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Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities. 5.1 What will be the hinduism, short-term impacts on food security? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? 5.1.1 At the national level 5.1.2 At the household level. The source document for this Digest states:

Many factors are responsible for the recent sharp increases in agricultural commodity prices, including the growth in demand for liquid biofuels. Biofuels will continue to exert upward pressure on commodity prices, which will have implications for food security and poverty levels in developing countries. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. For the poorest households, food accounts for a major part of their expenditures, and food prices directly affect their food security. As a commonly accepted de¬nition, food insecurity exists when people lack secure access to suf¬cient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active, healthy life. Already, the recent increase in staple food prices has triggered demonstrations and about war riots in a number of countries. FAO estimates that some 850 million people worldwide are undernourished (FAO, 2006b). Given the potential scale of the biofuel market, the uncertainty relating to long-term price developments and the large number of hinduism poor households, the question of what impact expanding biofuel production will have on the food security of the poor should be high on the political agenda. This chapter explores the Ethanol Energy, implications of biofuel development for the poor and for food security. Hinduism? Typically, four dimensions are considered in discussions of food security.

Availability of food is determined by domestic production, import capacity, existence of turnout in us food stocks and buddhism food aid. Access to food depends on levels of poverty, purchasing power of households, prices and the existence of Ethanol Energy Source Essays transport and market infrastructure and food distribution systems. Stability of supply and access may be affected by weather, price ¬‚uctuations, human-induced disasters and a variety of political and economic factors. Safe and hinduism buddhism healthy food utilization depends on care and feeding, food safety and quality, access to clean water, health and sanitation. Although expanding demand for biofuels is only one of many factors underlying the recent price increases (see Chapter 4, page 41) the rapid growth in what biofuel production will affect food security at the national and household levels mainly through its impact on hinduism food prices and income. In terms of the four dimensions, the discussion focuses on the impacts of higher food prices on availability and access at the national level, as well as the household level.

At both levels, the initial focus is on short- term impacts, before moving on to address the longer-term impacts. In the medium- to-longer term, higher agricultural prices offer the potential for a supply response and for strengthening and revitalizing the role of agriculture as an engine of growth in developing countries.* * [The dynamics of the rapid rise in commodity prices are covered in greater detail in The State of and Dracula Essay Agricultural Commodity Markets 2008 (FAO, forthcoming, 2008c), while the impacts of soaring food prices on the poor are the hinduism, subject of The State of Food Insecurity in the World (FAO, forthcoming, 2008d).] The source document for this Digest states: At the country level, higher commodity prices will have negative consequences for net food-importing developing countries. Especially for effects isolation the low-income food-de¬cit countries, higher import prices can severely strain their food import bills. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at buddhism, the national level. Chapter 3 discussed the strengthened linkages between energy and agricultural commodity prices resulting from the growth in demand for biofuels and Chapter 4 considered the implications for turnout agricultural commodity prices. How individual countries will be affected by higher prices will depend on whether they are net agricultural commodity importers or net exporters. Some countries will bene¬t from higher prices, but the least-developed countries*, which have been experiencing a widening agricultural trade de¬cit over buddhism, the last two decades ( Figure 27 ), are expected to be considerably worse off. *[Least-developed countries are classified as such on Carmilla the basis of: (a) a low-income criterion (a three-year average estimate of per capita gross national income of below US$750); (b) a human-resource weakness criterion; and hinduism buddhism (c) an economic vulnerability criterion.

For more detail and a list of least-developed countries see UN-OHRLLS (2008).] Rising commodity prices have pushed up the cost of imports and food import bills have reached record highs. Carmilla Essay? Based on FAO€™s latest analysis, global expenditures on buddhism imported foodstuffs. in 2007 rose by about 29 percent above the in us elections, record of the previous year (FAO, 2008a) ( Table 11 ). The bulk of the increase was accounted for by rising prices of imported cereals and vegetable oils €“ commodity groups that feature heavily in biofuel production. More expensive feed ingredients lead to hinduism higher prices for meat and dairy products, raising the expenditures on imports of those commodities. Examples? The rise of international freight rates to new highs also affected the import value of all commodities, placing additional pressure on the ability of countries to cover their food import bills. Although growing demand for hinduism buddhism biofuels accounts for only part of the Carmilla and Dracula, recent sharp price increases, the table nevertheless illustrates the signi¬cant impact higher agricultural commodity prices can have, especially on the low-income food-de¬cit countries (LIFDCs). High food prices have been accompanied by rising fuel prices, which further threaten macroeconomic stability and hinduism buddhism overall growth, especially of low-income net energy-importing countries. Table 12 lists 22 countries considered especially vulnerable owing to a combination of high levels of chronic hunger (above 30 percent undernourishment), high dependency on imports of petroleum products (100 percent in most countries) and, in many cases, high dependency on imports of major cereals (rice, wheat and maize) for domestic consumption. Ethanol As An Alternative Essays? Countries such as Botswana, Comoros, Eritrea, Haiti, Liberia and the Niger are especially vulnerable as they present a high level of all three risk factors. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at hinduism, the national level, p.72-74. The source document for this Digest states:

In the short run, higher agricultural commodity prices will have widespread negative effects on household food security. Particularly at risk are poor urban consumers and poor net food buyers in rural areas, who tend also to be the majority of the rural poor. There is a strong need for establishing appropriate safety nets to ensure access to food by the poor and vulnerable. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85. Food-security impacts at the household level €“ short-run effects * *[A comprehensive assessment of the food-security impacts of higher food prices can be found in what are moral FAO (2008a).] At the household level, a critical factor for food security is access to food. Access to food refers to the ability of households toproduce or purchase suf¬cient food for their needs. Two key indicators can help assessthe impact of hinduism buddhism biofuel developments on food security: food prices and household incomes. The more income a household or individual has, the more food (and of better quality)can be purchased. The precise effects of food prices on household food security are more complex. Higher food prices are expectedto make net food-buying households in both urban and rural areas worse off, while better-endowed rural households, who are net sellers of food, stand to gain from the increased incomes resulting from the higher prices.

Higher world food prices do not necessarily affect household food security: the impact will depend on effects of social isolation the extent to which international prices pass through to domestic markets. The depreciation of the United States dollar against many currencies (for example the euro and buddhism the CFA [Communaut© ¬nanci¨re africaine] franc) and government policies designed to avoid large domestic price shocks tend to reduce the transmission of world market prices to domestic markets.* Sharma (2002), in isolation a study of eight Asian countries in the 1990s, found that price transmission was strongest for maize, followed by wheat, and least for rice, which is the staple food for most of Asia€™s poor. The degree of transmission is buddhism always stronger over of social isolation, the longer term. *[Recent work by FAO (2008a) Soaring food prices: facts, perspectives, impacts and actions required. Document HLC/08/INF/1 prepared for the High-Level Conference on World Food Security: The Challenges of Climate Change and Bioenergy, 3€“5 June 2008, Rome. confirms that country-level impacts require case-by-case analysis as different countries have experienced different exchange-rate movements and buddhism employ different commodity market policies.] In many Asian countries rice is isolation designated as a special, or sensitive, commodity for hinduism buddhism food security, and FAO (2008f) found that transmission varies signi¬cantly from country to country, depending on the instruments, if any, that are used to insulate the domestic economy from price increase on international markets. For example, India and the Philippines make use of government storage, procurement and and Dracula examples distribution as well as restrictions on international trade. Bangladesh applies rice tariffs to stabilize domestic prices, while Viet Nam uses a range of export restrictions. Buddhism? On the other hand, countries such as China and Thailand have allowed most of the changes in world prices to pass through to domestic markets.

Maize is a feedgrain in Asia and Ethanol Energy Essays subject to much less price intervention. FAO (2004b) found that price transmission is generally weaker in hinduism buddhism Africa than in isolation Asian countries. Domestic price policies can help stabilize prices but they do require ¬scal resources. In the longer run they may also impede or slow down an effective supply response to higher prices. Impacts on hinduism net food buyers and net food sellers. While almost all urban dwellers are net food consumers, not all rural dwellers are net food producers. Many smallholders and what agricultural labourers are net purchasers of food, as they do not own suf¬cient land to produce enough food for their families. Empirical evidence from a number of sub- Saharan African countries, compiled in Barrett (forthcoming) in no case ¬nds a majority of hinduism buddhism farmers or rural households (depending on the survey de¬nition) to be net food sellers. Empirical evidence prepared by FAO (2008a) con¬rms this pattern, as illustrated in Ethanol Energy Essays Table 13, which shows the share of hinduism buddhism net staple food-selling households among urban and rural households, respectively, for a series of countries.

Only in two instances does the share of net selling households exceed 50 percent. Distribution of poor net buyers and sellers of food staples. Even in rural areas, where agriculture and staple food production is an important occupation for the majority of the poor, a vast share of the poor are net food buyers ( Figure 28 ) and metaphors about thus stand to lose, or at least not gain, from an increase in the price of tradable staple foods. The proportion of poor smallholders that are also net sellers never exceeds 37 percent and for four of the seven countries is 13 percent or less. The proportion of poor that are net buyers ranges from 45.7 percent in Cambodia to over 87 percent in Bolivia, and for ¬ve of the seven countries the proportion is over 50 percent.

Poverty impacts of higher food prices. For the poorest households, food typically accounts for half, and buddhism often more, of are moral standards their total expenditure. It follows that food price increases can have marked effects on welfare and nutrition. As an example, Block et al. (2004) found that when rice prices increased in Indonesia in the late 1990s, mothers in poor families responded by reducing their caloric intake in buddhism order to Ethanol as an Alternative Energy Source Essays feed their children better, leading to an increase in maternal wasting. Furthermore, purchases of more nutritious foods were reduced in buddhism order to afford the more expensive rice. This led to a measurable decline in blood haemoglobin levels in young children (and in second feminist movement their mothers), increasing the probability of hinduism buddhism developmental damage. Farmers who are net food sellers and will bene¬t from higher prices will typically be those with more land, who will also tend to be better off than farmers with only little land. Moreover, farmers with more surplus production to sell will bene¬t from high prices more than farmers with only a small surplus to sell.

In any case, poorer farmers are unlikely to Carmilla receive the hinduism buddhism, bulk of the and Dracula examples, bene¬ts from higher food prices and are the most likely to buddhism be negatively affected. Average welfare gain/loss from Carmilla a 10 percent increase in the price of the main staple, by hinduism buddhism income (expenditure) quintile for rural and urban households. Estimates of the short-term welfare impact on rural and and Dracula Essay examples urban households of hinduism buddhism a 10 percent increase in price of the main staple food are shown in Figure 29 for seven of the countries listed in Table 13 . As An Alternative Source Essays? These estimates do not allow for household responses in production and consumption decisions and thus they represent an upper bound of the likely impact. Hinduism Buddhism? However, in the very short run, the potential for adjustments in crop production is limited, and on the consumption side the very poor are likely to have only minimal substitution possibilities. What Figure 29 highlights is that the poorest expenditure quintiles are worst affected in both urban and rural areas €“ they experience either the largest decline or the smallest increase in Carmilla welfare. Hinduism? Even in some of the countries where rural households gain on average, for Ethanol as an Alternative Source Essays example Pakistan and Viet Nam, the poorest quintiles in the rural areas still face a negative change in welfare as a result of the staple price increase.

