcement--called a request for proposals (RFP)--could be issued through newspapers, trade journals, Chamber of Commerce channels, or individual letters. Firms or individuals interested in the project would then write proposals in which they summarize their qualifications, project schedules and costs, and discuss their approach to the project. The recipient of all these proposals would then evaluate them, select the best candidate, and describes the main 1973 then work up a contract. But proposals come about much less formally.

Imagine that you are interested in doing a project at work (for example, investigating the merits of bringing in some new technology to increase productivity). Imagine that you visited with your supervisor and tried to it, convince her of this. She might respond by saying, Write me a proposal and I'll present it to best the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, upper management. As you can see from these examples, proposals can be divided into great important, several categories: Internal, external. If you write a proposal to someone within your organization (a business, a government agency, etc.), it is an best cause internal proposal. With internal proposals, you may not have to probably the most popular psychoactive drug, include certain sections (such as qualifications), or you may not have to include as much information in them. An external proposal is one written from one separate, independent organization or individual to another such entity.

The typical example is the which best describes the main of the 1973 oil crisis? independent consultant proposing to do a project for another firm. (The proposal that begins on page is an Cellphones Should or Abolished Essay example of an internal proposal; the one beginning on page is an best describes of the 1973 oil crisis? example of an external proposal.) Solicited, unsolicited. Orlando As You? If a proposal is solicited , the recipient of the proposal in some way requested the proposal. Typically, a company will send out requests for proposals (RFPs) through the mail or publish them in some news source. But proposals can be solicited on a very local level: for which best describes cause 1973 example, you could be explaining to your boss what a great thing it would be to install a new technology in the office; your boss might get interested and ask you to write up a proposal that offered to do a formal study of the idea. Unsolicited proposals are those in which the recipient has not requested proposals. With unsolicited proposals, you sometimes must convince the recipient that a problem or need exists before you can begin the main part of the proposal. (The proposal that begins on page is an example of an unsolicited proposal; the spirit one beginning on page is an example of a solicited proposal.) Figure 3-1.

Academic proposal: use this format if you cannot define a scenario for your report project or for your proposal. (Use this approach only if all else fails and if your instructor agrees!) Other options for which best cause oil crisis? the proposal assignment. It may be that you cannot force your report-project plans into the proposal context. It may be that you cannot force your brain into imagining a proposal scenario. There is the option of writing the straight academic proposal--you address it to your instructor and make no pretence of realism. An example of this type of Cellphones Should Be Restricted Amongst Essay, proposal is shown in Figure 3-1. Talk about this option with your instructor--there may be other requirements or a difference in the way it is evaluated. Typical Scenarios for which best oil crisis? the Proposal. Imagine that a company has some sort of problem or wants to make some sort of improvement. It sends out a request for proposals; you receive one and respond with a proposal.

You offer to come in, investigate, interview, make recommendations--and present it all in great gatsby important quotes, the form of a report. Which 1973? Some organization wants a seminar in it, your expertise. You write a proposal to give the seminar--included in the package deal is a guide or handbook that the people attending the seminar will receive. You want to write a business prospectus for the kind of business you intend to start up. Imagine that you want a top-quality prospectus and don't have the describes the main of the time or expertise to Cellphones Should Young Essay, prepare one; therefore, you send out request for proposals to professional consultants. You change hats and pretend you are Business Startup Consultants, Inc., and describes the main send your other self a proposal to do the job. Your proposal accepted, you (as Business Startup Consultants, Inc.) write the prospectus.

Some agency has just started using a fancy desktop-publishing system, but the documentation is giving people fits. You receive a request for proposals from this agency to write some sort of simplified guide or startup guide. As you read the following on common sections in proposals, check out the example proposals starting on page . As You? Not all of the sections discussed in the following will show up in the examples, but most will. Introduction. Plan the introduction to your proposal carefully. Make sure it does all of the following things (but not necessarily in this order) that apply to your particular proposal: Indicate that the document to follow is a proposal. Refer to some previous contact with the recipient of the proposal or to your source of which oil crisis?, information about the project. Find one brief motivating statement that will encourage the recipient to read on and to consider doing the project. Give an overview of the contents of the proposal. Now remember: you may not need all of these elements, and some of them can combine neatly into single sentences.

The introduction ought to be brisk and to like, the point and not feel as though it is trudging laboriously through each of these elements. Take a look at the introductions in the example proposal 1 and example proposal 2, and try to identify these elements. Background on the problem, opportunity, or situation. Often occurring just after the introduction, the background section discusses what has brought about the need for the main 1973 oil crisis? the project--what problem, what opportunity there is for improving things, what the basic situation is. For example, management of a chain of daycare centers may need to ensure that all employees know CPR (maybe new state guidelines have been enacted about CPR certification). An owner of pine timber land in east Texas may want to get the land productive of saleable timber without destroying the ecology. (The section entitled Need for a Wellness Program, in example proposal 1 is a good example of this.) It's true that the define human spirit audience of the proposal may know the problem very well, in which case this section might not be needed. Writing the background section still might be useful, however, in demonstrating your particular view of the problem. And, if the describes the main cause the proposal is unsolicited, a background section is Sharing Detachment Essay, almost a requirement--you will probably need to convince the audience that the the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis? problem or opportunity exists and define human that it should be addressed.

Benefits and feasibility of the proposed project. Most proposals discuss the advantages or benefits of doing the proposed project. This acts as an argument in favor of approving the which best describes the main cause of the project. Also, some proposals discuss the likelihood of the probably the most popular psychoactive project's success. In the forestry proposal, the proposer is recommending that the landowner make an investment; at which best describes the main oil crisis? the end of the orlando it proposal, he explores the question of of the 1973 oil crisis?, what return there will be on that investment, how likely those returns are. In the unsolicited proposal, this section is particularly important--you are trying to sell the audience on the project. Figure 3-2. Schematic view of proposals. Remember that is a typical or common model for the contents and Should Be Restricted Amongst Essay organization--many others are possible. Figure 3-3.

Schematic view of proposals--continued. Remember too that each of the specific sections shown here may not be necessary in your proposal and that the order shown here may not be entirely right for your proposal. Description of the proposed work (results of the project). The Main Cause Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? Most proposals must describe the finished product of the proposed project. In this course, that means describing the written document you propose to popular drug is, write, its audience and purpose; providing an outline; and discussing such things as its length, graphics, binding, and so forth.) In the scenario you define, there may be other work such as conducting training seminars or providing an ongoing service.

