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Essay on Identical Twins

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Shari'a and Violence in American Mosques. by Mordechai Kedar and David Yerushalmi. Middle East Quarterly. How great is the on Identical Twins, danger of extremist violence in the name of Islam in the United States? Recent congressional hearings into Negative Effects on the Human Essay, this question by Rep.

Peter King (Republican of New York), chairman of the Committee on Essay Twins, Homeland Security, have generated a firestorm of controversy among his colleagues, the press, and the general public. What Is Leadership Theories? Though similar hearings have taken place at least fourteen times since 2001,[1] King was labeled a latter-day Joe McCarthy and the hearings called an on Identical Twins, assault on civil liberties and what is leadership theories a contemporary witch-hunt. On Identical? Yet the larger dilemmas outlined by both the congressman and some of his witnesses remain: To what extent are American Muslims, native-born as well as naturalized, being radicalized by Islamists? And what steps can those who are sworn to the protection of American citizenry take that will uncover and disrupt the plots of those willing to take up arms against others for the sake of jihad? Root Causes and Enabling Mechanisms. A comprehensive study of the relationship between Shari'a adherence and incitement to story of an hour themes, violence in American mosques found that mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to contain violence-positive materials than those where men and women were not segregated. One study by on Identical Twins Quintan Wiktorowicz, assistant professor of international studies at Rhodes College and now on the staff of the National Security Council,[3] noted that modern jihadists legitimize their violent activities by relying on the same textual works as their nonviolent Salafist counterparts. However, the approach taken to these texts by the violent jihadist may be distinguished from that of the nonviolent Salafist insofar as the jihadist uses the principles advanced by army of god both classical and modern Islamic scholars and ideologues and Essay Twins adapts them to modern situations in a way that provides a broader sanction for the permissible use of violence.[4]

Further, in 2007, Paul Gill concluded that terrorist organizations seek societal support by creating a culture of martyrdom and that one theme common to suicide bombers was the triads, support they received from Twins a community that esteemed the concept of martyrdom. Thus, a complex dynamic is at work between a terrorist organization, society, and Sex Sells individuals with the interplay between these three dimensions enabling radicalization and terrorist attacks.[5] Another item that may help to understand the growth of modern jihadism appears in Marc Sageman's 2004 study, which found that 97 percent of jihadists studied had become increasingly devoted to forms of Salafist Islam highly adherent to Shari'a (Islamic law) while on their path to radicalization, despite many coming from less rigorous devotional levels during their youths. On Identical? This increase in devotion to what, Salafist Islam was measured by outwardly observable behaviors such as wearing traditional Arabic, Pakistani, or Afghan clothing or growing a beard.[6] When viewed together, a picture emerges that may give researchers, as well as law enforcement officials, a way to monitor or potentially to predict where violent jihad may take root. Potential recruits who are swept up in this movement may find their inspiration and encouragement in a place with ready access to Twins, classic and modern literature that is vs yakuza positive toward jihad and violence, where highly Shari'a-adherent behavior is practiced, and where a society exists that in some form promotes a culture of Essay on Identical Twins, martyrdom or at Sex Sells in Advertisement least engages in activities that are supportive of on Identical, violent jihad. Army Group? The mosque can be such a place. That the mosque is a societal apparatus that might serve as a support mechanism for violent jihad may seem self-evident, but for it to be a useful means for on Identical, measuring radicalization requires empirical evidence. Terrorist? A 2007 study by the New York city police department noted that, in the context of the mosque, high levels of Essay Twins, Shari'a adherence, termed Salafi ideology by Sex Sells the authors of the on Identical Twins, report, may relate to support for violent jihad. Vs Yakuza? Specifically, it found that highly Shari'a-adherent mosques have played a prominent role in radicalization.[7] Another study found a relationship between frequency of mosque attendance and a predilection for supporting suicide attacks but discovered no empirical evidence linking support for suicide bombings to some measure of religious devotion (defined and measured by frequency of prayer).[8]

However, the study suffers from a major methodological flaw, namely, reliance on Essay, self- reporting of prayer frequency. Triads? Muslims would be under social and psychological pressure to report greater prayer frequency because their status as good or pious believers is linked to whether they fulfill the religious obligation to pray five times a day.[9] This piety is not dependent on regular mosque attendance as Muslims are permitted to pray outside of a mosque environment whenever necessary.[10] Hence, the pressure to over-report exists for self-reporting of on Identical, prayer frequency but is not present in of High Essay, self-reporting of Twins, frequency of mosque attendance, which is a measure of triads, both coalitional or group commitment and Essay on Identical religious devotion. Thus, there is a need for the study and corroboration of story, a relationship between high levels of Shari'a adherence as a form of Essay, religious devotion and coalitional commitment, Islamic literature that shows violence in of god terrorist, a positive light, and institutional support for violent jihad. By way of filling this lacuna, the authors of on Identical, this article undertook a survey specifically designed to determine empirically whether a correlation exists between observable measures of religious devotion linked to Shari'a adherence in American mosques and the presence of violence-positive materials at those mosques. The survey also sought to ascertain whether a correlation exists between the triads, presence of violence-positive materials at a mosque and the promotion of Twins, jihadism by the mosque's leadership through recommending the study of Syrup on the Essay, these materials or other manifest behaviors.

Identifying Shari'a-Adherent Behaviors. Shari'a is the Islamic system of law based primarily on two sources held by Muslims to be respectively direct revelation from Essay God and divinely inspired: the Qur'an and the Sunna (sayings, actions, and Sex Sells in Advertisement Essay traditions of Muhammad). Essay On Identical Twins? There are other jurisprudential sources for Shari'a derived from the legal rulings of Negative Effects of High Fructose Corn on the Human, Islamic scholars. Essay On Identical Twins? These scholars, in turn, may be adherents of differing schools of Islamic jurisprudence. Notwithstanding those differences, the of god terrorist, divergence at the level of actual law is, given the fullness of the corpus juris, confined to relatively few marginal issues.

Thus, there is general unity and on Identical Twins agreement across the Sunni-Shiite divide and across the various Sunni madh'habs (jurisprudential schools) on core normative behaviors.[11] Surveyors were asked to observe and record selected behaviors deemed to be Shari'a-adherent. These behaviors were selected precisely because they constitute observable and measurable practices of an orthodox form of Islam as opposed to of an hour themes, internalized, non-observable articles of faith. Such visible modes of conduct are considered by Essay traditionalists to Sex Sells in Advertisement, have been either exhibited or commanded by Essay on Identical Muhammad as recorded in the Sunna and what is leadership theories later discussed and Essay on Identical preserved in canonical Shari'a literature. The selected behaviors are among the most broadly accepted by legal practitioners of Islam and are not those practiced only by a rigid subgroup within IslamSalafists, for example.

Among the behaviors observed at terrorist group the mosques and scored as Shari'a-adherent were: (a) women wearing the hijab (head covering) or niqab (full-length shift covering the entire female form except for the eyes); (b) gender segregation during mosque prayers; and (c) enforcement of straight prayer lines. Behaviors that were not scored as Shari'a-adherent included: (a) women wearing just a modern hijab , a scarf-like covering that does not cover all of the Essay Twins, hair, or no covering; (b) men and women praying together in the same room; and Effects Fructose on the Human (c) no enforcement by the imam, lay leader, or worshipers of straight prayer lines. The normative importance of a woman's hair covering is evidenced by two central texts, discussed at on Identical Twins length below, Reliance of the Traveller and Fiqh as-Sunna (Law of the Sunna), both of which express agreement on the obligation of a woman to wear the hijab : There is in Advertisement no such dispute over Essay on Identical what constitutes a woman's aurah [private parts/nakedness]. It is stated that her entire body is aurah and must be covered, except her hands and face God does not accept the prayer of an adult woman unless she is wearing a head covering ( khimar , hijab ).[12] The nakedness of army of god, a woman (even if a young girl) consists of the whole body except the face and hands. The nakedness of a woman is that which invalidates the prayer if exposed. It is recommended for a woman to wear a covering over her head ( khimar ), a full length shift, and a heavy slip under it that does not cling to the body.[13] In a similar fashion, Shari'a requires that the genders be separated during prayers. While both Reliance of the Essay on Identical Twins, Traveller and Fiqh as-Sunna express a preference that women should pray at home rather than the mosque,[14] they agree that if women do pray in the mosque, they should pray in lines separate from the story themes, men.[15] Additionally, authoritative Shari'a literature agrees that the Essay on Identical Twins, men's prayer lines should be straight, that men should be close together within those lines, and that the imam should enforce prayer line alignment.[16] The mosques surveyed contained a variety of texts, ranging from contemporary printed pamphlets and handouts to classic texts of the Islamic canon.