Unsurprisingly, all urban households are expected to lose in all countries, but to varying degrees, with the poorest experiencing the largest decline. FAO€™s analysis of the hinduism, welfare impacts of staple food price increases also indicated that female-headed households in most urban, rural and national samples typically fare worse than male-headed households, in that they face either greater welfare losses or smaller welfare gains. This strong result emerged even though female- headed households are not systematically overrepresented among the poor in all, or even most, of the countries. One explanatory factor is that, other things being equal, female-headed households tend to spend a greater share of their income on food. Moreover, in rural contexts, they generally have less access to land and participate less in agricultural income-generating activities and thus cannot share in the bene¬ts of food price increases (FAO, 2008a). While higher food prices will tend to have a negative impact on the purchasing power of the rural poor, there is also the potential for bene¬ts to this group as a result of increased demand for agricultural labour, which is effects isolation a prime source of income for hinduism buddhism the poor. Indeed, poor and examples landless families typically rely disproportionately on unskilled wage labour for buddhism their income (World Bank, 2007). Higher agricultural prices, by in us stimulating the demand for unskilled labour in hinduism rural areas, can lead to a long-run increase in second rural wages, thereby bene¬ting wage-labour households as well as self- employed farmers. Ravallion (1990), using a dynamic econometric model of wage determination and data from the 1950s to the 1970s, concluded that the average poor landless household in Bangladesh loses in buddhism the short run from an increase in rice prices (because of higher consumption expenditures) but gains slightly in the longer run (after ¬ve years or more).

Indeed, in the long run, as wages adjust, the increase in turnout in us elections household income (dominated by unskilled wage labour) becomes large enough to exceed the increase in household expenditures on rice. However, this study used relatively old data, compiled when rice farming was a larger sector of the economy and thus had a more profound impact on hinduism buddhism labour markets. Rashid (2002) found that rice prices in Ethanol Alternative Energy Source Bangladesh ceased to have a signi¬cant effect on agricultural wages after the mid-1970s. If higher rice prices no longer induce higher rural wages in Bangladesh, where agriculture represents a larger share of the economy and rice dominates the agriculture sector to a greater extent than in most other Asian countries, it seems unlikely that higher cereal prices will provide a signi¬cant stimulus to the rural labour market in economies with a more diversi¬ed range of employment opportunities. Higher food prices may also have second- round multiplier effects, as the higher incomes of hinduism buddhism farmers create demand for other goods and services, many of of social isolation which will be locally produced.

However, if this additional income simply represents a transfer from the rural landless and urban poor, these new multiplier effects will be counterbalanced by hinduism buddhism negative multiplier effects generated by the reduced incomes of the poor, who will have less money to spend on non-food items as their food bills increase. What Are Moral? The net multiplier effects will depend on the change in income distribution and the different spending patterns of the winners and losers from the new set of relative prices. On balance, at the global level, the buddhism, immediate net effect of higher food prices on food security is likely to be negative. For example, Senauer and Sur (2001) estimated that a 20 percent increase in food prices in 2025 relative to a baseline will lead to effects isolation an increase of buddhism 440 million in the number of undernourished people in the world (195 million of whom live in sub- Saharan Africa and 158 million in metaphors about war South and East Asia). The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) estimated that biofuel expansion based on actual national expansion plans would raise the prices of buddhism maize, oilseeds, cassava and in us elections wheat by buddhism 26, 18, 11 and 8 percent, respectively, leading to a decrease in calorie intake of between 2 and metaphors about 5 percent and an increase in child malnutrition of 4 percent, on average (Msangi, 2008 Biofuels, food prices and hinduism buddhism food security. Effects Of Social Isolation? Presentation at the Expert Meeting on Global Fuel and Food Security, FAO, Rome, 18€“20 February 2008 - available at www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/foodclimate/presentations/EM56/Msangi.pdf). These, however, are global ¬gures, and the outcome will vary across countries and regions within countries. Biofuels may affect the utilization dimension of food security, but less directly than for other dimensions. For example, some biofuel production systems require substantial quantities of water, both for feedstock production and for conversion to biofuel.

This demand could reduce the availability of water for household use, threatening the health status and hinduism buddhism thus the food-security status of affected individuals. On the metaphors about, other hand, if bioenergy replaces more polluting energy sources or expands the availability of energy services to the rural poor, it could make cooking both cheaper and cleaner, with positive implications for health status and food utilization. Chapter 6, Section food-security impacts at the household level-short run effects, p.75-79. 5.2 How could biofuel production stimulate agricultural growth and poverty reduction in the longer term? The source document for this Digest states:

In the longer run, growing demand for biofuels and the resulting rise in agricultural commodity prices can present an opportunity for promoting agricultural growth and rural development in developing countries. They strengthen the hinduism buddhism, case for focusing on agriculture as an engine of growth for poverty alleviation. This requires strong government commitment to enhancing agricultural productivity, for which public investments are crucial. Second Feminist Movement? Support must focus particularly on hinduism buddhism enabling poor small producers to turnout in us elections expand their production and gain access to markets. Production of biofuelfeedstocks may offer income-generating opportunities for farmers in buddhism developing countries.

Experience shows that cash-crop production for Carmilla Essay examples markets does not necessarily come at the expense of food crops and that it may contribute to improving food security. Hinduism Buddhism? Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production requires active government policies and support. Crucial areas are investment in public goods (infrastructure, research extension, etc.), rural ¬nance, market information, market institutions and legal systems. In many cases, private investors interested in developing biofuel feedstock production in second feminist movement developing countries will look to the establishment of plantations to ensure security of supply. However, contract farming may offer a means of ensuring smallholder participation in biofuel crop production, but its success will depend on an enabling policy and legal environment. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.85-56.

Biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth. Biofuels and agriculture as engines of growth. The discussion so far, and much of the public debate, has focused on buddhism the immediate adverse food-security impacts of higher food prices. Over the medium-to-longer term, however, there could be a positive supply response not only from smallholders who are net sellers but also from those on the margin and those who are net buyers who are able to react to in us elections the price incentives. The emergence of biofuels as a major new source of demand for agricultural commodities could thus help revitalize agriculture in developing countries, with potentially positive implications for economic growth, poverty reduction and food security (see Box 12 ). Many of the world€™s poorest countries are well placed, in agro-ecological terms, to become major producers of biomass for liquid biofuel production €“ or to respond in general to hinduism higher agricultural prices. However, they continue to face many of the same constraints that have prevented them in the past from taking advantage of opportunities for agriculture-led growth.

Their ability to take advantage of the new opportunities offered by biofuels €“ either directly as biofuel feedstock producers or indirectly as producers of agricultural commodities for which prices have gone up €“ will depend on how these old constraints (and a few new ones) are addressed. The expansion of biofuel production, wherever it occurs in the world, contributes to higher prices; countries are affected whether or not they grow biofuel feedstocks. Second Movement? At the same time, higher energy prices have led to hinduism buddhism higher input costs for commercial fertilizer. Increased farm productivity will be fundamental in preventing long-term increases in food prices and excessive pressure for expansion of Carmilla examples cultivated area, together with the associated negative environmental effects (including increased greenhouse gas emissions). While, historically, on-farm innovations helped drive productivity gains in hinduism Europe and Ethanol as an Alternative Source the United States of America, the hinduism, considerable resources required to Carmilla examples carry out research on modern agricultural technology means that publicly funded research is essential. Government support to technology diffusion through extension services and improved infrastructure is also indispensable. Biofuels strengthen the case for considerably enhanced investments in agricultural productivity growth in developing countries. Biofuels, commercialization and hinduism agriculture-sector growth. Crops cultivated for biofuels, at least from the farmer€™s perspective, are no different from other commercial crops and can be instrumental in transforming agriculture from semi-subsistence, low-input and low-productivity farming systems, which characterize many parts of the developing world. Experience has shown that cash-crop development by second smallholders need not come at the expense of hinduism buddhism food-crop production or food security in effects general (see Box 13 ), although this has occurred in some instances (Binswanger and von Braun, 1991; von Braun, 1994). Several studies on sub-Saharan African countries have concluded that commercialization schemes can help overcome credit market failures, a common feature of rural areas (von Braun and Kennedy, 1994; Govereh and Jayne, 2003).

In addition, the buddhism, introduction of cash crops to a region may stimulate private investment in distribution, retail, market infrastructure and human capital, which ultimately also bene¬ts food-crop production and other farm activities. About? Where farmers have timely access to hinduism buddhism credit and inputs, and to extension services and equipment, they are able not only to boost their incomes, but also to Carmilla intensify food production on their lands. Conversely, poor agro-ecological conditions, weak input and infrastructural support and poor organization of smallholder cash-cropping schemes can lead to failure (Strasberg et al., 1999). In terms of the employment effects, net job creation is more likely to occur if biofuel feedstock production does not displace other agricultural activities or if the displaced activities are less labour-intensive. The outcome will vary, depending on a country€™s endowments in land and labour, on the crop used as feedstock and on the crops that were grown previously. Even within a single country and for one individual crop, labour intensity can vary substantially; in Brazil, for buddhism example, sugar-cane production uses three times as much labour in and Dracula the northeast as it does in the centre-south (Kojima and Johnson, 2005) Research by buddhism von Braun and Kennedy (1994) found that the employment effects of commercial crops for poor households were generally signi¬cant. In Brazil, the biofuel sector accounted for what are moral about 1 million jobs in 2001 (Moreira, 2006).

These jobs were in hinduism rural areas and mostly for unskilled labour. The indirect creation of employment in manufacturing and other sectors was estimated at about another 300 000 jobs. Promoting smallholder participation in biofuel crop production. Involving smallholder farmers in biofuel feedstock production is important both for reasons of equity and for employment. Are biofuel crops more likely to be produced on plantations or by small farmers? Hayami (2002) points out that smallholders have certain advantages over what are moral, plantations in that they can avoid problems related to supervision and monitoring and can be more ¬‚exible.

Indeed, many plantation crops are also grown successfully by smallholders somewhere in the world. Hinduism Buddhism? In Thailand, for example, where smallholders are generally prominent in terms of numbers and production, they compare favourably, in ef¬ciency terms, with large- and Alternative Source medium- sized sugar farms in Australia, France and the United States of America (Larson and buddhism Borrell, 2001). By the what are moral, 1990s, Thailand was exporting more rubber and pineapples than Indonesia and hinduism the Philippines, where plantations are dominant for these crops. However, when processing and marketing become more complex and centralized, plantations represent a solution to Ethanol as an Source Essays the need for vertical integration of hinduism buddhism production with other processes €“ as is the case for palm oil, tea, bananas and sisal. The need for large-scale investments is turnout another example where plantation-style farming may be advantageous.

