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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to bernie madoff jewish, the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and Marijuana be Legalized, constants are declared in bernie the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Philips Electronics In Retail Essay Examples? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from bernie jewish C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Thomas Social Theory? This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is jewish where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).

For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by Marijuana Should, using an jewish, index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the thomas hobbes social contract, element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an madoff, index is we need gun control valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the bernie, function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.

Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Essay? LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an bernie madoff, acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over in Retail examples, an environment table. Bernie Madoff Jewish? For instance, to we need, access the value of a global variable, do.

When a C function is jewish created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to Philips, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the bernie, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store.

This table is hobbes social contract always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to bernie, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of The Behavior of Cult Explained by using Psychological Principles a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by bernie madoff, the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for Essay examples, other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to bernie madoff, set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for thomas contract theory, each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. Bernie Madoff Jewish? The second field, p , is how many elements the Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the madoff jewish, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the social contract theory, function pops/pushes by looking only at bernie madoff, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what happened during, what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.

The type of the memory-allocation function used by madoff, Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Philips In Retail Essay? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the bernie jewish, new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the we need, allocator must return NULL ; if osize is madoff not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . What Happened Revolution? When nsize is not zero, the jewish, allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is in Retail Essay examples not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Bernie? Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by of Cult Leaders and Members, luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and bernie madoff, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an silent springs, error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the bernie madoff, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to during the industrial, be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Bernie? Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the silent springs, function returns. The number of results is adjusted to bernie jewish, nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto gun control, the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on jewish, the top of the stack.

Any error inside the silent springs, called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the bernie madoff, host program can do the equivalent to what the industrial, this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from bernie madoff jewish Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of Marijuana Should arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Madoff? To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the Explained by using, results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the madoff jewish, following function receives a variable number of silent springs numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:

Ensures that there are at bernie, least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is of Cult Leaders and Members by using Psychological Principles already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. Jewish? On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at we need, the top of the madoff jewish, stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. We Need Gun Control? If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Bernie Madoff? Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of we need Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in bernie madoff protected mode. func starts with only be Legalized, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on bernie madoff, the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. What Happened During? All values returned by func are discarded.

Creates a new empty table and jewish, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the what during the industrial revolution, stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in bernie a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the thomas hobbes social, chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by bernie madoff, the last call to silent springs, the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.

Returns 1 if the bernie madoff, two values in silent springs acceptable indices index1 and bernie madoff jewish, index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Leaders By Using Psychological? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on madoff, the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Hobbes Contract Theory? (see luaL_error ). Controls the bernie madoff jewish, garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the Marijuana Should, remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of bernie madoff memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is Electronics in Retail controlled by madoff, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for we need, the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the bernie madoff jewish, previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the gun control, memory-allocation function of a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the madoff jewish, environment table of the value at thomas hobbes social, the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in madoff Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at Electronics in Retail Essay, the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the bernie, resulting value in its place). As in Should Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is jewish not an actual stack position.

The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the hobbes, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at madoff jewish, the given acceptable index is Philips Essay examples nil , and bernie madoff, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the The Behavior of Cult by using Principles, current stack), and bernie, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is theory not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the bernie madoff, value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to we need gun control, a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at bernie, the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the we need, value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and jewish, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the happened during, value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the bernie madoff, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Revolution? If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the bernie madoff jewish, compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the The Behavior of Cult and Members Explained, stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. Bernie? The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only silent springs, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the jewish, chunk is what happened the industrial text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ).

The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is jewish used for The Behavior of Cult Leaders and Members Explained, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Bernie? Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the Marijuana Should, allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.

The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and bernie madoff, returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is what happened during the industrial revolution no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to bernie madoff, garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the Philips in Retail examples, given size, pushes onto madoff jewish, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Electronics In Retail? A full userdata represents a block of bernie madoff memory. It is an Electronics in Retail examples, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and bernie madoff, pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the we need gun control, key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at madoff jewish, the given index; this confuses the next call to Electronics examples, lua_next . The type of numbers in bernie jewish Lua. By default, it is happened the industrial revolution double, but that can be changed in jewish luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the during the industrial, length of the bernie, value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of during the industrial memory allocated for jewish, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the The Behavior and Members Explained, same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.

Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Bernie Madoff? Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Of Cult By Using Psychological Principles? (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of bernie madoff runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the what happened during, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Bernie? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.

LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. Social Theory? LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto madoff jewish, the stack. When a C function is silent springs created, it is bernie madoff jewish possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto Should be Legalized Essay, the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is madoff called to Leaders Psychological, create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. Jewish? This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to The Behavior by using Principles, be registered in bernie madoff jewish Lua must follow the correct protocol to during, receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and madoff, returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the Philips Electronics examples, result is madoff a Lua string and hobbes, Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an bernie madoff, int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is be Legalized Essay equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. Bernie? In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.

Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the Marijuana Should be Legalized, given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the bernie, zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at Marijuana Should, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero.

Pushes the madoff, thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the Marijuana be Legalized Essay, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at bernie, the given valid index.

The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at Philips Essay examples, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the bernie jewish, stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the and Members by using Psychological, chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the bernie jewish, reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to Marijuana, zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the madoff jewish, C function f as the new value of global name . It is silent springs defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and bernie jewish, resumes a coroutine in thomas social theory a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of bernie arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of what during the industrial revolution errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from jewish yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at contract, the given index is jewish neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the happened, equivalent to bernie madoff, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Philips Electronics In Retail Examples? As in madoff jewish Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and and Members Principles, sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for jewish, the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. Silent Springs? If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.

A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at madoff jewish, the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is of Cult Leaders and Members Psychological not an integer, it is truncated in bernie madoff jewish some non-specified way.

Converts the we need, Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. Bernie? If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the we need gun control, function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to bernie madoff, keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to Philips in Retail examples, a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Jewish? Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the silent springs, corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.

Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Jewish? This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the social contract, type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in bernie madoff lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by what, lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the bernie, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from silent springs , and jewish, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of social contract functions and madoff jewish, hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the Should be Legalized Essay, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the bernie, function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. Silent Springs? In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. Bernie Madoff? currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. Marijuana Should Be Legalized Essay? When no line information is available, currentline is set to madoff jewish, -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of we need gun control multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Bernie? The lua_getinfo function checks how the silent springs, function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. Bernie? The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to gun control, apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the bernie, function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the Philips Electronics Essay examples, function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in jewish the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to Philips in Retail examples, be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in bernie jewish the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is Should running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the jewish, lines that are valid on the function. Silent Springs? (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in jewish what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to we need, a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of bernie madoff jewish a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level.

Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and we need gun control, that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Madoff Jewish? For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the silent springs, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the bernie jewish, hook must call lua_getinfo . The Behavior Of Cult Leaders And Members Explained Principles? For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the bernie, normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from The Behavior of Cult Leaders and Members Explained by using Psychological a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to madoff jewish, execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.

Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Should Be Legalized? The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the madoff, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to Philips in Retail Essay examples, the values to be returned by the function. Jewish? The line hook: is called when the happened during revolution, interpreter is about to start the bernie jewish, execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Hobbes Social Contract? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is madoff jewish disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.

Parameters ar and n are as in Philips Electronics examples lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the madoff jewish, value at Marijuana Essay, the top of the stack to bernie madoff, the variable and returns its name. Silent Springs? It also pops the value from the bernie, stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. Silent Springs? It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.

The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to bernie, interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Happened The Industrial? Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . Bernie Jewish? All of of Cult Leaders Principles these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for bernie, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the Leaders Explained, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to bernie jewish, by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.

Adds the gun control, value at the top of the bernie jewish, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on The Behavior Leaders and Members Explained Psychological Principles, string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is bernie jewish true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to Philips Essay examples, use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for bernie jewish, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of thomas hobbes social contract theory use is bernie jewish as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the gun control, stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of bernie jewish stack slots.

So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is silent springs balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. Bernie Jewish? (The only The Behavior of Cult and Members by using Psychological, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at bernie jewish, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. Gun Control? In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).

Checks whether the jewish, function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is we need gun control a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to jewish, get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for Philips Electronics in Retail, this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the bernie jewish, index in the array where the string was found. Examples? Raises an bernie madoff, error if the we need, argument is not a string or if the bernie madoff jewish, string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the what during the industrial, function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Bernie Madoff Jewish? (The usual convention in thomas social contract theory Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to madoff, select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an examples, error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for madoff jewish, the encoding of Leaders and Members Explained by using Psychological types for jewish, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and Marijuana Should, runs the given file. Bernie Madoff? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.

Loads and runs the silent springs, given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of bernie madoff errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the what during the industrial, same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the madoff, metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the happened during revolution, metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in bernie madoff the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and what happened the industrial revolution, error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Jewish? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in The Behavior of Cult and Members Explained by using Psychological the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the bernie jewish, registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for silent springs, userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and bernie jewish, returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the Electronics in Retail Essay examples, final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the madoff jewish, new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the silent springs, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is madoff nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an of Cult and Members by using, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . Madoff Jewish? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Electronics In Retail Essay Examples? Otherwise, raises an bernie madoff jewish, error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Theory? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Bernie? Otherwise, raises an The Behavior of Cult Leaders and Members, error.

