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a posion tree essay West Chester University. Explication of William Blake’s. In The Time Butterflies. William Blake’s A Poison Tree (1794) stands as one of lyrical definition, his most intriguing poems, memorable for its vengeful feel and butterflies 10, sinister act of deceit. This poem appears in his famous work Songs of Innocence and Experience: Shewing the Two Contrary States of the of mice and men movie Human Soul (1794), placed significantly in in the butterflies chapter 10, the Songs of Experience section. As with many of his poems, Blake wants to impart a moral lesson here, pointing of course to the experience we gain in masque of the quotes, our human existence at of the butterflies chapter 10, the cost of our innocence. With this poem, he suggests that holding a grudge (suppressed anger left unchecked) can be fatal to the self as well as the object of wrath. Through images, punctuation, and word choice, Blake warns that remaining silent about our anger only epic, hinders personal and in the time 10, spiritual growth, making us bitter, and that a grudge left unchecked becomes dangerous, even murderous. In the formal first stanza, Blake comments on in the time of the 10 the need to lyrical poetry and examples confront a problem if peace and happiness are to prevail. In The Time Of The Butterflies. When the speaker tells his wrath, it ends, but when he tells it not, his anger grows.

Like an how did shah come to power? apple seed falling onto time of the butterflies chapter 10, fertile soil, the speaker’s repressed anger germinates and becomes the one obsession in his life. In the first couplet, Blake conveys the queene epic image of a plant being uprooted, nipping in the bud (as it were) a misunderstanding between the speaker and in the of the butterflies chapter, his friend. Lyrical Poetry. In sharp contrast, the speaker holds back from in the time butterflies admitting anger to his foe in good cause essay, the following couplet, allowing it to in the of the butterflies chapter fester within. With simple language, Blake neatly establishes the root of the faerie queene as an epic poem, ending this first stanza with the foreshadowing grow (4). The second stanza depicts the speaker’s treatment and in the of the butterflies chapter, nurturing behavior towards his internalized wrath, as he tends to it like a beloved plant; here, Blake stresses the of the wrath = plant metaphor that is inherent to the poem. Butterflies Chapter 10. His anger becomes a living entity that he waters and suns with tears and wiles, and making it to formal grow both night and day (9), hinting at his unfolding scheme against his foe. In describing his attentive care towards this wrath/plant, the speaker unintentionally reveals his unnatural obsession with getting revenge, while pointing to of the 10 the slowly emerging anger as a force of its own that slowly consumes the speaker.

The speaker’s vigilance results in an apple bright (10) in the third stanza – similar to control definition the apple from the Tree of Forbidden Knowledge, this fruit stands at once as a harbinger of chapter 10, danger and movie, a tantalizing temptation for in the of the butterflies 10, the speaker’s unsuspecting foe. The speaker becomes the shah reza come Serpent that tempted Eve, capitalizing on in the and exploiting the faerie queene as an epic Deadly Sin of in the chapter, Envy by allowing his foe to behold its shine (11). The crafty speaker brags about Essay about a Look Indian-American, reading his foe’s mind: And my foe beheld it shine, / and 10, he knew that it was mine (11-12), implying the ease with which he could fool his enemy by taking advantage of as an, his foe’s natural curiosity and of the butterflies, covetousness. Blake ends this stanza with a comma instead of and men, a period, accelerating the time chapter 10 fatal line of action into the fourth and a Look Culture, final stanza, filling the reader with dread and in the of the butterflies chapter 10, anticipation. The foe falls for in cold blood, the ruse, deceptive in in the time of the 10, his own right as he stealthily slips into poetry definition and examples, the speaker’s garden to in the of the steal the shiny object (and proving the speaker’s suspicions right). Blake combines the acts of of mice and men movie, breaking and entering and of theft into butterflies, the word stole at the end of Line 13 (an ironic line choice, too, if one is cause topics, superstitious), with no ending punctuation that would let the reader hesitate or stop for a breath. And my foe beheld it shine, And he knew that it was mine, And into in the time of the, my garden stole. When the and men night had veiled the pole: (Lines 11-14) When taken together, these four lines powerfully sweep the reader into in the, the poem’s climax. Under veil of night, envy and in cold, curiosity get the better of the foe – as the speaker foresaw – sneaking into the garden as darkness envelopes the pole or tree, implying that whatever the in the time 10 foe’s intentions, they will remain unknown. Lyrical And Examples. The reader waits with anticipation and dread for the final blow, knowing what will come yet wanting to of the butterflies 10 see how ends.

Blake further adds to the drama by of the red death quotes, ending Line 14 with a colon, setting up the reader for what s/he thinks will be the poem’s most powerful image. In The Of The 10. Yet the reader does not learn what happens to the foe. The final image conveyed in the last couplet is how did reza pahlavi come to power?, of the butterflies 10 foe lying outstretched beneath the tree (16), breaking the how did reza come to power? poem’s flow of action by of the butterflies chapter 10, flashing forward to the following morning. With the dawn comes the poem’s resolution: the of the red death speaker is glad [to] see his foe dead, apparently from of the butterflies 10 ingesting the poison apple. The speaker seems satisfied that his scheme of deception has worked, getting rid of his source of wrath by how did reza come to power?, poisoning it with his unchecked anger and in the time of the, desire for as an epic, revenge. But why does Blake omit the time of the 10 murder scene from the story? Perhaps he wants to lyrical poetry definition and examples emphasize the murderous means the speaker has taken to avenge himself of his enemy. More accurately, Blake reflects the in the time butterflies speaker’s frame of mind in of mice movie, this omission: as he wants to in the time of the chapter kill his enemy, he also wishes to cause essay topics kill his conscience, blotting out the act of of the chapter 10, murder as he blots out the source of his irrational anger. The speaker realizes he is morally wrong, but gets so caught up in the moment and the seeming brilliance of formal social, his scheme that cannot stop himself from seeing it through.

Unchecked anger drives the speaker to commit this murderous act, anger he cannot or refuses to in the time of the butterflies chapter acknowledge from the shah reza to power? start of the poem. In The Butterflies Chapter. The mortal sin of murder will forever stain his hands – he cannot go on in cold blood setting with living unless he suppresses the in the time butterflies event, as he did his wrath. A Poison Tree suggests to good me a prisoner’s confession without actually naming or describing the crime itself. In The Time Butterflies 10. The speaker takes the time to brag about how he implemented his plan, without admitting his crime. Thus this poem’s impact lies in about at the Indian-American, the dangers that can arise from allowing one’s anger to grow unchecked and take over of the chapter, our minds, hearts, and souls, like a wild plant in the garden of definition, our experience.

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In the time of the butterflies chapter 10

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mozart book report Dr. Thomas Anderson. We are living in an exciting time of exploration into the most mysterious and complex object known to man: the brain. Recently created technological procedures such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging now allow researchers to study the working brain in time of the chapter 10, great detail. This research is rapidly increasing our understanding of various mental disorders and disabilities, of the neurological basis for behavior, of memory and learning -- of quite literally how we think. As early as 1989, Congress noted the enormous rate at which scientific information on the brain was amassing. The sophistication of computer science which had become sufficient to process neuroscience data, maximizing usefulness to both researchers and clinicians, and the advances in math, physics, and brain imaging, led them to declare the last decade of the twenty-first century The Decade of the Brain.

Changes in the attitudes of the scientific community have also added to this expanding collection of knowledge: For nearly a century, the science of the mind (psychology) developed independently from the masque of the red death science of the brain (neuroscience). Time Of The Chapter? Psychologists were interested in our mental functions and capacities -- how we learn, remember, and think. Neuroscientists were interested in how the brain develops and formal definition, functions. Time Of The Chapter 10? It was as if psychologists were interested only in our mental software and neuroscientists only in our neural hardware. Deeply held theoretical assumptions in both fields supported a view that mind and brain could, and indeed should, be studied independently. It is only in the past 15 years or so that these theoretical barriers have fallen. Now scientists called cognitive neuroscientists are beginning to study how our neural hardware might run our mental software, how brain structures support mental functions, how our neural circuits enable us to formal control definition think and learn.

This is an of the butterflies chapter exciting and new scientific endeavor, but it is also a very young one. Essay About Taking A Look Culture? As a result we know relatively little about learning, thinking, and in the time of the chapter 10, remembering at the level of brain areas, neural circuits, or synapses; we know very little about how the brain thinks, remembers, and learns. One area that has generated much interest in the scientific and Essay Taking at the Indian-American Culture, business communities, as well as the in the time butterflies 10 media, is the role (or roles) that music plays in the processes of thought and learning. There is an lyrical definition and examples ever building volume of in the butterflies, research suggesting that music may actually hard wire the brain, building links between the two hemispheres that can thereafter be utilized for a variety of cognitive activities. The effect of learning to play music is thought to be strongest in Taking a Look, early childhood, but there may be a connection between merely listening to in the of the chapter 10 music and improved intelligence throughout maturity. I chose to research one aspect of this theory, and found an amazing abundance of both serious and pseudo/commercial scientific literature. People interested in easy ways to boost the IQs of in cold, themselves and their children, along with entrepreneurs whose apparent motivation centered on easy profits, eagerly embraced a recently released pop psychology book by Don Campbell called The Mozart Effect : Tapping the Power of in the time of the butterflies chapter, Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit . Campbell based his book loosely on: The works of Dr. Alfred Tomatis, a French Ear, Nose, and Throat Doctor that hypothesized the lack of sound stimulation, or abnormal stimulation in queene, utero and/or early childhood can cause aberrant behaviors and delayed or disabling communication skills Common music therapy experimentation The title topic, which I have chosen to time of the butterflies chapter 10 scrutinize: research specifically involving the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. While the proposition that listening to blood Mozart's music increases I.Q. might actually have some merit, the 10 benefits that Campbell promotes are overstated and generally unfounded. Michael Linton, professor of Music Theory and Composition at Middle Tennessee State University wryly observed, Trademarking the as an name Mozart Effect, Campbell has even gone cable with infomercials for his book and its accompanying compact discs and cassettes.

In the great tradition of P. T. In The Time Of The Chapter 10? Barnum and the Veg-O-Matic, Mozart has now hit the mainstream of American life. Indeed, the book, along with subsequent speaking engagements, CDs, tapes, and a well orchestrated media blitz, has created the impression that listening to the music of Mozart will magically increase verbal, emotional and spatial intelligence, improve concentration and how did shah reza, memory, enhance right-brain creative processes and strengthen intuitive thinking skills, as the promotion for one of the many Mozart Effect CDs promises. While Campbell's book and the unfortunate mass of commercially motivated hyperbole it has generated are generally aimed at an unsophisticated audience, there is serious research that suggests that music does have a impact on cognitive ability. The Mozart Effect Studies. Early experimentation on the effect of music on the brain was conducted in 1988, when neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, along with graduate student Xiaodan Leng, first attempted to model brain activity on a computer at the University of California at Irvine . They found in simulations that the way nerve cells were connected to in the time of the chapter 10 one another predisposed groups of cells to adopt certain specific firing patterns and rhythms. Shaw surmises that these patterns form the basic exchange of mental activity. Inquisitively, they decided to turn the output of their simulations into sounds instead of a conventional printout. To their surprise, the rhythmic patterns sounded somewhat familiar, with some of the characteristics of baroque, new age, or Eastern music. Shaw hypothesized: If brain activity can sound like music, might it be possible to begin to epic understand the neural activity by working in reverse and time of the butterflies chapter, observing how the brain responds to definition and examples music? Might patterns in in the of the butterflies chapter 10, music somehow stimulate the brain by activating similar firing patterns of nerve clusters? He later joined two other researchers, Frances Rauscher and Katherine Ky, in creating the study that coined the term Mozart Effect.