From the perspective of promoting violent jihad, the literature types were ranked in the survey from severe to moderate to nonexistent. The texts selected were all written to serve as normative and instructive tracts and of High Fructose Human Essay are not scriptural. This is Essay on Identical important because a believer is hour themes free to understand scripture literally, figuratively, or merely poetically when it does not have a normative or legal gloss provided by Islamic jurisprudence. The moderate-rated literature was authored by respected Shari'a religious and/or legal authorities; while expressing positive attitudes toward violence, it was predominantly concerned with the more mundane aspects of Essay, religious worship and ritual. The severe material, by contrast, largely consists of relatively recent texts written by ideologues, rather than Shari'a scholars, such as Abul Ala Mawdudi and triads Sayyid Qutb. These, as well as materials published and disseminated by the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, are primarily, if not exclusively, aimed at using Islam to advance a violent political agenda. Mawdudi (1903-79), for one, believed that it was legitimate to wage violent jihad against on Identical Twins infidel colonizers in hour themes, order to gain independence and spread Islam. His Jihad in Islam , found in many of the Twins, mosques surveyed, instructed followers to employ force in pursuit of army terrorist, a Shari'a-based order:

These [Muslim] men who propagate religion are not mere preachers or missionaries, but the functionaries of Essay on Identical Twins, God [so that they may be witnesses for story of an, the people], and it is their duty to wipe out oppression, mischief, strife, immorality, high handedness, and unlawful exploitation from the world by force of arms.[17] Similarly, Qutb's Milestones serves as the political and ideological backbone of the current global jihad movement. Qutb, for on Identical, example, sanctions violence against those who stand in story hour, the way of Essay on Identical, Islam's expansion: If someone does this [prevents others from accepting Islam], then it is the duty of is leadership theories, Islam to fight him until either he is killed or until he declares his submission.[18] These materials differ from other severe- and Twins moderate-rated materials because they are not Islamic legal texts per se but rather are polemical works seeking to imagery definition, advance a politicized Islam through violence, if necessary. Essay On Identical? Nor are these authors recognized Shari'a scholars. The same cannot be said for some classical works that are also supportive of violence in poem imagery definition, the name of Islam. Works by several respected jurists and Twins scholars from the four major Sunni schools of in Advertisement, jurisprudence, dating from the eighth to fourteenth centuries, are all in on Identical Twins, agreement that violent jihad against non-Muslims is a religious obligation.[19] Such behavior is normative, legally-sanctioned violence not confined to modern writers with a political axe to Sex Sells, grind.

Nor does its presence in classical Muslim works make it a relic of some medieval past. While Umdat as-Salik (Reliance of the Traveler) may have been compiled in on Identical Twins, the fourteenth century, al-Azhar University, perhaps the preeminent center of army of god group, Sunni learning in the world, stated in its 1991 certification of the English translation that the book conforms to the practice and faith of the orthodox Sunni community.[20] While addressing a host of theological matters and detailed instructions as to how Muslims should order their daily routine to demonstrate piety and commitment to Islam, this certified, authoritative text spends eleven pages expounding on the applicability of jihad as violence directed against non-Muslims, stating for example: The caliph makes war upon Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians provided he has first invited them to enter Islam in faith and practice, and if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of Essay on Identical, Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax.[21] The caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslim because they are not a people with a book, nor honored as such, and are not permitted to settle with paying the poll tax.[22] The Fiqh as-Sunna and Tafsir Ibn Kathir are examples of works that were rated moderate for purposes of this survey. The former, which focuses primarily on the internal Muslim community, the family, and the individual believer and not on violent jihad, was especially moderate in its endorsement of violence. Relatively speaking, the Fiqh as-Sunna expresses a more restrained view of violent jihad, in that it does not explicitly call for a holy war against the West even though it understands the Western influence on Islamic governments as a force that is destructive to Islam itself.[23] Nonetheless, such texts do express positive views toward the use of violence against the other, as expressed in the following: Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet, upon whom be peace, said, The ties of is leadership, Islam and the principles of the religion are three, and whoever leaves one of them becomes an Twins, unbeliever, and his blood becomes lawful: testifying that there is no god except God, the obligatory prayers, and the fast of Ramadan. Another narration states, If anyone leaves one of [the three principles], by God he becomes an theories, unbeliever, and on Identical Twins no voluntary deeds or recompense will be accepted from him, and what his blood and Essay Twins wealth become lawful. This is a clear indication that such a person is to be killed.[24] Similarly in Tafsir Ibn Kathir : Perform jihad against Essay the disbelievers with the sword, and be harsh with the on Identical, hypocrites with words, and this is the jihad performed against them.[25]

The survey's findings, explored in depth below, were that 51 percent of mosques had texts that either advocated the use of violence in the pursuit of a Shari'a-based political order or advocated violent jihad as a duty that should be of paramount importance to a Muslim; 30 percent had only texts that were moderately supportive of vs yakuza, violence like the Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Fiqh as-Sunna ; 19 percent had no violent texts at all. A representative sample of one hundred mosques throughout the United States was surveyed. Table 1 presents the distribution of Essay on Identical, mosques by state. Imagery Definition? One quarter of the mosques had 10 or fewer worshipers; 50 percent had up to 28 worshipers; 75 percent had up to 70; the largest mosque had an estimated 1,700 worshipers. Table 1: Number of Mosques Surveyed by State. The study found a statistically significant association between the severity of violence-positive texts on mosque premises and Shari'a-adherent behaviors. On Identical? As indicated in Table 2, mosques that segregated men from women during prayer service were more likely to Negative on the Human Essay, contain violence-positive materials than those mosques where men and women were not segregated. Mosques that did not segregate genders were also less likely to on Identical, possess violence-positive materials (26 percent) but nonetheless did carry both moderate (27 percent) and severe materials (47 percent). Table 2: Shari'a-adherent Mosques and army group Violence-positive Materials. Segregation in prayer.

Imam or lay leader has Sunna beard. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 1 mosque there was no prayer and surveyor could not determine the usual practice. [iv] 4 mosques did not have a leader. [v] 3 with no beard included in this category. [vi] 3 had traditional beards with henna; and all were in the severe group. They were combined with this group for ease of Essay on Identical Twins, reporting.

[vii] In 1 case it was not determined. As was the case with gender segregation, those mosques that displayed strict alignment of men's prayer lines were more likely than their less observant counterparts to contain materials from both the is leadership theories, moderate and severe categories. On Identical? Thus, 59 percent of such mosques contained severe texts as opposed to 42 percent of Essay, mosques that did not enforce strict prayer line alignment. On Identical? Conversely, only 4 percent of mosques with strict prayer line alignment possessed no violence-positive texts while 36 percent of their less observant counterparts exhibited no such literature. Whether the mosque's imam or lay leader wore a traditional beard was also predictive of triads vs yakuza, whether the on Identical, mosque would contain violence-positive materials on theories, premises. Of the mosques led by traditionally bearded imams, 61 percent contained literature in the severe category, 33 percent contained only moderate-rated materials, and 7 percent did not contain any. On Identical? Forty-six percent of the mosques in which the imam did not wear a traditional beard contained severe materials, 28 percent had moderate-rated texts, and 26 percent contained none on site. Other aspects of an imam's or lay leader's appearance, such as wearing a head covering or traditional garb like a thoub (full-length, white gown with long sleeves) were not statistically significant. Table 3 reveals another statistically significant finding associated with mosque attendance. What Is Leadership Theories? Mosques that contained written materials in the severe category were the best attended, followed by those with only moderate-rated materials, trailed in turn by those lacking such texts.

Mosques with severe materials had a mean attendance of 118 worshipers while mosques containing only moderate materials had a mean attendance of on Identical Twins, 60 worshipers; mosques that contained no violence-positive literature had a mean attendance of 15 worshipers. Table 3: Violence-positive Materials, Mosque Attendance, and Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] In 2 mosques only the imam was present. [iv] Data in parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the Sex Sells in Advertisement Essay, standard deviation. [v] Women were present in Essay, 65 mosques. [vi] Boys were present in is leadership theories, 63 mosques. The adoption or rejection of Western dress by on Identical male worshipers was yet another telling indicator of the presence of army terrorist group, violence-positive materials.

In mosques that contained no violence-positive materials, an Essay, average of 73 percent of the men wore Western garb. In those mosques in which only moderate literature was available, 35 percent of male worshipers wore Western clothing; almost the same figure (34 percent) was exhibited in mosques featuring Qutb, et al. The survey was unable to theories, find a statistically significant indicator when it came to women wearing a modern hijab as opposed to the more conservative traditional hijab , which covers all of the hair, or the niqab , which covers the whole body other than the eyes. This category recorded the distinction between an adult female worshiper wearing the less conservative modern hijab and on Identical the traditional Shari'a-adherent hijab and Negative Effects Fructose Syrup Human Body Essay niqab . Perhaps more troubling than the correlation between jihadist literature and Shari'a-adherent behaviors within a mosque was the role played by Essay on Identical Twins imams in recommending that worshipers study material that promote violence. The more manifestly Shari'a-adherent a mosque, the more likely its imam was to recommend the study of violence-positive texts. Thus, as seen in Table 4, 96 percent of the imams in mosques that observed strict prayer line alignment recommended such reading material. Similarly, 93 percent of the vs yakuza, imams who sported a traditional, full beard endorsed the study of Essay, such writings.

But while the presence of certain Shari'a-adherent behaviors correlated almost one-to-one with the promotion of the violence-positive texts, the absence of what is leadership theories, these attributes should not be construed as a sign of true moderation. In mosques that did not practice strict prayer line alignment, a striking 72 percent of imams nonetheless recommended violence-positive materials. Similarly, 78 percent of imams who did not wear a traditional beard were proponents of these texts. Table 4: Shari'a-based Mosque Prayer, Shari'a-based Imam Characteristics, and Essay Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. Segregation in prayer. Beard of imam or lay leader. [ii] In 4 mosques, neither an imam nor a lay leader was present. However, in 1 of these 4 cases the imam had made clear recommendations on the mosque's webpage. [iii] In 1 case it was not determined. Moreover, mosques where the vs yakuza, imam recommended violence-positive materials for study were marked by a higher presence of worshipersboth men and womenwho took on a Shari'a-adherent appearance and a lower percentage of worshipers of a more assimilative or Western appearance (see Table 5).

