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BAE Systems: timeline of bribery allegations. 1:16PM GMT 21 Dec 2010. Definition. 1985: Britain signs the The Conquests of Latin America: Elements Essay, Al Yamamah arms-for-oil deal with deal with Saudi Arabia, the informal definition, biggest export contract in UK history. Peace Is Not The Absence Of War. The agreement was government to informal sector definition government, but BAE Systems (then British Aerospace) was the prime contractor because the deal included the is not the absence, sale of 120 Tornado fighter jets, Hawk trainer planes and other defence kit. 1989: The Observer first reports that an investigation is underway into claims huge payments were made to BAE agents as commission, by inflating the sector definition, sale price of the Tornados in book reference the Al Yamamah deal. Informal Sector Definition. 2000: BAE first failed to start of the industrial revolution accurately account for payments made to its Tanzanian agent, Shailesh Vithlani, a process which went on informal until 2005. 2004: The Serious Fraud Office starts an investigation into suspected accounting irregularities related to BAE and The Spread of Christianism, the Al Yamamah deal, focusing on informal sector the relationship between BAE and two small travel firms which made arrangements for stephen inquiry Saudi officials on sector definition behalf of BAE. 2006: In November, BAE confirms the SFO and start of the, Ministry of Defence are probing allegations that BAE paid backhanders to sector the Tanzanian government for is not a $40m (?28m) military radar system. In December, the definition, SFO drops the Saudi probe after representations from the book reference, British government about the need to safeguard national security.

The move sparks outrage from transparency campaigners. The decision followed a Daily Telegraph article, citing unnamed authorative sources, saying Saudi Arabia had given Britain 10 days to halt the SFO inquiry or lose a contract for 72 Eurofighter Typhoon combat jets being built by informal, BAE Systems and consortium partners. Book Reference Harvard. 2007: In January, the SFO starts another investiagtion, into payments made by BAE to a South African defence minister in connection with a ?1.5bn contract BAE won there in 1999. In February, the sector, UK confirms there are six probes under way against BAE, with the SFO looking at is not of war, deals done in sector Romania, Chile, the of the revolution, Czech Republic and sector, Qatar, as well as South Africa and start industrial revolution, Tanzania. In June, the informal sector definition, US Department of Of Art, Justice starts its own investigation into BAE's compliance with US anti-bribery laws, including its delaings in Saudi. 2008: The House of Lords upholds an appeal from the SFO, saying it acted legitimately in sector dropping the Saudi probe, on national security grounds. 2009: In Septmber, talks over why did state world a possible plea bargain between BAE and the SFO collapse, and the SFO says it will seek the Attorney General's permission to prosecute the informal sector, defence company for in black offences relating to overseas corruption. Reports at the time claimed BAE could be asked to pay between ?500m and informal, ?1bn should a plea bargain be reached. 2010: In February, BAE agrees to Of Art On The Brain Essay pay a $400m fine to the US after admitting to defrauding the US over the sale of informal definition, fighter planes to Saudi Arabia and the absence, Eastern Europe, and sector, also reached a ?30m settlement with the SFO, relating to breaching its duty to keep accounting records in Tanzania. The SFO says it will not seek a prosecution of BAE for the allegations it has been investigating for six years, inlcuding Eastern Europe. Of The. Mapped: the best places to live in informal sector definition England and Wales.

10 high-paid jobs that don't need a degree. First look at fighter pilot helmet of the The Spread of Christianism and Islam Essay, future. Watch the Navy's new carrier take to informal sector definition the water. Everything you need to know about the F-35, Britain's ?70m new stealth fighter. How to make the perfect paper plane. The biggest companies in the world in 2015. The Fortune Global 500 has been released the The Spread and Islam, annual ranking of the largest companies in the world by revenues. Sector. Here is of Latin Elements That Played, a list of the 20 biggest corporate money-makers.

The Big Short hits UK cinemas: these are the best films about sector definition, business. The Big Short, the film adaptation of Michael Lewis' book of the same name about the the united state world war 2, causes of the financial crisis, opens in UK cinemas this weekend. How will the story stack up against the greatest films about business? These are the most valuable start-ups in the world. In pics: Some fledgling firms have reached valuations in the tens of billions. These are the 20 priciest of them all. Starbucks' secret menu - the informal, drinks you didn't know you can ask for. The Spread Of Christianism And Islam Essay. There are over sector definition 87,000 different drink combinations at Starbucks, according to the coffee retailer’s website. How many of them do you know? From flu remedies to reference Harry Potter-inspired beverages, we highlight the weird and informal definition, the wonderful brews and The Spread of Christianism, infusions.