If investors have to build supporting infrastructure such as irrigation, roads and hinduism buddhism docking, the scale of the operation necessary to offset the costs will be even larger. In unpopulated or sparsely populated areas, biofuel crop production is therefore more likely to develop on the scale of plantations. This is one key reason why sugar cane in the Philippines is produced by smallholders in old settled areas of Luzon while plantations dominate in areas of Negros that were settled more recently (Hayami, Quisumbing and Adriano, 1990). Smallholder productivity and pro¬tability are often held back by poorly working commodity markets, lack of access to ¬nancial markets, poorly performing producer organizations and signi¬cant input market failures, especially for seed and fertilizer in sub-Saharan Africa. Government policy can promote smallholder farming.

Key areas for policy intervention are: investment in public goods such as infrastructure, irrigation, extension and research; the sponsoring of innovative approaches to what are moral standards rural ¬nance; the creation of market information systems; improvements in buddhism output and input markets in rural areas so that small farms are not at a disadvantage relative to larger farms; the enforcement of turnout elections contracts. Producer organizations that foster collective action can also help reduce transaction costs and achieve market power to the bene¬t of smallholder competitiveness (World Bank, 2007). The experience of the Green Revolution shows how responsive small-farmer productivity and output supply can be to public investment in research, irrigation and input supply. At least in the early years, when biofuel crop production is gaining momentum, investors ready to inject the necessary capital are likely to look for some security of supply. Hinduism? One way to achieve this is by establishing a plantation of the Carmilla Essay, crop on buddhism which production is turnout in us elections based. However, smallholder participation in hinduism buddhism the form of contract farming (also referred to as €œoutgrower schemes€) is movement perhaps the most obvious approach to building the necessary market while safeguarding staple-food production and hinduism buddhism ensuring pro- poor growth.

Contract farming implies the availability of credit, timely supply of inputs, knowledge transfer, provision of Carmilla and Dracula examples extension services and access to a ready market. From the contractors€™ perspective, this type of arrangement can improve acceptability to stakeholders and overcome land constraints. In many countries, contract farming is encouraged by governments as a means for enabling rural farming households and communities to share in hinduism buddhism the bene¬ts of commercial agriculture while maintaining some independence (FAO, 2001). Contract/ outgrower schemes are more likely to succeed if they are based on proven technology and an enabling policy and legal environment. Default by of social contract farmers can be a major problem in the operation of such schemes. A weak legal system, weak insurance services and hinduism the associated high transaction costs lead to considerable risk for companies (Coulter et al., 1999). Innovative solutions to support smallholder farmers producing biofuel crops continue to emerge (FAO, 2008g). In Brazil, the government created the Social Fuel Stamp programme to turnout in us encourage biodiesel producers to purchase feedstocks from small family farms in poorer regions of the country.

Companies that join the hinduism buddhism, scheme bene¬t from partial or total federal tax exemption. By the end of 2007, some 400 000 small farmers had joined the programme, selling mainly palm oil, soybeans and/or castor beans to re¬ning companies. Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop production as an impetus for agricultural growth, p.79-82. 5.3 How could biofuel production affect income distribution and women€™s status? The source document for this Digest states: Development of biofuelfeedstock production may present equity- and gender-related risks concerning issues such as labour conditions on plantations, access to land, constraints faced by as an Alternative Energy smallholders and the disadvantaged position of women. Buddhism? Generally, these risks derive from existing institutional and Carmilla Essay political realities in the countries and call for hinduism attention irrespective of developments related to are moral standards biofuels. Governments need to establish clear criteria for determining €œproductive use€ requirements and legal de¬nitions for what constitutes €œidle€ land. Effective application of land-tenure policies that aim to protect vulnerable communities is hinduism buddhism no less important. Chapter 6, Section Key messages, p.86.

Biofuel crop development: equity and gender concerns. Important risks associated with the as an Energy, development of biofuels relate to hinduism worsening income distribution and a deterioration of women€™s status. The distributional impact of developing biofuel crops will depend on examples initial conditions and on government policies. The consensus with regard to hinduism the impact of Carmilla and Dracula cash crops on hinduism buddhism inequality appears to lean towards greater inequality (Maxwell and Fernando, 1989). However, evidence from the Green Revolution suggests that adoption was much less uneven than was ¬rst supposed. Moreover, governments can actively support small-scale farming, as discussed above. The impact on inequality will depend on the crop and technology employed, with a scale-neutral technology favouring equal distribution of bene¬ts.

Other important factors are: the metaphors about, distribution of land with secure ownership or tenancy rights; the degree of access by farmers to input and output markets and to credit; and a level playing ¬eld in hinduism buddhism terms of policies. Expansion of biofuel production will, in many cases, lead to greater competition for land. About? For smallholder farmers, women farmers and/or pastoralists, who may have weak land-tenure rights, this could lead to displacement. A strong policy and legal structure is required to safeguard against the undermining of hinduism livelihoods of households and communities (see also Box 14 ). In some countries or regions, biofuel crop development may lead to the emergence of commercial real estate markets. At the same time, land rental values are likely to Essay examples rise and poor farmers may not be in a position to secure land through buying or renting. Indigenous communities may be particularly vulnerable if their land rights are not guaranteed by the government. Bouis and Haddad (1994) found that the hinduism, introduction of sugar cane in are moral standards the southern Bukidnon province of the Philippines led to a worsening of the land-tenure situation, with many households losing their access to land. The establishment of large sugar haciendas without a net increase in demand for labour meant that income inequality also deteriorated. On the other hand, those smallholders who were able to enter sugar production did well. FAO (2008h) suggests that female farmers may be at a distinct disadvantage vis- -vis male farmers in terms of bene¬ting from biofuel crop development.

To start with, there are often signi¬cant gender disparities with regard to access to land, water, credit and other inputs. Although women are often responsible for carrying out much of the agricultural work, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa, they typically own little of the land (UNICEF, 2007). Hinduism Buddhism? In Cameroon, women provide three-quarters of agricultural labour but own less than 10 percent of the land; in Brazil, they own 11 percent of the land while in Peru they own slightly more than 13 percent. Carmilla And Dracula? Unequal rights to land create an uneven playing ¬eld for men and buddhism women, making it more dif¬cult for women and female-headed households to bene¬t from effects biofuel crop production (FAO, 2008h). The emphasis on exploiting marginal lands for biofuel crop production may also work against buddhism, female farmers. For example, in India, these marginal lands, or so-called €œwastelands€, are frequently classi¬ed as common property resources and are often of of social isolation crucial importance to the poor. Evidence from India shows that gathering and hinduism use of common property resources are largely women€™s and children€™s work €“ a division of labour that is also often found in West Africa (Beck and Nesmith, 2000). In Us Elections? However, women are rarely involved in the management of these resources.

In a study by von Braun and Kennedy (1994), it was found that in €œnone of the case studies they analysed did women play a signi¬cant role as decision-makers and operators of the more commercialized crop, even when typical €˜women€™s crops€™ were promoted€. Dey (1981), in her review of hinduism buddhism rice development projects in the Gambia, also highlighted the importance of incorporating information about women€™s role in agriculture when designing commercialization schemes so as to movement generate a better outcome in terms of equity, nutritional outcomes and even overall performance. As has emerged from the discussion above, the development of hinduism buddhism biofuel production may bring to the forefront a series of equity- and gender-related issues, such as labour conditions on plantations, constraints faced by smallholders and second movement the disadvantaged position of buddhism female farmers. These are critical and metaphors about war fundamental issues that largely derive from hinduism existing institutional and political realities in many countries and that must be addressed in parallel with the prospects for biofuel development in a speci¬c context. In this regard, development of biofuel production could and should be used constructively to focus attention on the issues.

Chapter 6, Section Biofuel crop development: equity and metaphors about war gender concerns, p.83-85.

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Analysis - quot;Exposurequot; by Wilfred Owen. Extracts from this document. Analysis - Exposure by buddhism, Wilfred Owen The poem exposure by Wilfred Owen is written in Winter of 1917. It portrays the message of the real enemy of the soldiers being the cold and Carmilla icy conditions. Moreover, it provides us with a lively description of the persistent cold and awful conditions during one of the worst winters in the first world war. It shows that most of the soldiers were exposed rather than shot by enemies. Hinduism! The poem portrays all the Ethanol as an Alternative opposing facts to make young men not join the war as it is nothing heroic. Owen uses all his senses to describe the frosty atmosphere and sets a lamenting and hinduism descriptive tone.

The rhyme scheme is ABBA and the stanzas are continuous, emphasizing the continuous suffering of the British. It is written in first person plural, which makes us feel with the soldiers and put ourselves into their position. What Are Moral! The poem starts off with Our brains ache, in the merciless iced east winds that knive us. Hinduism! . The assonantal i sounds in the words brains, merciless, iced, winds and knive evoke a hushing sound of the cold wind blowing around the trenches. . Metaphors! read more. In the next line, We only know war lasts, rain soaks, and clouds sag stormy. The sibilance in this line forms a heavy and oppressive tone that makes this line flow. Then, Owen continues by describing the 'attack of nature'; Dawn massing in the east her melancholy army/ Attacks once more in ranks on shivering ranks of gray. This metaphor shows that dawn is attacking the British soldiers and the clouds could represent the lines of the Germans. The enjambment of the two lines creates a quickness which we can relate to the attack. Moreover, the violent k sounds in Attacks, ranks and again ranks make the war-scenery sound more dramatic and emphasize a dying scene of natural dominance. The last stanza of the first half of the poem starts off with Sudden successive flights of bullets streak the silence.

The sibilant s sounds in this line evoke the speed and buddhism the sound of striking bullets. The trembling air is then personified in the next line, which says Less deadly than the air that shudders black with snow. What Are Moral Standards! The air is shaking so much that is seems like it is shudder[ing] like shockwaves. The second part of the poem continues with Pale flakes with fingering stealth come feeling for our faces -. . read more. In the penultimate line of the poem, there is a half-rhyme as Owen mentions that All their eyes are ice.

This metaphor shows that what used to be the eyes of the soldiers have frozen to ice-balls. Also, the buddhism freezing together and the use of them as a half-rhyme add to Ethanol Alternative Source Essays, the fact that the soldiers were nameless and the word all mean that there were many of them that all looked the hinduism same. The last line of the poem is second feminist, again the first of the hinduism buddhism last line in stanza 1 saying, But nothing happens. The way it is repeated in in us elections, the poem shows that it is very tragic and that war is allowed to continue and people will carry on dying in the same, dreadful way as they did before. The poem is written in a very open structure with the eight stanzas all being equal, which could represent soldiers in war, all being the hinduism same and unidentified. There are many spaces in between each stanza and line, emphasizing the waiting of the soldiers and the agony of the men during war. The poem described the effect of and Dracula Essay examples, climate in war in a very descriptive and emotional way and grabbed us, as readers, very much, like in any other of Wilfred Owens's war poems. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate World Literature section.

Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Buddhism! Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per as an Alternative Energy, month. Related International Baccalaureate World Literature essays. Critical Analysis of After Apple Picking by Robert Frost. Indeed, the hinduism conceptual frame of the movement poem is held together by the way dream gets stated in terms of waking experience, waking experience in buddhism, terms of dream.

This senseless state of events is compounded by the disturbing dream the apple picker has: magnified apples. russet showing clear shows how he not. Commentary on the poem At the San Francisco Airport by Yvor Winters. To convince himself that he is dealing well with his daughter?s departure, the speaker consoles himself in stanza three by proclaiming that similar strong traits are shared by father and daughter. Critical Analysis of amp;quot;Sorrow of Waramp;quot; by Bao Ninh, The novel is much more than just about war, it is metaphors about war, a book about hinduism, writing, about lost youth and also includes a beautiful but agonizing love story. It changed the elections way I thought of North Vietnam and the war. Due to buddhism, Ninh?s strikingly honest portrayal of the Vietnam War, the. Lord of the second Flies Summary and hinduism buddhism Analysis of Chapters 7,8,9 and 10. * Piggy can barely able to see. * Piggy suggests that Ralph hold a meeting to discuss their options. * Ralph blows the conch shell, and the boys who have not gone to join Jack assemble on Ethanol as an Alternative Source, the beach. * They decide that their only choice is to make Jack.

Analysis of amp;quot;Exposureamp;quot; by Wilfred Owen. Buddhism! Also in line three of as an Energy Essays, stanza five, the persona explains that they would, ?drowse, sun-dozed?. Both drowse and dozed stress the meaning of being half asleep. The fact that it was during the day and they were half asleep shows that death, which is a more grievous form of sleep, was right around the corner. Analysis of poem Strange Meeting by Wilfred Owen. His emotions are turned around like killing is bad but expected in war. The word ?vision? is further evidence that the poem is dream.

The monologue of the narrator ends with the ironic image of buddhism, how hell is safer than the battlefield above (?upper ground?). Metaphors About! Symbolism in The Sorrow of War amp;quot; whether there is going to be hope or depression in the novel. Film/Movies ?I am watching a U.S. war movie with scenes of hinduism buddhism, American soldiers yelling as they launch themselves into combat on the TV screen, and once again I?m ready to jump in and mix it in second feminist, the fiery. Literary Analysis: Julius Caesar v. The Lord of the Flies. Buddhism! Worst of all, he lost his hope and was overcome with guilt which led him to Ethanol as an Alternative Energy Source Essays, give Strato his sword so that he could run upon it. (Tragedy of Julius Caesar, Act V, Sc. 5, 48). Likewise, Cassius falls to a similar fate finally admitting his guilt as he is. of buddhism, student written work Annotated by.

experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of and Dracula Essay, The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for hinduism buddhism anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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camp x book report The History of Camp-X. Unofficially known as Camp-X, the paramilitary training installation was officially known by various names: as S25-1-1 by the RCMP (the Royal Canadian Mounted Police file name), as Project-J by the Canadian military, and hinduism as STS-103 (Special Training School 103) by the SOE (Special Operations Executive), a branch of the British MI-6. And Dracula Essay Examples? It was established December 6, 1941, on the Whitby/Oshawa border in Ontario, Canada through co-operative efforts of the buddhism, British Security Co-Ordination (BSC) and the Government of as an Alternative Energy Source Canada. Hinduism? The BSC’s chief, Sir William Stephenson, was a Canadian from Winnipeg, Manitoba, and a close confidant of the British Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, who had instructed him to create “the clenched fist that would provide the knockout blow” to the Axis powers. One of Stephenson’s successes was Camp-X! The book, Inside Camp-X , and the story begin, “Lieutenant-Colonel Roper-Caldbeck, the first Commanding Officer of Camp-X, stopped, stared over the rolling fields, picturesque Lake Ontario, and the newly erected buildings and thought to himself, “Everything is in us, ready!” The Date: December 6th, 1941! That date was most significant.

Had the Japanese attack on hinduism Pearl Harbour been executed six months earlier, there would never have been a Camp-X. The Camp was designed for the sole purpose of what linking Britain and the United States. Until the hinduism buddhism, direct attack on Pearl Harbour, the United States was forbidden by an act of Congress to get involved with the war. How timely that Camp-X should open the day before the attack on Pearl Harbour by effects, the Japanese. Even the Camp’s location was chosen with a great deal of thought: a remote site on the shores of Lake Ontario, yet only thirty miles straight across the lake from the United States. It was ideal for bouncing radio signals from Europe, South America, and, of course, between London and the BSC headquarters in New York. The choice of site also placed the Camp only five miles from DIL (Defense Industries Ltd.), currently the town of Ajax. Hinduism? At that time, DIL was the largest armaments manufacturing facility in North America. Carmilla And Dracula Examples? Other points of strategic significance in the Camp’s locale include the situation of the German Prisoner of War Camp in Bowmanville, the position of the mainline Canadian National Railway, which went through the hinduism, top part of Camp-X, and movement that of General Motors on the eastern border of the Camp.

The Oshawa Airport which was a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) / Royal Air Force (RAF) Commonwealth air training school at hinduism buddhism, the time was only and Dracula a short drive from Camp-X. Each of these points will be delved into in more detail throughout the book. The Commanding officers of the Camp soon realized the buddhism, impact of Camp-X. Requests for more agents and turnout different training programs were coming in daily from hinduism buddhism London and New York. Alternative Source Essays? Not only were they faced with training agents who were going to go behind enemy lines on specialized missions, but now they had been requested to train agents’ instructors as well. These would be recruited primarily from the United States for the OSS (Office of Strategic Services) and for the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). Soon there were trainers training trainers for hinduism buddhism new Camps that would be set up in second, the U.S., primarily at hinduism buddhism, RTU-11 in Maryland. What Standards? To ease the demand for hinduism trained trainers, Lieutenant Colonel R. M. Ethanol As An Alternative Energy? Brooker, a British SIS (Secret Intelligence Service) man, established a particularly successful program of weekend courses for OSS executives. (When Camp-X opened, the OSS was officially known as the Co-Ordinator of Information (COI) and did not become the OSS until June of 1942). The psychological aspect of the training was most critical.

As crucial as the agent’s training in silent killing and hinduism buddhism unarmed combat was the development of his ability to Ethanol as an Alternative Energy Source quickly and accurately assess the suitability of a potential “Partisan”. He had to be able to recognize a would-be recruit by being alert at all times and in any situation. He was trained to listen for a comment about the government, about the Nazis or about how the war was progressing, and to subsequently engage the individual in buddhism, conversation, perhaps offer him a drink or buy him a meal. In this manner he could further identify the individual’s philosophy and Essay thoughts about the war. Paramount among the buddhism, objectives set for and Dracula Essay the operation, including the training of Allied agents for hinduism the entire catalogue of espionage activities (sabotage, subversion, deception, intelligence, and other ‘special means’), was the necessity to establish a major communications link between North and South America and European operations of SOE. Second Movement? Code named ‘Hydra’, the resulting short-wave radio and telecommunications centre was the most powerful of its type. Largely “hand-made” by a few gifted Canadian radio amateurs, Hydra played a magnificent role in the tactical and strategic Allied radio networks. When one steps back and looks at the 1940 grand picture, one can see exactly why Canada was so important to hinduism the SOE as a base for their agents: if the agents were to be recruited in what are moral, Canada, why not train them there? Soon the BSC had large populations of French Canadians, Yugoslavs, Italians, Hungarians, Romanians, Chinese, and Japanese at their disposal and in a concentrated geographical area.

It was easier to send a few instructors over to Canada then it was to send 500 or 600 potential agents to Britain only to find that they were not Secret Agent material and afterward have to send them home. Hinduism Buddhism? One must remember that the British were still an invasion target to the Germans. Such an invasion, if successful, would be the end of the SOE Training Schools in Britain. Thus, Camp-X became the assembly line for ‘special agents’ and subsequently the SOE. The agents trained at Camp-X would have no idea whatsoever as to their future mission behind enemy lines, nor for that matter would the Source Essays, instructors and/or the Camp Commandant. Camp-X’s sole purpose was to develop and train all agents in every aspect of silent killing, sabotage, Partisan work, recruitment methods for hinduism the resistance movement, demolition, map reading, weaponry, and Morse Code. It was not until the what are moral standards, agents completed their ten-week course that the instructors and hinduism buddhism commanding officers would assess each individual for his particular expertise and what are moral subsequently advise the SOE in London of their recommendations. For example, one agent might excel in hinduism, the demolition field while another might be better at wireless telegraph work. Once the agents arrived in Britain, they would be reassessed and would be assigned to a Finishing School where their expertise would be further refined.

Once this task was completed, another branch of the what are moral, SOE would take over hinduism, and develop a mission best suited for each individual agent. Eric Curwain, Chief Recruitment Officer of the Canadian Division of the British Security Co-ordination, wrote about Canada’s significant contribution to the war effort in his unpublished manuscript, Almost Top Secret . “Previous visits to Canada could not prepare a wartime visitor for second feminist movement the vast war effort that at once became visible on leaving the port of Halifax to take the train for Toronto. Any Allied national from Europe must have been thrilled to see those long lines of loaded freight cars, lying in sidings, awaiting the day to pour their weaponry into the hundreds of ships that Germany’s ever-increasing hordes of submarines could never defeat.” As part of my research into Camp-X, I have been in buddhism, constant contact with London, England, and Ethanol Alternative Energy Source Essays specifically the FCO (Foreign and hinduism buddhism Commonwealth Office). One interesting piece of information from feminist movement London I would like to share with you now. The following is an hinduism buddhism excerpt from a letter, which I recently received from movement Duncan Stuart, SOE adviser, FCO. “First of all, I should say that virtually no records have survived over here about STS-103. As I am sure you know, there was a bonfire of all of the New York and Canadian records at STS-103 at the end of the hinduism buddhism, War.

And, in any case, Bill STEPHENSON (sic) was not much in Alternative Source, the habit of informing SOE HQ of the details of what he was up to, so there was never much information on American or Canadian matters in HQ. Moreover, SOE’s Training Section over here destroyed all its training records at the end of the War.” Thus, it will be books such as Inside Camp-X that we will have to rely upon to tell the real story of what went on behind those barbed fire fences. To meet this end, I have accumulated forty hours of taped interviews with the men and women of hinduism buddhism Camp-X as well as the neighbours of the Camp. I personally spent hundreds of hours investigating and researching in order to produce Inside Camp-X . (Note: Although this site is Copyright ©, you may quote from metaphors about it for the purpose of buddhism doing essays, reviews, or newspaper articles. Second Feminist? Students, for pictures of Camp-X during WWII, please go here . Four very brave Americans: Chip Gray (second from left) and Leif Bangsboll (with canes) Leif was with the OSS and hinduism trained at Camp-X. German U-boat cipher intercepts which were critical to winning the war against Donitz’ ‘Wolf Pack’. Knowing what the ‘Wolf Pack’ was going to do next, and where they would be heading allowed the Allies to manoeuvre their convoys around the ‘Pack’.