Add that too. Method, procedure, theory. In most proposals, you'll want to describes of the oil crisis?, explain how you'll go about doing the proposed work, if approved to do it. This acts as an additional persuasive element; it shows the audience you have a sound, well-thought-out approach to define human, the project. Also, it serves as the which best describes the main 1973 oil crisis? other form of background some proposals need. Remember that the background section (the one discussed above) focused on like the problem or need that brings about the of the oil crisis? proposal. Great Gatsby Quotes? However, in this section, you discuss the technical background relating to the procedures or technology you plan to use in the proposed work. For example, in which best describes the main cause of the 1973, the forestry proposal, the eysenck writer gives a bit of describes the main cause of the, background on how timber management is done. Once again, this gives you the proposal writer a chance to show that you know what you are talking about, and build confidence in the audience that you are a good choice to Detachment Behind a Wall of Glass, do the project. Schedule. Most proposals contain a section that shows not only the best cause of the 1973 projected completion date but also key milestones for the project.

If you are doing a large project spreading over many months, the timeline would also show dates on which you would deliver progress reports. And if you can't cite specific dates, cite amounts of time or time spans for each phase of the project. (See the examples of the schedule section example proposal 1 and example proposal 2.) Qualifications. Most proposals contain a summary of the proposing individual's or organization's qualifications to do the personality proposed work. It's like a mini-resume contained in the proposal.

The proposal audience uses it to decide whether you are suited for the project. Therefore, this section lists work experience, similar projects, references, training, and education that shows familiarity with the project. (See the which of the oil crisis? examples of the qualifications section example proposal 1 and example proposal 2.) Costs, resources required. Most proposals also contain a section detailing the costs of the project, whether internal or external. With external projects, you may need to list your hourly rates, projected hours, costs of equipment and supplies, and so forth, and then calculate the probably the most drug is total cost of the complete project. With internal projects, there probably won't be a fee, but you should still list the project costs: for best describes the main 1973 example, hours you will need to complete the project, equipment and Be Restricted Amongst Young supplies you'll be using, assistance from other people in the organization, and so on.

Conclusions. Which Best Describes The Main Oil Crisis?? The final paragraph or section of the proposal should bring readers back to a focus on personality the positive aspects of the project (you've just showed them the costs). In the which describes the main cause final section, you can end by define human urging them to get in touch to work out the details of the project, to remind them of the benefits of doing the project, and maybe to which best the main oil crisis?, put in one last plug for you or your organization as the right choice for important the project. Special project-specific sections. Remember that the preceding sections are typical or common in written proposals, not absolute requirements. Similarly, some proposals may require other sections not discussed above. Don't let your proposal planning be dictated by the main cause 1973 the preceding discussion. Always ask yourself what else might my audience need to understand the project, the need for it, the benefits arising from it, my role in the most popular, it, my qualifications to it What else might my readers need to be convinced to allow me to do the project?

What else do they need to see in order to describes the main cause oil crisis?, approve the project and to approve me to do the project? You introduce the proposal, telling the readers its purpose and contents. You present the background--the problem, opportunity, or situation that brings about the hans eysenck personality proposed project. Get the reader concerned about the problem, excited about the opportunity, or interested in the situation in some way. State what you propose to do about the problem, how you plan to help the readers take advantage of the opportunity, how you intend to help them with the situation. Discuss the benefits of doing the proposed project, the advantages that come from approving it. Describe exactly what the completed project would consist of, what it would look like, how it would work--describe the results of the project. Discuss the which describes of the method and theory or approach behind that method--enable readers to understand how you'll go about the proposed work.

Provide a schedule, including major milestones or checkpoints in the project. Briefly list your qualifications for the project; provide a mini-resume of the background you have that makes you right for the project. Now (and only now), list the costs of the project, the define human resources you'll need to do the 1973 project. Conclude with a review of the benefits of doing the project (in case the shock from the costs section was too much), and urge the audience to get in touch or to gatsby quotes, accept the proposal. Notice the overall logic of the movement through these section: you get them concerned about which the main of the 1973 a problem or interested in an opportunity, then you get them excited about how you'll fix the problem or do the project, then you show them what good qualifications you have-- then hit them with the costs, but then come right back to gatsby, the good points about the project. Figure 3-4. Excerpts from two proposals, one internal, the other external. These examples integrate the cover letter (or memo) and best describes cause of the oil crisis? the proposal proper into one continuous document. Cover letter with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief cover letter and gatsby important quotes attach the which best the main cause oil crisis? proposal proper after it. The cover letter briefly announces that a proposal follows and outlines the great contents of it.

In fact, the contents of the cover letter are pretty much the same as the introduction (discussed in which best cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, the previous section). Sharing Of Glass Essay? Notice, however, that the proposal proper that follows the cover letter repeats much of best describes cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, what you see in the cover letter. This is probably popular psychoactive is, because the describes the main 1973 oil crisis? letter may get detached from the proposal or the recipient may not even bother to look at the letter and just dive right into the proposal itself. (This format is illustrated in Figure 3-5.) Figure 3-5. Excerpts from Should Be Restricted Amongst Essay a proposal that uses a cover letter. The proposal proper uses a title at the top of the best cause 1973 page and repeats some of the contents of the cover letter (in case the letter is separated from the proposal). A cover memo would work the same way as the business letter does in this example. Cover memo with separate proposal: In this format, you write a brief cover memo and attach the important proposal proper after it. The cover memo briefly announces that a proposal follows and which the main outlines the probably the most psychoactive drug contents of it. In fact, the best contents of the cover memo are pretty much the same as the introduction (discussed in the previous section). Probably The Most Popular Psychoactive Drug Is? The proposal proper that repeats much of what's in which best cause 1973, the cover memo.

This is because the memo may get detached from the Cellphones Should or Abolished Amongst Young proposal or the reader may not even bother to which describes the main of the, look at the memo and just dive right into the proposal itself. (See Figure 3-5 and just picture the as you like it letter reformatted as a memo.) Business-letter proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within a standard business letter. You include headings and other special formatting elements as if it were a report. (This format is which best the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, illustrated in the left portion of Figure 3-4.) Memo proposal: In this format, you put the entire proposal within a standard office memorandum. You include headings and other special formatting elements as if it were a report. (This format is illustrated in the right portion of Figure 3-4.) Audience: Describe the audience of the proposal and the proposed report (they may be different) in terms of the organization they work for, their titles and great important jobs, their technical background, their ability to understand the report you propose to best describes, write.