In the October 14, 1993, issue of Nature they published a short summary of the findings from their experiment. They assigned thirty six Cal-Irvine students to one of three groups, and offered the same pretest to each of the blood setting students. One group then listened to a selection by Mozart (Sonata in D major for Two Pianos, K488). In The Time Butterflies? A second group listened to what was called a relaxation tape, and the third group was subjected to ten minutes of blood setting, silence. All of the in the time of the butterflies chapter 10 students were given the same test, which was designed to measure spatial IQ. This test is described as mentally unfolding a piece of paper is that has been folded over several times and setting, then cut.

The object is to correctly select the final unfolded paper shape from five examples. The students who listened to the Mozart sonata averaged an 8&endash;9 point increase in time butterflies chapter, their IQ as compared to the average of the students who had listened to the relaxation tape or who had experienced silence. The increase in IQ of the Mozart group was transitory, lasting only about the time it took to take the poetry definition and examples test-- from ten to in the chapter 10 fifteen minutes. This test stirred enough interest in the academic community to induce several other research teams to conduct similar experiments, with disparate results. In 1994, Stough, Kerkin, Bates, and Mangan, at the University of Aukland, failed to produce any Mozart effect. This may be due in part to the fact that the spatial IQ test used in New Zealand was from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, while the Rauscher et al. study used the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Formal? However, Kenealy and Monseth (1994) did use the same test (Stanford-Binet) to measure the thirty subjects they used in their study; these subjects showed no mean differences in scores after listening to Mozart, disco music, and silence. Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky reproduced and augmented their original Mozart Effect experiment in 1995, by dividing seventy-nine students into butterflies chapter three groups. This time a work by the modern experimental composer Philip Glass was substituted for the relaxation tape.

Again, the group that listened to the Mozart selection showed an increase in quotes, spatial IQ test scores. A further test showed that listening to other types of music (non-specified dance musis) did not have the in the of the same effect. In 1995, researchers (Newman, Rosenbach, Burns, Latimer, Matocha, and Vogt) at State University of New York at Albany replicated the definition and examples original test. Butterflies Chapter? They broadened the test group to 114 subjects, and the age spread from 18 to 51 years with a mean age of 27.3. Not only did they find no similar increase in spatial IQ scores after listening to control definition Mozart, but they also polled the subjects on previous musical background, and found no correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and music lessons earlier in life, or a correlation to higher spatial IQ scores and butterflies chapter 10, a preference for classical music. Similar results were found the same year in a study by two Canadian University researchers, Nantais and in cold blood setting, Schellenberg. In The Time Of The Butterflies Chapter? They reproduced the fundamental Mozart Effect experiment, and extended the queene as an study to in the of the butterflies 10 investigate the relationship between listening to other forms of music and IQ. They found that the of the red death quotes listener's preference--to either music or the narration of a story, and not particularly listening to Mozart, made for improved test performance. In 1996 and 1997, however, two studies at Ursinus College in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, by Rideout and Taylor supported and 10, added further evidence to suggest a Mozart effect. One study replicated the Rauscher et al. study and, using two different spatial-reasoning tasks, measured higher spatial IQ scores after listening to a Mozart selection. In the other study, Rideout and Laubach required 8 college students to listen to a Mozart piano sonata in one condition and no music in a Look Culture, another condition.

They measured changes in EEG ( brain wave activity) prior to listening to the Mozart and then again after listening to the Mozart while engaged in two spatial-reasoning tasks. The EEG recordings were somewhat correlated with the of the butterflies students' performance, as increased brain activity was associated with an Taking a Look at the increase in spatial-reasoning performance after listening to the Mozart. In 1998, Rideout, this time with Dougherty and Wernert, found that music with characteristics similar to of the butterflies the works of Mozart provided the same increase in temporary spatial IQ test scores. Two other studies, both published in 1997, contradicted the Mozart effect. Kenneth Steele, Ball, and Runk of Appalachian State University presented 36 college students a backwards digit span task, described as recalling 9-digit strings in reverse order, in three conditions--after listening to Mozart music, a recording of definition, rain, or silence. In The Time Of The Butterflies 10? The results found no difference between these three conditions. Carlson, Rama, Artchakov, and Linnankoski of the red death quotes Institute of Biomedicine affiliated with University of in the butterflies 10, Helsinki, Finland, chose monkeys to masque quotes see if any Mozart effect would show up in another animal.

He used a memory task to test various experimental conditions including Mozart music, simple rhythms, white noise, and silence. The results were intriguing. The monkeys actually performed highest in the white noise condition and lowest in the Mozart music condition. Perhaps inspired by the Carlson et al. test using monkeys, Rauscher and in the butterflies 10, her colleagues chose to study the Mozart effect on laboratory rats in 1998. These rats were exposed both in utero and for two months postpartum to Mozart's piano sonata. Formal Social Definition? The other comparison groups included rats that were exposed in the same time frame to minimalist music, white noise, or silence. The rats who were exposed in the Mozart group learned to maneuver a T-maze considerably faster and with fewer errors than rats in the other three groups. Christopher Chabris, in time butterflies chapter, 1998 a graduate student at Harvard University (now a research fellow at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital), questioned the masque of the net result of in the time of the chapter, studies on formal social the Mozart effect that had been done over the previous five years. He examined sixteen of the studies and analyzed their conclusions. In The Of The Chapter 10? The results do not show any real change in I.Q. or reasoning ability. There's a very small enhancement in learning a specific task, such as visualizing the result of folding and cutting paper, but even that is not statistically significant.

The improvement is control definition, smaller than the average variation of a single person's I.Q. test performance. Of The Chapter? His conclusion was that There's nothing wrong with having young people listen to classical music, but it's not going to make them smarter. Other skeptics have been convinced that a Mozart effect does exist. Lois Hetland of the Harvard Graduate School of Education attempted to replicate earlier Mozart effect studies in broader depth, including a total of 1014 subjects. Her findings were that the Mozart listening group outperformed other groups by a higher margin than could be explained by chance, although factors such as the subject's gender, musical tastes and training, innate spatial ability, and cultural background made a difference in the degree to which the Mozart would increase test scores. She did not find the Mozart effect to be as strong as Rauscher et al. had found, however.

Her belief, however, is that even these small effects are impressive because so many other factors could obscure them. In the early stages of Essay about Taking a Look at the Indian-American, research in a field, we would expect the measured effect to be small until we learn to separate the signal from the in the time of the chapter 10 noise in the research method. She noted that Chabris had only studied the experiments that compared listening to Mozart to silence, and which had not included listening to social control other compositions. Psychologist Eric Seigel at Elmhurst College, Illinois, (who had been a self-described skeptic), set out to disprove the of the Mozart Effect. He chose a different spatial reasoning test, one that involves the subject's ability to discriminate between shifted positions of the formal control letter E as various rotations are given. The brief time that it takes to judge whether the in the time of the butterflies 10 letter is the formal control same or different effectively measures spatial reasoning. Subjects in in the butterflies chapter, the Mozart listening group did significantly better. It was as though they had practiced the red death quotes test. we have another way to measure the Mozart Effect says Seigel.

Rauscher and Shaw explained the inconsistent results of the in the time butterflies Mozart effect tests in a work published in Perception and faerie queene as an, Motor Skills (1998) , Vol. 86, p. 835-841). In The Butterflies 10? They stated that the reason the results do not concur is that the formal social definition various studies designed to find the Mozart effect have utilized diverse subjects and different methodological designs, such as music compositions, listening conditions, and measures. The most recent Mozart effect study was by Kenneth Steele of Appalachian State University, this time with Karen Bass and Melissa Crook in 1999. They chose to precisely replicate the 1995 Rauscher et al. with the rationale that the comparison was methodologically cleaner than the 1993 study published in Nature (Steele).

The experiment compared the performance of 44 college students who had just listened to the Mozart piano sonata against 39 students who had just listened to time of the butterflies a performance by pahlavi come to power?, Phillip Glass and in the chapter 10, 42 students who had waited an equivalent time period in silence. The two musical selections used the same performances used in the 1995 study. Lyrical Definition? Immediately after exposure to in the of the chapter 10 a listening condition, all subjects were tested on their ability to solve paper-folding and formal control definition, cutting items, the task used in both original experiments. In The Of The 10? A paper-folding and cutting item is a visual puzzle that represents a piece of lyrical definition and examples, paper undergoing a series of fold and cut transformations on the top row of a display. On the bottom row are several possible outcomes of this folding and cutting sequence.

The task for the subject is to pick the outcome that would be produced by the changes in the top row. In The Of The Butterflies? The subjects had training with this task in a prior session, consistent with the procedure used in the 1995 UCI study. On average, the students answered 10 of 16 items correctly in the training session and reza pahlavi come to power?, 12 of 16 items correctly in the experimental session, on average. This general improvement from the training session is a practice effect, reflecting familiarity with the task and in the butterflies 10, indicating the importance of evaluating changes against comparison or control conditions. The average number of correct answers in the experimental session was 11.77 for the Mozart group, 11.6 for setting the Silence group, and 12.15 for the Glass group. These small differences were not statistically different, failing to support the original experiment.

An additional statistical technique that checked for differences in individual improvement also produced non-significant results. Gary Kliewer. Steele seems to have taken offense at in the of the butterflies chapter 10 Rauscher's defensive stance of her research, saying, There has been considerable concern about the existence of the Mozart Effect among researchers, despite its popular acceptance by politicians and masque of the red death quotes, educators. Time Of The? Several immediate attempts in other laboratories in England, New Zealand, and the United States to produce the effect were fruitless. Replication is Taking Indian-American, one of the most important items in the scientist's toolbox. This experiment took investigators back to a common starting place, the UCI experiments, and the results showed that the effect was not present. This experiment, in combination with several others, suggests strongly that the original positive reports were in error.

What sense can be made of all this conflicting information? One ought not to time butterflies chapter 10 be concerned about the current lack of consensus, because this is a normal part of the shah come scientific enterprise. Rather, we should be delighted that the subject has become important, because it has been largely ignored in the past. Chapter? We can look forward to exciting developments in the search to fully understand the about a Look at the Culture roles of in the time of the butterflies 10, music in Taking a Look, cognitive processes and in the time of the butterflies 10, behavior. Scientific Explanations for the Mozart Effect. While no definitive results have yet been attained, scientists who are gaining knowledge of the neurological wirings and workings of the brain, as well as those trained in the science of the mind and behavior, are slowly beginning to develop theories as to why music might have an formal control effect on intelligence. Rauscher et al. Time Of The Butterflies Chapter? hypothesized that the effect of music on intelligence may be explained by the initial research by Shaw and Leng that proposed hearing complex music actually excites the cortical firing patterns that are analogous to those used in spatial reasoning.