The availability of second feminist top-secret messages between President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, which allowed the two leaders to strategise the next moves in the war, instantaneously. Information supplied by William Stephenson’s agents in South America enabled the Royal Navy to sink German ships coming back from South America loaded with raw materials destined for Germany’s war production plants. Although many of the missions of the thousands of secret agents trained by SOE are lost forever due to various reasons, it is well documented as to how successful these agents were as a whole. The SOE knew that for every 100 missions scheduled to take place, only 5% would be successful. Should this be considered a failure? Not at hinduism, all; just the fact that the Allies had so many agents working simultaneously behind enemy lines meant that the Germans had to devote entire departments of high ranking, intelligent, German officers dedicating their entire war effort to tracking down every single Allied Agent which of course was an Ethanol Energy impossibility. These departments, the SD and Gestapo, were virtually tied up fighting the ‘Unconventional’ battle.

Sir Colin Gubbins, Head of Special Operations Executive (SOE), wrote the following report to hinduism buddhism Winston Churchill shortly after the are moral, successful landings in hinduism buddhism, France. “The stream of coded messages put out by the BBC on the evening of June 5th 1944 was directed at some 175,000 French Rsistance fighters, according to plan. What Are Moral Standards? The response has been overwhelming. Hinduism? Of 1,050 rail demolition’s asked for by the Allied Command, 950 have taken place. The rail network is effects of social, paralysed and German traffic, driven onto the roads, has run into countless road blocks.” This of course caused the Germans lengthy delays in getting back to Normandy from Calais and ensured the Allies a foothold on the beaches. Even with this great accomplishment, the Allies incurred terrible losses. One can only imagine the catastrophe that might have been if it were not for these brave men and women. Buddhism? It could have been another Dieppe. One success story, for which I haven’t written about until now, was the time when three instructors from Carmilla Essay examples Camp-X were sent into France just prior to ‘D’ Day and successfully blew up the most important Radar installation that the Germans had. This of course had the effect of saving hundreds if not thousands of Allied lives.

That’s just one of the 500 stories; most of these stories have gone to hinduism buddhism the grave along with the brave men and women who owned the right to stand up and movement proudly say: I did make a difference. Have you ever wondered what it would be like to look through the eyes of a secret agent during World War II? Well, I have been lucky enough to do exactly that. Hinduism? During my research of the turnout in us elections, ‘top secret’ spy school, ‘Camp-X’, I had the pleasure to meet a man named Andrew (Andy) Durovecz, non-de guerre, Andy Daniels. Hinduism? Andy was much different from other secret agents as he was in his thirties when he left Camp-X for Carmilla examples his secret mission behind enemy lines. I mention this because by the age of thirty, most of us have matured to the point that we recognise danger and fear whereas a person in their early twenties, knows no fear. This of course is why young people of the buddhism, age of 19 or 20 are selected for dangerous missions. Imagine being told at such a young age that you have a 50/50 chance of surviving your mission and metaphors about this would depend on how well you listened and learned from your instructors! On a cold November day in 1977, I was able to hinduism buddhism convince Andy to return with me to those windswept fields of Camp-X. Of Social? There, reminiscences of life at Camp-X came back to Andy like being hit by a bolt of lightning. Andy Daniels sat silently in the hollow shell of the Halifax Bomber, oblivious to what was going on around him.

The flashing red light beside the open drop chute was all he could see. The others with him were equally quiet. Hinduism Buddhism? He took another sip from his flask of rum while he stared at the light, which constantly flashed in his face, wondering how soon would it turn green? At that moment he had no idea where he was, only that soon he would drop through that chute and into the unknown. What would be waiting for him when he reached the Essay examples, ground? Had the enemy been tipped off about his arrival? Would the Gestapo be waiting for him when he landed? He took another sip from his flask and stared at the flashing light. Hinduism Buddhism? Andy thought back to the day when he had sat in the shade of a tree trying to escape a June heat wave at Camp Borden, Ontario. A corporal came running in his direction. “Private, the Commanding Officer would like to see you,” the corporal said. Andy went to the CO who ordered him to report to the Canadian National Exhibition Grounds in Toronto, a staging area for of social soldiers about to be shipped overseas.

Once there, eight other Hungarian/Canadian boys, all of whom he recognized, joined Andy. They were all packed into an army Jeep, and hinduism then later into a civilian car, and in less than two hours, they arrived at Camp-X. Of course, Andy had no idea where or what this place was. All he knew was that they were in a secluded, secret Camp. As Andy and the others stepped into the building to which they had been directed, he immediately knew where their mission would take them. Effects Isolation? The reception room had been converted into their Hungarian “homeland” complete with food, folk art pieces, and wine. Hinduism? Training started that first night#151;drinking good Hungarian wine! Naturally, the young recruits did not look upon this as a training exercise but more as a reception or a bit of R R before their actual training would begin. Their trainers, however, certainly took it more seriously.

This was the very purpose of the exercise: to learn to be able to drink as much as was possible and still hold your tongue. Some months later this training paid off, as will become apparent as Andy’s story continues to unfold. Training went on day and night. Daytime instruction dealt with the basic skills; then, as the trainees advanced, nighttime instructions were added. The training was intensive, to war say the least. Every minute of the day was filled. The agents were kept either running or crawling; they seldom walked anywhere. They might be either silently crawling up to a target or stealing away from it. The same exercise was repeated over and over until it was pounded into them and buddhism became an integral part of their nervous systems, until each reaction was so automatic that it became a sixth sense. “We had to go into a dark room in the old Sinclair farmhouse where we would find a bag of gun parts.

Still in the dark, we had to put them together and come out shooting.” An obstacle course was constructed through which the agents suffered the most rigorous and gruelling instruction. Specialty equipment was often received from American manufacturers, occasionally obtained with the direct intervention of President Roosevelt. Corning Glass received a request for, and subsequently provided, a sheet of second feminist movement bullet-proof glass some six feet high and nine feet wide. Agents would stand behind this glass while live ammunition was fired directly at them from short range. Hinduism? The following pictures were smuggled out of Camp-X, copied, and actually appeared in a local Toronto newspaper in 1943. They were then smuggled back into as an Energy Source Essays the Camp. The agent-in-training responsible for this ‘operation’ had created a cover story to protect himself. If he were to be caught, he would simply say that he was practicing what he had been taught to see how proficient he was, and then he could return the pictures immediately.

As it turned out, he did not get caught and he performed his self-proclaimed mission successfully. Photographs such as this of the agents’ training were taken routinely and became part of Major Fairbairn’s Instruction Manual. One might wonder why it was so important to the agent in the field as well as the guard responsible for guarding the Camp to buddhism both be trained in all of these procedures. Essay? Whether the agent was attempting to “infiltrate” the Camp, or the guard was trying to prevent him from buddhism doing so, it was beneficial to both to understand the actions of the other. One only elections need read the following quote from Andy (Durovecz) Daniels’ book, “My Secret Mission”, to hinduism see why. ”I was questioned by the Gestapo as well. Once again I had to describe the methods and locations of my training, but I told them no more than I had told the Hungarians. Since I had come through Slovakia, they too tried to discover, by fair means or foul, whether I was not a “Bolshie” and a Soviet agent, giving me many a beating in what standards, the process. What they really wanted to know were the buddhism, intentions of the feminist, British concerning Hungary. Where, and in which direction would the British carry out a major attack on the Balkans? How many British soldiers and buddhism airmen were being prepared for action in Hungary?

I could honestly say I didn’t know. “Once, while questioning me, the Gestapo suddenly started talking about Camp-X! Where was it? What kind of training took place there? They asked me much that I really did not know. We did not even know at that time about the code name, “Camp-X”; the people around Whitby and Oshawa had merely called it “the secret military camp”. This showed how well informed the Abwehr (the German Military Intelligence) were; they even knew the code name. But they did not bother me much about this, perhaps because they knew no more, perhaps because my demeanour suggested it really was news to me.” My old friend Andy was right. As indicated previously, every intelligence agency had a name for Camp-X, but “Camp-X” itself was not one of them.

The name “Camp-X” was given by the locals at the time of its construction when they first became aware of the mysterious goings on behind the fences. Could it be that the Ethanol Alternative Energy Source, German intelligence agents got so close to Camp-X that they believed the actual name of the Camp to be “Camp-X” because the locals living in the surrounding area referred to it as such? It is not unrealistic that the Germans were aware of Camp-X. We now know that German records captured by the Allies at the end of the War clearly indicate that the Germans were aware of every aspect of the English Camp, Beaulieu, right down to the name of Lord Montagu’s dog. The Montagu family owned the Beaulieu Estate. Merv Allin recalled working in his brother’s field, which was on the east side of Thornton Road. He hid in the dense grass by the side of the road and hinduism buddhism watched the feminist movement, agents down by the lake placing trip wires across the hinduism buddhism, road.

As a car would come down the road, it would set the charge off as it passed by. Not enough of a charge was placed to do any damage, but enough to illustrate what could happen if this were done in a real scenario and how easy it would be to war blow up the car and its occupants. At the end of a rigorous day of training, the agent would return, totally exhausted, to his room for some relaxation. Upon entering, he might notice that something was missing or misplaced. This taught him the extreme importance of observation. Hinduism? A mental note of the situation was recorded for future reference should it ever become an issue in a future training lecture. As An Energy Source Essays? In the morning, very tough instructors, the majority of hinduism buddhism whom were from Source England, led exercises. Andy remembered one in hinduism, particular, a very proud Scot who always wore his kilt. Another, who had already served in Europe, had a limp but was a bright, wise, and clever instructor. The Scot instructor once said, “I’m going to go to Alternative Essays Churchill and tell him to hinduism give us one hundred Hungarians and turnout in us one hundred Scots and together we are going to buddhism ---- Hitler.” ( Author’s note : This instructor was later identified as Hamish Pelham Burn).

He was truly fond of the Hungarian lads. Andy thought that they and the instructors shared a peasant background, which made them able to relate to turnout each other. There was also some mysterious “seventh sense” which bound them. The Hungarians were believed to be ideally suited for the Secret Service because they demonstrated a relentless determination, great stamina and held strong political beliefs. After the war, Colonel F. H. Walter, O.B.E. (Order of the buddhism, British Empire), said; “It was only at a later stage that it was realized by Special Forces and by the British military authorities generally that the national resistance movements in themselves were powerful potential military forces. From that time forward the SF agent ceased to metaphors be merely a saboteur and became, in addition, a liaison officer and an expert in weapon training, in supply, in hinduism buddhism, tactics and in leadership.” Andy and his mates were recruited and trained for guerrilla warfare.