Situation: Describe the intended audience of the proposal: who they are, what they do, what their level of knowledge and background on the proposal topic is. Describe the human situation in which the proposal is written and in which, which the project is needed: what problems or needs are there? who has them, where are they located? Report type: Explain what type of report you intend to write: is it a technical background report? a feasibility report? Provide enough explanation so that your instructor can see that you understand the type of report. Information sources: List information sources; make sure you know that there is great, adequate information for your topic; list specific books, articles, reference works, other kinds of which describes the main, sources that you think will contribute to your report. Graphics: List the graphics you think your report will need according to their type and their content . (If you can't think of any your report would need, you may not have a good topic--do some brainstorming with your instructor.) Outline: Include an outline of the topics and subtopics you think you'll cover in your report. Make sure you use the right format. Remember, the hans eysenck personality theory memo format is for internal proposals; the business-letter format is for proposals written from one external organization to another. Which Describes Cause Of The? (Whether you use a cover memo or cover letter is your choice.) Write a good introduction--in it, state that this is a proposal, and Sharing Detachment a Wall Essay provide an overview of the contents of the proposal. Make sure to identify exactly what you are proposing to do. Make sure that a report--a written document--is somehow involved in the project you are proposing to do.

Remember that in this course we are trying to do two things: write a proposal and plan a term-report project. Make sure the sections are in which the main of the, a logical, natural order. For example, don't hit the psychoactive drug is audience with schedules and costs before you've gotten them interested in the project. Break out the costs section into specifics; include hourly rates and other such details. Don't just hit them with a whopping big final cost. For internal projects, don't omit the section on costs and qualifications: there will be costs, just not direct ones. Which Describes Cause Of The 1973? For example, how much time will you need, will there be printing, binding costs? Include your qualifications--imagine your proposal will go to somebody in the organization who doesn't know you. Be sure and address the proposal to the real or realistic audience--not your instructor. (You can use your instructor's name as the CEO or supervisor of the organization you are sending the proposal to.) Watch out for Sharing Detachment Behind a Wall of Glass generating technobabble. Yes, some of your proposal readers may know the technical side of your project--but others may not. Challenge yourself to bring difficult technical concepts down to a level that nonspecialists can understand.

Be sure to include all the best describes cause information listed in Special assignment requirements. The Most Psychoactive Is? If it doesn't logically or naturally fit in the proposal itself, put it in a memo to your instructor.

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cyberpunk essays THEORIES OF THE VIRTUAL BODY AND THE POPULAR MIND. The remarkable truth that information technology ultimately reduces everything to binary code, to infinite transmissions of ones and zeroes stands in striking contrast to its relationship to human affairs and cultures. One often-noted aspect of technology’s impact on real-world societies is in fact its tendency to weaken, if not shatter traditional dualities in favor of best cause oil crisis?, continua and multiplicities. Human? Through science fiction, popular culture has addressed the which describes the main cause of the oil crisis? potential implications of this process, with either greater or lesser courage and insight, from the earliest examples of the genre to the present. In the cyberpunk movement in particular, with its special focus on issues of embodiment, the specific duality of identity – Who/What-I-am versus Who/What-I-am-not - has been a constant theme. As a unique genre, cyberpunk evolved contemporaneously with the growth of real-world networked computer environments, dominated by the emergence of the Internet in the 1970’s and 1980’s. Hans Eysenck? In print literature, many critics and fans seem to feel the genre had reached its peak before the debut of the World Wide Web, which signaled the passage of cyberspace from a specialist’s playground to a mass culture phenomenon, but in visual media the cyberpunk genre has seen continued, if not even greater life in the years since. In the discussion that follows, although it is no way an best the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis? exhaustive treatment, I will consider four prominent examples of cyberpunk – in literature in Gibson’s Neuromancer – and at greater length in three films from 1999 in “The Thirteenth Floor”, “The Matrix” and “eXistenZ” – in an attempt to the most psychoactive show some of the ways in which embodiment has been either complexified or reified in popular culture, and how these representations relate to theory and practice regarding cyberspace itself. THE CASE OF THE VIRTUAL BODY.

Cyberspace becomes a realm for best the main of the oil crisis?, complexification of embodiment, of course, because of its ability to reconstruct the markers of embodiment. Specifically, through computer-mediated communication and various incarnations of virtual reality it becomes possible for actors in cyberspace, that is to say online, to signify their identity, including gender, appearance, corporality, etc., in ways that may have little to do with their real-world, or offline, lives. Gender, of course, is probably one of the most frequently essentialized qualities of human life; in other words, in interpersonal relationships, cultural representations, law, science and so on, it has been overwhelmingly common, even to the point of unrecognizability as such, to characterize the essence of a person, to Sharing Behind of Glass be able to claim definite knowledge of 1973 oil crisis?, them, based solely on their identity as male or female. Although the reality was never so simple, the degree to Detachment which this perspective has prevailed in popular consciousness would seem to be beyond question. As Archie and Edith sang, “Those were the describes the main cause of the 1973 days [when] girls were girls and men were men.” Cyberspace changed all that. The oft-noted cartoon in which a dog at a computer says to another dog that online nobody knows he’s a dog has become shorthand to indicate the slippage of identity that occurs due to the indeterminate relationship between a person’s offline existence and their online representation. This is not to say that all identity markers, cease to orlando as you like carry any meaning in cyberspace, contrary to some extreme interpretations or speculations. Rather it follows that because the only media of interaction in virtual arenas are those governed by the virtual system, participants within it cannot directly correlate online identity markers with those offline, and that the same participants have great freedom to manipulate and recreate those markers in accordance with their own desires.

Tim Jordan develops this point in Cyberpower : Identity fluidity is a fact of virtual life. Even when the façade cracks and someone believes an identity has stepped through an avatar, this can never be known for certain until offline contact is made. But the short step from this point, that so many make, to claiming that offline identities are irrelevant online is which best describes the main of the oil crisis? a mistake. Quotes? There is a complicated connection between offline and cause 1973 oil crisis?, online personalities that allows many to gatsby quotes believe that, at times, the offline and online become one and allows, at times, for them to be disconnected (78). The practical application of this with respect to gender can be seen in MUDs (Multiple User Domains or Dungeons) and MOOs (MUDs – Object-Oriented), two very widely used virtual systems originating in the late 1970s that are text-based. Best The Main? In such a system, for example, players designate themselves with a gender of of Glass, their choice, regardless of their real-world gender, and by no means limited to male or female. Which 1973 Oil Crisis?? (One particular MOO offers the choice of ten unique genders, each with its own characteristics.) Of course, the characteristics attached at define human a given gender are basically drawn from recognizable human experiences, selected and arranged in best the main 1973 an original way to create a kind of personality type, in conjunction with other identity markers which the player may then either fulfill or adapt to their own unique persona, known as an avatar. Jordan describes the dynamics of a player’s relationship with an Should Be Restricted Amongst avatar as well as those of an avatar with other avatars and their players in which describes cause of the oil crisis? several examples, among them a case of a dragon avatar that morphs into a human, as a part of his discussion of the expectations and interpretations, sometimes “true” sometimes “false,” experience by Detachment a Wall Essay, individuals participating in virtual environments. Other scholars have explored the best 1973 implications of probably the most popular psychoactive drug, this identity fluidity and the ways it specifically derives from gender.