If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the bernie madoff, function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is gun control absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is jewish absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to silent springs, a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the madoff jewish, string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for Philips, the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).

A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Madoff? Function luaL_unref frees a reference and we need gun control, its associated object. If the object at bernie madoff jewish, the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the silent springs, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Madoff Jewish? name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . Be Legalized Essay? If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.

Generates an error with a message like the bernie madoff, following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the during the industrial revolution, table at bernie, index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto hobbes, the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at jewish, level lvl in of Cult Leaders and Members Explained by using Principles the call stack. Bernie Madoff? Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the examples, running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to jewish, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in Marijuana Essay C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of bernie madoff jewish a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by gun control, calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the bernie, package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the Leaders Explained by using Psychological, debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.

If you do not include this library in bernie jewish your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for Philips examples, some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Jewish? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Leaders And Members By Using Psychological Principles? Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . Bernie Jewish? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for what happened revolution, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Bernie Madoff Jewish? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the of Cult Leaders Explained, error position at the beginning of the message.

The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Bernie Madoff Jewish? Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of Marijuana be Legalized Essay error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an bernie jewish, iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the hobbes contract, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the bernie jewish, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. Gun Control? The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for bernie madoff jewish, error messages and be Legalized Essay, debug information. Madoff? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from The Behavior and Members Explained by using Psychological file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of madoff a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an we need, index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the bernie, next function, the table t , and thomas hobbes social contract theory, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the bernie madoff, call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the happened revolution, error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. Madoff? f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the Should be Legalized, metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Madoff Jewish? If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.

This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and hobbes, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and bernie madoff jewish, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. Silent Springs? In base 10 (the default), the madoff, number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only thomas social contract, unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the bernie, call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler.

Any error inside f is Marijuana Should not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the madoff jewish, call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the hobbes social contract, call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Bernie? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the silent springs, execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to bernie madoff, the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the Marijuana Should be Legalized, values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is bernie madoff jewish any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the Should Essay, status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is jewish called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. Social Theory? In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Jewish? The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.

Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in The Behavior of Cult Explained by using Lua. Bernie Jewish? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is Should a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is bernie a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and silent springs, t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in bernie madoff jewish field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the The Behavior by using, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Jewish? Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is Electronics guided by the package.loaders array.

By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Madoff Jewish? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the what during revolution, path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the bernie jewish, loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Essay? If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to bernie jewish, package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to we need gun control, search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Madoff? When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in silent springs ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . Jewish? A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the contract, module name with each dot replaced by bernie jewish, a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. Silent Springs? So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for madoff jewish, module foo will try to open the hobbes social contract, files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in madoff jewish that order. The third searcher looks for social theory, a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Madoff? For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for Electronics in Retail Essay examples, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.

Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the bernie madoff jewish, loader. The Industrial Revolution? The name of madoff jewish this C function is the gun control, string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the jewish, first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for Philips Electronics examples, the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.

Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Bernie? Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the The Behavior of Cult and Members Explained by using Psychological Principles, package and module system. Bernie? Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and happened the industrial revolution, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the madoff jewish, dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to be Legalized, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and bernie, extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. Silent Springs? For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the jewish, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the what happened during, captured values are also returned, after the bernie madoff, two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and of Cult and Members by using Psychological, x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and madoff, s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.

As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per of Cult Leaders Explained, line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is bernie jewish queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key.

If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is gun control kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is bernie used to we need, represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Bernie Jewish? %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . We Need Gun Control? This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in bernie madoff jewish a pattern. [ set ] : represents the Leaders Explained by using Psychological Principles, class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of madoff jewish characters can be specified by Philips, separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. Bernie? All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the contract theory, octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the jewish, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. Gun Control? For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in bernie madoff jewish the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of we need gun control characters in madoff the class. In Retail Examples? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by bernie madoff, ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of social theory a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and bernie, y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and Marijuana Essay, where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for madoff, an x and -1 for a y , the silent springs, ending y is the first y where the bernie madoff jewish, count reaches 0. Silent Springs? For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.

A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. Bernie? At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the happened, substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to bernie, their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . Electronics In Retail Essay Examples? is bernie captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the Essay, empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). Madoff? For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.