As such, these mosques were much better attended than those where such materials were not promoted. Imams at 82 of the 100 mosques surveyed recommended that worshipers study violence-positive materials; these mosques experienced a mean attendance of 96 worshipers and a median attendance of 39. At the same time, at the 15 mosques surveyed where the on Identical, imam did not recommend the study of such texts, the Sex Sells Essay, mean attendance was approximately 17 worshipers with a median attendance figure of 4. Table 5: Mosque Attendance, Shari'a-based Worshiper Characteristics, and Imam Recommended Violence-positive Material. [ii] Data in Essay on Identical, parentheses that follow percentage figures denote the standard deviation. [iii] Women were present in triads, 65 mosques. Data collected on percent women with niqab (rare), hijab, and modern hijab. The survey found a strong correlation between the presence of severe violence-promoting literature and mosques featuring written, audio, and video materials that actually promoted such acts. By promotion of jihad, the study included literature encouraging worshipers to engage in terrorist activity, to provide financial support to jihadists, and to Essay Twins, promote the establishment of a caliphate in the United States. These materials also explicitly praised acts of terror against the West; praised symbols or role models of violent jihad; promoted the Effects of High Corn Syrup Human, use of force, terror, war, and violence to implement the Shari'a; emphasized the inferiority of non-Muslim life; promoted hatred and intolerance toward non-Muslims or notional Muslims; and endorsed inflammatory materials with anti-U.S. views.

As Table 6 demonstrates, of the 51 mosques that contained severe materials, 100 percent were led by Essay Twins imams who recommended that worshipers study texts that promote violence. Table 6: Violence-positive Materials and Promotion of Violent Jihad. [ii] Has Riyadh as-Salaheen (n=7) or more extreme fiqh material. [iii] Denominator is 17, 2 in this column had no imam or leader. For example, mosques containing violence-positive materials were substantially more likely to include materials promoting financial support of terror than mosques that did not contain such texts. A disturbing 98 percent of of god terrorist, mosques with severe texts included materials promoting financial support of terror. Those with only on Identical Twins, moderate-rated materials on site were not markedly different, with 97 percent providing such materials. These results stand in stark contrast to the mosques with no violence-positive materials on poem, their premises where only 5 percent provided materials urging financial support of terror. These results were comparable when using other indicators of on Identical, jihad promotion. Thus, 98 percent of mosques that contained severe-rated literature included materials promoting establishing an Islamic caliphate in the United States as did 97 percent of mosques containing only moderate-rated materials.

By contrast, only one out of the 19 mosques (5 percent) that had no violence-positive literature advocated this. Similarly, mosques with severe or moderate materials invited speakers known to have promoted violent jihad (76 percent and is leadership theories 60 percent respectively) versus one mosque out of 19 (5 percent) which did not contain violence-positive texts. Finally, three patterns of behavior indicating promotion of violent jihad did not strongly correlate to the presence of violence-positive literature. On Identical Twins? Despite the presence of severe texts in such mosques, only a small number actually encouraged joining a terrorist organization, openly collected monies for such organizations, or distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations. Although very few mosques engaged openly in is leadership theories, these activities, a correlation between these activities and the presence and severity of on Identical Twins, violence-positive literature was shown to exist. The conclusions to be drawn from imagery definition this survey are dismal at best, offering empirical support for previous anecdotal studies on the connection between highly Shari'a-adherent mosques and political violence in the name of Islam.

The mosques where there were greater indicators of Shari'a adherence were more likely to contain materials that conveyed a positive attitude toward employing violent jihad against the West and non-Muslims. The fact that spiritual sanctioners who help individuals become progressively more radicalized are connected to highly Shari'a-adherent mosques is another cause for Twins, deep concern.[26] In almost every instance, the imams at the mosques where violence-positive materials were available recommended that worshipers study texts that promoted violence. The survey also demonstrates that there are mosques and mosque-going Muslims who are interested in a non-Shari'a-centric Islam where tolerance of the other, at least as evidenced by the absence of jihad-promoting literature, is the norm. Mosques where violence-positive literature was not present exhibited significantly fewer indicators of orthodox, Shari'a-adherent behaviors and were also significantly less likely to promote violent jihad or invite speakers supportive of violent jihad. These non-Shari'a-centric mosques may provide a foundation from which a reformed Islam and is leadership theories its followers can more completely integrate into Twins, liberal, Western citizenship. The results of Negative Fructose Corn on the Human Body, this survey do not indicate the percentage of American Muslims that actually attend mosques with any regularity, nor does it reveal what relative percentage of American Muslims demonstrate Shari'a-adherent or non-adherent behaviors. Moreover, although this study shows that imams at Shari'a-adherent mosques recommend studying violence-positive materials and utilize their mosques for support of violent jihad, it does not capture the on Identical Twins, individual attendees' attitudes toward religiously sanctioned violence. However, it is at least reasonable to conclude that worshipers at such mosques are more sympathetic to themes, the message of the literature present at those mosques and to what is Essay Twins being preached there. What Theories? A follow-up survey of individual mosque attendees would provide insight regarding the relationship, if any, between Shari'a-adherence on the individual level and the individual's attitude toward violent jihad. A recent study by Andrew F. March examined whether Islamic doctrine would allow Muslims to cooperate socially with non-Muslims and sincerely affirm liberal citizenship as that term is understood in its Western, democratic sense. He argued that there were grounds for an overlapping consensus but also noted that present-day Salafists cite texts holding that Muslims are either at war with non-Muslims or, at best, are in a state devoid of any obligation to cooperate socially with them.[27] Additionally, March noted that the underpinnings of his theoretical consensus might be negated by empirical evidence showing that a large percentage of Muslims are unaware of [or reject] arguments that advocate for Western notions of liberal citizenship.[28]

Although released before March's study, an April 2007 survey conducted by WorldPublicOpinion.org presented such empirical evidence. The survey found that majorities in Morocco, Egypt, Pakistan, and Essay on Identical Indonesiaostensibly moderate Muslim countriesfavored a strict application of Shari'a law in every Islamic country and keeping Western values out of is leadership, Islamic counties.[29] However, that survey reports the Twins, attitudes of residents in of god, non-Western countries that enforce Shari'a to Essay Twins, varying degrees. Sex Sells Essay? It might be expected that Muslims in the Westwho are immersed in on Identical, Western culture, values, and democracywould express different attitudes than their counterparts in the Middle East, Far East, and North Africa. Unfortunately, the results of the current survey strongly suggest that Islamas it is generally practiced in of High Fructose Corn Syrup, mosques across the United Statescontinues to manifest a resistance to the kind of tolerant religious and legal framework that would allow its followers to make a sincere affirmation of Essay on Identical Twins, liberal citizenship. This survey provides empirical support for the view that mosques across America, as institutional and social settings for army group, mosque-going Muslims, are at least resistant to social cooperation with non-Muslims.

Indeed, the overwhelming majority of on Identical, mosques surveyed promoted literature supportive of of an hour themes, violent jihad and a significant number invited speakers known to Essay, have promoted violent jihad and other behaviors that are inconsistent with a reasonable construct of hour themes, liberal citizenship. This survey suggests that, first and foremost, Muslim community leaders must take a more active role in educating their own faith community about the dangers associated with providing a safe haven for violent literature and its promotionwhether that safe haven is the mosque or the social club. These results also suggest that researchers and counterterrorist specialists should pay closer attention to the use and exploitation of classic Islamic legal doctrine and jurisprudence for recruiting and generating a commitment to Essay on Identical Twins, violence against the perceived enemies of Islam. Sex Sells In Advertisement Essay? Finally, these findings should engender at Essay least an interest among researchers to begin to study carefully Muslim attitudes toward citizenship and Essay violence but one that differentiates between those who are Shari'a-adherent and those who are not. Twins? And, among Shari'a adherents, this future survey data must be sensitive to the distinction between traditionalism, orthodoxy, and Salafism, along with the more obvious sect distinctions, such as between Sunnis and Shiites. Non-Shari'a-adherent communal prayer occurs when men and women are not segregated during the prayer service and the genders mix. Non-Shari'a-adherent alignment of of an hour themes, men's prayer lines occurs when there is no observable attention paid to Essay, strict alignment of the men's prayer lines. A non-Sunna style beard is poem definition either limited to a chin-beard or if the Twins, imam or lay leader wears no beard at all. Non-Shari'a adherent behavior is that the imam or lay leader did not wear a religious head covering.

Non-Shari'a-adherent garb is poem imagery definition Western-style clothing such as modern-style dress or casual pants and shirt. Wearing the watch on Essay on Identical Twins, the left wrist or not wearing a watch at all. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for an adult male worshiper to have no beard. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is for an adult male to not wear a religious hat. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to imagery, wear Western-style clothing such as pants not rolled up above the ankles.

Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to wear the modern hijab (a scarf that does not completely cover the Essay on Identical, hair) or to not wear any hair covering. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear the hijab. Non-Shari'a-adherent behavior is to not wear a religious head covering. If the story of an hour themes, surveyor found the Riyadh as-Salaheen , works by Qutb or Mawdudi, or similar materials, then the Essay Twins, mosque was categorized as containing severe-rated materials. If the surveyor found no violence-positive materials or if the violence-positive materials constituted less than 10% of all available materials, then the mosque was categorized as containing no materials. If the imam or lay leader recommended studying any of the materials mentioned above except the Qur'an and/or Sunna, then the imam or lay leader was recorded as having recommended the of an, study of Twins, texts promoting the rated material. [1] According to Islamic jurisprudence, Shari'a adherence can be measured across several normative axes, such as obligatory-prohibited, recommended-discouraged, and simply permissible.

In theory, every act of what, a Shari'a-adherent Muslim falls within one of the normative categoriesthat is, there is no behavior outside of Shari'a. For purposes of this survey, the Essay, authors have chosen, except where indicated by notation, the Sex Sells Essay, obligatory-prohibited and the recommended-discouraged or recommended-permissible axes, which we have demarcated Shari'a-adherent/non- Shari'a-adherent, respectively. [2] If a mosque, on Essay, the basis of materials observed by the surveyor, was recorded as having: (a) promoted violent jihad; (b) promoted joining a terrorist organization; (c) promoted financial support of terror; (d) collected money openly at triads the mosque for Essay Twins, a known terrorist organization; (e) promoted establishing the Caliphate in the U.S.; (f) praised terror against story of an hour themes the West; (g) distributed memorabilia featuring jihadists or terrorist organizations; or (h) invited imams or preachers who are known to have promoted violent jihad, then the on Identical Twins, materials that the surveyor relied on to record the presence of this material were subject to a secondary review by a committee of three subject-matter experts. This secondary review was collected and reviewed by the experts evaluating the materials independently of triads vs yakuza, one another. A consensus view of Essay on Identical, two of the three experts was required to confirm the surveyor's observation. In 63 percent of the cases, the materials were so explicit in their promotion, praise, or support for the above behaviors that the committee's decision was unanimous. In no instance was there not a consensus and agreement with the surveyor's observation. [3] The different legal schools vary on whether a beard is of an themes obligatory or preferable; they also differ on whether the beard for purposes of fiqh is only the chin hairs or also the lateral hairs of the sideburns and cheeks; and they differ on the minimum required length before trimming is Twins permitted.

The majority view, taking into account all schools and the Salafist opinions, is that a full beard is Sunna (following the behavior of Muhammad) and poem if not obligatory, preferable. For purposes of this survey, the full beard, trimmed or not, was considered Shari'a-adherent and a chin beard or no beard, was considered as non-Sunna, and in the survey's lexicon, non-adherent. [4] While wearing a watch on the right hand is not strictly speaking a Shari'a requirement, during the preparation of the methodology of this survey, the authors identified literature at several mosques attended by Salafists advocating the wearing of a watch on the right hand for two reasons: not to wear jewelry on the left hand to on Identical Twins, follow the mode of Negative Effects Fructose Corn Syrup, dress of Muhammad, who, based upon certain Sunna, did not wear jewelry on his left hand; and to Essay on Identical, avoid dressing in the way of non-Muslims. The authors decided to theories, add this observation to determine whether this behavior translated into observance by the more fundamentalist Salafists. They also observed that the 12 imams who wore the watch on the right hand were right handed. [5] All of the materials characterized from this point to the end of the survey were dated or produced prior to September 11, 2001 but were still available or sold by the mosque in prominent fashion. Sampling: The survey analyzed data collected from a random sample of on Identical, 100 mosques. Negative Effects Of High Syrup On The Body Essay? This sample size provided sufficient statistical power to find a statistically significant association between most of the selected Shari'a-adherent behaviors and violence-positive variables. Most Shari'a adherence and on Identical violence-positive variables exhibited a strong correlation while some exhibited a weak or no correlation.

A sample size of 100 mosques also allowed the survey to extrapolate to all mosques in the United States at a 95 percent confidence interval with a margin of error of triads vs yakuza, +/-9.6 percent. The survey was developed by using state-by-state estimates of the Muslim population extracted from the only extant such survey.[30] This was then used to create a listing of all states whose Muslim population represented at least 1 percent of the estimated total United States Muslim population. Fourteen states and the District of Columbia (15 randomly selected states) were randomly selected from the final listing to on Identical Twins, accommodate limits on physical logistics and personnel resources for what, the actual survey. For each of the fourteen states and D.C., cities with the on Identical Twins, highest estimated concentrations of vs yakuza, Muslims were identified, and mosques within those areas were eventually selected. The survey combined the Essay on Identical Twins, data on 1,209 mosques listed in The Mosque in America: A National Portrait[31] with the of an hour, data on the 1,659 mosques obtained online from Harvard's Pluralism Project,[32] with duplicates eliminated. On Identical Twins? Mosques were excluded from the list if there were indications that they were no longer operating, with a final site list yielding a total of 1,401 potential mosques for the survey. The dates and prayer times for visiting mosques were also randomly selected. If a mosque was found to be closed, abandoned, or not at the address listed, then the triads vs yakuza, next mosque that appeared on on Identical, the randomized list for that city was visited.

When the dominant language of the subject mosque was determined to Sex Sells, be other than English, such as Arabic, Urdu, or Farsi, the Essay, surveyor who visited the mosque was fluent in of High Fructose Corn Syrup, that language. Twins? Each mosque was visited twice, once between May 18, 2007, and December 4, 2008 (Survey Period), and then again between May 10, 2009, and May 30, 2010 (Audit Period). The results of the Audit Period confirmed the findings in the Survey Period in all but nine mosques. Data Collection: A surveyor visited a subject mosque in order: (a) to observe and record 12 Shari'a-adherent behaviors of the worshipers and the imam (or lay leader); (b) to observe whether the mosque contained the selected materials rated as moderate and severe; (c) to observe whether the mosque contained materials promoting, praising, or supporting violence or violent jihad; and (d) to observe whether the mosque contained materials indicating the mosque had invited guest speakers known to have promoted violent jihad. (See Appendix A for vs yakuza, a more detailed presentation of the on Identical, survey variables and methodology.) Thus, the survey only examined the presence of Sex Sells, Shari'a-adherent behaviors, the presence of violence-positive materials in mosques, whether an Essay on Identical, imam would promote the study of violence-positive materials, and whether a mosque was used as a forum to promote violent jihad. Since there is no central body to which all mosques belong, it was difficult to ascertain that the sampling universe list was complete. This may have introduced bias into army terrorist group, the sampling although the authors find no evidence of any systemic distortions. Mordechai Kedar is an assistant professor in Essay on Identical Twins, the departments of what, Arabic and Middle East studies and a research associate with the Begin-Sadat (BESA) Center for Strategic Studies, both at on Identical Bar Ilan University, Israel. Story? David Yerushalmi is general counsel for The Center for Security Policy in Washington, D.C., and director of policy studies at Essay on Identical the Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies in Potomac, Md. [1] Timeline of the Committee's Work on Violent Islamist Radicalization, Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Washington, D.C., accessed Mar.

24, 2011. [3] Morning Edition , National Public Radio, Jan. What Theories? 24, 2011. [4] Quintan Wiktorowicz, A Genealogy of Radical Islam, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism , 28 (2005), pp. Twins? 75-97. [5] See Paul Gill, A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Suicide Bombing, International Journal of Conflict and Violence , 2 (2007), pp.

142-59. [6] Marc Sageman, Understanding Terror Networks (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), p. 93. [7] Mitchell D. Silber and Arvin Bhatt, Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat (New York: New York City Police Department, 2007), pp. 2-90. [8] Jeremy Ginges, Ian Hansen, and Ara Norenzayan, Religion and Support for Suicide Attacks, Psychology Science , 2 (2009), pp. Is Leadership Theories? 224-30. [9] Saba Mahmood, Rehearsed Spontaneity and the Conventionality of Ritual: Disciplines of Salat, American Ethnologist , Nov.

2004, pp. 827-53. [10] Daniel Winchester, Embodying the Faith: Religious Practice and Essay on Identical Twins the Making of Muslim Moral Habitus, Social Forces , June 2008, pp. 1753-80; Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1991), vol. 2, pp. 67-74. [11] Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Reliance of the Traveller and Tools for the Worshipper , trans.

Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller, p. vii, accessed Nov. 21, 2010; Wael B. Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), pp. 72-8, 113-24. [12] Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 1, p. 113.

[14] Ibid., F12.4; Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. 2, pp. 50, 56. [18] Sayyid Qutb, Milestones , in Studies in triads, Islam and the Middle East, 2005, p. On Identical? 34. [19] Hallaq, Shari'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations , pp.

324-34; Majid Khadduri, War and of god terrorist Peace in the Law of Islam (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), pp. 42-137; Rudolph Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam , 2nd ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener Publications, 2005), pp. 1-57; David Cook, Understanding Jihad (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005), pp. 13-92; Majid Khadduri, trans., The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani's Siyar (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1965), pp. 1-22; Mary Haybeck, Knowing the Enemy: Jihadist Ideology and the War on Terror (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), pp. 107-33; David Yerushalmi, Selected Classical Sources on Jihad, 2009, accessed Nov. 6, 2010. [20] Al-Azhar certification of Reliance of the Essay on Identical Twins, Traveller , Islamic Research Academy, al-Azhar University, Cairo, Feb. 11, 1991. [23] Sabiq, Fiqh as-Sunna , vol. Of High Fructose Corn Syrup Body? 3, p. 76.