The researchers were testing the suspicion that there might be a kind of how did pahlavi come, music box analogous to Chomsky's famous yet-undiscovered language box. Of The? Might the symmetries and patterns characteristic of formal control definition, music be fundamentally connected to the symmetries and patterns researchers were tracking in of the butterflies 10, brain waves? If so, might not music really be tapping into a structure inherent in the brain itself? And if this were true, ultimately might music be a kind of fundamental, or pre-linguistic--or even supra-linguistic--speech? Musical perception is processed in the right hemisphere of the brain--the same hemisphere that performs spatial cogitation and long-term sequencing operations. Musical perception does involve the analysis of spatial excitation patterns along the auditory receptor organ.. (Roederer) Other researchers agree that there are neurological foundations for music's effects on Essay a Look at the Indian-American cognitive ability. John Hughes, a neurologist at the University of Illinois Medical Center in Chicago, examined hundreds of compositions and of the butterflies chapter 10, concludes that music sequences that regularly repeat every 20 - 30 seconds, just as Mozart's compositions do prevalently, may trigger the strongest response in the brain, because many functions of the central nervous system such as the onset of sleep and Essay about Taking Indian-American Culture, brain wave patterns also occur in 30-second cycles.

He notes that Minimalist music by the composer Philip Glass and popular tunes score among the lowest on this measure, while music of Mozart scores two to three times higher. Hughes used Mozart's music on a group of in the chapter, patients described as severely epileptic, constantly seizing to the point of being comatose. Twenty-nine out of the poetry definition and examples 36 subjects showed significant improvement by suffering fewer and less severe seizures when listening to Mozart. The same test group showed no improvement while they listened to in the time a Glass composition, popular melodies from the 1930's, or silence. Skeptics could criticize the IQ studies, Hughes says, but this is on paper: you can count discharges and watch them decrease during the queene epic Mozart music. Julene Johnson of the Institute of in the time chapter 10, Brain Aging and Dementia at the University of California at Irvine found that people that suffer from Alzheimer's disease show improvement on the paper folding portion (measuring spatial IQ) of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale after 10-minute portions of faerie epic, Mozart, but not after silence or popular music from the in the time of the 1930s. Patient's scores generally improved by a margin of 3 to 4 correct answers out of 8 test items. Neurobiologist Gordon Shaw, co-researcher of the faerie queene as an original Mozart effect joined fellow neurobiologist Mark Bodner of the in the butterflies 10 University of formal, California at Los Angeles in a study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to chart the regions of subjects' brains to in the of the butterflies chapter 10 determine the setting specific area that responds while listening to various types of music. In The Of The Chapter? They used the Mozart Sonata in D major for Two Pianos K488, some '30s pop music, and blood, Beethoven's Für Elise. Shaw and Bodner found that all the styles of music activated the auditory cortex (where the brain processes sound) and periodically triggered the parts of the brain that are associated with emotion.

Only the Mozart, though, also activated areas of the brain known to process fine motor coordination, vision, and other higher thought processes, all of which could explain improved spatial reasoning. Christopher Chabris, the skeptic who steadfastly maintains that a Mozart effect does not exist observes, this effect, if indeed there is one, is much more readily explained by established principles of neuropsychology--in this case, an of the butterflies chapter 10 effect on mood or arousal--than by some new model about columnar organization of neurons and neuron firing patterns. Nantais and Schellenberg also have a alternate theory, based from queene epic a psychologist's perspective: On the surface, the time butterflies chapter Mozart effect is similar to robust psychological phenomena such as transfer or priming. For example, the effect could be considered an instance of positive, nonspecific transfer across domains and Essay Taking a Look at the, modalities (i.e., music listening and in the butterflies chapter 10, visual-spatial performance) that do not have a well-documented association.

Transfer is said to of the quotes occur when knowledge or skill acquired in one situation influences performance in another (Postman, 1971). Of The Butterflies? In the case of the control definition Mozart effect, however, passive listening to music-rather than overt learning--influences spatial-temporal performance. Kristin M. Nantais and E. Glenn Schellenberg. Maria Spychiger of the time chapter University of Fribourg, Switzerland concurs with this theory. She asked an incisive question. #133;why does no one even ask #133; whether maths can improve the how did pahlavi to power? mind? Or whether language could?

Probably, these questions are too silly or strange; everyone knows the time answer is 'yes'. Spychiger conducted a study which showed that children given a curriculum which increased music education and lyrical poetry and examples, decreased language and mathematics improved at language and reading, and in the butterflies chapter 10, did no worse at shah reza pahlavi to power? math than students who had increased time on these academic subjects without the additional music instruction. Spychiger theorized that the in the of the chapter 10 transfer effects between music and shah come to power?, other subjects was probably specific and based on the similarities between the two activities, just as are many other known transfer effects. Thus, instead of speaking about music's effects, one needs to determine which aspects of music account for which transfer effects. Butterflies Chapter? This position heralds the theme that the Essay Taking at the Indian-American Culture effects of music cannot be understood unless one specifies which components of the musical experience may be relevant to specific aspects of other tasks or areas. An example is music's facilitation of butterflies chapter 10, learning to read.

This is how did reza come, believed to result from learning to listen for in the of the butterflies chapter 10 changes in pitch in music, which is thought to promote the ability to about a Look at the Indian-American Culture sound out new words. Norman M. Weinberger. Another explanation for increased test scores after listening to music would be the established theory of sensory stimulation. Stimulation excites the butterflies chapter brain. It propagates more synapses between brain cells, ultimately creating more and more efficient conduits of brain function. Research indicates that there are windows of blood setting, prime times for in the this activity. Most of the studies conducted so far demonstrate that much of masque of the, this hard wiring occurs prenatally and in early childhood. However, new studies are ever increasingly discovering that the brain can create new neural pathways long after childhood. When the brain is deprived of proper stimulation, it is in the of the, believed that the neural pathways atrophy and ultimately are lost. Robert Dolman. M.D., founder of the National Academy for Child Development, stated,Sensory deprivation studies show us that sudden and nearly complete deprivation of stimulation through the five senses can lead to dramatic changes in social control, the brain's efficiency with a partial loss of memory, a lowering of the I.Q., and in the time butterflies chapter 10, personality changes.

G. F. Reed, after analyzing studies of the cognitive effects of sensory deprivation, adds documentation. He found that subjects tested lower on most parts of tests of complex intellectual processes after periods of sensory deprivation, noting that ..logical, analytical thought, based on verbal symbols, deteriorates at the same time that there is more involuntary imagery in various sensory modalities, particularly the visual. stimulus deprivation appears to increase the kind of information processing (such as) intuitive, configurational procedures at shah pahlavi come to power? the expense of analysis, language, and logic. Music is time of the chapter, aural stimulation. The successful Mozart effect studies at best indicated that one area of cognitive processing increased only for a very short time, after listening to social music for time butterflies 10 a short period of time. Setting? However, this does lead to speculation that listening to certain types of music will facilitate and improve mental function. Many people express an increased ability to concentrate when certain background music is played. Karen Allen, associate director, and Jim Blascovich, associate professor of psychology research associate with the time chapter 10 University of Buffalo, NY Center for the Study of Biobehavioral and formal definition, Social Aspects of Health found that surgeons performed a basic surgeon-related task better and more efficiently while listening to music. The music of in the time butterflies 10, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is both physically and aesthetically accessible to the general public. A number of studies have indicated that listening to Mozart's work may temporarily increase cognitive skills. Other studies have found no statistically significant Mozart effect. Poetry? It is unfortunate that the media and commercial ventures have taken the initial modest, unverified study and in the of the chapter 10, conjured up a pseudo-science which gave rise to, and which continues to promote, a full-blown industry.

Exaggerated and even false claims that listening to Mozart's music will augment intelligence have become so prevalent that the control truth of the butterflies 10 matter has become hopelessly obscured. This has been a disservice to legitimate scientists, music therapists, and the public. Music educators should be aware of the controversy, and neither center music curricula around certain types of music for maximum intelligence building, nor exclude the as an epic possibility that there may be a link between listening to music and intelligence. There needs to be further serious research into this intriguing area of science, and far less unsubstantiated, profit motivated action. H. J. Res. 174, Joint Resolution of the 101st Congress (July 25, 1989) Available: http://sun.hallym.ac.kr/ neuro/kns/tutor/brainlaw.html [2000, May 5] Bruer, John T. (1999) In Search of . . . Brain-Based Education.

Kappan Professional Journal [Online] V.80 No. 9 Page 648 May1999. Available: http://www.pdkintl.org/kappan/kbru9905.htm [2000, May 5] Moore, Pam (May 1996) Baby's Brain. KRON [Online]

Available:http://www.kron.com/nc4/healthbeat/stories/baby1.html [2000, May 5] Campbell, Don. (1997) The Mozart Effect: Tapping the of the butterflies 10 Power of Music to queene Heal the Body, Strengthen the in the time chapter 10 Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit. Avon Books. Sollier, Pierre. (1996) Overview of the Tomatis Method [Online] Available:http://www.tomatis.com/overview.html [2000, May 5] Dejean, Valerie.(1998) The Theory Underlying the Tomatis Method of Sound Stimulation [Online] Available: http://www.his.com/ spectrum/abouttomatis.html [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Classical music to create more neural pathways and in cold blood, enhance intelligence. Commercial Website. [Online] Available:http://www.thesmartbaby.com/subjectmusic.htm [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) Core Scientific Research [Online] Music Intelligence Neural Development Institute Available: http://www.mindinst.org/MIND2/tMI.html [2000, May 5]

Leng, X., Shaw, G. L., Wright, E. L. (1990). Coding of musical structure and the trion model of cortex. Music Perception , 8, 49-62. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky KN. (1993) Music and Spatial Task Performance, Nature 1993;365:611. Radocy, Rudolf. (no date given) Arts and Education Featured Guests: Dr. Frances H. Rauscher [Online] Available: http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/nb/guests/Rauscher1.html [2000, May 5] McCullough, Andrea K. (1997) When is Music Used to Change Mood. [Online] Available: http://www.mwsc.edu/ psych/research/psy302/spring97/andrea_mccullough.html [2000, May 5] Stough, C.K., Kerkin, B. Bates, T.C. and Mangan, G.L. (1994) Music and IQ tests. The Psychologist , 7:253. Newman, J., Rosenbach, J., Burns., K. Latimer B., Motocha, H., and Rosenthal Vogt, K. (1995) An Experimental Test of time butterflies 10, The Mozart Effect: Does Listening to his Music Improve Spatial Ability? Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1995, 81, 1379-1387 Available: http://hobbes.uvm.edu/lies4thedition/Classfolder/MozartEffect/Newman.html [2000, May 5]

Nantais, K. and Scellenberg, E.G. (1995) The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference [Online] Available:http://hobbes.uvm.edu/lies4thedition/Classfolder/MozartEffect/Nantais.html [2000, May 5] Example of Raven's Progressive Matrices [Online] Available: http://www.sigmaxi.org/amsci/articles/97articles/ncap3.html [2000, May 5] Rauscher, F., Shaw G. Ky, K (1995) Listening to Mozart Enhances Spatial-temporal Reasoning: Towards a Neurophysiological Basis. Neuroscience Letters , Vol: 185, Issue: 1, February 6, 1995 pp. 44-47. Kliewer, Gary (1999) The Mozart Effect. Formal Definition? New Scientist [Online] November 6, 1999 Available: http://www.newscientist.com/ns/19991106/themozarte.html [2000, May 5] (No Author Given) (1999) The Mozart effect: Is There Truly an Effect? [Online] Society for Auditory Intervention Techniques Website Available:http://www.teleport.com/ sait/mozart.html [2000, May 5] Azar, Beth (1996) Musical Studies Provide Clues to Brain Functions [Online] American Psychological Association Monitor, April 1996 Available: http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr96/neural.html. Carlson S, Rama P, Artchakov D, Linnankoski I (1997) Effects of Music and White Noise on Working Memory Performance in Monkeys.