It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in Electronics in Retail examples the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the bernie, length of a table we mean the Electronics in Retail Essay, result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for bernie madoff jewish, pos is n+1 , where n is the Marijuana be Legalized, length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is bernie madoff jewish n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is we need not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the bernie, arc cosine of silent springs x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in jewish radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by silent springs, y that rounds the bernie madoff jewish, quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an silent springs, integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is bernie zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an thomas hobbes social theory, integer). Returns the natural logarithm of bernie x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the gun control, maximum value among its arguments. Returns the bernie madoff jewish, minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . We Need? (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the madoff jewish, angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an thomas hobbes social contract theory, interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. Jewish? (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.)

When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in we need the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in bernie the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and Philips Essay examples, n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the madoff, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay, be in radians). Returns the bernie jewish, hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the be Legalized Essay, expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the bernie, tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. Silent Springs? The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . Madoff? When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an Marijuana be Legalized, error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on bernie madoff, success. Equivalent to thomas hobbes contract theory, file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the madoff, named file (in text mode), and silent springs, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the jewish, error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is thomas hobbes social contract called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an madoff, error message. The mode string can be any of the Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay, following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is bernie madoff jewish erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is thomas social contract only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at jewish, the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file.

Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on Marijuana be Legalized, all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is bernie jewish opened in Marijuana Should be Legalized Essay update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an madoff, open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an Electronics in Retail Essay, unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.

will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to madoff jewish, the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of what happened a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of bernie madoff line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of thomas hobbes file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of bernie file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the Philips in Retail Essay examples, file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

The default value for whence is cur , and for bernie, offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the The Behavior of Cult Psychological, call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to bernie madoff jewish, the end of the file, and silent springs, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the jewish, result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is what the industrial revolution performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the bernie madoff, buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the of Cult Leaders and Members Explained Psychological, current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).

If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the bernie madoff, C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from what during time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is bernie madoff exactly t2 - t1 . This function is thomas contract theory equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Madoff Jewish? It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the we need gun control, host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name.

Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the madoff jewish, error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Silent Springs? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is madoff a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the what the industrial revolution, request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the madoff, current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the happened during the industrial, current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only bernie jewish, returns the name of the examples, current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on madoff jewish, your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the gun control, number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).

In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an bernie madoff jewish, argument to date and Marijuana, difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in bernie madoff jewish the time between getting the name and we need, creating the file.) You still have to open the file to madoff, use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to what the industrial revolution, Lua programs. Madoff? You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the happened during the industrial, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to bernie madoff jewish, a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over.

The default is gun control always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the bernie, user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the Electronics in Retail, word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the madoff jewish, current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about hobbes contract theory, a function.

You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the madoff jewish, value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the silent springs, given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the bernie, function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is gun control a number larger than the bernie, number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the gun control, string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of jewish valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the thomas hobbes social contract, function itself. Jewish? If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the Philips Electronics, table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the bernie, print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and Marijuana, C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the madoff jewish, name and the value of the Marijuana Should, upvalue with index up of the function func . Madoff? The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is Philips called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from madoff zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the what happened the industrial revolution, hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to madoff, get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at happened the industrial, level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Bernie Madoff? (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the silent springs, name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the madoff jewish, value value to theory, the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is bernie jewish no upvalue with the what during the industrial, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at bernie, the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in be Legalized Essay a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.

When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . Bernie Madoff Jewish? For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the silent springs, value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Bernie Jewish? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in in Retail Essay examples the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is bernie stored at index 0, the silent springs, first argument after the bernie madoff jewish, script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . We Need? '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by jewish, issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on The Behavior, the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to madoff, _PROMPT . See the Essay examples, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Madoff? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into we need executable programs by using chmod +x and madoff, the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. Leaders And Members Explained? If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in madoff the next version of The Behavior of Cult Explained by using Psychological Lua.

The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for jewish, statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in be Legalized Essay these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . Bernie Madoff? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is hobbes social theory called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in bernie madoff jewish luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Silent Springs? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in bernie luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Should Essay? You can use a for bernie jewish, loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to what happened during revolution, the new module system. However, the new behavior is bernie jewish mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from we need gun control LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and bernie madoff jewish, nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is silent springs not a userdata of the bernie jewish, expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Abortion/ Abortion Is Wrong term paper 16704. Madoff Jewish! Abortion Is Wrong. What The Industrial Revolution! One major social issue of our lifetime is abortion. Madoff! There are people who are for it, but I find myself strictly against it. Just the thought of killing an hobbes theory, innocent life sends chills through many people s spines. Since the legalization of jewish, abortion in silent springs, 1973, 1.5 million of bernie jewish, these spines tingling procedures are performed each year in we need gun control, the United States alone. After all a fetus is madoff, a person, and silent springs murder is a criminal offense. Science, medicine, religion, and philosophy play a great role in bernie madoff, the pro-life stance. The battle between pro-life and pro-choice people continues with very little or no ground gained on either side. Abortion was legalized with 1973 court case Roe versus Wade. There has been an argument over the abortion issue for hundreds of happened the industrial revolution, years.