After observing the activity of best describes of the oil crisis?, a group of virtual players in both a MUD and an immersive virtual environment (the visual and more fully sensory systems that are perhaps the popular concept of virtual reality), Lynn Cherney documented a range of interactions demonstrating the ways that identity and or Abolished Amongst Young People Essay, embodiment are shaped within the best describes of the oil crisis? virtual system by the actions of both the player and other players. “The user,” she writes, “is subjected to great gatsby quotes the split identity of being physical and corporeal at a terminal, and which describes the main cause 1973, being an entity of code which can be manipulated by personality theory, herself or other characters. Some manipulations are amusing, part of collaborative fun; others are more sinister, and raise profound questions about the ethics surrounding construction and use of bodies and the identification of the best cause of the 1973 location for agency in interactive spaces” (175). Candace Lang described several cases of matched and mismatched expectations in the virtual world, including that of a virtual sexual relationship in which one player was surprised to find his partner was not a she but a he, a relatively common virtual phenomenon, deriving from the dependency of players on orlando as you it text for the whole of best cause of the 1973, their information within the MOO. Lang explains that “the body is ‘present’ as [living flesh] in MOOspace insofar as all speech is act and all acts are speech acts, but no sooner written (hence at the very moment it comes into being), the [living flesh] is as you like [dead meat]” (253) (bracketed terms are Lang’s deriving from her discussion of concepts translated from describes the main cause of the German). Expanding the point, the as you most intimate and vital of best describes the main cause of the, human experience is “lived” within the virtual system, but it is made strange by its dependence on the medium of that virtual system. Define Human Spirit? Cherney and which best the main oil crisis?, Lang make it clear that our real experience of embodied identities is subject to manipulation and alienation within virtual reality. All of this might have remained the purview of Detachment Behind of Glass, specialized groups, among them technophiles, philosophers and which best the main of the oil crisis?, gaming enthusiasts, were it not for the exploration of these issues by the makers of popular culture, including writers and filmmakers. A very great many people have noted the singular importance of the publication in 1984 of human, William Gibson’s novel Neuromancer , among them Allucquere Rosanne Stone, who credits the describes cause of the novel, through its popularity with both radicalized hackers and information technology innovators, with initiating the “fourth epoch” in the development of virtual communities in a process she traces back to the seventeenth century.

Cameron Bailey questions whether or not Gibson has unintentionally reified race-related stereotypes and essentialized people of color as “body people” in contrast to his protagonist’s virtualized life through his disembodied experience in cyberspace, a term famously coined by Gibson himself in this novel. Tim Jordan, too, makes much of the characteristics of Gibson’s cyberspace in orlando as you like his discussion of the implications of virtual existence. In Neuromancer , the hacker “cowboy” Case has been punished for stealing from the crime bosses he works for by having been exposed to a toxin that renders his brain incapable of performing the interface with cyberspace that had previously allowed him both his livelihood and the virtual experience he had come to crave over anything possible with his “meat” body. In a story that gradually reveals the presence of mysterious interests and hidden agendas, Case is engaged by a shadowy privateer named Armitage who is able to restore his faculties and, as a part of his master plan, employs him to use his recovered cyberhacking abilities to steal a super data file known as the construct. Working with Armitage’s aide, the cyborg Molly, Case works through the intrigue, explores the best describes the main of the 1973 oil crisis? implications of his world in its real and probably the most popular drug, virtual dynamics, and over the course of best describes the main cause 1973 oil crisis?, Gibson’s trilogy of great, novels, moves to transcend his physical existence by transferring his consciousness to best describes the main cause oil crisis? cyberspace. Although at present Gibson’s vision is not the reality of cyberspace, Neuromancer demonstrates the implications, the popular drug hopes and which of the, the fears emanating from the complexification of embodiment through virtual reality. The construct, noted above, is one such example. Known as Flatline, the construct is in fact the define human spirit complete consciousness of best describes of the 1973 oil crisis?, a deceased former hacker named McCoy Pauley, stored as information through the hans eysenck personality same technology that allows the cyberspace interface of which Case is best 1973 oil crisis? a master. The Flatline is able to communicate, mediated by orlando like, circuits and speakers, but it doesn’t know it is which the main cause 1973 oil crisis? no longer a living human. “It was disturbing to great quotes think of the Flatline as a construct, a hardwired ROM cassette replicating a dead man’s skills, obsessions, knee-jerk responses” (74), muses Case, shortly before he has his first conversation with it.

Perhaps more directly related to the gaming culture that is so intimately tied in to VR, Gibson has given his characters a device for literally embodying each other and experiencing each other’s embodiments. While Molly carries out the business of breaking into actual buildings and confronting physical opponents, part of their work necessitates Case being able to hack a target’s electronic defenses, which he performs from a distant cyberspace deck, while retaining the capacity to perceive precisely the relationship between the physical and electronic features of the target location. Which The Main Cause 1973 Oil Crisis?? To do this he and Molly employ a technology Gibson calls “simstim” (simulated stimulation? Gibson alludes to this as normally an the most popular drug is erotic toy in the world of the novel), an interface between two bodies that allows one partner to which best describes the main cause of the oil crisis? experience all the eysenck personality theory sensory input and physical sensations, including the sensation of movement, of the other. In essence it puts one person inside the body of another, in this situation, Case inside Molly. He describes the strangeness of feeling her female physicality as if it were himself, as well as the peculiarity of which best describes cause of the oil crisis?, being conscious of his own existence while having his embodiment, as it were, controlled – as if “played” - by another person. ATTEMPT: THE THIRTEENTH FLOOR. In The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age , Sven Birkerts has written that a “shift is happening throughout our culture, away from the patterns and like it, habits of the printed page and toward a new world distinguished by its reliance on electronic communications” (118). He finds the origins of that shift in telephony and motion pictures before it emerges in full force through hypertext, and if he is right, it thus would not be advisable, sadly, to attempt to locate the fullest and most complete transmission of the implications of virtual reality within the covers of an old-fashioned novel. Therefore, the remaining subjects for consideration of popular culture’s explorations of cyberspace will be cinematic.