[25] Hafiz Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Houston: Darussalam Publishers, 2000), vol. 4, p. 475. [26] See, for Essay on Identical, example, The New York Daily News , Nov. Army Terrorist? 11, 2009. [27] Andrew F. March, Islam and Essay on Identical Twins Liberal Citizenship: The Search for an Overlapping Consensus (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 266. [29] Muslim Public Opinion on U.S. Policy, Attacks on Civilians, and triads Al Qaeda, The Program on International Policy Attitudes at the University of Maryland, WorldPublicOpinion.org, Apr. 24, 2007. [30] Barry A. Kosmin and Seymour P. Lachman, One Nation under God: Religion in Contemporary American Society (New York: Harmony Books, 1993), pp. 96-7.

[31] Ihsan Bagby, Paul M. Perl, and Essay on Identical Twins Bryan T. Froehle, The Mosque in America: A National Portrait, Council on poem definition, American Islamic Relations, Washington, D.C., Apr. 26, 2001. [32] Directory of Religious Centers, Pluralism Project, Harvard University, Cambridge, accessed Oct. 30, 2010. Related Topics: Islamic law (Shari'a), Muslims in the United States | Mordechai Kedar | Summer 2011 MEQ receive the on Identical Twins, latest by email: subscribe to vs yakuza, the free mef mailing list This text may be reposted or forwarded so long as it is Essay on Identical presented as an integral whole with complete and accurate information provided about its author, date, place of publication, and original URL.

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We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to is leadership theories, help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). Essay On Identical! As a matter of poem definition, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to on Identical Twins, all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to occupy the following positions; Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Store Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the triads vs yakuza, development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for recruitment Responsible for payment of salaries Responsible for Essay Twins, signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the organization. Responsible for managing the daily activities in the restaurant Ensures that the store facility is in tip top shape and conducive enough to welcome customers Interfaces with third party providers (vendors) Controls the sales floor inventory Ensures that goods and products are properly arranged Supervises the entire sales staff and workforce Any other duty as assigned by the CEO.

Manages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations buying teams Helps to of god terrorist group, ensure consistent quality of goods and Essay on Identical products on our rack Responsible for the purchase of triads vs yakuza, goods and products for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the on Identical Twins, merchandise, and writing and theories pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and Essay on Identical coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the poem imagery definition, organizations best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases. Essay! Manages the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for army group, the organization Manage logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of Twins, sale) systems Manages the story of an hour, organizations CCTV Handles any other technological and IT related duties. On Identical Twins! Receives payments on behalf of the organization Issues receipt to customers Prepares financial report at the end of every working week Handles all financial transaction on triads vs yakuza, behalf of the company Interfaces with our bankers Responsible for payment of Essay Twins, tax, levies and poem utility bills Any other duty as assigned by the CEO / store manager. Responsible for on Identical Twins, cleaning the store facility at all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies dont run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the store facility Any other duty as assigned by the restaurant manager, Sample Retail Store Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Of An! Our intention of starting just one outlet of our retail store in Essay Columbus, Ohio is to test run the business for a period of army terrorist, 2 to Essay, 5 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and then open other outlets all over hour themes Ohio. We are quite aware that there are several retail stores all over Essay on Identical Columbus and even in the same location where we intend locating ours, which is of god, why we are following the due process of Essay on Identical Twins, establishing a business. Army Terrorist Group! We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be welled equipped to confront our threats. Peoples Choice Retail Store employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in retailing to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and Essay objectives.

This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Peoples Choice Retail Store; Our location, the business model we will be operating on (physical store and online store), varieties of army of god terrorist group, payment options, wide range of products and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Peoples Choice Retail Store. Essay On Identical! A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new retail outlet and vs yakuza we dont have the financial capacity to on Identical Twins, compete with multi billion dollars retail outlets like Wal-Mart and co when it comes to retailing at a rock bottom prices for all their goods. The fact that we are going to be operating our retail store in one of the busiest streets in Columbus, Ohio, provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our goods to a large number of poem definition, people. We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our retail outlets; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. On Identical Twins! Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is economic downturn. It is of High Fructose Corn on the Human Essay, a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing power.

Another threat that may likely confront us is the on Identical Twins, arrival of of an hour, a new retail outlet in same location where ours is located. Essay On Identical Twins! Sample Retail Store Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. Retailing business has been in imagery existence for Essay on Identical Twins, as long as humans started trading goods, but one thing is certain, the what, retailing industry is still evolving. The introduction of technology and subsequently online retail store has indeed helped in reshaping the Essay on Identical Twins, industry. It is now a common phenomenon for retail outlets to leverage on technology to effectively predict consumer demand patterns and to triads, strategically position their shop to meet their needs; in essence, the on Identical Twins, use of technology help retailers to maximize supply chain efficiencies. Effects Corn Syrup Human Body! No doubt data collected from customers goes a long way to Essay Twins, help retail shops serve them better.

Another common trend in the retailing industry is the pricing system. Aside from story themes having varieties of products in a store, one of the easiest ways for retail stores to sell the goods on their racks as fast as they can and keep re stocking is to ensure that the prices of their goods are a bit lower than what is obtainable elsewhere. For example; it is common to see items with prices in this format; $3.99, $99 and $199 et al as against on Identical Twins, $4, $100 and $200. Retailers also engage in massive clearance sales and discount sales to story themes, attract customers. It is a strategy that helps them welcome new customers and also reinforce the loyalty of old customers. Perhaps the retailing industry has the widest range of customers; everybody on on Identical, planet earth has one or more things that they would need in a retail shop. It is difficult to find people around who dont patronize retail shops. In view of that, we have positioned our retail store to service the story of an hour themes, residence of Columbus, Ohio and every other location our retail stores will be located all over Ohio. On Identical Twins! We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in business to retail a wide range of products to the following groups of people; Households Corporate Executives Business People About to wed couples Expectant Mothers Sports Men and Women Students Tourists.

Peoples Choice Retail Store is launching a standard retail shop that will indeed become the army of god, preferred choice of residence of Columbus, Ohio. Our retail store is Twins, located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the largest residential estates in Columbus, Ohio. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over 100 cars per time. One thing is certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of products available in our store at all times. It will be difficult for customers to visit our store and not see the product that they are looking for. One of our business goal is to make Peoples Choice Retail Store a one stop shop. Negative Effects Of High Corn Human! Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and Essay on Identical Twins highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for us. Retail Store Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Peoples Choice Retail Shop is in business to retail a wide range of products to the residence of what, Columbus, Ohio. In essence, our source of income will be the retailing of Essay, a wide range of durable goods and non durable goods at affordable prices.

We will retail goods such as groceries, clothes, sports equipment, beauty products, jewelry, childrens toys, baby stuff, home furnishings and home appliances et al. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on the data gathered during our feasibility studies, market survey and also some of the assumptions readily available on the field. One thing is common with retailing business, the larger a retail store the larger the numbers of customers that will patronize them. Although we may not be as large as Wal-Mart, but we will ensure that within our capacity we make available a wide range of goods from different manufacturing brands in our retail outlet. Below are the sales projections that we were able to come up with for the first three years of operations; N.B : This projection is done based on story of an hour themes, what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there wont be any major economic meltdown and natural disasters within the Essay Twins, period stated above. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Before choosing a location for Peoples Choice Retail Store, we conducted a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to be able to be able to penetrate the available market and become the preferred choice for residence of Columbus, Ohio. We have a detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the Negative Effects Corn on the, numbers of customers we want to attract per time.

We hired experts who have good understanding of the retail industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Columbus, Ohio. In order to continue to be in business and Essay grow, we must continue to sell the products that are available in our store which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and marketing team to deliver. In summary, Peoples Choice Retail Store will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Introduce our business by what is leadership theories sending introductory letters to residence, business owners and on Identical Twins organizations Promptness in bidding for contracts Advertise our business in community based newspapers, local TV and radio stations List our business on poem definition, yellow pages ads Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Word of mouth marketing (referrals) Retail Store Business Plan Publicity and Essay Twins Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our retail store is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. Essay! We are going to explore all available means to promote our retail store. Peoples Choice Retail Store has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around Ohio which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Columbus before venturing out. As a matter of fact, our publicity and Essay on Identical advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Peoples Choice Retail Store; Place adverts on both print (community based newspapers and magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community programs Leverage on is leadership, the internet and Essay social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to Negative of High Fructose Essay, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Columbus, Ohio Engage in road show from Essay Twins time to time Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas Position our Flexi Banners at strategic positions in the location where our retail store is in Advertisement Essay, located. Pricing is one of the Twins, key factors that give leverage to retail stores, it is Sex Sells in Advertisement, normal for consumers to go to on Identical Twins, places (retail outlets) where they can goods at cheaper price which is definition, why big player in the retail industry like Wal-Mart will attract loads of on Identical Twins, consumers.

Products in their store are tagged with the Negative Effects of High on the Body Essay, cheapest price you can get anywhere in the United States. We know we dont have the capacity to compete with Wal-Mart or any other big retail store, but we will ensure that the prices of all the products that are available in our store are competitive with what is obtainable amongst retail stores within our level. Twins! Our payment policy is terrorist group, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the on Identical, payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Start Up Expenditure (Budget) This is the key areas where we will spend our start up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Ohio $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $1,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of army of god group, Peoples Choice Retail Store in the amount of $3,500 and Essay on Identical as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580.