Revealed: the weirdest sub-genres on sector definition Netflix. Reference. From 'scary cult movies from the sector definition, 1980s' to 'coming-of-age animal tales', Netflix has every niche covered. Revealed: The 20 best countries in the world to do business. Forbes's annual index assess countries by a range of schindler's list and white, factors from taxes and technology to informal definition red tape and innovation. Book Reference Harvard. These are the top 20 countries for informal doing business. What are the super-rich planning for Valentine's Day? From a rare pair of Gucci shoes, to spending £110,000 releasing an album, Britain's wealthiest are pulling out and Islam Essay, all the informal, stops. First rate rise in 'August 2019' - latest market prediction. Briefing: Predictions saw a huge shift this week.

We explain why - and inquiry, what it means for informal sector mortgages and savings. The world's 10 most expensive cities 2015. New data: Discover the priciest cities around the why did enter world war 2, globe for luxury property. Tables: The cheapest places to buy an informal definition, Isa. Inquiry. Our colour-coded tables show at a glance which investment shop will be cheapest for you. More from the web. More from The Telegraph. The latest news, opinion and informal sector, analysis. Catch up on state enter war 2 all the latest football news and results. Sector Definition. All the latest film trailers, reviews and features.

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Informal sector definition

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Jack Lessenberry Essays and Interviews. New Site for Jack Lessenberry's Essays. There’s been a flurry of speculation lately that perhaps the best choice to replace Robert Bobb as Emergency Financial Manager of the Detroit Public Schools might be . Robert Bobb himself. Bobb’s contract expires at informal sector definition the end of The Conquests of Latin Elements Played A Role Essay, June. While he has faced endless financial problems, his main frustration during his two-year stint running the schools seems to have been a court decision that his powers did not extend to informal, determining what kids actually learn. The academic curriculum, in other words. However, that has been changed by the new Emergency Financial Manager law. Last Thursday, Bobb said in an interview with the Detroit News that he wasn’t lobbying to why did state enter, keep the job, but added, “I do drool when I think of the pace of change we could achieve under the sector new law.“ That same day, I had a wide-ranging conversation with Dteroit Mayor Dave Bing about a number of topics, including education.

He said he admires much of what Bobb had done. “He made a lot of On The Brain Essay, hard decisions that had to be made, and I respect him for that. He had an impossible job from a fiscal standpoint.” However the mayor didn’t think the emergency financial manager deserved an A. He noted that whether out of necessity or not, Bobb had alienated teachers and people in the community. And Bing felt that it was clearly time for Bobb to go. Indeed, the governor’s office also seems to sector, be lukewarm at best to the idea of his staying around. But the the united enter war 2 mayor said something else I found even more interesting about public education in definition, Detroit. What may indeed be happening is that in the future, most public education in the city will take place apart from the trouble-plagued Detroit public schools. “People are now talking about systems of education, rather than DPS,” the mayor told me. What he meant by peace is not the absence of war that was this: “There are private schools, parochial schools, charters. Informal? You know, forty percent of our kids now go to charters -- forty percent! -- and that number is book, only going to grow.” Charter schools, are, by the way, alternative public schools. Incidentally, even many fairly sophisticated adults don’t understand exactly what they are. They are not private in sector, any sense.

They receive state money and have to meet statewide standards, including the harvard use of certified teachers. Regardless of how you feel about traditional public education, it is clear that the people of Detroit have overwhelmingly rejected their school system. Informal Definition? Mayor Bing feels that if you can’t beat them, you might as well join them. Or, as he put it, “if they are going to lose students out of DPS, we don’t want to lose them out of the city of Detroit.“ Detroit is a special case, but there are communities all over this state where traditional public school systems are losing popularity and the newer public schools, mostly chartered by book colleges and universities, are gaining ground. Perhaps we all may need to rethink our concept of public education along these lines: Supporting a particular school system or bureaucracy should no longer be the name of the game. Instead, we should be looking for and supporting the system of public education that best educates our kids, whatever that is, and however that may be. Essay: A Talk with Mayor Bing - 4.8.11.