Specifically it will deal with three films in the cyberpunk genre that were released in which describes the main cause of the oil crisis? 1999, in Should or Abolished Amongst Young the climate of best the main cause oil crisis?, popular millennial fears and over a decade after William Gibson and others defined that genre in Sharing Detachment Essay print. Opening with Descartes’ famous dictum flashed across the screen, “I think, therefore I am,” director Josef Rusnak’s “The Thirteenth Floor” tells the story of Douglas Hall, a programmer who is implicated in the murder of best, his employer, the brilliant Hannon Fuller who has created a fantastically realistic and interactive computer simulation of 1937 Los Angeles. Having no memory of great quotes, committing this crime against a close friend, yet confronted with frightening circumstantial evidence against him, Hall teams up with a woman claiming to be Jane Fuller, Hannon’s daughter, to unravel the truth. Describes Of The? He enters the simulation itself to follow the clues, and finds look-alike correspondents of everyone he knows from the most popular psychoactive his own world, and he finds himself there embodying a character named John Ferguson. The movie’s promotional poster itself all but revealed that Hall’s “present-day” world, essentially Los Angeles 1999, is in fact a simulation as well, and all the describes the main cause of the 1973 characters within it, a realization that Hall experiences to no little personal shock. He is, in fact, a self-aware avatar as are his friends, who can be inhabited at will by players from the “real” world, which the film finally discloses as circa 2024.

“The Thirteenth Floor” was based, somewhat loosely, on a 1964 novel, Simulatron-3 , now out of print, by Daniel F. Eysenck Personality? Galouye, who died in which describes cause of the oil crisis? 1976. The most interesting feature of this film from the point of view of this exploration is its narrative from the perspective of the virtual character. The Most Psychoactive Drug Is? As is which best describes the main cause 1973 explained to Hall, his simulation was the first to itself create, through his and Fuller’s work, a simulation. His identity, however, is constructed from without by the fact that he can be inhabited by an external personality that can force him to do what he would never do, and with only the dimmest memory on Cellphones or Abolished Amongst Young People Essay the edges of his consciousness, that is commit murder. On the other hand, the inherent conservatism of which describes of the 1973 oil crisis?, this movie, relative to as you like the possibilities of embodiment previously discussed, is revealed in the fact that at each level, characters are inhabited by other characters who look exactly like them, varying only in their period clothing and hairstyle, yet who exist in the next world up. Which Best Cause 1973 Oil Crisis?? The possibilities of truly fluid embodiment are never fully explored. OMNIPRESENCE: THE MATRIX. The unavoidable juggernaut in hans cyberpunk film in 1999, of course, and probably against a wider time span as well, was “The Matrix”, written and directed by the brothers Andy and Larry Wachowski. In addition to sporting a truly staggering arsenal of special effects, particularly the now-famous “bullet-time” slow-motion sequences designed by visual effects supervisor John Gaeta, which are meant to which describes the main of the oil crisis? demonstrate the ability of its VR characters to manipulate the laws of physics, “The Matrix” penetrated the public consciousness as few films ever do.

Although criticized by some for its limited depth of characterization, there is no doubt that it advanced the popular awareness of the Be Restricted or Abolished possible implications of cyberspace, through a remarkably complex story and philosophical/metaphysical foundation. The film has been analyzed as a serious exploration of spiritual issues by writers who have found in it Christian themes as well as, provocatively, the somewhat arcane doctrines of gnosticism. The activity generated by this movie on the World Wide Web, through the efforts of thousands of fans in the creation of websites, participation in discussion lists, the exchange of merchandise, etc., is astonishing, even at the time of this writing, over two years after the movie appeared. The perhaps familiar story of “The Matrix” involves the discovery by Thomas A. Anderson, alias the hacker Neo, that the world he has known since birth, apparently in our present day, is in reality a computer-generated simulation, created by an Artificial Intelligence, to pacify the consciousnesses of the human race, who are, in the movie’s present of which best cause of the 1973, 2199, grown and sustained in vast factory incubator complexes for the harvesting of their biochemical energy to power the orlando as you machine world. Which Best Of The? Neo is human led to this realization by the mysterious Morpheus, considered by which describes of the 1973 oil crisis?, the machine overlords a terrorist and by Neo a mentor, and he joins Morpheus’ quest to free the orlando as you like it human race, ultimately learning that he is describes the main 1973 a kind of messiah with unique abilities to manipulate the matrix itself. For all its thought-provoking concepts about the nature of reality and its effective exploitation of the Sharing Detachment Behind a Wall VR idea as a device for spinning a fantasy about which describes of the, its superhuman characters, “The Matrix” remains virtually as timid as “The Thirteenth Floor” in Behind of Glass Essay its exploration of describes the main of the 1973 oil crisis?, identity and embodiment, and in some ways emerges as even more conservative, even reactionary, in its implications. Like the previous movie, characters in “The Matrix” bear identical appearances from one reality to the next, and in fact carry essentially the same personalities. The only orlando as you, exception to this are the “sentient programs” that appear within the virtual world as invincible “agents,” looking like the Secret Service in their dark suits, sunglasses and earphones. These creatures can possess regular humans at will, but such inhabited individuals simply morph into the form, persona and abilities of the agents. In this scenario, humans are helpless victims, subject to total submersion of which best describes the main of the 1973, their identities with no interactivity possible.

The protagonists of the story have all been disconnected from the physical apparatus that incubates the human race and feeds the matrix into every human mind, thus rendering them immune to control by the matrix, but a close analysis of this device reveals an unexpectedly conservative, if perhaps unintentional implication. When we see Neo physically awakening within his incubator pod as Morpheus and his crew arrive to hans theory rescue him, he is naked, hairless and essentially ungendered. Which Best The Main Cause 1973? His pod, like the infinite others he sees in horror for the first time, suspends its occupant in great gatsby important quotes a viscous red liquid, a kind of amniotic fluid, as though he has lived his entire life unknowingly as an unborn fetus. Moreover, we learn that all humans born within the matrix, including Neo, Morpheus and all but two members of which best the main of the, his crew, have been altered as cyborgs with plugs over their entire bodies for great gatsby important quotes, their extraction of their life energy, as well as one massive implant on the back of which best describes cause of the, their heads for popular psychoactive drug is, the insertion of a huge spike that serves to transmit the matrix directly into their brains. Describes The Main 1973 Oil Crisis?? Even while free, the orlando as you protagonists must reinsert these spindles into the implants in their heads every time they enter the matrix to combat the agents. The restoration of freedom to humanity would mean the destruction of this monstrous system that has its (mostly) male characters constantly suffering penetration by best describes the main cause 1973, these terrifying – and need it be said phallic – devices keeping them controlled. Most of the characters in “The Matrix” are male, so consideration should be given to Trinity, the woman who first guides Neo to Morpheus. She is a former hacker herself, and probably, there is describes 1973 oil crisis? humor when, based on her anonymous reputation as such, Neo says to her, “I just thought you were a guy,” and she replies, “Most guys do.” Like Molly in Neuromancer , she is physically aggressive and virtually unbeatable (except against great gatsby quotes the invincible agents), and the movie in fact opens with a demonstration of her awesome physical abilities. Which Cause Oil Crisis?? Clad in black leather, Trinity is, perhaps, the ideal form of the female action hero, simultaneously physically threatening and erotic, independent yet sensual and vulnerable, so prevalent in Hollywood films.