At the Camp, the turnout in us elections, emphasis for them was on tough physical training. A typical manoeuvre might entail running full out and jumping off the towering cliffs to the lake below, then climbing back up from the shore to the highest point of the cliff by rope. Only nine of the original twenty-two completed the rigorous training and went on to the next phase. Hinduism Buddhism? The intelligence training, initiated at Camp-X and continued in England, prepared them not as spies but as agents. ( Author’s Note : During my investigation of Camp-X, I had been told that one of the reasons the Whitby/Oshawa shoreline of Lake Ontario had been chosen was due to the uncanny similarity of the beach front to effects the shores of France, gradually sloping eastward toward the buddhism, thirty foot high cliffs. In a later interview with Tommy Drew-Brook, head of the Canadian Division of the what are moral, BSC, I learned that this, in fact, had nothing to do with the decision to pick this particular site. The coincidence of the similarity did make it extremely convenient, however.) Live ammunition was used in all practices. No one shot directly at the agents-in-training of course, but the stress of knowing that live ammunition was being fired your way added to the sense of realism and hinduism reinforced the seriousness of the exercise.

It was survival training in its truest sense. It taught the agent to keep his head, but at the same time made him angry and determined. The agent-in-training also concentrated on demolition; factories, railways, bridges, and locomotives were frequent and logical targets. On one such exercise, Andy and in us his fellow agents were in the Toronto railway yards (Union Station) where they decided to ‘steal’ a locomotive. One of the men asked the others whether anyone knew how to operate it and buddhism the answer was unanimously, “no.” After careful consideration, and in spite of this minor detail, the decision was made to are moral standards proceed anyway. Hinduism Buddhism? They managed to get the train moving down the line, but could not figure out how to switch it. Soon they realized that there was a train approaching them on what appeared to be the war, same line. They quickly jumped from the train and ran as far and as fast as they could to hinduism avoid the explosion from the expected inevitable collision. But the train carried on, slowing down, until it gently bumped another train and came to an uneventful stop. The agents, upon returning to what are moral the Camp, informed their instructor what had transpired.

The proper authorities were immediately dispatched to hinduism Union Station to explain to turnout in us the manager just what had happened and to instruct him to consider the damage as the Station’s part of the war effort. He received no further explanation. As long as these exercises were properly executed and no one was injured, there was never any objection from the Camp instructors. There was always someone available from the Camp to serve as “damage control” after the agents had left the buddhism, scene, and the agents knew that the and Dracula Essay, Camp authorities would always cover their tracks. Of necessity, the Camp had devised quite a unique plan of action in the event that one of their agents got into trouble.

It was essential that the Camp be able to locate and retrieve the agent, as well as to satisfactorily explain his actions. On one particular training mission, one of the trainees was apprehended and the police were called in. When the agent was confronted with handcuffs, he requested that the RCMP be contacted with a message: “S25-1-1” (the secret RCMP file number for Camp-X). Buddhism? Inquisitively but reluctantly, the about, policeman phoned and relayed the message. Within fifteen minutes, an hinduism RCMP officer was on the scene and metaphors about told the policeman that he would take care of the incident and that if the police had any further questions they should contact Inspector McClellan at RCMP H.Q. Within the hour, the agent found himself back at Camp-X. The agents “hit” many local targets, including General Motors in Oshawa, the port of buddhism Toronto, and feminist especially the Toronto/Montreal rail line.

Andy could not recall the number of times they simulated blow ups of trains using fake plastique (RDX) explosive developed by the BSC at Ajax (DIL) and Camp-X. Buddhism? Agents learned that derailment caused the enemy some headaches, but could be repaired in a few hours and really proved to be little more than a nuisance. Turnout? A truly effective delay could be caused by taking out a site such as a bridge or a viaduct, which could potentially take days to reconstruct, and required a greater number of personnel to complete, a recurring objective in the training program. Hinduism Buddhism? Kother able-bodied men were kept from entering combat, as their services would be required in various support tasks to assist in tending to the wounded personnel. Instead of taking out only one of the enemy, several could be removed from Ethanol Alternative Energy Essays combat at the same time.

To be able to shoot a target with a revolver or a pistol from a distance of twenty feet required much practice and training, most of which was carried out in the underground firing range. There was not a ray of light, not even the light of the moon. Shooting had to be by instinct, by sensing movements, even perhaps utilizing the sense of smell. There was no option - the hinduism buddhism, agent must hit the target, he HAD to. He was trained, grilled, almost tortured mentally until he hit that target. That was all there was. It was just part of the training. “The night manoeuvres were bloody awful,” recounted Andy Daniels. The agents would be taken by Jeep to the area around Port Perry, Orono, or perhaps to Rice Lake, near Peterborough. They would be given a map and compass, told their target and left to find their way back, completing the mission. “Meanwhile, the instructors would sit playing cards, or sipping a beer, waiting.” When the Essay examples, agents arrived on target, hours later, they would be loaded into a Jeep, tired and hungry, and would head for buddhism Camp.

As often as not, though, they would not reach Camp, but would be told that there was a new ‘situation’, be given their new targets and they would stagger off in all directions to feminist fulfill yet another mission. On night manoeuvres, they would sometimes land a little Tiger Moth in the open field on the far side of Corbett Creek near Camp-X. The trainees would then have to scramble through the brush and be on board in less than a minute. Hinduism Buddhism? This particular training manoeuvres began for Ethanol Alternative Energy Source Andy when he was selected to practice entering enemy territory as a secret agent. The rest of the group was to buddhism be resistance members. About? Andy was taken to Oshawa airport and put in a Tiger Moth, which landed a few feet outside the hinduism buddhism, Camp fence directly across Corbett Creek from the buildings. The receiving party, other agents in the role of resistance fighters, was waiting for him, and together they would ‘infiltrate’ the Camp. The Camp guards were awaiting them but the effects, ‘Partisans’ eluded them by crawling to their target, one of the Camp buildings, and laying a charge. Andy and the others retreated having succeeded in hinduism buddhism, their mission. The timing of in us elections each guard watch was never routine but always random.

The guard never made a perimeter check at the same time after the hour, as did the hinduism buddhism, previous watch. This, of course, was by of social, design in order that any observer would not be able to buddhism predict when a guard would pass by any given check point on his watch, thus making it more difficult for any would-be infiltrator. The Hungarian agents’ training took about twelve weeks to Ethanol Alternative Energy complete that summer of 1943. They had landed at hinduism buddhism, Camp-X sometime in the middle of June, and they departed in metaphors war, the last days of August. All in hinduism, all, it was very rigorous, extensive training and they emerged from Camp-X hardened beyond any other military, physical, mental, or emotional experience that they would endure in life. Directly from about war Camp-X, the agents were shipped overseas on hinduism the “Queen Elizabeth.” When they arrived in Glasgow, there were twenty two thousand troops on board the isolation, ship. Hinduism? Andy remembers that they had to metaphors sleep in three shifts and, if you did not get any sleep on your shift, you were out of luck. Buddhism? They were all dressed in Essay examples, Canadian uniforms, complete with Canadian insignia. No one had any idea that they were secret agents, as they looked exactly the same as any of the other thousands of soldiers on board.

Training continued at another SOE school in Scotland. Andy was then shipped out to Cairo where he had his first chance to test his skills learned in the weeks of preparation at Camp-X. He wandered into a bar and sat down at a table alone. Shortly after ordering, he was joined by a friendly chap who wanted to buddhism talk and turnout elections buy him drinks. A few well-placed questions on Andy’s part soon convinced him that the man was not quite what he presented. Andy determined that he was an Abwehr Agent (German Military Intelligence) and hinduism buddhism was also certain that he knew Andy’s identity as well. The drinking began in earnest.

Anyone watching them would have thought they were a couple of drunken soldiers, what with the quantity of booze they were each putting away. Damned if Andy did not outlast him, though. He literally drank his companion under the table. As he was going “down for the third time”, some of the Abwehr Agent’s comrades appeared out of the shadows and carted him out, heels dragging. Never before, nor since, had Andy drunk so much. Turnout In Us? His hangover lasted a week! From there the agents went to buddhism Bari, Italy, to are moral standards prepare for their missions and take a well deserved rest, exactly what they would need when one considers what was in store for hinduism them.

Regarding Bari, Italy, Eric Curwain, the Chief Recruitment Officer for Camp-X, would later write, “Our special Signals Unit in Bari was administered from a building next to a church and had everything a field office of that type should have; photography unit for faking documents, engraving and printing equipment, coding and decoding staff. Attached was a radio interception and transmitting station to maintain contact with agents in Yugoslavia, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary and Alternative Source Essays with our Ops. Room at headquarters in England. Buddhism? “There was also a school for training agents in Morse and in the use of mobile field transmitters. One of the instructors was an Italian who had returned from a mission with his fingernails mutilated by his German captors when he had landed from his canoe at metaphors, the wrong spot on the Adriatic coast near Ancona. “There was a store of foreign-type clothing for agents dropping into countries of hinduism buddhism which they were usually native or linguistically suited to pass as such. Second? It contained a strange collection of buddhism gadgets and stores for the use of parachute types (sic), ranging from currency to whiskey, cigarettes, to fly buttons containing tiny compasses and beautiful maps printed in silk. When the Germans discovered that men’s fly buttons hid compasses which screwed into one half of the button, the British inventors reversed the thread and effects of social this fooled the Germans into believing the buttons were normal, since they could not unscrew them by turning them in the usual direction.” Andy came out of his thoughtful stupor and resumed looking at buddhism, the flashing red light. The dispatcher stood by the door having already performed half of his duties in preparing Andy and and Dracula Essay examples the others by hooking up their static lines. Andy was just as glad that the hinduism, dispatcher had hooked him up because he was too nervous to feminist do it himself. They were flying over Hungary, at hinduism buddhism, well above twenty three thousand feet.

Andy could hear the anti-aircraft artillery booming all around the Halifax and he prayed that one would not hit the plane. They were, in fact, too high to be in range, but Andy and Essay the others could not know that at the time. Andy could see the hinduism buddhism, ack-ack bursting all around the drop chute. He recalled that it looked like Christmas lights to what standards him. As the Halifax approached its target, the amber, solid, ‘stand by’ light came on.

This is it, Andy thought. There was no stopping now. All of his training would lead to this one jump. The time was near. Soon the light would turn green. “Right lads, come on now, and let’s get ready,” barked out the dispatcher. Andy thought, “You have to be either drunk or crazy to jump out of an aircraft at this altitude, perhaps into the arms of the enemy.” Each of the men had a number, which designated the jump sequence. Andy was number two. Number one was Major ‘S’, an hinduism buddhism Irish Catholic.

He had never touched alcohol. And Dracula Examples? Never. Andy and the others were each allowed a flask of rum to hinduism carry in their jump suits. It would help to keep them warm and would make the trip down a little easier, Andy thought. Major ‘S’ had turned his down. Finally, the ‘green’ light came on; it was time. Turnout Elections? Andy pulled out his flask of hinduism buddhism rum and went to turnout take another swallow. Just as he put the flask to his mouth, Major ‘S’ said, “Give me that!” grabbed the flask from hinduism buddhism Andy and downed the rest of the contents in what are moral standards, a mighty gulp! “Time!” yelled out the dispatcher. With that, Major ‘S’ was gone from the airplane, as though he had never been there. Buddhism? “Right then, number two, you’re out!” In the fraction of a second before Andy jumped, number three gave him a swallow from effects of social isolation his flask. It was greatly appreciated.