I went to see Detroit Mayor Dave Bing yesterday afternoon to discuss the state of his city. It’s been a bruising few weeks for Detroit. Sector Definition? The census showed a population loss considerably greater than expected -- which means a further loss of both federal and state dollars. The governor’s budget has yet to stephen lawrence, be approved, but it seems clear that it means more cuts in revenue sharing. Nevertheless, I found the mayor upbeat, candid and informal, energetic. He’s convinced the census missed people, and is going to do all he can to get the count adjusted. The Conquests Of Latin Elements Played Essay? But for informal definition, now, he has to lawrence, plan as if the number is going to stay at seven hundred and thirteen thousand. There’s no doubt in his mind what Detroit needs most. Informal? “Jobs are the key,” he said.

There are some hopeful signs. Why Did The United State Enter World? General Motors, Blue Cross, Quicken Loans and some other firms have announced plans to informal definition, add jobs recently. But the city has a long way to go. When the recession was at its peak, Mayor Bing made headlines when he said that he thought the city’s true unemployment rate was as high as forty-five percent, when you counted workers who are so discouraged they aren‘t even taking part in the labor force. What does he think it is now? “Still about the same,” he said.

“There are some signs the country is coming out lawrence inquiry of the recession, but that hasn’t really translated into jobs in definition, Detroit.” I asked the mayor, himself a former successful businessman, about Governor Rick Snyder’s theory that lowering taxes will help bring a new flood of jobs. He smiled. “Well, it should help,” he said. But he added that maximizing profits doesnn’t always mean adding jobs. The Spread Of Christianism Essay? The mayor, who took office after a special election following the resignation of Kwame Kilpatrick, has been in office almost two years now. What does he think is his greatest accomplishment? He said, “reducing the deficit from more than $330 million dollars to $155 million. Informal? Given the economy, that was really a Herculean task.” Unfortunately, he fears the deficit may now rise somewhat, “if everything in the governor’s budget becomes stark reality.” I told him there was speculation that sooner or later, Detroit would need an Emergency Financial Manager. “Everything we do here day to day is to avoid that happening,” Bing said. But he knows he can‘t completely rule out the possibility.

If that were to is not the absence, happen, would he take the job if it were offered? My impression was that he would. In fact, the mayor added that the new, tougher financial manager law would make it easier to do some of the things that need to informal, be done. Whether or not that happens, he intends to keep fighting. He’s already announced his intention to run for The Conquests America: Elements That, re-election in two years; saying turning things around will take more than one term.

If he is re-elected, Dave Bing would be seventy-four by the end of his second term. Does he expect to see a point where Detroit saw true prosperity again? The former basketball superstar smiled. He believes in sector definition, making progress, he said, a layup at a time, not in trying for grandstand, three-point plays. “Solvency. I think solvency is book harvard, possible.” Prosperity is further away. Essay: Why Journalism Matters - 4.7.11. We’re living today in a confusing and somewhat frightening time. Michigan is in informal, trouble, economically. Trouble of a different kind than we’ve been through before. The longtime mainstay of our economy, the automotive industry, will never again be what it was. This has plunged us from one of the nation’s richer states to one of its poorer ones.

State government is finally facing a financial crisis it tried to The Effects Brain Essay, ignore for years, and the governor is proposing changes that seem radical and sometimes hard to understand. Beyond that, education at all levels is in crisis. Informal Sector? We learned last month that our largest city has suffered a staggering population loss over the last decade. There are real questions about whether Detroit and other cities, communities and school districts are going to have to be taken over by Emergency Financial Managers. Understanding all this is vitally important in Of Art On The, order to make key decisions for our own lives. Should we trust the public schools? Should we buy a house? Where should we live? And even, should we leave the state?

We clearly need thoughtful, intelligent and informal, easily accessible journalism to The Effects Essay, help make sense of these and other events -- and need it possibly more than at any other time in our history. Yet journalism is in trouble too. Informal Sector Definition? Journalists, if they do their jobs right, are never very popular. Much of the time, we’re bringing you bad news, and some of the time, we are obnoxious about the united world, it. But right now, we’re having trouble doing that. Digging our news is an expensive, labor-intensive job, and the vast majority has always been done by newspapers. Yet newspapers are facing a deep crisis of their own, thanks in large part to the internet revolution, and our changing lifestyles. Newspapers have been supported historically by advertising, and sector, much of that has melted away to why did enter world, cyberspace. We also don’t read newspapers as much as we used to informal definition, People read news on the internet, but internet providers produce little news. They merely collect it -- mainly from our shrinking newspapers. That doesn’t mean some broadcast and stephen, even online publications don’t produce quality journalism.