Cost for hiring Consultant $2,500 . Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Theories! Cost for Shop remodeling (construction of racks and shelves) $20,000. Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and Essay phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Of An Hour Themes! Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of Essay on Identical, bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of products) $100,000 Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) $3,720 Cost for serving area equipment (plates, glasses, flatware) $3,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs: $10,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): $4,000 . The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for of god, our opening party: $7,000 Miscellaneous: $10,000. On Identical Twins! We would need an estimate of $500,000 to successfully set up our retail store in Columbus, Ohio. Please note that this amount includes the what is leadership, salaries of Essay on Identical, all the staff for the first month of operation.

Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Peoples Choice Retail Store. Peoples Choice Retail Store is Negative of High Fructose on the Human Essay, a private business that is solely owned and financed by Bob Wesley and family. They do not intend to welcome any external business partner which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the start up capital to on Identical, 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from Sex Sells in Advertisement family members and friends Apply for on Identical Twins, loan from my Bank. N.B: We have been able to Effects Fructose Syrup on the Body, generate about $200,000 ( Personal savings $150,000 and soft loan from family members $50,000 ) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $300,000 from Essay on Identical our bank.

All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from vs yakuza now our account will be credited with the amount. Retail Store Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. Twins! The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If any of these factors is story hour themes, missing from a business (company), then it wont be too long before the business close shop. Peoples Choice Retail Store will ensure that all the factors listed above are reinforced on a regular basis and also we will engage in continuous capacity building of our workforce. As a matter of Twins, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to story themes, all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of three years or more. We will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that staff welfare is well taken of.

Our companys corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and Essay on Identical re training of our workforce is at the top burner. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for what, the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the Essay on Identical, bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business both online and around the terrorist group, community: In Progress Health and Twins Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of what theories, our list of Twins, products that will be available in our store: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors suppliers of all our needed raw materials: In Progress.

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Example Dialogue Of English Oral Essays and Research Papers. floods, can develop in on Identical Twins just a few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local, impacting a neighbourhood or community, or . very large, affecting entire river basins. Etymology The word flood comes from the Old English flod, a word common to triads vs yakuza, Germanic languages (compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is Essay on Identical Twins, seen in flow, float; also compare with Latin fluctus, flumen). Deluge myths are mythical stories of poem imagery, a great flood sent by a deity or deities to destroy. Dam , Flood , Hydrology 2033 Words | 6 Pages. INTRODUCTION Oral Communication The word Communication is a process whereby meaning is defined and Essay on Identical Twins shared between living organisms. . Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, although the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to Corn, communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the Twins communicating parties share an triads, area of Essay Twins, communicative commonality. The communication. Dutch language , English language , German language 1368 Words | 5 Pages. Oral Communication in English : Forms, Functions, and Strategies.

KHAIRIYAH BT MOHAMMAD ASRI The Communication Process. ? ? . ? Sender send message to the receiver. The sender will encode his message and go through a channel. The receiver will then decode the message using contextual Importance of English ? ? ? Lingua franca Used world wide. Malaysians mother language has influence the English Manglish. Forms of story of an hour themes, Oral Communication ? Intrapersonal Communication. ? ? ? Internal dialogue. Communication , Cross-cultural communication , Graphic communication 387 Words | 14 Pages. Year 12 English Oral ; Foreign Aid mustnt be cut Persona: Fiona Pearse (Board Member of World Vision) speaking at a . foreign aid conference in regard to Essay on Identical Twins, the Governments recent plans to introduce a $4.5 billion cut in foreign aid over poem imagery the next 4 years. Poverty, war, hunger, thirst, disease; these are all words the average Australian does not have to face. However, it is indeed what millions upon millions of people battle out every single day in Essay so many countries we call our neighbours.

Australia , Government of story of an, Australia , Millennium Development Goals 1055 Words | 2 Pages. English Oral 2012 Title: Global warming Class: 5 Amanah Team members: 1) Amira Ain Binti Naim - Chairperson . Essay On Identical? 2) Syaza Nazura Binti Khahar First panel 3) Mohd Yusri Bin Jupri Second panel 4) Mohd Syazwan Bin Safaruddin Third panel Chairperson: Assalamualaikum and a very good morning to my wise English teacher, Puan Rosnani and poem imagery all my fellow friends. Essay? My name is Amira Ain Binti Naim and I am your chairperson. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 892 Words | 3 Pages. English Oral ! Issue: Social media is Sex Sells in Advertisement Essay, making us antisocial! The Contention: Today in Essay Twins our modern world, social media is taking over . and corrupting our society and making us antisocial.! Supporting Arguments: The average time a teenager spends on social media! The negative impact of social media!

Rebudle: The positive outcomes from what spending time on Essay on Identical, social media! Language Techniques: Rhetorical question, imagery, Emotive Language, Personal pronouns, Exaggerations. ! !Social media is a perfect way for. Antisocial personality disorder , Feeling , Figure of speech 755 Words | 1 Pages. [pic] FACULTY OF EDUCATION AND LANGUAGES OUMH1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION MAY 2010 SEMESTER COURSE ASSIGNMENT . (30%) INSTRUCTION 1. The assignment will be evaluated based on accurate explanations which fulfill the requirements of the questions and supported by credible points and themes references. 2. Type your assignment using Times New Roman font size 12 with 1.5 spacing on A4 size paper.

3. Submit your assignment to your tutor before or by Essay on Identical the 4th tutorial. Answer , Ethnic group , Interview 870 Words | 4 Pages. Elizabethan era perfectly illustrates how love can change with circumstance; with Bel-Imperia, the story of an main female protagonist of the story falls out of love . with her once wealthy and powerful husband Hieronmino, because he lost all his power and money. This example highlights the fact that love does indeed change as circumstances change, as we find changes in Essay on Identical Twins those we love and Negative Fructose that it is not permanent, perfect construct. Shakespeare's construction of love is clearly one which promotes permanency and perfection. Christopher Marlowe , Love , Pericles, Prince of Essay on Identical, Tyre 1477 Words | 4 Pages. KOD KURSUS /COURSE CODE : OUMH1303 TAJUK KURSUS /COURSE TITLE : ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION SEMESTER /SEMESTER : . JANUARI/JANUARY 2011 ____________________________________________________________ _____________ ARAHAN KEPADA PELAJAR / INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS 1. Tugasan ini mengandungi SATU (1) soalan sahaja. / This assignment contains ONE (1) question only. 2. Jawab dalam Bahasa Inggeris. / Answer in English . 3. Tugasan anda hendaklah ditaip atas kertas A4 dengan menggunakan.

Citation , Communication , Friedemann Schulz von Thun 1130 Words | 5 Pages. ENG 133 COMMUNICATION ENGLISH ORAL PRESENTATION amp; WRITE-UP MMD51 SYDNEY HONG LAI KOK KIT MMD52 . MARRA VIN KUMAR ID CHRISTA FLORENCE UNTORO REFLECTIVE WRITING We used English to communicate with our lecturer n fellow friends so we dont see any problem while communicate. During our first class of English communication, Mr Jeremy was our lecturer but after a few classes they switch our lecturer into Mr Darren. This issue make us uneasy for of High Fructose Corn Syrup Human Body, a few classes. 2006 albums 812 Words | 3 Pages. You are the president of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA) at Essay on Identical Twins, an urban school. At the last association meeting, many parents expressed their concern about of god group, . the on Identical poor performance of Essay, their children, particularly in Essay Twins Mathematics, science and the English language. They felt that the Sex Sells in Advertisement school should work harder towards improving the teaching and learning of these subject. The PTA could assist but the association does not have enough funds (money) to carry out Essay Twins, its projects for the school. you wish to speak.

Audience , Audience theory , Basic English 2228 Words | 7 Pages. English Oral Test - Dialogue *Friend Change School A : Hey guys! Long time no see. Of God Terrorist Group? I missed you guys a lot! B . : We're too babe! :D So bored when you not with us at school.

C : Absolutely freaking boring you know? Well, here you the one that always cheer us up. Essay? So how your life in hostels? A : Whoa! Whoa! I miss you guys a lot too :D First week i feel like Mama, take me back home! so lonely there. Vs Yakuza? I'm too awkward to on Identical, speak with others, them too. But now everything was fine there.

B. Cameron Highlands , Fruit , Garden strawberry 905 Words | 3 Pages. DEPARTAMENTO DE INGLES -NIVEL AVANZADO 2 PRUEBA DE INTERACCION ORAL - MOCK TEST DIALOGUE 1 - STUDENT A - Neighbors at imagery, odds . role cards | Resident of APT 202:It's 7:00 AM. You were up until 4:00 AM preparing for an important business meeting. You have to give your presentation at 9:30, and you really need another hour or two to sleep. You can't sleep because the person who lives downstairs is on Identical Twins, playing the drums - it's not the first time this has happened. | *********************************. Dog , Has-a , If You Have to Ask 646 Words | 3 Pages. English Oral TexFAVOURITE SONG A:Hey,how are you? It has been a long time since the last time i meet you. B:Ohh!Hello..Im . good.How about you?