Half way down, Andy realized that he was stone cold sober and, by the time he reached the ground, he was as cold as death. Hinduism Buddhism? But the biggest surprise was still to come. “Someone had miscalculated!” Just on the other side of the hill, about a mile away, were the Germans. Andy thought to himself, “this is not a good beginning for turnout in us elections my first mission” as he struggled to hinduism buddhism cut his shroud lines. He had gone from the relative safety of the Halifax twenty three thousand feet in the air, to sitting in the middle of isolation a hornet’s nest on the ground. As he struggled to get out of his overalls, he could hear the buddhism, slightly off-sync drone of the Halifax’s engines; minutes later he was free of the lines and his parachute. Several more minutes passed before he found his jump-mates, one of effects of social isolation who, an expert map-reader, informed them that they were lost! Although later evidence was to hinduism prove him correct, this intelligence was not at all well received at metaphors about, that particular moment. Readers who have examined the appendices in hinduism, SOE In France will perhaps be familiar with the instructions which were given to second pilots engaged in dropping agents, to buddhism the effect that navigation by visual ground references at night can be terribly misleading.

The author of these Notes For Pilots, Wing Commander H. S. Verity, DSO, DFC, reports that he became confused as to Ethanol as an Alternative Source Essays which of two villages he had approached, and buddhism spent ‘two miserable hours’ trying to sort things out. The error later proved to be even greater than he had anticipated by some eighteen kilometers! However, with the enemy only metres away, there was nothing for the agents to do but to find shelter and movement get some rest before attempting to hinduism buddhism straighten themselves out. Accordingly, they spent a miserable night huddled together in the woods. At daybreak they decided that it would be best to split up. In Us? They did so, with the understanding that they would meet up some time later at a safe house in Budapest. As he traveled from hinduism village to village, Andy became increasingly aware that the Germans were closing in. Metaphors War? There were soldiers everywhere. His brain automatically clicked into training mode and he ducked into an abandoned building, changed into his priest’s vestments, and continued safely on buddhism his way, blending inconspicuously into the local populace. Andy determined that his best course was to seek out a ‘halfway’ safe house, in a small village along the route, but in turnout, his haste to buddhism find sanctuary, he very nearly blew his months of training. Upon arriving at the correct address, he mounted the front steps in about war, his best ‘homme du monde’ manner, and rang the hinduism, doorbell.

In a moment, a lady greeted him and he inquired for her husband. Second Feminist Movement? She stepped back, visibly shaken. After what seemed like an eternity, she said that her husband had been dead for buddhism six months. For a moment, Andy was unable to explain her behaviour to him. Then, it suddenly occurred to movement him that he had not given her any of the pre-arranged passwords. He was mortified. He had failed his very first test. In his confusion, he muttered the words and, just as he turned to leave, she motioned to him to enter. Gratefully, he followed her into the house and she closed the door behind him.

For months, she said, she had been rehearsing the code words, in the expectation of Andy’s arrival. His direct inquiry for buddhism her deceased husband threw her into a panic. Was Andy the of social isolation, Gestapo? In one agonizing moment she had, ‘evaluated your veracity, and decided to trust you’, she said. Andy remained there for several days. They became quite fond of one another, but he eventually left to meet his comrades. On his return to Hungary in hinduism, 1979, as he tried to effects retrace each step of hinduism his mission, he found himself on those same steps, thirty-six years later. His anticipation of a joyous reunion knew no bounds. But a stranger opened the of social isolation, door. “No,” she said, “Mrs. … doesn’t live here anymore.” The response to his request for buddhism her new address hit him like a hammer blow: “Mrs. … was taken by the Gestapo, in 1944. We think she died in as an Alternative, Belsen. They said that she had been found guilty of hinduism buddhism harbouring a British secret agent.” After the war, Andy wrote to England inquiring about movement, information on him for hinduism his now published book, “My Secret Mission”.

The reply; “You joined STS 103, in mid 1943…. You arrived in England on Carmilla Essay 18 September 1943. Here you continued your training as a W/T operator and sabotage agent in various SOE Training Schools. Hinduism Buddhism? You proceeded to Cairo in February 1944. Ethanol As An Alternative Energy Source Essays? In May you were transferred to Italy. From Bari you were parachuted on 18 September, 1944, in the name of Lieutenant Andrew Daniels, into Slovakia, with three other officers, to establish contact with the Slovak Headquarters at Banska Bystrica which was organizing the Slovak rising. “There you were instructed to cross into Hungary in civilian clothes to make a reconnaissance and obtain papers and safe addresses to which the other three officers could eventually proceed. You crossed the frontier on 19 October and hinduism buddhism reached Budapest safely. But as it proved impossible to obtain the necessary papers, you decided to in us return to Slovakia to rejoin the three officers at Banska Bystrica.

However, when attempting to re-cross the hinduism, frontier, you were arrested and imprisoned by the Hungarians. By the end of October 1944, the Slovak rising had been suppressed by in us, the Germans and the three other officers had escaped into the hills, where they were subsequently also arrested. “You remained in Hungarian prisons at Misols and in Habik where you met the buddhism, SOE-trained Mike Turk and “G”. You succeeded in escaping and remained in hiding in Budapest until the Russians occupied it. They evacuated you, thus enabling you to proceed, via Italy, to England. You arrived in are moral standards, London on 23 May, 1945, and returned to Canada on 7 June, 1945.” After some time, Andy was transferred from the hinduism buddhism, prison to a temporary internment camp. Andy and the others were on their way to one of the death camps inside the Reich.

Andy escaped during his fourth night at the new camp. It was a dreary, rainy night. Andy and his fellow captives were allowed to get some wood for a fire, but it was wet. They plugged up the pipes of their heater, lit the fire with the wet wood which began to smoke heavily, and second feminist as the hinduism, guards ran into the room, they slipped out the side door and made their way back to effects safety. After the hinduism, war, Andy returned to Hungary for the purpose of doing research for his book. He tried to what are moral standards re-enter the place where he had been imprisoned by the Hungarian Counter Espionage and the Gestapo at the time when the Red Army was getting near. They would not let him enter, as it was still a military barracks at that time. He had hoped to be able to find some record of his stay there, but to no avail. The Gestapo had destroyed all records when the buddhism, Red Army was approaching. For two days and nights, they had burned the records in the courtyard where previously the isolation, executions had taken place. Andy returned to hinduism Camp-X one cold November day in 1977.

I was his guide this time as I was more informed regarding the current condition of the Camp than was Andy. All that was left of the Camp were the concrete foundations. Essay? It required old photographs for reference to do a thorough “reconstruction” of what had been where. “So this is Camp-X,” said Andy, as he looked around the barren fields, his eyes piercing through the overgrown grass in hinduism buddhism, search of ghosts in the shadows. “There,” he said, pointing toward the southeast and Lake Ontario. Carmilla Essay Examples? “That’s where a good part of our training took place; the explosives. I remember the Sunday afternoons we had off. We would play football (soccer) for hinduism buddhism hours. What Standards? The Camp trainers loved it because the physical training was great for us.

Those damned craters!” said Andy. “We had the damnedest time clearing those things while we were trying to play.” The explosions of the previous day’s training of course caused the craters. As he told me, the one thing that he remembered most out of buddhism all of effects his training, was the open field ‘evasive’ exercise. “They would put you in an open field and you had to go undetected for as long as you possibly could. The way to do this and be undetected was to remain perfectly still as it is difficult to see an unmoving target. If you moved and were spotted, a round of fire over your head would signify that you had been spotted.” The other thing that Andy always remembered was how he was taught to buddhism ‘take a man out’. They would teach the agent, “Do not go for the testicles from the front, go for them by way of the back which puts you in better control.” And finally, “Stick your fingers into their, ears, eyes or nose with full force as the individual must give this his full attention giving you time to ‘finish him off’.” Andy gazed in Carmilla examples, the other direction, north toward the trees that still lined the original roads. He thought back to hinduism the cold, dark prison where he had been interned after he had been captured. He thought about the second, torture and hinduism buddhism the constant interrogations. Effects Isolation? After all, that was where he had lost his innocence. Life had been so much simpler here at the Camp. Even in the most rigorous times in the training program, if you made a mistake, someone was quick to point it out to you and everything could be taken back or done over.

Upon Andy’s return to Toronto, he settled down and hinduism got married. Unfortunately, all his years of training and his experiences as a secret agent would eventually take the inevitable toll on Andy as on so many others, not just the in us elections, agents, but also anyone who had lived through or served in the war. It seemed perhaps to affect the buddhism, agents more than others because of the type of training that they had been through. As was understandable, Andy did not want to Carmilla and Dracula Essay talk with his new bride about his experiences during the hinduism, war. Ethanol As An Energy Source? As a result, when his behaviour began to change later on, she had no idea how to cope. Andy began to have terrible nightmares of being captured by hinduism, the Gestapo and about the subsequent torture he had endured. To someone who has never experienced such treatment, you can only try to imagine yourself laying flat on second movement a board, nude, and having live electrical wires attached to hinduism your testicles. Should you not answer the second, interrogators’ questions to their liking, they would flip the switch.

Try to imagine also knowing that you would continue to receive increasingly stronger jolts as long as you persisted in giving unsatisfactory answers until either you gave in hinduism, or passed out. To Andy, this had been reality. Andy’s nightmares became more frequent as time went on, but still he could not disclose the torment he suffered. Turnout In Us? He would jump out of bed in a cold sweat in the middle of the night. His wife tried to understand, but never knew what caused his violent behaviour. She endured until finally, one night, Andy awoke from a nightmare to find his hands wrapped tightly around his own wife’s neck. This was the buddhism, end of Andy’s marriage. He never remarried. Andy died alone in 1998. ‘Special Operations’ Teacher’s Resources for Camp X. (English) Teacher’s Resources for Camp-X.

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“Jane Eyre” and “Hard Times” as Bildungsroman Novels Essay. The traditional Bildungsroman novel is hinduism, autobiographical in form and displays similarities with the author’s own life, mostly with regard to childhood experiences. The novel displays a single individuals growth and development within the context of a defined social order. In most cases the protagonist is orphaned and experiences some form of loss or discontentment in order to spur them away from the family home or setting. The education of the main character is another aspect, which is crucial to their growth and standards development within the novel. It states in Todd (1980; 161) 1. that? ‘Ideally Bildungsroman heroes, who continue to pursue their own adolescent ideals and inclinations, are expected to conform eventually to a predetermined identity and buddhism become integrated with the society whose values are creating and molding them’.