But in terms of content, it is comparatively small. Informal? Last night I spoke at the Detroit area Society of book reference, Professional Journalists annual banquet. Michigan Radio won a number of awards, and an encouraging amount of good journalism was on display. But attendance was smaller than last year. Some people have left the profession. Some companies no longer buy tickets. Yet there were still an informal sector impressive corps of book harvard, men and women there who work long hours for usually not much pay to informal, find out what we need to why did enter world war 2, know and shape it into an interesting package.

Those included the journalist of the year, John Carlisle, aka Detroitblogger John, a suburban newspaper editor by day who roams Detroit’s meanest streets in informal definition, search of compelling tales at night. There’s Mac Gordon, who has been covering the auto industry since 1944, and peace is not the absence, hundreds of others who try to keep democracy informed. Despite shrinking pay and sector definition, opportunities, they’re still out there, speaking truth to power and trying to book harvard, get us to pay attention. Without journalists, we’d be in far deeper trouble than we are now. And we wouldn’t have the beginnings of a clue why. Essay: The Price of Civilization - 4.6.11. Last night a gentleman who appeared to be in his late sixties approached me after Michigan Radio’s Issues and Ale event in Royal Oak. He appeared frustrated. “My father always taught me that taxes were the price we pay for civilization,” he said. “Why don’t people seem to realize that today?” The answer is that taxes are, indeed, the price we pay for a civilized society. Whether he realized it or not, his father was echoing U.S.

Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, who said exactly those words back in 1904. That doesn’t mean all taxes are good. Informal Sector Definition? What it does mean is The Spread and Islam, that without our tax money, we wouldn’t have any schools or roads or policemen or local and informal sector, national parks. However, about thirty years ago, politicians began telling us that we were the most overtaxed generation in history, and we came to believe it. The truth is that Americans pay a far smaller proportion of their incomes in taxes than people in most modern countries. We even pay far less than we used to. Back in the Kennedy Administration, the stephen lawrence top federal income tax rate was 91 percent. Nobody pays even a third of their income to sector definition, Uncle Sam now.

We do pay additional state and stephen lawrence, local taxes. But thanks to definition, the anti-tax fever, our politicians have cut taxes, and then cut again. However, they haven’t cut services very much. That’s because voters don’t want to give up anything they are getting, they just don’t want to reference harvard, pay for them. Oh, they are willing to have other people’s benefits cut, just not theirs. So local and state governments have used up their rainy day funds, shoved expenses off to future years and definition, engaged in accounting tricks. But now that’s not working any more. Local governments are running out of cash, fast. Governor Rick Snyder is proposing to slash revenue sharing payments, and The Spread and Islam, make some of informal sector definition, it dependent on cities doing more to further cut expenses, or as he puts it, adopt best practices. The impact of all this has many communities and The Conquests America: Played Essay, many school districts teetering on the brink of insolvency. Democrats say they are outraged at the governor’s plans to slash services.

However, I don’t hear them saying, “look. Times are hard, but good schools and roads are a necessity. So those of us who are still working are going to have to pay a little more to maintain them, to keep things up till we have a better future.” Last night I challenged State Senator Bert Johnson about this. Informal? A liberal Democrat whose district includes Highland Park and the Grosse Pointes, he represents some of the poorest people in the state -- and of Christianism and Islam Essay, some of the wealthiest. He took exception to definition, my charge that Democrats hadn’t been willing to support tax increases. “That information is on why did the united enter, a number of definition, websites,” he said.

Well, that isn’t the book reference harvard same thing as loudly calling for those who can afford it to pay. Communities and people all over sector, the state are in the process of finding out that there really is book, no free lunch. The question is informal, whether we want our needs and those of our children neglected, or whether we are willing to pay the price of having a civilized society. Essay: Detroit Symphony Orchestra - 4.5.11. While historians debate just when and why Detroit began to decline, it’s much easier to peace is not of war, say what its high point was: July 28, 1951. That was the official two hundred and sector, fiftieth anniversary of Detroit’s founding, and why did the united state world, the city was at its peak. Detroit had nearly two million people. Informal Sector? It was rich, vibrant and strong. President Harry Truman came all the way from Washington to speak -- a rare occurrence then -- and the city then celebrated with a five-hour long parade. And there was other good news, too.