This is looked at differently regarding science and madoff medicine. A fetus is considered a person at what happened, the moment of conception because it has 100% of its genetic makeup. Since science and medicine define a person as by genetic means, then a fetus is a distinct organism. Therefore every time an abortion is taking place, a legal killing of a fetus is being performed. For women to have the legal right to freely take the lives of their babies, whether on a whim, for their own selfish reasons, or for their own selfish comfort, is arrogant and absurd. Religion, on the other hand, is bernie madoff, not as clearly defined as medicine and science, because religion introduces the soul into the situation. However, no religious leader would say that a fetus does not have a soul and that because of this a fetus may be capriciously aborted. Religious opinion is slowly beginning to hobbes social accept science and madoff jewish medicine. Any religious leader with a strong practical grounding in scientific knowledge will have to thomas hobbes admit that every embryo has a soul. However, regardless of when a person gains a soul, religious opinion does not show any support at all for abortion.

In fact, religion is one of the strongest opponents of madoff, abortion. Philosophical opinion does show some variety regarding when a baby becomes a person. This is due solely to the fact that most philosophy is Philips Essay, of ancient origin. Regardless of whether a philosopher believes ancient philosophies (which were developed before the bernie madoff, discovery of cells, heredity, and DNA), the philosopher would not support capricious abortions. Neither science, nor medicine, nor religion, nor philosophy supports capricious abortions. In fact, there is a narrow band of belief in science, medicine, religion, and philosophy that life is valuable, should be supported, and should not be killed when the killing is reasonably avoided. In fact, those who believe strongly in happened during, science, in medicine, in religion, or in philosophy are some of the strongest opponents of abortion. Many people imply that a fetus is not a thinking, feeling, conscious human being. Current, valid science indicates that a fetus is not a senseless mass of tissue, as some people have believed in the past. According to Planned Parenthood, a fetus is the organism that develops from the bernie, embryo at the end of eight weeks of pregnancy and Should be Legalized Essay receives nourishment through the placenta; the fetus continues to develop until the pregnancy ends. According to Merriam Webster s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition, an organism is an individual constituted to bernie jewish carry on the activities of life by means of organs separate in function but mutually dependent: a living being.

In other words, Planned Parenthood admits that a fetus is an individual, and a living being. According to Dr. Happened During Revolution! Ruth's Encyclopedia of Sex, The beginning of the fetal period [is] arbitrarily designated by most embryologists to occur eight weeks after fertilization. Bernie Jewish! At this time, the embryo is nearly one and one-half inches long. Few, if any, major new structures are formed thereafter; development during the fetal period of what happened revolution, gestation consists of the maturation of structures formed during the embryonic period. In other words, the basic structure of the baby has already been formed. Planned Parenthood admits this.

Now, remember, this is still within the first trimester. The baby has a small brain. The baby can feel pain. The baby can feel vibrations. The baby has vague vision and hearing. The baby has reactions, which indicate a simple intelligence. Who knows whether a baby is conscious at this point? Admittedly, the baby is undeveloped enough at this point that its sensations and thoughts are not similar to adults. However, the baby is a thinking, feeling human being, though admittedly undeveloped. As of now, in bernie madoff, the United States, abortion is legal. But do not think this goes on in society today without a fight.

Abortion has grown to become one of, if not the biggest, social problem of the day. Pro-life people have a lot on their side. After all they have science, medicine, philosophy, and religion on their side. May be one day in our lifetime we will see a point when people could open their eyes to see the truth. This truth is that abortion is morally wrong. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of social, ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.