Neuroreport 1997 Sep 8;8(13):2853-6 Abstract available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/htbin-post/Entrez/query?uid=9376518form=6db=mDopt=b [2000, May 5] Snell, J.L., Peterson, B., Grinstead, C. Hou, F. and Snell,J. Mozart Sonata's IQ Impact: Eine Kleine Oversold? [Online] CHANCE News 8.08 August 18, 1999 to October 6, 1999 Available:http://www.dartmouth.edu/ chance/chance_news/recent_news/chance_news_8.08.html [2000, May 5] Steele, K. M., Bass, K. E., Crook, M. D. (1999). The mystery of the Mozart effect: Failure to replicate. Psychological Science , 10, 366-369. July 10, 1999 (vol. 10, pages 366-369)

Weinberger, Norman.(1995) Does Listening to Mozart Affect Spatial IQ? [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume II, Issue 2, Fall 1995 Available: http://www.musica.uci.edu/mrn/V2I2F95.html#mozart [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(1999) Can Music Really Improve the Mind? The Question of in the of the butterflies chapter, Transfer Effects.[Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VI, Issue 2, Spring 1999 Available: http://www.musica.uci.edu/mrn/V6I2S99.html#improve [2000, May 5] Weinberger, Norman.(2000) The Mozart Effect [Online] The Music and Science Information Computer Archive Volume VII, Issue 1, Winter 2000 Available: http://musica.uci.edu/mrn/V7I1W00.html Mozart Effect [2000, May 5] Linton, M. (1999) The Mozart Effect. [Online] First Things First 91 (March 1999): 10-13. Definition? Available: http://www.firstthings.com/ftissues/ft9903/linton.html [2000, May 5] Roederer, Juan G. In The Time Of The Butterflies Chapter 10? (1994) The Physics and Psychophysics of Music (pg 13 53) Springer-Verlag 1995. Hughes, John. (1998) The Mozart effect on Epileptiform Activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills , vol 86, p 835 (1998) Johnson JK, Cotman CW, Tasaki CS, Shaw GL. Enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning after Mozart listening condition in Alzheimer's disease: a case study.

Neuro. Res. 1998; 20: 666. Doman, Robert J. (1980) Sensory Stimulation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for Child Development. 1980 Volume 1, No. 1 Available: http://www.nacd.org/articles/senstim.html [2000, May 5] Doman, Robert J. (1984) Sensory Deprivation [Online] Journal of the National Academy for Child Development. Formal Social Definition? 1984 Volume 4, No. 3 Available: http://www.nacd.org/articles/sensdep.htm [2000, May 5]

Reisen, Austin H. ed. (1975) The Developmental Neuropsychology of Sensory Deprivation Academic Press NY 1975. Suedfeld, Peter (1980) Restricted Environmental Stimulation pg. 44 Wiley-InterScience Publications John Wiley Sons New York 1980. Allen, K, and Blascovich, J. (1994) Effects of Music on Cardiovascular Reactivity Among Surgeons. [Online] Journal of the in the time of the chapter 10 American Medical Association. 272.11 (21 Sept.

1994): 882-4. Available: http://wings.buffalo.edu/publications/reporter/vol26/vol26n5/17.txt [2000, May 5] Reimer, Bennett (1999) Facing the Risks of the Mozart Effect. Control Definition? Music Educators Journal . Of The Butterflies 10? Vol. 86 No.1 July 1999 (pgs 37-43)

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6 Job Search Tips That Are So Basic People Forget Them. The irony of time butterflies chapter, job search advice: There’s so much available that you don’t have to in cold blood, spend more than four seconds Googling before you land on some nugget of wisdom or another. Yet, at the same time, there’s so much available (some of which completely contradicts other advice you’ll find) that it can easily overwhelm you. Which, in fact, is probably the exact opposite outcome you’re looking for when you go sleuthing for genuinely useful counsel in the first place. Time 10? So let’s do this: Let’s boil things down to a short list of sound, timeless job searching tips that’ll help you fine-tune your strategy so that you may sail through the process (or at least cut out some of the unnecessary time and faerie queene as an epic frustration). 1. Make Yourself a “Smack-in-the-Forehead” Obvious Fit. When you apply for a job via an online application process, it’s very likely that your resume will first be screened by an applicant tracking system and time butterflies chapter 10 then (assuming you make this first cut) move onto human eyeballs.

The first human eyeballs that review your resume are often those of control definition, a lower level HR person or recruiter, who may or may not understand all of the nuances of that job for which you’re applying. Thus, it behooves you to time butterflies 10, make it very simple for both the formal control computer and the human to quickly connect their “Here’s what we’re looking for” to your “Here’s what you can walk through our doors and deliver.” Study the job description and any available information you have on the position. Time Of The Chapter 10? Are you mirroring the masque of the red death words and phrases in the job description? Are you showcasing your strengths in the areas that seem to be of paramount importance to this role? Line it up. Line it up. 2. In The Of The Butterflies 10? Don’t Limit Yourself to Online Applications During Your Job Search. Shah Reza Pahlavi? You want that job search to last and last? Well, then continue to time of the butterflies chapter, rely solely on submitting online applications.

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3. Remember That Your Resume (and LinkedIn Profile) Is Not a Tattoo. Yes, your new resume is lovely. Your LinkedIn profile, breathtaking. However, if they don’t position you as a direct match for a particular role that you’re gunning for, don’t be afraid to modify wording, switch around key terms, and swap bullet points in butterflies chapter 10, and out. Your resume is not a tattoo, nor is your LinkedIn profile. Treat them as living, breathing documents throughout your job search (and career). How Did Reza Pahlavi Come To Power?? If you’re a covert job seeker, remember to turn off your activity broadcasts (within privacy and time of the butterflies chapter 10 settings) when you make edits to your LinkedIn profile. If your current boss or colleagues are connected to you on LinkedIn, they may get suspicious about all the frequent changes. Red Death? 4. Accept That You Will Never Bore Anyone Into Hiring You. Don’t get me wrong—you absolutely must come across as polished, articulate, and professional throughout your job search. However, many people translate this into: Must.

Be. Boring. Time Butterflies Chapter 10? Wrong, wrong, wrong. Essay At The Culture? Realize that few people get hired because they had perfect white space on their cover letters, memorized all of the “correct” interview questions or used incredibly safe, common phraseology (i.e., cliches) throughout their resumes. All of this correctness is going to make you look staged and in the time of the butterflies chapter non-genuine. Instead, give yourself permission to be both polished and quotes endearing. Memorable, likable candidates are almost always the chapter 10 ones who go the distance. NEED HELP WITH YOUR JOB SEARCH STRATEGY? Great news!

We work with a ton of experts who do just that. 5. If You’re Not on LinkedIn, You Very Nearly Don’t Exist. Considering that more than 90% of of the quotes, recruiters use LinkedIn as their primary search tool, this is not an understatement. If you’re a professional, you need to not only be on LinkedIn, you need to be using it to your full advantage. In The Time Chapter 10? Don’t believe me? Think about it this way: If tomorrow morning, a recruiter logs onto LinkedIn looking for someone in your geography, with expertise in what you do, and you’re not there? Guess who they’re going to find and how did shah come to power? contact? Yes, that person’s name is “not you.” If you figure out of the butterflies 10, how to harness the power of no other social media tool for job search, figure out LinkedIn.

It’s (by far) the best resource we have available today for career and job search networking, for finding people working at blood, companies of interest, and for positioning yourself to be found by a recruiter who has a relevant job opening. I once placed a candidate into an engineering role with a company that manufactures packaging equipment. He was competing head-to-head with another engineer, who had similar talents and wanted the job just as badly. My candidate sent a thoughtful, non-robotic thank you note to each person with whom he’d interviewed, within about two hours of leaving their offices. The other candidate sent nothing. Guess why my candidate got the butterflies job offer? Yep, the thoughtful, non-robotic thank you notes. They sealed the deal for him, especially considering the other front-runner sent nothing. Consider crafting, original, genuine thank you notes (one for in cold, each interviewer) the moment you get back to a computer, following the interview.

The speed with which you send the in the of the chapter 10 notes, and the quality, will make an impact. Now, go forth and show your job search exactly who is the how did boss. Photo of person writing courtesy of SeanZeroThree/Getty Images#46; Jenny Foss is a career strategist, recruiter, and 10 the voice of the popular career blog JobJenny.com. Formal Control? Based in Portland, OR, Jenny is the author of the Ridiculously Awesome Resume Kit and the Ridiculously Awesome Career Pivot Kit. Also check out the recently-launched Weekend Resume Makeover Course, find Jenny on in the chapter, Twitter @JobJenny, and book one-on-one coaching sessions with her on The Muse's Coach Connect. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for setting, this class.

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Chapter 33. 10. Data Organization Utilities. IN THIS CHAPTER. The LOAD Utility. The UNLOAD Utility. The REORG Utility. The data organization utilities affect the physical data sets of the Essay about Taking Culture DB2 objects for which they are run. Rows of data and their sequence are affected by these utilities. The data organization utilities are LOAD , UNLOAD , and REORG . The LOAD utility is run by indicating a table to which new rows will be applied. UNLOAD reads rows from a table and puts them into an output data set. REORG is run at the table space or index level, moving data to optimal locations in the data set.

The LOAD utility is in the, used to accomplish bulk inserts to DB2 tables. It can add rows to a table, retaining the formal control definition current data, or it can replace existing rows with the new data. There are two distinct philosophies regarding the use of the LOAD utility. The first and generally recommended philosophy takes more time to implement but is easier to support. It requires the reservation of in the time of the butterflies chapter sufficient DASD to catalog the LOAD work data sets in Essay about a Look at the, case the LOAD job abends. The work data sets for the LOAD job are allocated for the DDNAME s SORTOUT , SYSUT1 , SYSERR , and SYSMAP with DISP=(MOD,DELETE,CATLG) . This enables the data sets to be allocated as new for the initial running of the in the time of the butterflies 10 REORG job. If the job abends, it catalogs the data sets in case they can be used in a restart.

After the step completes successfully, the data sets are deleted. The space for these data sets must be planned and available before the LOAD job runs. The data set for SYSDISC should be allocated specifying DISP=(NEW, CATLG, CATLG) . If there are discards, the LOAD utility returns a RC=4 , and it does not abend. An additional step can be added after the LOAD to detect discards and notify the appropriate personnel that discards were encountered . By creating your LOAD job with this philosophy, you can restart an masque of the quotes abending LOAD job with little effort after the cause of the in the of the butterflies chapter abend has been corrected (see Listing 33.1). You simply specify one of the RESTART options in the UTPROC parameter for DSNUTILB . The sort work data sets need to be assigned in poetry and examples, the JCL only in the of the butterflies chapter if sort work data sets are not dynamically allocated. Additionally, you should consider explicitly defining sort work data sets when loading very large tables. The second philosophy is easier to implement but more difficult to support. No additional disk space is required because all LOAD work data sets are temporary. Shah Reza Pahlavi Come To Power?. Therefore, all interim work data sets are lost when the job abends. See Listing 33.2 for sample JCL. Listing 33.2.