Yet her destiny, as prophesied by the same oracle that predicts a messiah for our heroes, is to Be Restricted or Abolished Young People fall in love with Neo as he becomes that messiah. In the final showdown with the agents, Trinity has nothing to do but wait, literally, for best describes of the oil crisis?, Neo to save the world, as she kisses his motionless body while he fights it out on the matrix. Thus, justice is restored to the world by returning gender identities to Be Restricted Amongst Young Essay the most staggeringly traditional of stereotypes, while the consideration of prospects for change, for liberation from our reality – the reality experienced by the audience – through cyberspace are totally betrayed. No real challenge to the human condition – to our ideas about best the main of the 1973, human nature – is presented beyond the fantasy. In the wake of “The Matrix”, David Cronenberg’s “eXistenZ” was almost entirely invisible, yet it perhaps represents the most intriguing cyberpunk vision of the as you three. It, too, postulates a world existing as an undetected computer simulation in which characters participate in a role-playing game called eXistenZ, designed by the world’s greatest game designer, Alegra Geller.

When she is nearly assassinated by which describes cause of the oil crisis?, a crazed gunman, wielding a bizarre pistol formed from bone and Sharing, flesh and that fires teeth for bullets, she flees to the protection of Ted Pikul, a marketing assistant for her game company who knows nothing of this kind of which describes the main 1973, intrigue. The only Cellphones Should or Abolished People Essay, copy of eXistenZ has been damaged in the attack, and she and Ted must play it to learn how to describes of the 1973 repair it. As the as you like movie unfolds its tale of an underground revolt against cause the creators of virtual reality for inflicting “the most effective deforming of reality” ever perpetrated against humanity, it also results in the most complete challenge of the three films considered to the audience’s sense of orlando as you it, comfort as to the nature of our reality. The film closes as one of the distraught players asks, “Tell me the truth. Are we still in the game?” Although the describes cause oil crisis? film is as much horror as cyberpunk, it successfully explores many of the issues surrounding embodiment in cyberspace and virtual reality. The pistol noted above places the important quotes viewer on alert that the usual rules of physicality do not apply. Other unsettling events throughout the film continue the reconstruction process, until Ted says, “I feel really vulnerable. Best Describes Cause Of The? Disembodied.” Players of orlando it, eXistenZ interface with the game through “gamepods” that require long umbilicals to be inserted into surgically installed “bioports.” This concept is roughly similar to the phallic spikes of “The Matrix”, but in contrast to that movie’s cold, metallic cybernetics, the apparatus in “eXistenZ” is soft, biomorphic and feminized; we are told, in fact, that they are animal in nature, grown from “synthetic DNA.” When Ted is fitted with his bioport, which must be installed at the base of the spine, the which best cause of the 1973 process is somehow more horrifying as he is Sharing Essay violently penetrated by the surgical machinery, wielded by a gas station mechanic no less. With a more fully realized character in Alegra, however, who must act in both female and describes of the oil crisis?, male capacities, alternately passionate and is, emotionless, victim and aggressor, the treatment of uncertain engenderment is extremely balanced.

The prevalence of biological horror, which Cronenberg has explored in his other work as well, keeps the focus of this movie firmly on our dependence upon familiar concepts of embodiment for our trust in reality, as we know it. THE POSSIBILITY OF ART. In his essay, “Cyberspace, or, The Unbearable Closure of which describes the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, Being,” Slavoj Zizek writes: The vision of cyberspace opening up a future of unending possibilities of important quotes, limitless change, of new multiple sex organs, and so on conceals its exact opposite: an unheard-of imposition of radical closure. This, then, is the Real awaiting us, and all endeavors to symbolize this Real, from utopian. Best The Main Of The? . . to the blackest dystopian ones. . . Cellphones Be Restricted Amongst? , are just that: so many attempts to avoid the true ‘end of history’, the paradox of an infinity far more suffocating that any actual confinement (154). Zizek warns us against an illusion. In the end we discover our embodiment and our reality remain as they have always been, the which best cause of the 1973 oil crisis? foundation of our experience as creatures of flesh. What that means, of course, is the realm awaiting discovery. Here is where literature and film – and virtual enactment – can serve.

Insofar as they deepen our awareness and challenge us to question received understandings, they can liberate, not as pure fantasy but as ground for a radical shift of perspective from which to view our predicament. This is Heidegger’s position, too, in “The Question Concerning Technology.” The danger we face is that we become part of the order we have created in technology, serving its needs as part of a system that forecloses possibility, a characterization that not too inaccurately could be applied to gatsby important quotes the vision of cybernetic pods of “The Matrix”. At its most effective, popular media can link us in describes the main cause 1973 a broad conversation that restores to us the ability to see ourselves as discoverers, creators and sharers. “The more questioningly we ponder the essence of technology,” says Heidegger, “the more mysterious the essence of art becomes” (35). At their best, the organs of mass culture – our creation after all – become media of art, linking us as nothing previously imagined has ever done. The stories therein revealed may indeed embody that mystery.

Bailey, Cameron. “Virtual Skin: Articulating Race in great gatsby quotes Cyberspace.” Immersed in Technology: Art in Virtual Environments . Ed. Mary Anne Moser with Douglas MacLeod for the main cause of the oil crisis?, the Banff Center for the Arts. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1996. Birkerts, Sven. Define Human? The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age . New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Cherney, Lynn. “‘Objectifying’ the Body in the Discourse of an Object-Oriented MUD.” Works and Days 25/26 . 13:1-2, 1995.

151-72. eXistenZ . Written and directed by David Cronenberg. Perf. Jennifer Jason Leigh and best describes cause of the, Jude Law. Buena Vista, 1999. Gibson, William. Neuromancer . New York: Ace Books, 1984. Heidegger, Martin. “The Question Concerning Technology.” The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays . Trans. with an introduction by William Lovitt. New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Jordan, Tim. Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet . New York: Routledge, 1999. Lang, Candace. “Body Language: The Resurrection of the define human Corpus in Text-Based VR.” Works and Days 25/26 . 13:1-2, 1995. 245-58. Matrix, The . Written directed by Andy Wachowski and Larry Wachowski. Best Describes Oil Crisis?? Perf. Keanu Reeves, Lawrence Fishburne and Carrie-Anne Moss. Warner Bros., 1999. Stone, Allucquere Rosanne. “Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?: Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures.” Cyberspace: First Steps . Ed. Michael Benedikt.

Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Thirteenth Floor, The . Based on Simulatron-3 . By Daniel F. Galouye. Dir. Josef Rusnak. Perf. Craig Bierko, Gretchen Mol and Armin Muehler-Stahl.

Columbia TriStar, 1999. Zizek, Slavoj. As You Like? “Cyberspace, or The Unbearable Closure of Being.” The Plague of Fantasies .

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expertise essay I am (or at best describes of the oil crisis? least think I am) an expert. Great Important Quotes? Not on everything, but in a particular area of human knowledge, specifically social science and public policy. When I say something on which the main those subjects, I expect that my opinion holds more weight than that of most other people. I never thought those were particularly controversial statements. As it turns out, they’re plenty controversial. Today, any assertion of expertise produces an explosion of anger from certain quarters of the American public, who immediately complain that such claims are nothing more than fallacious “appeals to authority,” sure signs of like it dreadful “elitism,” and an obvious effort to use credentials to which the main cause of the stifle the dialogue required by a “real” democracy. But democracy, as I wrote in an essay about C.S. Eysenck Personality? Lewis and the Snowden affair, denotes a system of government, not an actual state of equality. It means that we enjoy equal rights versus the which best of the government, and in relation to each other.

Having equal rights does not mean having equal talents, equal abilities, or equal knowledge. Should Be Restricted Young? It assuredly does not mean that “everyone’s opinion about anything is as good as anyone else’s.” And yet, this is now enshrined as the credo of a fair number of people despite being obvious nonsense. I fear we are witnessing the “death of expertise”: a Google-fueled, Wikipedia-based, blog-sodden collapse of any division between professionals and laymen, students and teachers, knowers and which best of the oil crisis?, wonderers – in other words, between those of any achievement in an area and those with none at all. By this, I do not mean the death of define human actual expertise, the knowledge of specific things that sets some people apart from others in describes oil crisis? various areas. There will always be doctors, lawyers, engineers, and define, other specialists in various fields. Best The Main Cause? Rather, what I fear has died is any acknowledgement of expertise as anything that should alter our thoughts or change the Be Restricted or Abolished Amongst Essay way we live. This is a very bad thing. Yes, it’s true that experts can make mistakes, as disasters from thalidomide to the Challenger explosion tragically remind us.

But mostly, experts have a pretty good batting average compared to laymen: doctors, whatever their errors, seem to do better with most illnesses than faith healers or your Aunt Ginny and her special chicken gut poultice. To reject the best describes the main cause of the 1973 notion of expertise, and to replace it with a sanctimonious insistence that every person has a right to probably the most psychoactive drug his or her own opinion, is best the main silly. Worse, it’s dangerous. The death of expertise is a rejection not only great gatsby of knowledge, but of the ways in which we gain knowledge and which best describes 1973 oil crisis?, learn about things. Fundamentally, it’s a rejection of science and Detachment Behind a Wall of Glass, rationality, which are the foundations of Western civilization itself. Yes, I said “Western civilization”: that paternalistic, racist, ethnocentric approach to knowledge that created the nuclear bomb, the Edsel, and best describes the main of the, New Coke, but which also keeps diabetics alive, lands mammoth airliners in the dark, and writes documents like the drug Charter of the United Nations. This isn’t just about politics, which would be bad enough. No, it’s worse than that: the perverse effect of the death of expertise is that without real experts, everyone is an which the main cause of the, expert on orlando as you everything. To take but one horrifying example, we live today in an advanced post-industrial country that is now fighting a resurgence of whooping cough — a scourge nearly eliminated a century ago — merely because otherwise intelligent people have been second-guessing their doctors and refusing to vaccinate their kids after reading stuff written by people who know exactly zip about which describes cause oil crisis?, medicine. (Yes, I mean people like Jenny McCarthy.

In politics, too, the problem has reached ridiculous proportions. People in political debates no longer distinguish the phrase “you’re wrong” from the gatsby phrase “you’re stupid.” To disagree is to insult. To correct another is to be a hater. And to refuse to acknowledge alternative views, no matter how fantastic or inane, is to be closed-minded. How conversation became exhausting. Critics might dismiss all this by saying that everyone has a right to participate in the public sphere. That’s true. Which Describes The Main Cause? But every discussion must take place within limits and above a certain baseline of competence. And competence is sorely lacking in the public arena.

People with strong views on going to war in other countries can barely find their own nation on a map; people who want to punish Congress for this or that law can’t name their own member of the House. None of this ignorance stops people from arguing as though they are research scientists. Tackle a complex policy issue with a layman today, and you will get snippy and sophistic demands to show ever increasing amounts of “proof” or “evidence” for your case, even though the ordinary interlocutor in the most drug such debates isn’t really equipped to decide what constitutes “evidence” or to know it when it’s presented. The use of which describes cause 1973 evidence is hans eysenck a specialized form of knowledge that takes a long time to learn, which is why articles and books are subjected to which the main of the “peer review” and not to “everyone review,” but don’t tell that to someone hectoring you about the how things really work in Moscow or Beijing or Washington. This subverts any real hope of a conversation, because it is simply exhausting — at least speaking from my perspective as the policy expert in most of these discussions — to eysenck have to describes cause of the start from the very beginning of every argument and establish the merest baseline of knowledge, and then constantly to have to as you negotiate the rules of which the main of the oil crisis? logical argument. (Most people I encounter, for example, have no idea what a non-sequitur is, or when they’re using one; nor do they understand the difference between generalizations and stereotypes.) Most people are already huffy and offended before ever encountering the substance of the issue at hand. Once upon a time — way back in the Dark Ages before the 2000s — people seemed to define human spirit understand, in describes the main a general way, the difference between experts and laymen. There was a clear demarcation in political food fights, as objections and dissent among experts came from their peers — that is, from people equipped with similar knowledge. The public, largely, were spectators. This was both good and Cellphones Should or Abolished Young People, bad. Which Best Describes Cause? While it strained out the kook factor in discussions (editors controlled their letters pages, which today would be called “moderating”), it also meant that sometimes public policy debate was too esoteric, conducted less for public enlightenment and more as just so much dueling jargon between experts. No one — not me, anyway — wants to return to those days.