Charles Dickens wrote Great Expectations and described Pips childhood experiences in great detail. It has been argued that most of the child characters Dickens portrayed in his novels resembled that of his own childhood experiences. Like Pip, Dickens received very little in the way of formal education. Charlotte Bronte uses many similarities in Jane Eyre that could be argued resemble her own experiences. She too like that of of social isolation Jane was the daughter of hinduism buddhism a clergyman and was sent to a school called Norwood, which bares many similarities with that of Lowood. Feminist Movement! She also became a governess and this suggests that her own experience of a middle class working woman fighting to find a place in Victorian society was used to express her own views of life in that of Jane Eyre. In Great Expectations, Pip is typical of the main character in hinduism a Bildungsroman novel, as he is an orphan.

Pip is brought up in a working class environment with his older sister and Essay her husband, Joe Gargery. Pip rejects Joe as a substitute father and looks on him as more of a friend. Hinduism! This is evident in the passage when Joe states?’you and me is always friends’ (12;ch.2) 2. The absence of second feminist movement a father figure for Pip reinforces the need for him to find some sense of identity and belonging in society. The possibility of a better life becomes apparent to Pip on his first meeting with Estella and buddhism Mrs. Essay! Haversham at Satis House. It is at this stage in the novel that Pip realises for the first time that he is of a lower social status. It is evident that Pip is aware of his social status when he says ‘I had never thought of being ashamed of my hands before; but I began to consider them a very different pair’ (60;ch.8) 3. In Jane Eyre, once again the main character is typical of the Bildungsroman. Jane is an orphan living with her relatives, the Reeds. However she is buddhism, brought up in a middle class society but is reminded that she is an Carmilla examples, outcast. Jane’s struggle with her identity and place in society began before she was born, with her mother marrying a poor clergyman, who was considered beneath her by her family.

Jane also experiences conflict within class structures in hinduism society. This is evident when the Reeds attempt to bully and suppress Jane at every opportunity they can, reminding her that she has no money that she can rightfully call her own. Jane’s struggle is not only to find a place in society but also to find a place in society as a woman. Jane is what standards, aware from an early age that she has no power as a female of hinduism her social status, while John Reed is turnout elections, fully aware of his importance as a male. Thus Jane’s educational growth begins when she is unjustly locked in the red room at Gateshead and is sent away to Lowood to be educated.

Once again although Jane receives a formal education, she embarks on her own educational growth in life towards maturity and finding an acceptable place in society. Jane’s struggle and discontentment is evident in the various stages of the novel. Firstly as already stated at Gateshead and again at Lowood, where she was subjected to terrible humiliation and hinduism degradation at the hands of the Reverend Brocklehurst. It seems that Bronte was suggesting that all men in society, even holy men, treated woman unjustly. Even Jane’s relationship with Rochester at Thornfield remind Jane that as a middle class woman, who had to earn her own living, she did not fit into conventional society. Being a governess meant that Jane was educated to the extent of a lady but being paid a salary put her almost at the level of the servants. Even though Jane loves Rochester she is not prepared to become his mistress, as he is already married to Bertha, leaving Jane no alternative but to leave Thornfield to embark on are moral the next stage of her journey within the novel. It is hinduism, clear that she was searching for Ethanol Energy Source Essays her own identity when she states to Rochester? ‘I tell you I must go?Do you think I can stay to become nothing to hinduism, you? Do you think that I am an automaton? ?a machine without feelings?

And can bear to have my morsel of bread snatched from my lips, and my drop of about war living water dashed from my cup? Do you think, because I am poor, obscure, plain, and little, I am soulless and heartless? You think wrong’ (252;ch 23) 4. Whilst at Moor House, Jane’s relationship with St John Rivers, once again reminds Jane of her status within society. She is not in love with St John and he is not with her but he still tries to hinduism, repress Jane by expecting her to marry him and accompany him as a missionary’s wife to Africa. Jane is not prepared to marry him and is well aware of the second, implications if she is to go away with him, as a friend. Although Jane struggles to find her rightful place in society she always believes that she is equal to those around her.

Pip’s education begins not in buddhism the formal sense of the are moral, word but within his own personal growth. He feels sure that if he were to hinduism, become a gentleman, it would make him a better person and he would better himself within society. His ultimate goal is to become a gentleman and win Estella’s love. It is this desire that makes Pip unhappy with his life at the forge and the prospect of becoming a mere blacksmith. Pip’s education was very limited and although he was sent to evening school whilst he apprenticed to Joe, he learnt more in terms of a formal education from Biddy. He states?’At last I began, in a purblind groping way, to read, write and cipher’ (44;ch7) 5. Pip’s education is again typical of the Bildungsroman in that he is unassisted and self-educated.

His desire to leave the in us elections, forge is fulfilled when he is visited by hinduism, Mr. Jaggers, who tells Pip of his inheritance and the mysterious benefactor, whom Pip believes is Miss Haversham. Effects Isolation! This becomes evident in hinduism buddhism the novel when Pip states?’Miss Haversham was going to make my fortune on metaphors war a grand scale’ (138;ch18) 6. This change from poor working class to a rich gentleman is once again typical of the hinduism buddhism, Bildungsroman but not in the traditional sense. Usually a man has to work to earn his money and become a gentleman, which is contrary to the way that Pip has earned his fortune. And Dracula Essay! Pip’s inheritance changes Pip from a likeable innocent character into one that desires unrealistic expectations for his life.

Due to his good fortune, Pip now looks down on his family as beneath him and considers Joe to be common and hinduism buddhism uneducated. This is evident when he tells Biddy that Joe? ‘Is rather backward in some things. For instance in of social his learning and his manners’. (148;ch19) 7. Jane’s material wealth is once again inherited but this is in buddhism the final stages of her development as a character within the novel. This is where the similarities end between Jane and Pip, concerning money. And Dracula Essay! Jane is fully aware of the value of money since she has had to hinduism buddhism, work to provide for herself. By inheriting she manages to secure her rightful place in in us elections society. Pip however does not know the true value of money and thinks that it is the answer to hinduism, all his problems.

His snobbery becomes evident when he realises that his true benefactor is Magwitch, the convict, who he encounters in the first stage of the novel. About! On realising this fact he is disgusted that his benefactor is a murderer, a twist in the novel, which seems to teach Pip a lesson about gentleman in society. Pip realises that money does not make you a gentleman and real gentleman have qualities, which money cannot buy. Once again as seen with Jane Eyre, Pip leaves his home to embark on a journey of education, leaving the hinduism buddhism, forge, which is situated, on the marshes, near the Thames for London. Turnout In Us! Again this conforms to the typical Bildungsroman novel, where the hinduism, main character will embark on a journey, usually leaving a small provincial town for the big city, in order to find his trade or occupation. Often this will be a disappointing experience, where hopes and dreams are shattered and a realisation of what they had left behind them was not so bad.

Although with Pip he does not work when he gets to London, Jane has to work as a governess in order to survive. It is in London that Pip embarks on the next stage of in us his educational growth, in order to buddhism, find his real self. Pip squanders his money socialising in order to second movement, establish himself as a gentleman but by doing this he only succeeds in hinduism buddhism getting himself and his roommate, Herbert Pocket into serious financial difficulty. Second Feminist! Pip feels sure that Mrs. Haversham intends him to buddhism, marry Estella and the realisation that this is not so, does not enter Pip’s head until his encounter with Magwitch in London. Pip states?’Miss Haversham’s intentions towards me, all a mere dream; Estella not designed for me; I only suffered in Satis House as a convenience.’ (323;ch39) 8. Once again the similarity with Jane becomes apparent in that Pip experiences disappointment in matters of love. This conforms to what, the Bildungsroman, where the individual will encounter love affairs or sexual encounters within their educational journey, which are disastrous.

In the final stages of the novel there is usually, according to hinduism buddhism, the traditional Bildungsroman, a lesson to be learned before the are moral, character is fully matured. Pip learns just how wrong he was about what qualities make a true gentleman. This is apparent when he finds out his benefactor is Magwitch, the buddhism, murderer. Although at in us, first this was a shock for Pip, he realises just how much Magwitch has sacrificed for him by returning to hinduism, England and risking capture by Ethanol as an Energy Essays, the police. Pip also feels guilty about the way he has snubbed Joe when he came to buddhism, see him in Carmilla examples London and the fact that he felt ashamed of buddhism him.

This embarrassment was evident when he stated that?’If I could have kept him away by paying money, I certainly would have paid money’ (218;ch27) 9. Pip realises the error of his ways and tries to make amends by helping Magwitch escape his captures. He also finds out that Estella is are moral standards, Magwith’s daughter, which is ironic as Estella frowned upon the working classes, only to hinduism buddhism, be the offspring of something far worse, a criminal. Although Magwitch dies, Pip was by his side and gave him comfort in his last hours. After his illness he returns to the forge to Joe and second feminist Biddy, penniless since the crown reclaimed his inheritance. He has learnt a valuable lesson and hinduism has come full circle by what are moral standards, returning to his roots without a penny, fully matured and understanding the real qualities of a gentleman. Jane also returns to her roots by attending the hinduism, side of her Aunt Reed at her deathbed, only to find that the Reeds have suffered and lost most of their wealth at second, the hands of John Reed. John Reed has received his comeuppance and died at an early age. When Jane inherits her Uncle’s money and discovers who her real family are, she returns to Rochester only to find out that he has been maimed in the fire at Thornfield. It seems that Jane has also returned to hinduism buddhism, her past to find happiness with Rochester. She is turnout in us, now a lady and is accepted as Rochester’s wife in society.

Jane had to be a woman in her own right in order to be able to conform to society. Although Jane has fought for most of her life against hinduism buddhism the social order, in the end she does not challenge but upholds the values of society. Dickens and turnout in us Bronte both express strong opinions in their novels about Victorian society. Dickens implies through the development of Pip that middle class values were hypocritical. He suggests that moral values such as generosity and buddhism kindness were far more important than being rich and powerful. Dickens reinforces this by allowing Pip to become rich and then lose his money. If Dickens had allowed Pip to stay wealthy, then he would not have been able to emphasise his point to the reader. He also questions moral values through the character of Magwitch.

He illustrates that people of low social status are capable of possessing better qualities than that of the Carmilla Essay, rich and powerful, who were considered to be far superior as human beings. By doing this he goes one step further and insinuates that the justice system is corrupt. He does this through the character of hinduism buddhism Magwitch, who is killed at the hands of the law and Carmilla Essay possesses the qualities that Dickens promotes. Bronte suggests that patriarchal society was hypocritical since men preached values that they could not uphold themselves. The rules were made by men and hinduism buddhism were allowed to be broken by men.

Rochester is allowed to take mistresses, which is accepted in society but if had Jane become his mistress, she would have been considered an turnout, immoral woman. Brocklehurst expected the patrons of buddhism his school to look plain, yet his own wife and children were decked with frills and curls. Bronte suggests that Victorian society promoted values that were one sided and treated women unjustly. University/College: University of California. Type of turnout in us elections paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on “Jane Eyre” and buddhism “Hard Times” as Bildungsroman Novels. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the isolation, Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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