LOAD JCL (Nonrestartable) To restart this LOAD job, you must determine in which phase the in the of the chapter 10 job abended. If the masque job abends in any phase of a LOAD REPLACE , you can simply terminate the utility and rerun. This can incur significant overhead for reprocessing data needlessly. If the first philosophy is used, reprocessing is usually avoided. For a LOAD RESUME(YES) , however, if the job abends in any phase other than UTILINIT , you must restore the table space for of the butterflies chapter, the table being loaded to a previous point in time. This can be accomplished by running the RECOVER TOCOPY utility or by running a full RECOVER if the LOG NO option of the LOAD utility was specified. After restoring the table space (and possibly its associated indexes), you must correct the cause of the abend, terminate the utility, and then rerun the job. As you can see, this method is significantly more difficult to restart than the first method. Try to use the first philosophy rather than the second.

This makes recovery from how did error situations as smooth and painless as possible. Estimating LOAD Work Data Set Sizes. The LOAD utility requires work data sets to load data into DB2 tables. The following formulas can help you calculate estimated sizes for these work data sets. More complex and precise calculations are in the DB2 Command and Utility Reference manual, but these formulas should produce comparable results. If any number in the SORTOUT calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers , the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of 1.2.

If any number in the SYSUT1 calculation is 0, substitute 1. The multiplier 1.2 is factored into the calculation to time chapter 10 provide a fudge factor. If you are absolutely sure of your numbers, the calculation can be made more precise by eliminating the additional multiplication of 1.2. Always allocate the SYSERR data set to be at least 1 cylinder. The SYSMAP data set is required if either of the following is true: Discard processing is requested . The table space is segmented or partitioned. The space requirements for SYSDISC may be prohibitive if disk space is at a premium at your shop. Lyrical And Examples. Instead of allocating the SYSDISC data set as large as the data being loaded, consider using a small primary quantity and in the butterflies 10 a larger secondary quantity ”for example:

Although the SYSDISC data set is optional, specifying it is highly recommended to trap records that cannot be loaded. After calculating the estimated size in bytes for faerie epic, each work data set, convert the number into cylinders , rounding up to the next whole cylinder. Allocating work data sets in cylinder increments enhances the utility's performance. There are nine possible phases of the LOAD utility: Sets up and of the initializes the LOAD utility.

Reads the sequential data set specified as input and loads the data to the specified table. This phase also populates the data set associated with the SYSUT1 DD with index and foreign key data. The compression dictionary is rebuilt in this step for COMPRESS YES table spaces. The copy pending flag is formal social control definition, reset at the end of this phase if an inline copy is of the butterflies chapter 10, produced (unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified). Sorts the and examples index and foreign key data using the data sets assigned to the SORTOUT and SORTWK xx DD statements. Builds indexes and identifies duplicate keys, placing the error information in SYSERR . The recovery pending flag is reset for all non-unique indexes.

The copy pending flag is 10, reset at the end of this phase if an inline copy is produced unless the SORTKEYS parameter is specified. When parallel index build is specified ( SORTKEYS ), the SORT and BUILD phases are performed in in cold blood setting, the SORTBLD phase instead. Reads the SYSERR data set to correct unique index violations. The recovery pending flag is reset for all unique indexes. Checks foreign keys for conformance to referential constraints and stores the error information in SYSERR . Butterflies. Resets check pending flag for table space. Reads the SYSERR information to correct referential constraint violations and places the erroneous records in the SYSDISC data set.

Sends reports of setting unique index violations and referential constraint violations to SYSPRINT . Performs the final utility cleanup. The SORT phase will be skipped if the RELOAD phase analyzes the in the time of the butterflies data and determines that the SORT phase is not needed. Creating an Inline Copy During the LOAD. It is possible to create a full image copy data set during the shah pahlavi execution of the LOAD utility. This is referred to as an inline COPY . The image copy will be a SHRLEVEL REFERENCE copy.

There are two major benefits of taking an inline copy. The first is that a second pass of the data is in the of the, not required to create a DB2 image copy. The second benefit is that the table space into which the data is being loaded will not be placed into a copy pending state when inline copy is specified, even if the LOG NO option is specified. To create an inline copy, use the COPYDDN and RECOVERYDDN keywords. You can specify up to two primary and two secondary copies. Gathering Inline Statistics During the LOAD. You also can generate statistics during the in cold blood execution of the in the butterflies LOAD utility. This is referred to as inline RUNSTATS . Up-to-date statistics will be generated during the LOAD instead of requiring an additional RUNSTATS step. To generate inline RUNSTATS , use the STATISTICS keyword. You can gather table space statistics, index statistics, or both. If you specify both the in cold blood DISCARDDN and STATISTICS options, the inline statistics collected during the in the of the chapter LOAD may be inaccurate.

When a row is found with check constraint errors or conversion errors, the row is not loaded into the table, so DB2 will not collect statistics for blood setting, it. So far, so good. However, the LOAD utility will collect inline statistics before discarding rows that violate unique constraints and referential constraints. Therefore, when the number of rows that violate RI and unique constraints is high, the statistics could be quite imprecise. If a significant number of rows are discarded, you should consider executing the RUNSTATS utility on the table after the discarded data has been verified as wrong or corrected. Loading Delimited Input Data Sets. As of DB2 V8, the IBM LOAD utility can load data from an input data set in of the 10, delimited format. In a delimited input data set, each column is separated from the next column by a delimiter character. Additionally, all the fields in the input data file must be character strings or external numeric values.

Accepting delimited input data sets allows the LOAD utility to recognize and load data from a large number of data sources. As long as each field is masque red death quotes, properly delimited by a specific character, the LOAD utility can be used to load the data into a DB2 table. When loading delimited data, you cannot specify CONTINUEIF , INCURSOR , WHEN , or multiple INTO TABLE statements. The default delimiter character is a comma, but it can be changed using the COLDEL parameter. The delimiter character can be specified as either a regular character or hexadecimal character. When you specify the delimiter character, be sure to verify that the character is specified in of the, the code page of the queene as an source data.

Furthermore, if the utility control parameter is coded in a different character type than the input file, specify the COLDEL in hex or the in the of the result can be unpredictable. Lyrical Poetry Definition. For example, specify the delimiter as a hex constant if the utility control statement is coded in EBCDIC and the input data is ASCII or Unicode. When loading a delimited input file, you might also want to specify a character string delimiter and a decimal point character. Of The Butterflies Chapter. The default character string delimiter is the double quote character ( ) but can be set to another character using the CHARDEL parameter. You must specify a character string delimiter only if the data to formal be loaded contains the 10 character string delimiter. Though not required, you can put the character string delimiters around other character strings. To load a string containing the character delimiter character, you must double up the character.

For example, code the following to LOAD a string containing: He told me You look well and social control definition I liked it. Finally, you can change the decimal point character, too. This is done using the DECPT parameter. The default is in the of the chapter, a period, but some countries use a comma. Therefore, you can change the masque red death decimal point character to another character of your choice using DECPT . The LOAD utility can be restarted.

The restart or rerun procedure is time chapter 10, determined by the abending phase of the LOAD step. There are two ways to masque of the red death determine the phase in which the abend occurred. The first method is to issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to determine which utilities are currently active, stopped , or terminating in the DB2 system. The format of the command is. The second method to determine the abending phase is to view the SYSPRINT DD statement of the in the butterflies LOAD step. This method is faerie epic, not as desirable as the first, but it is the in the chapter 10 only method you can use when the DB2 system is lyrical definition and examples, down. Of The Butterflies Chapter 10. At the completion of each phase, DB2 prints a line stating that the phase has completed.

You can assume that the phase immediately following the last phase reported complete in the SYSPRINT DD statement is the phase that was executing when the abend occurred. After determining the phase of the LOAD utility at the time of the abend, follow the steps outlined here to restart or rerun the load. In the following procedures, it is queene epic, assumed that your LOAD utility processing is generally restartable. If the abend occurred in the UTILINIT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by in the chapter 10 another utility executing with the same UID or a utility that is incompatible with another utility currently executing. Resolve the cause of the abend. An abend in this phase is probably due to Essay Taking a Look at the Indian-American Culture improper job scheduling. Issue the DISPLAY UTILITY command to in the of the butterflies chapter 10 determine which utilities are currently in process for the DB2 system.

Resolve the Essay about a Look at the Indian-American Culture scheduling problem by allowing conflicting utilities to complete before proceeding to step 3. Use the SORTDEVT clause to dynamically create the SORTWKxx data sets someplace else. Restart the in the butterflies chapter 10 job at the LOAD step. If the in cold blood setting abend occurred in the RELOAD phase. Determine the cause of the abend.

An abend in in the chapter 10, this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to pahlavi to power? the SYSUT1 DD statement. Another cause is that the VSAM data set associated with the table space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the time of the butterflies chapter 10 problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSUT1 DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSUT1 data set to the new data set, delete the to power? original SYSUT1 data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the butterflies original SYSUT1 data set. If the problem is an setting out-of-space abend on in the time of the butterflies, the VSAM data set containing the table space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to lyrical poetry definition the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for in the time chapter, the index, or both. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . Although LOAD can be restarted normally within the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is not used, it will restart from the beginning of the RELOAD phase if SORTKEYS is used.

If the masque quotes abend occurred in the SORT phase. Determine the cause of the abend. The predominant causes are insufficient sort work space or insufficient space allocations for the SORTOUT DD statement. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the allocations and proceed to step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the BUILD phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in in the time butterflies, this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. Another cause is in cold blood, that the VSAM data set associated with the of the chapter index space has run out of available DASD space. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend (B37) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with the DD statement will have been cataloged.

Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to Essay a Look Culture the same name as the in the time of the butterflies original SYSERR data set. If the problem is an out-of-space abend on the VSAM data set containing the index space being reloaded, contact the DBA or DASD support unit. This situation can be corrected by adding another volume to the STOGROUP being used; using IDCAMS to redefine the VSAM data set, move the VSAM data set, or both; or altering the primary space allocation quantity for Essay about Taking at the Culture, the index, the secondary space allocation quantity for the index, or both. If LOAD was run using the REPLACE option, restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the UTPROC parameter to time of the RESTART(PHASE) . If LOAD was run using the RESUME YES option, the LOAD is not restartable. Terminate the LOAD utility and rebuild the indexes using the RECOVER INDEX utility. When the SORTKEYS parameter is used and the LOAD utility terminates during the control definition RELOAD , SORT , or BUILD phases, both RESTART and RESTART(PHASE) restart from the beginning of the RELOAD phase. If the abend occurred in the INDEXVAL phase. Determine the cause of the abend. Abends in this phase are rare. The INDEXVAL phase is run only when unique indexes exist for the table being loaded.

Resolve the cause of the abend. Restart the job at time 10, the LOAD step with a temporary JCL change to alter the UTPROC parameter to lyrical and examples RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in in the of the butterflies, the ENFORCE phase. Determine the cause for the abend. An abend in this step is control, usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSERR DD statement. The ENFORCE phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. If the problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSERR DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Time Chapter 10. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSERR data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSERR data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSERR data set.

Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the Essay Taking a Look at the UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in the DISCARD phase. Determine the cause for in the of the butterflies chapter 10, the abend. An abend in this step is usually caused by insufficient space allocated to the SYSDISC DD statement. The DISCARD phase is optional and is not always run. Resolve the cause of the abend. Essay A Look Culture. If the in the butterflies problem is an out-of-space abend ( B37 ) on the SYSDISC DD statement, the data set associated with that DD statement will have been cataloged. Allocate a new data set with additional space, copy the SYSDISC data set to the new data set, delete the original SYSDISC data set, and rename the new data set to the same name as the original SYSDISC data set. Restart the Essay at the Indian-American job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the butterflies UTPROC parameter to RESTART . If the abend occurred in queene, the REPORT phase.

Determine the cause for the abend. Abends in in the of the butterflies 10, the REPORT phase are rare. The REPORT phase is run only definition if the INDEXVAL , ENFORCE , or DISCARD phases encounter any errors. Sometimes the cause for an abend in this phase is in the butterflies chapter, insufficient space allocated to the sort work data sets because the poetry report is sorted by error type and input sequence. Resolve the cause of the abend. Of The. If the problem was caused by insufficient space on the sort work or SORTOUT DD statements, simply increase the in cold setting allocations and proceed to in the time of the butterflies step 3. Restart the job at the LOAD step with a temporary change to alter the lyrical definition and examples UTPROC parameter to time butterflies 10 RESTART(PHASE) . If the abend occurred in the UTILTERM phase. An abend in this phase is unlikely because all the work required for the load has been completed.

A problem at this phase means that DB2 cannot terminate the utility. Terminate the DB2 utility by issuing the TERM UTILITY command. The format of the command is. If the LOAD utility work data sets associated with this job were cataloged as a result of the abend, uncatalog them and force the masque job's completion. The LOAD utility can run concurrently with the following utilities (each accessing the same object): DIAGNOSE , REPORT , and STOSPACE . The LOAD utility will drain all claim classes for the table space or partition being loaded and any associated indexes, index partitions, and logical index partitions.

Furthermore, if the ENFORCE option is in the time of the butterflies 10, specified, LOAD will drain the lyrical write claim class for the primary key index. Partitions are treated as separate objects; therefore, utilities can run concurrently on separate partitions of the same object. Prior to DB2 V7, to load a partitioned table space by partition, a separate, dedicated LOAD job needed to be set up for each partition. Butterflies Chapter. Even then, the separate jobs, when run at the same time, can run into contention with NPIs. As of DB2 V7, though, partitions can be loaded in parallel within a single LOAD job and in cold blood setting NPI contention is reduced. An additional benefit of in the time 10 parallel loading is that the input data need not be broken out into setting, separate data sets. And the same goes for the error data set and mapping data set. Of course, you can set up your LOAD utility job to load each partition from a separate data set, with a separate discards data set for each partition, too.

This is accomplished using the INDDN and the DISCARDDN keywords to set up the appropriate data sets. Be aware that the INDDN and DISCARDDN options can only be specified if the PART keyword is also specified. They cannot be used with segmented or simple table spaces. The actual number of parallel RELOAD tasks to be run is determined by the number of CPUs, the availability of of the butterflies chapter virtual storage, and the number of available DB2 threads. When the LOAD utility builds indexes in parallel rather than sequentially, overall elapsed time for the LOAD job can be reduced. As An. For LOAD to build indexes in parallel, the first condition, of course, is that there be more than one index defined for the table being loaded. If that is the case, the SORTKEYS clause must be specified with an in the estimate for the number of faerie queene keys, and sort work data sets must be allocated to the LOAD job (either explicitly or dynamically). As of DB2 V7, you can use the LOAD utility with the in the time of the butterflies 10 SHRLEVEL CHANGE parameter to formal control load data into a table while users concurrently access the existing data. This feature is commonly referred to as an online LOAD resume. Previously, running the LOAD utility made the table data unavailable. Of course, you could always code a program to insert the data, but that is in the time of the butterflies chapter 10, not very efficient or simple.

Online loading will work using normal SQL INSERT s. The LOAD will perform normal claim processing and no drains. But all normal SQL processing activities will occur. This means that in this case, LOAD will cause INSERT triggers to be fired and referential constraints to be checked. When running the LOAD utility consider applying the following tips, tricks, and techniques. When index keys are not already in sorted order and how did shah indexes exist on the table into which data is being loaded, consider using the SORTKEYS keyword. When SORTKEYS is specified, index keys are sorted in memory, rather than being written to work files.

This can improve performance by: Eliminating the expensive I/O operations to disk. Reducing the time of the chapter space requirements for the SYSUT1 and SORTOUT data sets. Reducing elapsed time from the start of the in cold reload phase to the end of the build phase. An estimate of the number of keys to be sorted can be supplied. In The Of The Butterflies 10. This is optional, but recommended because the lyrical extracted keys will be written to in the time of the butterflies 10 a work data set, minimizing the efficiency gains of using the SORTKEYS parameter. To estimate the number of keys to quotes sort, use the following calculation: If more than one table is being loaded, the preceding calculation must be repeated for each table ”the sum of the results is used.

As of of the chapter DB2 V7, when loading partitions in parallel along with SORTKEYS DB2 supports multiple RELOAD tasks piping their key/RID pairs to the SORT / BUILD subtasks (one per red death index). The number of time of the chapter tasks that can be supported is roughly equal to the number of partitions. But when SORTKEYS is specified and some tasks are allocated for reloading, other tasks need to be allocated for sorting index keys and for building indexes in setting, parallel. Thus the in the of the number of RELOAD tasks may be reduced in order to red death quotes improve the overall performance of the entire LOAD job. Avoid the LOAD Utility for Tables with Triggers. You may wish to avoid using the in the of the LOAD utility to add data to any table on which you have defined an INSERT trigger.

Triggers do not fire during LOAD , so loading a table this way may cause data integrity problems. Instead, code a program to insert the data as needed because INSERT will cause the trigger to fire appropriately. Of course, this caveat does not apply to poetry definition an online LOAD resume, because the LOAD utility will perform normal SQL INSERT s, thereby firing triggers as desired. Consider Serializing Loads for Tables in the Same Database. The LOAD utility is sensitive to concurrent processing. If concurrent loading of tables in the same databases takes too long, consider serializing the LOAD jobs for those tables. Typical symptoms involve LOAD jobs that timeout or languish in chapter 10, the UTILINIT phase until the Essay a Look at the RELOAD phase of other concurrent LOAD jobs is finished.

Consider assigning tables needing to in the of the butterflies 10 be loaded concurrently to different databases to avoid this problem. About A Look At The Culture. Another approach is to assign only one table per database. Use LOAD to Append or Replace Rows. You can use LOAD to replace data in in the butterflies 10, a table by specifying the REPLACE option. LOAD also can append new data to masque a table, leaving current data intact, by time of the chapter 10 specifying the RESUME(YES) option. Red Death Quotes. Choose the appropriate option based on your data loading needs. Use the of the chapter LOAD utility, specifying an empty input data set (or DD DUMMY ), to delete all rows from a non-segmented table space. This is called a mass delete . LOAD is usually more efficient than DELETE SQL without a WHERE clause. Specifying the faerie queene as an LOG NO option to avoid logging data changes will further enhance the performance of the mass delete. Note, however, the following considerations: If multiple tables are assigned to a simple table space, the LOAD utility deletes all rows for in the time butterflies chapter 10, all tables in that table space.

Consider loading a DUMMY data set even for about at the, segmented table spaces if a large amount of in the of the chapter 10 data must be deleted. Because DB2 logging can be avoided during a LOAD , the LOAD utility can be substantially faster than the improved mass delete algorithms used by segmented table spaces. To enhance the in cold blood setting performance of the LOAD utility, use a fixed blocked input data set rather than a variable blocked data set. Buffer the Work Data Sets Appropriately. For large loads, set the in the butterflies chapter 10 BUFNO parameter in the JCL for the SYSUT1 DD statement to a number greater than 20. A BUFNO of approximately 20 is recommended for medium- sized indexes, and a BUFNO between 50 and 100 is recommended for larger tables. Control Definition. The BUFNO parameter creates read and of the write buffers in main storage for the data set, thereby enhancing the performance of the LOAD utility. The default for BUFNO is 8 for DB2 V3 and 20 for DB2 V4. Ensure that sufficient memory (real or expanded) is formal social control, available, however, before increasing the BUFNO specification for your LOAD utility data sets. Enforce RI During Table Loading When Possible.

Favor using the ENFORCE option of the time of the butterflies chapter LOAD utility to enforce referential constraints instead of running CHECK DATA after the LOAD completes. Formal Control Definition. It is usually more efficient to process the in the time of the butterflies loaded data once, as it is loaded, than to process the data twice, once to formal load it and once to check it. If LOAD with the RESUME(YES) option was executed, new data has been added to the table. In The Of The Butterflies. However, if ENFORCE was not specified and definition a subsequent CHECK DATA is run, CHECK DATA will check the entire table, not just the new data. Ensure That LOAD Input Data Sets Are in Key Sequence. Favor sorting the LOAD input data set into sequence by time of the butterflies chapter 10 the columns designated in the clustering index. Be sure to sort the poetry data in the appropriate sequence, either ascending or descending, depending on how the index was defined. Otherwise, the LOAD utility does not load data in clustering order, and the table space and indexes will be inefficiently organized. When the index key is in the time of the chapter 10, null, it should be treated as high values for sorting purposes. If you use DFSORT to sort the faerie as an input data before loading, consider invoking the SORT DEDUPE option. In The Of The Butterflies. Doing so not only can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step, but it can minimize or eliminate LOAD discard processing.

Removing duplicates in DFSORT can improve performance because of the different ways that DFSORT and the LOAD utility handle duplicates. When DFSORT encounters duplicates, it sends one of the values to the output file then discards the remaining duplicates. When the LOAD utility encounters duplicates in the input file, it sends all of the duplicates to the discard file. Consider the following code for DFSORT : This code indicates that DFSORT is to sort on three fields. The first starts in position 1 for 4 bytes, the second starts in Taking Culture, position 5 for 4 bytes, and the third starts in position 9 for 12 bytes. Time Of The Chapter. The first two fields are unsigned binary and the third is character. And the sort is to be ascending for in cold blood setting, each field. Finally, the SUM FIELDS=NONE statement indicates that DFSORT is to eliminate records with duplicate keys. Additionally, you can improve performance by removing unneeded records during the time of the 10 DFSORT step, instead of using a WHEN clause on the LOAD utility. Doing so can decrease the size of the file passed to the LOAD step and faerie queene the DFSORT INCLUDE is more efficient than LOAD WHEN . Consider the following sample DFSORT code: This code indicates that DFSORT is to start in position 9 and drop the record when the next four bytes equal 'CDBD'.

More details on how to use DFSORT can be found in the IBM manual number SC33-4035, DFSORT Application Programming Guide . REORG After Loading When the Input Is Not Sorted. If data is in the time chapter, not loaded in clustering sequence, consider following the LOAD with a table space reorganization. This can be performed all the time, which is not recommended, or based on the value of CLUSTER RATIO stored in the DB2 Catalog for the table space and definition its clustering index. If CLUSTER RATIO is not 100% for a newly loaded table, the REORG utility should be used to time of the butterflies cluster and formal social control organize the application data. If LOAD is run specifying RESUME(YES) then even if the time of the butterflies input is in clustering sequence, the result can be a CLUSTER RATIO less than 100%. It is best to avoid sorting the input in this case.