The Detroit Symphony Orchestra was being revived. Founded when the The Conquests America: That Played A Role Essay city had less than two hundred thousand people, it had been disbanded during the Great Depression. But now it was back, and on October 18th, it thrilled fans with its first concert. Everybody knew then that to be a truly world-class city, you had to have a world-class symphony orchestra. Back in the jazz age, Detroit had one of the nation’s best orchestras. They had been the first orchestra to have a concert broadcast on informal sector definition, the radio. Book Reference Harvard? They were regulars at Carnegie Hall. Informal Definition? And for eight years, they were broadcast regularly to a nationwide audience. Then hard times came, and people forgot how important a symphony is for a while. Some people evidently lost sight of that again last year, when the symphony’s season was destroyed by a six-month long strike caused by money problems. The symphony has huge debts, big deficits, and a shrinking donor base.

Everyone agreed the stephen lawrence musicians had to take a massive pay cut, but the informal definition question was, how massive? While I am not an expert on cultural economics, it is clear that neither side did much to help their public image during the work stoppage, and management’s handling of public relations was especially bad, as one board member admitted to me. The trick now is to not only bring the book reference patrons back, but increase and enlarge the base. The orchestra now probably will be able to make a deal with the banks to whom it owes $54 million in real estate loans. But that’s a temporary solution.

What the symphony really needs to sector, do is convince the public to begin coming to their concerts and donating to keep this cultural resource. Anne Parsons, the president of the book reference symphony, thinks the only way to informal definition, do that is through community outreach. The Conquests America: Elements That Played A Role Essay? It’s hard to disagree. These days, three-quarters of the metropolitan area’s population and ninety percent of the informal definition money is outside the city limits. My guess is that the reference harvard symphony’s future involves realizing that the sector modern definition of Detroit is not the city limits, but the four million people who live in the metro area. They may also need to broaden their idea of is not the absence, programming. Purists may like to think that it is all about traditional classical music. But that music itself was avant-garde once upon a time. There’s an old saying that the informal railroads lost their way when they forgot that they were really in the transportation business, and couldn’t afford to be tied to a nostalgic model. If the Detroit Symphony Orchestra takes that to The Effects Of Art On The Essay, heart, the odds will increase that it will revive, and sector, hopefully, in the long-term, thrive. Two years ago, Michigan voters overwhelmingly approved a state constitutional amendment allowing the use of marijuana for medical purposes.

Voters from liberal Ann Arbor to America: Elements Played A Role Essay, staunchly conservative Ottawa County supported this change. Some, to informal sector definition, be sure, saw this as opening the door to a complete legalization of of Latin America: Elements That Played A Role Essay, marijuana. However, they appear to have been a minority. Most people seem to have felt that those who are legitimately suffering from disease such as glaucoma ought to be able to use the drug in cases where it could ease their pain. But the devil is always in the details, and we probably should have foreseen that administering this law was going to informal sector, be an unholy mess. Yesterday, the Detroit Free Press took a comprehensive look at how the medical marijuana law has been working. To nobody’s surprise, their answer was: Not very well. The state is struggling with a huge backlog of applications to grow the stuff. Prosecutors, meanwhile, have been going after people who may be falsely claiming to be growing and selling pot for medical use, and there are also rumors that certain physicians are happy to certify that most anybody qualifies to of Christianism, use marijuana for informal sector, “medical” purposes. On top of that, neither the why did state constitutional amendment -- or any other law -- has made it clear where medical marijuana is sector, supposed to come from. Part of the The Effects On The Brain Essay problem is that marijuana is informal definition, a controlled substance whose use is illegal under federal law.

So, basically, the original source of any pot supply has got to be illegal, even if the state of Michigan approves someone to grow marijuana for medical reasons. The Effects Essay? There is also, so far as I can tell, absolutely nothing to ensure purity or quality control of the informal supply. Basically, then, we’ve got a system of something approaching anarchy when it comes to medical marijuana. So, what do we do about it? The Free Press sensibly argues in of Christianism, favor of setting up a state-approved distribution network. They would then charge licensing fees which could then be used for informal sector, the costs of administering the system, and The Effects Of Art On The Essay, what must be a rapidly growing bureaucracy connected with it. Definition? There might also be streamlined mechanisms for approval similar to what pharmacies use for other drugs. These are all sensible ideas, on paper. On The Essay? However -- is the state really in a place or a position to create or vastly expand an administrative bureaucracy? No matter how foolproof a system we devise, people are going to try to get around it. We’re being told by the governor that we can’t fund schools and colleges the way we used to.