A:Im good too..I have a lot things to is leadership theories, tell you. B:Really?What it is? A:Hey,try listening to this music What do you thing about it.I really love this music.It give me an Essay, inspiration. B:Yeah!Its good..I like it.Its soft and calmly.It make me feel peace and calm. Poem Imagery Definition? A:Yes.It;s true.I know that you will like this music.If you seen this music video,you.

Garden strawberry , Lavender , Want 2257 Words | 6 Pages. ?SPM Oral English Test Name: Lai Jin Suan(40) 980223-14-6223 Euguein Low Cheng Wei(37) Zhe Hui() Class: 5S Xin . Date: Model: 4 Topic: Activity: Talking and sharing information Whitney: Hey, Jessica, have a seat. Essay Twins? You always seem to be looking for a place to hide. Hour? It must be tough with your dad on Essay Twins, the television almost every night now. What? Cafeterias sure aren't private, and you do have to eat! Jessica: What a pain hiding from people sometimes! Still, dad's been in politics for on Identical Twins, awhile now.

Air pollution , Mississippi River , Oxygen 1211 Words | 3 Pages. VCE English Unit 1 Outcome 3 Using Language to Persuade (Part 2) Oral Presentation on an Issue The second part of . this SAC requires you to present your point of view on an issue (from the list already provided). Your response must be delivered in oral form which will allow you to use a range of persuasive language and presentation techniques. Steps to follow in preparing your reasoned point of view: 1. Now that you have selected your issue, establish what the army two main sides. Conclusion , Logic , Persuasion 537 Words | 3 Pages. English oral - Shark Cullings Each year in Essay on Identical Australia, the triads vs yakuza number of deaths from shark attacks ranges between zero to three . deaths. To put this into Essay on Identical Twins, perspective, more people around the world are killed as a result of falling coconuts or vending machines. Following a small rise in the number of shark attacks in poem imagery definition Western Australia over on Identical Twins the past two years, the Western Australian Government has legalised the in Advertisement culling of all sharks over Essay Twins three metres long caught on baited drum lines, in poem an attempt to. Great white shark , Ocean , Photography 795 Words | 3 Pages. Language Acquisition and Oral Proficiency. Testing Oral Proficiency: Difficulties and Methods Introduction: Although testing language has traditionally taken the form of . testing knowledge about language, the idea of testing communicative competence is on Identical, becoming recognized as being of great importance in second language learning.

In testing communicative competence, speaking and what theories listening tasks are commonly used. Essay? Those require tasks such as the completion of an information gap and story of an themes role play (Kitao Kitao, 1996). As language. Assessment , Communication , Language 2504 Words | 7 Pages. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Faculdade de Letras LET060 INGLES: EXPRESSAO ORAL - M4 Profa.: Gladys de Souza Leonardo Henrique . Machado Topic: Oral Genres The language user is in a position to act in Essay different communicative situations and triads vs yakuza with different purposes. To be able to express oneself fluently, the language user draws on a number of different competences or linguistic resources which, together, make up language proficiency or communicative competence. Essay On Identical? Many of. Carnegie Mellon University , Communication , Logic 1188 Words | 4 Pages.

? Oral Book Report: 10% of final grade Task: Give an oral presentation of poem, 5-10 minutes in length in Twins which you present a novel . to the class. Your discussion of the novel must include the following elements: a short biography of the author a description of the main characters and setting a brief description of the main events (without spoiling the novel for other readers!) an army of god terrorist group, analysis of the main theme or themes of the Essay Twins novel an evaluation of the book overall. What did you like? What did you. Canada Reads , Canadian novelists , Canadian short story writers 493 Words | 4 Pages. ? Dialogue between Beccaria, Lombroso and Durkheim Students name Institutional Affiliation Dialogue between . Beccaria, Lombroso and imagery Durkheim Criminology, as every science, relies on facts and evidence. This paper is aimed at creating a dialogue between three criminologists of the nineteenth century Beccaria, Lombroso and Essay Twins Durkheim; in this discussion, they will explain their points of is leadership, view and try to implement their theories into Essay Twins, the reality at the end of the twentieth and beginning. Cesare Lombroso , Crime , Crimes 2245 Words | 6 Pages.

satisfaction in an organization. Identifying the poem imagery definition barriers to communication is the first step to improving the effectiveness of the communication. As a . manager, you need to identify what is the Essay Twins communication barrier and do your best to resolve. Triads? For example , if a co-worker came to you with a complaint and steps were taken to resolve it, spend a few minutes with the Twins co-worker to themes, get feedback. If your own boss asked you for a particular report in time for Twins, a conference and of High Syrup Essay you delivered it, give him a call.

Communication , Graphic communication , Message 1879 Words | 6 Pages. Example of Dialogue Holiday Making in Britain Exam Dialogue 1 Holiday Making in Great Britain Gv: Excuse me, is this seat free? May I sit down here? Ul: Sure. Sit down, please. Gv: . So, is this your first visit to England? Ul: Yes! Its my first time here. Gv: Where have you already been in England?

Ul: I went to London a couple of weeks ago. And there I saw an advertisement about Youth Hostel Association and decided to joint it immediately. Gv: Wow. Thats great. And Ive been a member of YHA for on Identical Twins, 2 years. Triads Vs Yakuza? Ul: Do you like traveling. Backpacking , British people , English people 1166 Words | 3 Pages. independent. By Alex maturing and learning independency, he is able to Essay, focus on the more important things in life, just as a typical teenager would develop . during their formative years. Also, having to make important decisions is imagery, another significance. For example , when Alex finally discovers that he has received his tertiary offer, he had to Essay on Identical Twins, come to decision to leave Caloundra and poem imagery definition his existing relationship, to return to Brisbane.

Most viewers watching this movie could easily relate their lives to these issues. Adolescence , Character , Childhood 1258 Words | 4 Pages. thought that textbook productions are driven by Essay Twins various agendas such as political and economic. Story Of An Hour Themes? It seems as though textbooks are the bane of the on Identical Twins University . students existence; understandably so. New editions, high price tags, monotone writing, unclear examples , intimidating size, all these factors add up to really make things hard for students. It would be unfair to say that all textbooks do this but it seems as though it is a trend amongst them. Terrorist? One of the Essay on Identical Twins problems is that teachers demand the newest editions. Education , Teacher , Think Different 2361 Words | 6 Pages. and mate of James, Jimmy Bartel said Seeing it makes it even more real, the huge effects that it can have not only on his own life but family and friends, . and Effects of High Syrup on the Human the fallout from mistakes people make, Alcohol did this to James. But this is only one example of countless alcohol fuelled incidences that leave families, friends, fathers, mothers, sons and Essay daughters devastated by alcohol.

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child. Story Of An Hour? | |Connects both texts through content, but |Woolfs purpose is also to expose a harsh reality . Essay? underlying superficial social complacency. | |differentiates them through context |By 1928, English women had made some significant advances in the struggle for genuine equality| | |with men, particularly in is leadership theories being able to earn and retain their own incomes and to vote. They | | . Comedy , Edward Albee , Leonard Woolf 1387 Words | 5 Pages. PART 2 INTERFAITH DIALOGUE Interfaith dialogue Increasingly the on Identical Christian community world-wide is entering into . dialogue with people of Sex Sells in Advertisement Essay, other faiths. Interfaith dialogue has become vital for peace-building. Interfaith dialogue is both a challenge and a gift.

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Essay:Is File-sharing a Moral Action? Is the free sharing of copyrighted material on the internet a morally acceptable action? Can we apply different moral philosophies to such a modern problem? In recent history, with the on Identical advent of peer-to-peer sharing programs and the free availability of many different types of media on the internet, the morality of the sharing of copyrighted material has come into of an hour, question. In order to gain understanding on issue, we can apply several universal moral theories, including the Kantian, Utilitarian, and Rights Ethics philosophies.

There are many users of the internet today, and a majority of Essay them participate in file-sharing via the use of a wide variety of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. These people believe that what they are doing is not wrong, but rather one of their rights as consumers of what theories media. In contrast to this, many people of the movie and music industries believe that their creative works are protected property and that file sharing takes away from the Twins benefits that they receive from those works. Imagery Definition. By having the Essay consumer purchase the media, it gives the creator both money to create more work and the added affirmation to Sex Sells in Advertisement Essay, generate more creations. This situation has arisen due to Essay, several factors; these factors include technological advances that provide the ability for free sharing of media, the story of an opinions of several creators driving the arguments against Twins sharing, and the wide popularity of the internet. Napster was one of the first widely used free-sharing networks. In June 1999, Shawn Fanning released his creation that provided free music for army group, download to any anonymous user that chose to obtain the Napster program.

Napster soon exploded in Essay on Identical Twins, popularity, with millions of Effects of High Human Body Essay users downloading the service and obtaining hundreds to thousands of songs each day. Eventually, the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) filed a lawsuit against the service and the Ninth Circuit Court issued an injunction against Napster. Since then, Napster has taken the form of a pay-per-song style service, eliminating the on Identical Twins free-sharing aspect of the program. After Napster, however, many other P2P programs were established on the internet (Carlsson et al. 2001). Today, the army of god terrorist group Kazaa service is one of the most widely used, offering the free download of music and movies to anonymous users. Kazaa has carefully avoided the problems that Napster ran into, however, by Essay on Identical, not physically storing the files on their servers; unlike Napster, Kazaa functions solely as a P2P network, facilitating communication between a user who has a specific file and a user who wants the specific file. By not functioning as a download service, Kazaa cannot be targeted by the same type of lawsuits that were filed against Napster.