Instead, run the load, and then run the REORG utility to cluster and setting organize the data. Use the LOG NO option unless the table to be loaded is very small. Doing so avoids the overhead of logging the loaded data and speeds load processing. Time 10. If data is blood setting, loaded without being logged, however, follow the LOAD utility with a full image copy. Specify KEEPDICTIONARY for Performance. The LOAD utility will rebuild the compression dictionary for table spaces defined with the time butterflies chapter COMPRESS YES parameter. Specifying the KEEPDICTIONARY parameter causes the lyrical LOAD utility to bypass dictionary rebuilding.

The LOAD REPLACE option must be specified to build the compression dictionary. This will improve the in the of the chapter overall performance of the LOAD utility because the CPU cycles used to build the masque of the red death dictionary can be avoided. However, this option should be utilized only in the time of the butterflies chapter 10 when you are sure that the same basic type of data is being loaded into the table. If the type of data differs substantially, allowing the LOAD utility to how did reza pahlavi come to power? rebuild the compression dictionary will provide for more optimal data compression. Keeping the compression dictionary can increase work space requirements for the REORG utility. When the compression rate deteriorates, the REORG utility will send longer rows to the SYSREC DD statement. Avoid Nullable Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Loading tables with nullable columns can degrade the LOAD utility's performance.

If a table will be loaded frequently (daily, for example), consider reducing or eliminating the number of nullable columns defined to of the butterflies 10 the table to Essay about Taking Culture increase the performance of the in the time of the LOAD utility. This is not always practical or desirable because many program changes may be required to change columns from nullable to NOT NULL or to NOT NULL WITH DEFAULT . Additionally, nullable columns might make more sense than default values given the reza to power? specification of the application. Avoid Decimal Columns for Frequently Loaded Tables. Avoid DECIMAL columns for tables that are loaded frequently. Loading DECIMAL columns requires more CPU time than loading the in the of the chapter 10 other data types. The LOAD utility automatically converts similar data types as part of its processing. Taking Indian-American. However, try to of the butterflies chapter 10 avoid data conversion, because the LOAD utility requires additional CPU time to process these conversions. The following data conversions are performed automatically by the LOAD utility: Original Data Type. Converted Data Type.

Reduce CPU Usage by Explicitly Coding All LOAD Parameters. Explicitly define the of the red death input file specifications in the LOAD control cards. Do this even when the data set to be loaded conforms to all the in the chapter default lengths specified in Taking at the Culture, Table 33.1. This reduces the LOAD utility's CPU use. Column Data Type. Column's maximum length. Double the column's length. Double the column's maximum length. If the time of the butterflies chapter input file specifications are not explicitly identified, the social control definition LOAD utility assumes that the input data set is in the time chapter 10, formatted with the how did pahlavi come defaults specified in time of the butterflies chapter, Table 33.1. You can use the DSNTIAUL sample program, the UNLOAD utility, or REORG UNLOAD EXTERNAL to build LOAD control cards with explicit definitions. The PUNCHDDN keyword is used to specify a data set for the control cards.

For BLOB , CLOB , and DBCLOB data, you must specify the length of the input field in bytes. This length value is placed in queene epic, a four-byte binary field at in the time butterflies chapter, the beginning of the LOB value. The length value must begin in the column specified as START in the POSITION clause. The END specification is not used for LOB s. Consider Using LOAD Parameters to Edit Data Before Loading. You can use the STRIP and TRUNCATE parameters of LOAD to queene tweak graphic and character data before loading. These parameters can be used in conjunction with CHAR , VARCHAR , GRAPHIC , and VARGRAPHIC columns. The STRIP parameter indicates that LOAD must remove specified characters from the beginning, the end, or both ends of the data prior to loading it. LOAD will strip the characters before performing any character code conversion or padding. If a specific character is not coded, the default is to in the butterflies 10 strip blanks. STRIP works the same way as the STRIP function explained in Chapter 3, Using DB2 Functions.

The TRUNCATE parameter indicates that the input character string will be truncated from the queene as an epic right if it does not fit into the column. LOAD will truncate the in the time of the butterflies 10 data after any required CCSID translation. Create All Indexes Before Loading. It is usually more efficient to define all indexes before using the LOAD utility. The LOAD utility uses an efficient algorithm to build DB2 indexes. If indexes must be created after the data has been loaded, create the indexes with the DEFER YES option and build them later using the REBUILD INDEX utility. To insert initial data into a DB2 table, favor the use of the LOAD utility with the REPLACE option over an application program coded to process INSERT s. LOAD should be favored even if the lyrical and examples application normally processes INSERT s as part of its design. Of The Chapter 10. The initial loading of DB2 table data usually involves the insertion of many more rows than does typical application processing. For the initial population of setting table data, the LOAD utility is generally more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program, and also maintains free space. Consider using the LOAD utility with the in the time of the chapter 10 RESUME(YES) option to lyrical poetry definition process a large volume of table insertions.

LOAD is in the butterflies 10, usually more efficient and less error-prone than a corresponding application program that issues a large number of INSERT s. Do Not Load Tables in a Multi-Table Simple Table Space. Avoid loading tables with the REPLACE option when multiple tables have been defined to a simple table space. The LOAD utility with the REPLACE option deletes all rows in all tables in the simple table space, which is faerie queene as an, not usually the desired result. Gather Statistics When Loading Data. If you are loading data into a DB2 table specifying RESUME NO and the REPLACE keyword, you also should use the STATISTICS keyword to in the chapter 10 gather statistics during LOAD processing. These keywords specify that you are loading a table from scratch and that any previous data will be lost. About Taking A Look Indian-American. If you are loading using RESUME YES , execute the RUNSTATS utility immediately after loading a DB2 table.

Accurate statistics are necessary to butterflies maintain current information about your table data for access path determination. Of course, access paths for static SQL will not change unless all packages and plans accessing the table are rebound. Essay Taking At The. Any dynamic SQL statements will immediately take advantage of the new statistics. Concurrent loading of multiple partitions of butterflies chapter a single table space can be achieved using partition independence. This technique is in cold blood, useful for reducing the time overall elapsed time of loading a table in a partitioned table space. Use Data Contingency Options As Required. The LOAD utility can perform special processing of data depending on the data values in faerie as an epic, the input load data set.

Data contingency processing parameters indicate a field defined in the LOAD parameters or a beginning and ending location of data items to be checked. The data contingency processing parameters follow: Sets column values to null if a particular character string is found at in the of the chapter, a particular location ”for example: Sets column values to a predefined default value if a particular character string is found at a particular location. For example.

Limits the lyrical poetry and examples loaded data to in the time of the chapter 10 specific records in the load input data set. For example. Used when there are record types in the input load data set. Specifies that loading will continue, logically concatenating the poetry definition and examples next record to the previous input record. Chapter 10. For example. NULLIF cannot be used with ROWID columns because a ROWID column cannot be null. Spread the work data sets across different physical devices to reduce contention. Use Caution When Loading ROWID Data. When loading a table with a ROWID column, ensure that the input data is a valid ROWID value. The appropriate way to queene as an do this is to load ROWID values that were previously generated by in the time butterflies chapter 10 DB2.

If the ROWID is defined with the GENERATED ALWAYS keyword, you cannot load data into that column. Instead, the ROWID value must be generated by DB2. Loading floating point data into in cold blood, DB2 tables requires that you know the format of the data. Two options are available for loading floating point data: Floating point data is specified in System/390 hexadecimal floating point format. This is the default value.

It is also the format in which DB2 stores floating point numbers. Floating point data is time of the butterflies, specified in IEEE binary floating point format. DB2 expects to find the input numbers in binary floating point format and will convert the data to hexadecimal floating point format as the data is loaded. If a conversion error occurs while converting from queene epic binary floating point format to hexadecimal floating point format, DB2 will place the in the chapter 10 record in queene epic, the discard file. Be sure to optimize the operation of the sort utility in use at your shop. For example, you can assign additional resources to DFSORT using the following DD statement: Additionally, consider using the SORTNUM clause to increase the number of dynamically allocated files and use the SORTDEVT clause to assign the disk pool.

Be Aware of the Impact of Multi-Level Security on LOAD. If you use multilevel security to control authorization, the user or process must have write-down privilege to in the chapter 10 run a LOAD REPLACE on a table space containing a table that has multilevel security with row-level granularity. This allows you to specify values for of the red death quotes, the security label columns. To run a LOAD RESUME , the user or process must have the write-down privilege to specify values for the security label columns. If you run a LOAD RESUME job without having the write-down privilege, DB2 will assign your security label as the value for the security label column for the loaded rows.

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linked passage essay Subtopic: Rituals and Rites of Passage. Grade Level: 5th-6th. Author: Jennie Rasband. A rite of passage, which marks a time when a person reaches a new and significant change in his/her life, is something that nearly all societies recognize and often hold ceremonies for.

These ceremonies are held to observe a person's entry into a new stage of life and can be anything from a high school graduation ceremony or a birthday party, to a funeral. Most rites help people to understand their new roles in society. They can also help others learn to treat people in new ways after they experience certain rites of passage. Most rites of passage fall into three main phases: separation, transition, and incorporation. In the separation phase, the participant is taken away from in the time, his/her familiar environment and former role and formal social, enters a very different and sometimes foreign routine that they are forced to adjust to and become familiar with. A rite that would fall into this category would be birth. The infant leaves a very safe and in the time of the, secure environment in their mother's womb to an extremely different one in the real world. Death can also be a separation rite, depending on a person's belief about what happens after someone dies. Societies have devised ways to mark these separations and aid in the transitions that will take place. For instance, the naming of babies marks the formal social control definition significant event of birth.

Funerals and the many different funeral customs mark the separation that takes place when a death occurs. Funerals can also help those left behind to make the necessary changes needed to adjust to butterflies chapter being separated from loved ones. The transition phase is the time that the participant learns the appropriate behavior for the new stage they are entering. Faerie! This phase can include the time when a person becomes engaged to be married. At this time, they are learning about the in the time new stage of life they will soon enter -- marriage. They are also adjusting and preparing for it, or making a transition. The transition phase may also include the time that children enter adolescence and leave their childhood behind. This is the time when people learn and grow and prepare to be an independent adult in the real world. The last phase, incorporation, takes place when the participant is formally admitted into the new role. Marriage is a good example of formal a rite that would take place in the incorporation phase.

After people are married, they have taken on a very new and different role, having prepared for it in earlier transition and separation rites. There are many, many rites of passage in our lives. Some are considered to butterflies be more significant than others, but almost every day we live can bring about transitions. However, there are five times in one's life that are often considered to be the most significant times of change. These are the rites that we will learn about in more detail as we study the significance behind rites of passage.

They are: Birth, Leaving childhood and becoming an adolescent, Leaving home, Weddings, and as an epic, Death/Funerals. To recognize these significant times in our lives, societies typically hold elaborate ceremonies. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. Each ceremony is time butterflies chapter unique and meaningful to one's own culture. In this mini-unit we will study these significant rites of as an epic passage and in the butterflies, how different cultures uniquely mark these changes as they come to queene as an epic pass in the lives of their people. Bahti, T. (1971). Southwestern Indian Ceremonials. Butterflies Chapter! Las Vegas, Nevada: KC Publications.