We can’t give tax credits to definition, the working poor, or to On The Essay, the movie industry. Do we really want to spend our scarce resources chasing down casual potheads? I have no desire to informal sector, use marijuana or any other drug, and even less desire to have someone high crash into my car. But I am wondering if the most sensible approach right now might be a version of “don’t ask, don’t tell,” except in cases of the grossest abuse. The Spread Essay? We are in an age of limits, and Michigan can handle only so many crises at definition one time. My guess is that regulating the medical marijuana law isn’t the biggest problem we have. I had a interesting conversation yesterday with Joe Schwarz, one of the Essay best-informed, multi-talented men in informal sector definition, public life in this state.

After a stint as mayor of his native Battle Creek, Schwarz spent sixteen years in the state senate, where he was immensely knowledgeable on education policy and finance. That was, of course, back in the era before term limits. Schwarz is book harvard, also one of those people whose resume could fill a box. He’s also had a career in informal sector, the U.S. Navy, and as a spy in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War.

He ran for governor once and book, congress twice, finally winning a single term in 2004. Schwarz’s problem was never the general election. Every time he got to one of those, he won easily. But he had trouble in Republican primaries. He is a fiscal conservative and a military hawk, but also believes in funding education, and that abortion should be “legal, safe and informal sector, rare.” Nor does he always suffer fools gladly. By the way, I didn’t mention his day job. He is an otolaryngologist, which we civilians call an The Spread of Christianism and Islam Essay ear, nose and sector definition, throat surgeon, and is still happily practicing medicine. That is, when he isn’t teaching at the University of Michigan’s Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.

Schwarz understands health care issues, and state enter world, I was curious about our medical school explosion. The U of M has a medical school; Wayne State has one; Michigan State has two; Oakland University and Beaumont Hospital have started one, and informal sector definition, Western Michigan is book reference harvard, now starting one. Is that too many? Will we be producing too many doctors? That’s a good question, the good doctor told me, but not the most important one. When all these medical schools are up and running, they’ll be producing something like six hundred and ninety doctors a year, trained largely at state expense. If current trends continue, about half will eventually leave the state and definition, practice elsewhere. My guess, given our situation, is that the why did world war 2 real figure will be considerably higher. There are areas of sector definition, this state which are under-served by physicians; other places, like the rich sections of Oakland County, where doctors are thick on the ground. Of Art On The Essay? But the biggest problem is what the new doctors are specializing in.

What’s needed most are family practitioners. These days, fewer than five percent of sector, new doctors want to The Spread and Islam, go into family practice, in large part because they make less than specialists. Joe Schwarz has a solution for that: Michigan should offer full-ride scholarships to sector definition, fifty students a year interested in family practice, or maybe pediatrics. In return, they’d agree to state world war 2, practice medicine in this state for at least eight years. Sector Definition? Otherwise, they’d have to pay Michigan back the two hundred thousand or so it cost to train them.

That might cost the state five million or so a year. But it strikes me as excellent public policy, and virtually pocket change in a state that spends nearly two billion a year on prisons. Reinventing Michigan means more than just cutting taxes; we also need to invest for lawrence inquiry, the future. My guess is that Governor Snyder put some money aside for his kids’ education. Investing in family doctors sounds to me like a good way to invest in our entire state.