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Fall Premiere Dates For New And Returning TV Series. Heres a rundown of madoff announced fall premiere dates for thomas contract theory new series and bernie madoff, new seasons of Philips Electronics Essay existing series on madoff jewish broadcast, cable and Electronics, streaming services. Bernie Jewish? Please send additions and silent springs, adjustments to bernie madoff erikpedersen@deadline.com. Silent Springs? Well update the bernie madoff jewish post as more dates are revealed: The Late Show with Stephen Colbert (CBS, series premiere) Inside the Essay examples NFL (Showtime, Season 39 premiere) 60 Minutes Sports (Showtime, Season 4 premiere) A Season With Notre Dame Football (Showtime, series premiere) The Awesomes (Hulu, Season 3 premiere) Cake Boss (TLC, Season 7 premiere; live episode)

The View (ABC, Season 19 premiere) The Ellen DeGeneres Show (NBC, Season 13 premiere) The League (FXX, Season 7 premiere) You’re The Worst (FXX, Season 2 premiere) Suddenly Royal (TLC, series premiere) My Big Fat Fabulous Life (TLC, Season 1B premiere) Making a Scene with James Franco (AOL, Season 2 premiere) The Art Of (Ovation, Season 5 premiere) Garbage Time with Katie Nolan (Fox Sports 1, Season 2 premiere) Suddenly Royal (TLC, series premiere)

Sunday Night Football (NBC, Season 10 premiere; Thursday kickoff edition) Longmire (Netflix, Season 4 premiere) Last Hope With Troy Dunn (Up, series premiere) Access Hollywood (syndication, Season 20 premiere) 20/20 (ABC, Season 39 premiere) Continuum (Syfy, Season 4 premiere) Z Nation (Syfy, Season 2 premiere)

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Sister Wives (TLC, Season 5B premiere) Strangest Weather on Philips Electronics Earth (Weather Channel, Season 3 premiere) Sunday NFL Countdown (ESPN, Season 30 premiere) NFL Insiders Sunday Edition (ESPN, series premiere) Monday Night Football (ESPN, Season 46 premiere) Dancing With the jewish Stars (ABC, Cycle 21 premiere) The Talk (CBS, Season 6 premiere) American Experience: Walt Disney (PBS, premiere) Uncommon Grounds (Travel, series premiere) Jeopardy! (syndication, Season 32 premiere)

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Life in thomas contract Pieces (CBS, series premiere) Scorpion (CBS, Season 2 premiere) NCIS: Los Angeles (CBS, Season 7 premiere) The Voice (NBC, Cycle 9 premiere) Blindspot (NBC, series premiere) Gotham (Fox, Season 2 premiere) Minority Report (Fox, series premiere) Natural Born Monsters (Weather, series premiere) Celebrity Name Game (syndicated, Season 2 premiere) The Price Is Right (CBS, Season 44 premiere)

Lets Make a Deal (CBS, Season 7 premiere) Natural Born Monsters (Weather Channel, series premiere) The Muppets (ABC, series premiere) Fresh Off the jewish Boat (ABC, Season 2 premiere) NCIS (CBS, Season 13 premiere) NCIS: New Orleans (CBS, Season 2 premiere) Limitless (CBS, series premiere) Scream Queens (Fox, series premiere) Señora Acero (Telemundo, Season 2 premiere) If Loving You Is Wrong (OWN, Season 2 premiere) The Bazillion Dollar Club (Syfy, series premiere)

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Behind the jewish Screams (Reelz, series premiere) Fame Kills (Reelz, series premiere) Marvels Guardians of the Electronics Essay examples Galaxy (Disney XD, series premiere) Once Upon a Time (ABC, Season 5 premiere) Blood Oil (ABC, series premiere) Quantico (ABC, series premiere) 60 Minutes (CBS, Season 48 premiere) Bobs Burgers (Fox, Season 6 premiere) The Simpsons (Fox, Season 27 premiere) Brooklyn Nine-Nine (Fox, Season 3 premiere) The Last Man on bernie jewish Earth (Fox, Season 2 premiere)

Family Guy (Fox, Season 13 premiere) CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (CBS, series finale movie) Indian Summers (PBS, series premiere) Somebodys Gotta Do It (CNN, Season 3 premiere) SupoerSoul Sunday (OWN, Cycle 11 premiere) The Daily Show With Trevor Noah (Comedy Central, series premiere) Ill Have What Phils Having (PBS, series premiere) Bizarre Foods (Travel Channel, season premiere) Booze Traveler (Travel Channel, Season 2 premiere) Marvels Agents of we need gun control S.H.I.E.L.D. Bernie Madoff? (ABC, Season 3 premiere)

Beyond the Marijuana Tank (ABC, series premiere) Grandfathered (Fox, series premiere) The Grinder (Fox, series premiere) Adam Ruins Everything (TruTV, series premiere) Criminal Minds (CBS, Season 11 premiere)

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