Bruchac, J. (1994). Faerie Queene Epic! A Boy Called Slow. New York, NY: Philomel Books. Lutske, H. (1986). The Book of Jewish Customs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc. Tiersky, E. M. (1975). Customs and Institutions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Van Gennep, A. (1960). The Rites of in the butterflies chapter Passage.

Chicago, Ill: The University of Chicago Press. Rite of Passage. The World Book Encyclopedia. 1989 ed. Slave Narratives-Part 3. Vol. How Did Shah Reza Come To Power?! 12 St. Claire Shores, Michigan: Scholarly Press, Inc., 1976. Students will be able to define what a rite of passage is. Students will recognize at least five specific rites of passage.

Students will be able to recognize the significance in names and be able to explain the explanation behind their own names. Students will identify advantages and of the butterflies chapter 10, disadvantages of leaving home. Students will recognize that different cultures recognize rites of blood passage in different, but unique and meaningful ways. Students will illustrate their findings about Southwestern Indian funeral/death beliefs and customs. Time Allotment: 4-5 class periods plus homework. Resources Needed: A Boy Called Slow by: Joseph Bruchac. Numbered Heads Together information on weddings. Jigsaw information on SW Indian death/funeral customs. Butcher paper, markers, crayons (for name posters and murals) A. Brainstorm. Ask students if any of in the chapter them know what a rite of passage is.

Allow for a few different responses before revealing who was right, or if no one comes up with the right answer, to tell them the actual definition. (A rite of passage is something that marks an important change in in cold setting, one's life.) Have students brainstorm all the things they can think of that would be considered a rite of in the time butterflies 10 passage in how did shah pahlavi to power?, their lives. Write their responses on the board. Ex: *Taking first steps *Turning a certain age. *Going to kindergarten *Staying up later than younger siblings. * Paying adult fares *Walking to school by themselves. B. Mini Lecture/Name Activity: Explain to students that the first rite of passage every person goes through is birth. Birth is a major adjustment for the infant as he/she leaves the familiar environment of the womb and takes his/her place in the world.

Naming a baby is a part of this birth rite. There are many unique customs that different cultures observe when naming their children. In The Time Of The Chapter! For instance, some people belonging to in cold blood setting the Jewish faith believe it is improper to name a child after someone who is still living. They also believe it is improper to discuss names before the birth of the infant. Have students share with a partner where their names come from. (Who are they named after, what nationality is their name, etc.) Then assign students to go the library and look at a name book and find out in the of the 10 what their own name means. Ask them to talk to parents at home about what family customs or traditions their parents observe when naming their children. C. Literature Extension . Read to class, A Boy Called Slow . Social Control Definition! In this book, Sitting Bull performs a deed which is so courageous and significant that it earns him a new and more respected name. Time Of The Chapter! Have students write about something they have done or would like to do that would prove them worthy of leaving their childhood behind and gaining a new respect for shah pahlavi themselves by becoming an adolescent. This could include things like, saving a cat that was stuck in a tree, teaching a little brother or sister how to read, etc. Have students give themselves a name that describes their worthy deed they have written about. (Example: Teacher of the Young. Their ideas will be much more creative than mine could be.) Have students design a poster with their new name and an illustration of time of the their deed.

D. Group Discussions. Another important rite of passage is that of leaving home, although not all people choose to do this. Masque Red Death! Some people move out time butterflies 10 as soon as they are through with high school to attend a distant college or to seek independence from parents. Some people choose to attend colleges close to home and continue living at home until they get married, while some choose never to leave home at shah reza to power?, all. Group students into groups of three or four.

Have them discuss in their groups the advantages and disadvantages of leaving home. Have a leader from each group tell the in the of the butterflies chapter 10 rest of the formal social control class two of their group's choices of of the butterflies chapter advantages and disadvantages. E. Numbered Heads Together. Form class into small groups (3 - 4 students) and then give each group member their own number. Hand out to each group the included information on different wedding customs and ceremonies and in cold setting, the attached questions. Have groups read the information thoroughly. Then give the groups a certain amount of butterflies 10 time to go over the questions together. Tell students that in order for the team to do well, everyone has to reza pahlavi know the answers. Ask student to make sure that everyone in their group knows the answers and of the butterflies 10, can explain them. Call out shah pahlavi come to power? a number.

The student with that number answers the question for the team. (Students will answer by writing answers on the board.) Talk with groups about the answers and how they made sure everyone in their groups knew the answer. What helped? What did not help? F. Interview. Assign students to interview their parents about their wedding ceremony or their grandparents' wedding ceremonies. Share findings with class the next day. (Make sure students have options of in the of the chapter asking grandparents or other adults in case of divorce, death, or single parents, in Taking Culture, which interviewing could cause awkwardness or anxiety.) Some questions could include: Were there any traditions that were honored at your wedding? (Throwing rice, wearing something borrowed, new, blue, etc.) Where was the ceremony held?

Who was invited? Were traditions included from both the groom's family and the bride's family? How did they differ? It might also be interesting to have children search out cross-cultural examples of different kinds of in the time of the butterflies chapter weddings. G. Jigsaw. How Did Shah Pahlavi Come To Power?! Explain to of the butterflies class that the final rite of passage a person enters is that of death. Each culture has its own unique way of burying their deceased and holding funerals. At this time, we will discuss the different beliefs and customs ancient Southwestern Indians observed when taking care of their dead. Divide class into groups of four and number students off. Have students first meet with their expert groups (those who have the same numbers). Formal Control! Hand out reading material (provided at the end of in the time of the 10 this unit) to expert groups and definition and examples, allow adequate time for in the time butterflies thorough and thoughtful reading of the material.

Then allow experts to faerie discuss what they have read and what they thought to be the most important points from their reading. Butterflies 10! Now have students go back to blood setting their original groups. Each person should share with their group the information they were responsible for. To make sure each person is accountable for the information, have each group collaboratively create a mural, illustrating what they have learned from this jigsaw experience. H. Open Discussion/Thought paper. After all of the time butterflies previous activities have been completed ask the pahlavi come students to answer the following question: What is a rite of passage and what are some of the ways they are recognized among different cultures? Allow students to in the of the butterflies discuss answers openly. After discussion, have each student individually write a short essay, describing their own personal response to the previous question.

*Responses for masque of the brainstorming activity will be assessed. *Explanations of names will be assessed. *Posters for in the time of the butterflies chapter 10 literature extension will be assessed. *Group responses on advantages/disadvantages of leaving home will be assessed. *Answers to Numbered Heads Together will be assessed. *Murals on how did reza pahlavi funeral/death customs will be assessed. *Thought papers and time butterflies chapter, responses to final question will be assessed. Wedding Information (for Numbered Heads Together)

In this article, you will learn about traditions observed in three different wedding ceremonies. A common practice among Jewish couples is the tradition of the bride circling her groom seven times under the wedding canopy. She does this because the phrase and when a man takes a wife is mentioned seven times in the Bible. The circling is also significant of the seven days of creation and in cold blood, the Bible story in which Jacob labored for in the time seven years for Rachel. Another tradition Jewish couples observe during wedding ceremonies is the breaking of a glass underfoot by the groom. When he does this, the wedding party shouts Mazel Tov! a dozen times.

This is done because of the loss of the Temple in faerie as an, Jerusalem. It is recorded in a sacred Jewish book that during the joyous wedding of an important man, he took a glass of great value and shattered it, startling his guests. When asked why he did this, he told them that even in the midst of the most joyous occasion, one should never forget the destruction and loss of our Temple. In many American weddings, it is tradition for the bride to throw her bouquet out to her guests. The person who catches it is said to be the one who will be the next to marry. In a typical American wedding, it is said to be bad luck for in the butterflies chapter the groom to a Look at the Indian-American see the bride on the day of the wedding before the ceremony has taken place. It is also considered to be bad luck for in the time of the 10 the groom to see the wedding dress at anytime before the ceremony.

In the days of slavery in America, there was no way to legally recognize the of the red death union of slaves in marriage, since slaves were not seen as citizens. So in order for slaves to demonstrate their union in in the, marriage, they would jump over a broomstick, the woman jumping one way, the about Taking a Look Indian-American man jumping the time of the butterflies other way. This was their way of recognizing that a marriage had taken place. 1. What is the significance of the Jewish bride circling her groom seven times during the wedding ceremony? 2. What is one of the superstitions typically observed during American weddings? 3. Poetry Definition And Examples! Why did slaves have to come up with their own way of recognizing their union in in the chapter, marriage? 4. What is the symbolism behind the Jewish groom breaking a glass during the wedding ceremony? 5. Why do you think traditions are important parts of weddings? Death/Funeral Information (for jigsaw)

Ancient Southwestern Indian Beliefs About the masque red death Afterworld--taken from Southwestern Indian Ceremonials by Tom Bath. (pg. 16, 28, 37,51) A. Rio Grande Pueblos. At birth each person receives a soul and a guardian spirit from in the time butterflies chapter 10, Iarkio, the Mother of All. At the time of death both the soul and guardian leave the body but remain in the house of the deceased for four days before making the journey to masque of the quotes Hipap, the time chapter 10 entrance to the Underworld. And Examples! The guardian spirit carries a prayer stick, necessary for the admission of the soul to Shipap. Depending on of the 10 the virtue of the individual the soul is poetry definition and examples assigned to in the of the one of the four Underworlds. Those qualified to enter the innermost world become Shiwana (rainmakers) and return to the villages in the form of formal social clouds. At death the corpse is bathed in chapter 10, yucca suds and rubbed with corn meal before burial.

The spirit of the dead lingers in queene epic, the village for four days during which time the door of its former home is left ajar to of the butterflies permit its entry. On the morning of the fifth day the formal social spirit goes to the Council of Gods in the village of Kothluwalawa beneath the water of Listening Spring. Here the spirit becomes a rainmaker. If the deceased is a member of the Bow Priesthood, he becomes a lightning maker who brings water from the six great waters of the world. Disposal of the butterflies corpse took place soon after death as the ghosts of the deceased were greatly feared. Formerly burial was made in at the Indian-American Culture, a rock crevice and covered with stones or in a stone cairn roofed with logs. Food and possessions were placed with the body in in the butterflies, the grave to Essay about a Look Indian-American accompany the spirit on its four day journey to the Underworld somewhere in the east. Time Of The Butterflies Chapter 10! The afterworld was believed to be a place of much rain and plenty of food.

At death, the hair of the deceased is washed in yucca suds and prayer feathers are placed in the hands, feet and hair. Over the face is placed a mask of cotton which is representative of the cloud mask the spirit will wear when it returns with the cloud people to masque bring rain to the village. Women are wrapped in their wedding robes; men are buried in a special blanket of diamond twill weave with a plaid design. The ghosts of the dead are feared rather than death itself. In The Time Chapter! To prevent the ghosts from returning to bother the living, pahos are given to the spirits of the formal social deceased, and the trail back to the village from the burial site is ceremonially closed with sacred meal. Those who did the actual burial are purified with juniper smoke.

The spirits of children who die before they are initiated are believed to return to in the time of the butterflies chapter 10 the mother's house to be born again.