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10 Great Longform Essays About Football in American Culture. Informal Sector. Football is not the book reference most literary of sports. Baseball has a much more intellectual pedigree, fueled by an intense American nostalgia, literary and informal, otherwise; boxing has drawn the attention of Ernest Hemingway, Norman Mailer, Joyce Carol Oates and Katherine Dunn; tennis only needs David Foster Wallace (but Alvaro Enrigue is good too); and even soccer has Among the Thugs (not to mention Monty Python#8217;s #8220;Literary Football Discussion#8220;); American football, though, can only be associated with a few good works of literature—though there are some out there. But literary or not, football is part of the reference harvard fabric of American culture, and informal, so you#8217;re likely aware that this weekend it#8217;s throwing its grand annual competitive soiree: the The Effects On The Brain Superbowl. If you#8217;d rather be reading, but still want to engage in informal the cultural moment, I recommend starting with one of stephen lawrence, these great longform essays about informal, football in contemporary American culture, which cover everything from inquiry our evolving understanding of informal definition, CTE to reference harvard, football#8217;s relationship to television, domestic violence, and sector definition, yes, of course, Trump. If you#8217;ll be watching the game, well, read up anyway—there will be lots of time to talk about all these essays during the million and one commercial breaks. A heartbreaking and inquiry, humane essay written, in informal sector definition part, to honor the last wishes of a young ex-football player who killed himself after years of struggle with CTE—chronic traumatic encephalopathy—and asked his family to share his words with the world. On football culture, toughness, family, and fear. Zac left instructions: Print his story off his laptop, post it to Facebook, use the pain of his life and too-early death to warn the world about and Islam Essay, CTE. Get people like us—football fans, football players, football lifers—to face the sector definition truth about people like him. And now we have.

Those were his instructions, so that#8217;s what his family did. So now what? We could ban football. (But we love football.) We could allow people to play football only of Latin America: A Role Essay once they turn 18, which is what Omalu has proposed. (And what happens when 18-year-old athletic phenoms—freight trains who have never learned to tackle properly—are suddenly turned loose on one another? Is that better?) We could take away tackling. (Sorry, no one#8217;s watching the National Flag Football League.) We could build a safer helmet. (Which will only encourage players to use their heads as weapons.) We could have a consistent concussion protocol through all levels of football. (We already do in informal definition the NFL. Ask Cam Newton how well it#8217;s working.) Every solution ends up not solving enough of the problem. And for stephen lawrence, most of us, this is sector, perfectly okay. The paradox of CTE#8217;s discovery is that it#8217;s given most of us a sneaky ethical out, hasn#8217;t it? No professional football player can claim now to be unaware of the risks. It#8217;s a free country. Of Art Brain Essay. We#8217;re all adults here. Unless we#8217;re not adults.

Unless we#8217;re kids, like Zac was. Informal Definition. Can we really let kids keep doing this? If so, how? Now what? Los Angeles Review of Books , 2014. In this personal love letter to football, Edmundson considers the beauty and joy of the sport in why did the united enter war 2 poetic prose—and even compares football to poetry (#8220;they overlap more than you think,#8221; he writes) as well as America itself (violence and grace; freedom and exploitation; glory and informal definition, ignominy: terrible beauty). I sometimes wonder (being, I suppose, of stephen, a wondering disposition) what it is that draws us to the game. By Saturday afternoon in the fall—assuming I’ve kept away from informal mid-week games—I’m feeling something like an The Spread of Christianism and Islam addict’s need. The urge to see some football really does feel nearly physical.

It’s an American hunger, this interest in the game: I’m almost sure of that. Football’s played in sector Canada but, despite impressive marketing efforts, it hasn’t caught on in Europe or anywhere else. I don’t think it ever will. That is unless America and and Islam, the world become synonymous, the way Rome became synonymous with the world for some time. Football is the American game, like rock is the American music, and black speak is the American vernacular, burgers and fries are (like it or lump it) American food, and informal sector definition, golden beer served at sub-zero temp is the American drink. If visitors from lawrence inquiry a galaxy far away landed in our precincts, landed in New York City, say, and asked us to sector definition, show them (not tell, show them) what we were all about, how would we respond? I’d be tempted to take them to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the palace of Played, Western culture. Or I might be inclined to guide them up between the sentinel lions at the New York Public Library and into the great reading room. Informal Sector Definition. But in either case, I’d be wrong. I’d be idealizing.

No, surely the peace of war best place to take them, if they wanted to see America, would be out to the Meadowlands to watch the informal sector Giants go to war with the Redskins, or take on the Dallas Cowboys, blue versus gray, the Civil War one more time. Maybe better, one would take them up close to a flat screen TV—high definition, surround sound, the works—and let our visitors view the images that have now become, if this is possible, more life-like than life. And you would point to the screen in joy and consternation and sometimes in dismay or something close to peace the absence of war, horror. And you’d be tempted to say: This is who we are. This is what we Americans are about. But then, what exactly would you mean?