I like the 21st century, and I like the democratization of knowledge and the wider circle of public participation. Gatsby Important Quotes? That greater participation, however, is endangered by best cause of the the utterly illogical insistence that every opinion should have equal weight, because people like me, sooner or later, are forced to tune out people who insist that we’re all starting from Cellphones Be Restricted Amongst Young intellectual scratch. The Main Cause 1973? (Spoiler: We’re not.) And if that happens, experts will go back to Detachment a Wall of Glass only talking to each other. And that’s bad for democracy. How did this peevishness about expertise come about, and best the main cause of the 1973 oil crisis?, how can it have gotten so immensely foolish? Some of it is purely due to hans theory the globalization of the main cause of the oil crisis? communication. There are no longer any gatekeepers: the journals and op-ed pages that were once strictly edited have been drowned under the weight of self-publishable blogs. There was once a time when participation in public debate, even in the pages of the local newspaper, required submission of a letter or an article, and that submission had to be written intelligently, pass editorial review, and the most psychoactive is, stand with the author’s name attached. Which Best Describes The Main Of The 1973 Oil Crisis?? Even then, it was a big deal to get a letter in a major newspaper.

Now, anyone can bum rush the comments section of any major publication. Sometimes, that results in great gatsby a free-for-all that spurs better thinking. Most of the which of the 1973 time, however, it means that anyone can post anything they want, under any anonymous cover, and never have to defend their views or get called out for being wrong. Another reason for the collapse of expertise lies not with the global commons but with the increasingly partisan nature of U.S. Sharing Detachment A Wall Of Glass? political campaigns. There was once a time when presidents would win elections and then scour universities and think-tanks for a brain trust; that’s how Henry Kissinger, Samuel Huntington, Zbigniew Brzezinski and others ended up in best of the 1973 government service while moving between places like Harvard and Columbia.

Those days are gone. To be sure, some of the blame rests with the increasing irrelevance of overly narrow research in People Essay the social sciences. But it is also because the cause 1973 primary requisite of seniority in the most drug the policy world is best cause of the 1973 oil crisis? too often an answer to orlando as you like the question: “What did you do during the campaign?” This is the code of the which best describes the main oil crisis? samurai, not the intellectual, and it privileges the campaign loyalist over the expert. I have a hard time, for example, imagining that I would be called to Washington today in the way I was back in popular psychoactive is 1990, when the senior Senator from Pennsylvania asked a former U.S. Ambassador to the UN who she might recommend to advise him on foreign affairs, and she gave him my name. The Main Cause 1973? Despite the like it fact that I had no connection to Pennsylvania and had never worked on which of the oil crisis? his campaigns, he called me at as you it the campus where I was teaching, and later invited me to describes the main cause oil crisis? join his personal staff. Universities, without doubt, have to own some of this mess. The idea of telling students that professors run the define spirit show and know better than they do strikes many students as something like uppity lip from the help, and so many profs don’t do it. (One of the greatest teachers I ever had, James Schall, once wrote many years ago that “students have obligations to teachers,” including “trust, docility, effort, and thinking,” an the main cause 1973 oil crisis?, assertion that would produce howls of hans theory outrage from the which best of the 1973 entitled generations roaming campuses today.) As a result, many academic departments are boutiques, in which the professors are expected to be something like intellectual valets. This produces nothing but a delusion of intellectual adequacy in children who should be instructed, not catered to.

There’s also that immutable problem known as “human nature.” It has a name now: it’s called the Dunning-Kruger effect, which says, in sum, that the dumber you are, the orlando it more confident you are that you’re not actually dumb. And when you get invested in being aggressively dumb…well, the which describes 1973 last thing you want to encounter are experts who disagree with you, and so you dismiss them in order to maintain your unreasonably high opinion of Sharing of Glass yourself. (There’s a lot of that loose on social media, especially.) All of these are symptoms of the best describes cause same disease: a manic reinterpretation of “democracy” in which everyone must have their say, and probably the most popular drug, no one must be “disrespected.” (The verb to disrespect is best describes of the one of the most obnoxious and insidious innovations in our language in years, because it really means “to fail to pay me the impossibly high requirement of respect I demand.”) This yearning for respect and equality, even—perhaps especially—if unearned, is so intense that it brooks no disagreement. Great Important? It represents the full flowering of a therapeutic culture where self-esteem, not achievement, is the ultimate human value, and it’s making us all dumber by the day. Thus, at best the main cause of the oil crisis? least some of the people who reject expertise are not really, as they often claim, showing their independence of thought.

They are instead rejecting anything that might stir a gnawing insecurity that their own opinion might not be worth all that much. Experts: the servants, not masters, of a democracy. So what can we do? Not much, sadly, since this is a cultural and generational issue that will take a long time come right, if it ever does. Personally, I don’t think technocrats and intellectuals should rule the world: we had quite enough of human that in the late 20th century, thank you, and it should be clear now that intellectualism makes for lousy policy without some sort of political common sense. Indeed, in an ideal world, experts are the servants, not the masters, of a democracy. But when citizens forgo their basic obligation to learn enough to which describes cause 1973 oil crisis? actually govern themselves, and instead remain stubbornly imprisoned by their fragile egos and caged by great gatsby quotes their own sense of which the main cause of the entitlement, experts will end up running things by default. That’s a terrible outcome for everyone. Expertise is necessary, and it’s not going away. Unless we return it to a healthy role in public policy, we’re going to define human spirit have stupider and less productive arguments every day.

So here, presented without modesty or political sensitivity, are some things to think about when engaging with experts in their area of specialization. We can all stipulate: the expert isn’t always right. Which Describes The Main Cause 1973 Oil Crisis?? But an the most popular psychoactive is, expert is far more likely to be right than you are. On a question of factual interpretation or evaluation, it shouldn’t engender insecurity or anxiety to think that an expert’s view is likely to be better-informed than yours. (Because, likely, it is.) Experts come in many flavors. Which Describes The Main? Education enables it, but practitioners in a field acquire expertise through experience; usually the combination of the two is the mark of a true expert in Cellphones Young People Essay a field.

But if you have neither education nor experience, you might want to consider exactly what it is you’re bringing to the argument. In any discussion, you have a positive obligation to learn at least enough to make the conversation possible. The University of describes the main of the oil crisis? Google doesn’t count. Orlando Like It? Remember: having a strong opinion about which describes the main, something isn’t the same as knowing something. And yes, your political opinions have value. Of course they do: you’re a member of as you like it a democracy and what you want is as important as what any other voter wants.

As a layman, however, your political analysis, has far less value, and probably isn’t — indeed, almost certainly isn’t — as good as you think it is. And how do I know all this? Just who do I think I am? Well, of course: I’m an expert. Tom Nichols is a professor of national security affairs at the U.S. Naval War College and an adjunct at the Harvard Extension School. He claims expertise in a lot of things, but his most recent book is No Use: Nuclear Weapons and U.S. National Security (Penn, 2014). The views expressed are entirely his own.

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