Kazaa is under constant judicial pressure to of an, make sure that its users are not sharing copyrighted material, but it is still running today (www.kazaa.com). [1] These programs have stimulated a serious discussion on the rights of the consumer versus the rights of the creator. Several moral questions can be asked to determine what rights can be enforced by the consumer or the creator. Essay Twins. Regarding the rights of the consumer, we have to ask whether they have a right to the free access to the entire library of creative works today, and whether or not they can enforce this right, ignoring the copyright laws that are enforced today. The rights of the Negative Effects of High Corn Syrup Body creator are more clearly defined than the rights of the consumer. The rights of the creator, as protected by law today, include the right to govern the distribution of their creation and the right to seek damages for Essay, infringement of their right to definition, distribute. Regardless of the lawful protection of the rights of the creator, however, we can still ask moral questions about those rights. Does the creator really have the right to sue for the unlicensed distribution of their work? And if so, should the Essay Twins consumer seek damages from the distributor or the consumer? In September 2003, the RIAA sued several users of P2P networks, seeking damages for each song downloaded. In one particular instance, a 30-year-old single mother named Jammie Thomas was sued by several recording companies for each group of songs that were downloaded.

This sum, including $9,250 per 24 songs shared on the Kazaa network, amounted to poem, approximately $500,000 dollars . This is an important aspect to the morality of the Essay Twins creators seeking damages, as the woman did not have half of a million dollars to in Advertisement Essay, give to the record companies. On Identical. Should the creators be able to sue individual users? Obviously, the amount of moral questions posed by the issue is insurmountable without the imagery application of universal theories. One might question if the Essay on Identical Twins older philosophies can be applied to such a modern problem, and in what is leadership theories, response to that I say that even though the philosophies are many decades old, they still hold true today. Because the Essay Twins theories are universal, they are able to be applied to any situation.

In addition to this, they provide an alternative point of view to the current state of the argument, which has recently boiled down to the creators stating that consumers cannot share their work and the consumers maintaining that they can. Thus, the application of these theories is not only useful but almost necessary to be able to give order to such a chaotic situation. The first moral theory that can be applied is the philosophy of Kant, and his Moral Imperatives. Hour. The first categorical imperative states act only according to that maxim whereby you can at on Identical, the same time will that it should become a universal law (Boss 2008). If we take the users of the P2P networks as the moral agents, there are two different applications of the first categorical imperative that can be made. The first application is from the viewpoint of the users themselves; the proponents of P2P programs claim that all creative works should be freely available for the enrichment of society. Thus, they would state that their actions were moral because they would agree that file-sharing would be a good universal maxim.

In contrast to this, from the Negative Effects Fructose Corn on the Essay viewpoint of the on Identical Twins creators who are protesting against file-sharing, the first categorical imperative would state that the triads users of the P2P programs are actually committing theft, as they are taking something without paying what has been deemed the product is worth. Thus, the on Identical users are making theft a moral maxim, which isnt morally acceptable. Universally, theft has been considered an immoral action, and Kant himself stated do not steal as one of his universal imperatives. The real question, then, is whether or not the is leadership theories creator has a right to set an arbitrary price on a creation and if the unlicensed distribution of the creation is really theft. Twins. Alternatively, is the price set for the creation really arbitrary? Should the prices be set so high considering the minimal costs of production? Due to the laws that are enforced today, including the laws of copyright, the first categorical imperative has to be interpreted from the poem definition creators point of view; the moral agents in Twins, this case are clearly making theft a moral maxim and thus are acting immorally. Like the first, the second categorical imperative also deems the actions of the users of P2P programs as immoral. The second imperative states act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at triads, the same time as an end and Essay on Identical never merely as a means to hour, an end (Boss 2008). The users of P2P programs are obviously acting against the instruction of the second imperative, treating the creators not as ends themselves but rather as means only.

By freely taking the media from the P2P program and not giving the creator any sort of compensation, either monetary or in Twins, the form of the vs yakuza affirmation of their efforts, the users are treating the Twins creators as a means for entertainment. Triads Vs Yakuza. Thus, according to the second categorical imperative, file-sharing is an immoral activity. The next moral theory that is useful is Twins Utilitarian theory, specifically the Greatest Happiness Principle. The principle states that an action is right as it tends to promote the in Advertisement happiness of the greatest amount of on Identical people, and an action is wrong as it tends to of an, promote the opposite of happiness, or pain, and Essay Twins is the hallmark of the Utilitarianism movement (Boss 2008). Sex Sells. As it applies to on Identical Twins, this moral question, we have to ask whether allowing or prohibiting file-sharing would promote the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount of people. Thus, we have to examine how many people are affected by the prohibition or permission of file sharing. In December 2005, 9,670,552 simultaneous users were recorded worldwide using P2P networks. Eliminating P2P networks would thus cause pain for at of an hour, least that many people, not including any that werent on the network at that time. The pain mentioned would be that caused by the inability to Essay on Identical Twins, freely access desired media.

If we were to permit P2P sharing, it would harm the people in the movie and music industries. This is where Utilitarian theory would consider file-sharing a moral action. Poem Imagery. The USA has the highest amount of entertainment export, and Essay on Identical Twins thus can be used as the prototypic example of the number of laborers that could be harmed by file-sharing, in this case being in the tens of millions. Essay. The problem with this particular argument is that most of the laborers arent being harmed by file sharing; the grips still get paid the same amount regardless of the sales the movie or album receives. Thus, to Essay on Identical Twins, claim that allowing file-sharing harms a greater amount of people is vs yakuza inaccurate- the pleasure that most laborers in the entertainment industry receive remains unchanged. One could state that in the future jobs could be lost, which would directly harm the Twins laborers happiness, but in the 11 years that P2P programs have existed, the job market for the entertainment industry has not changed.

In addition to poem imagery definition, this, the profits that the industry receives have not changed more than a single percent (www.bigchampagne.com). Therefore, Utilitarianism would probably side with the consumers of the media using P2P networks, given that they are receiving a greater amount of pleasure than if P2P networks were banned and that the pain received by the members of the industry does not outweigh that pleasure. [2] [3] The last moral theory that will be applied falls under Rights Ethics. On Identical Twins. Liberty rights can be defined as the right to be left alone to pursue our legitimate interests (Boss 2008). Legitimate interests are those interests that do not violate other peoples similar and equal interests. Theories. Because of the definition of legitimate interests, we must determine if file-sharing is a legitimate interest of the consumer or if it violates the right of the creator to gain benefits from their creation. According to the copyright laws that are in effect today, it is clear that file-sharing cannot be a legitimate interest (and is thus immoral) because it directly violates copyright, which is protected by law as a legitimate interest.

The issue is not so clear cut, however, when we examine exactly how much file-sharing affects the Essay legitimate interests of the creators. In terms of financial benefits, it has been shown that profits for the movie and music industries have not changed more than a percent. In terms of of god intangible benefits, such as the affirmation of the creators work giving them the motivation to continue, the impact of file-sharing changes from person to person. Metallica, one of the original proponents of the suit against Napster, believed that they were being seriously harmed by file-sharing and as such refused to Essay on Identical Twins, create any more music until the vs yakuza dispute was resolved. On the other hand, The Grateful Dead promoted the distribution of their music and took unlicensed distribution as a motivation to continue creating. Because of the minimal impact that file-sharing has on the interests of the creators, it could be argued that file-sharing is Essay Twins not a violation of the story of an themes legitimate interests of the creators and thus is a legitimate interest itself, and Essay on Identical thus it is a morally acceptable action. Regardless of this, however, due to the laws are in place, file-sharing will remain a violation of the triads creators legitimate interests and thus is not a legitimate interest and on Identical is immoral.

Given all of the different factors that influence the morality of file-sharing, determining an absolute answer is a difficult task. Different philosophies have generated different answers, but most, including the Kantian and Liberty Rights theories, summarily dismiss file sharing as an immoral activity. My personal belief is that file-sharing should be allowed and promoted, due to the benefits that the free availability of media gives to society. If a person is unable to afford to obtain media that might enrich or educate them, it is societys duty to provide them the access to that media. While the definition of education generally applies to army of god, what is traditional (school rooms, paid teachers, etc.), I believe that the ideas and concepts depicted by on Identical, many movies and musical forms can educate in ways that traditional education cannot. With the availability of file-sharing, people who previously did not have access to music and movies now can enrich themselves. In addition to this educational aspect, I also believe that most people who are involved with the production of music and movies are grossly overpaid and for them to demand compensation for the minute amounts theyve lost to group, file-sharing seems both greedy and immoral. Once a particular production has been released to the public, and the creator has received an appropriate compensation (one that provides them with a good quality of Essay life and the ability to pursue their legitimate interests, which is all cases is far less than most creators normally make), the creation becomes the property of the consumers and thus public domain and free to share.

Until the impact of file-sharing reaches severe proportions, as in directly harming the quality of life of the army terrorist group majority of laborers in the entertainment industry, I see no reason why file-sharing should be banned. Until we reach a universal agreement between the entertainment industry and the P2P networks, file-sharing will continue to be debated on Essay on Identical both a moral and judicial basis and right now will be considered an immoral action.