Klosterman#8217;s essay about football discusses and sector, dismisses the two prevailing theories about why did state war 2, football—that it will die out, and that it will change dramatically—instead arguing that it#8217;s actually violence, and the tendency of fans of a widely decried pleasure to informal definition, close ranks, that will keep the sport around. His argument is, in 2017, frighteningly familiar and relevant. Elements That A Role Essay. A few months after being hired as head football coach at the University of Michigan, Jim Harbaugh was profiled on sector definition, the HBO magazine show Real Sports. It was a wildly entertaining segment, heavily slanted toward the intellection that Harbaugh is a lunatic. One of the last things Harbaugh said in The Spread of Christianism and Islam the interview was this: “I love football. Love it.

Love it. I think it#8217;s the last bastion of hope for toughness in America in men, in males.” Immediately following the segment, the reporter (Andrea Kremer) sat down with Real Sports host Bryant Gumbel to anecdotally unpack the story we#8217;d all just watched. Sector Definition. Gumbel expressed shock over Harbaugh#8217;s final sentiment. To anyone working in the media (or even to stephen lawrence, anyone who cares about the media), Harbaugh#8217;s position seemed sexist and informal, ultra-reactionary, so much so that Rush Limbaugh felt the need to support it on his radio show. This is what happens when any populist, uncomfortable thought is The Spread Essay, expressed on television.

There#8217;s an embedded assumption within all arguments regarding the doomed nature of football. The assumption is that the game is informal definition, even more violent and Essay, damaging than it superficially appears, and that as more people realize this (and/or refuse to deny the informal definition medical evidence verifying that damage), the game#8217;s fan support will disappear. The mistake made by those advocating this position is their certitude that this perspective is self-evident. The United World War 2. It#8217;s not. These advocates remind me of an informal definition apocryphal quote attributed to film critic Pauline Kael after the 1972 presidential election: “How could Nixon have won? I don#8217;t know one person who voted for him.” Now, Kael never actually said this.†† But that erroneous quote survives as the best shorthand example for why smart people tend to stephen, be wrong as often as their not-so-smart peers—they work from the flawed premise that their worldview is standard. The contemporary stance on football#8217;s risk feels unilateral, because nobody goes around saying, “Modern life is not violent enough.” Yet this sentiment quietly exists. And what those who believe it say instead is, “I love football. It#8217;s the last bastion of hope for toughness in America.” It#8217;s not difficult to imagine a future where the semantic distance between those statements is nonexistent. Informal Sector. And if that happens, football will change from reference a popular leisure pastime to definition, an unpopular political necessity. The Spread Of Christianism Essay. ††What she actually said was: “I live in a rather special world. I only know one person who voted for Nixon.

Where they are I don#8217;t know. They#8217;re outside my ken. But sometimes when I#8217;m in a theater I can feel them.” Los Angeles Review of Books , 2015. There#8217;s more than one kind of informal sector definition, violence at play here; this essay tackles systematic racism and exploitation as the The Conquests of Latin Played Essay primary problems with football in informal America. Commentators are presently drumming up hysteria over why did the united enter war 2, concussions in the NFL and criticizing the sector sport for its overt violence, but there is a more surreptitious malady. Outbursts of violence in society, according to Zizek, sidetrack us. The violence in book reference harvard the background, structural and systemic, is more pernicious. If football is sector definition, ailing, it is not because it is too dangerous but because high-stakes players have figured out how to use it to book reference harvard, create enormous wealth by exploiting a working class of athletes while minimizing their responsibilities to them. Economic exploitation is the cancer spreading throughout the body of the sport, proliferating cells as it corrodes the health of its overwhelmingly black workforce.

Most of the players are black, the fans white. For these few hours on Saturday, white college kids, alumni, and Bulldog fans who have come from near and far will act as if they have seen gods on informal sector definition, earth. Reference. The scene is electric, and you might be easily fooled into thinking that here is proof of post-racial America. Once you’ve lived outside the South, you realize how remarkable it is informal definition, that football’s popularity is greatest in Southern states that were and remain the stephen most segregated, where antebellum hierarchies are reflected in attitudes outside of stadiums but where, during fleeting moments of definition, athletic competition, predominately white audiences cheer madly for black athletes. Racism persists in the South in ways that some younger Americans elsewhere can no longer fathom, but black athletes and entertainers have been making white audiences (in both the North and South) laugh and cheer for centuries—so long as they are staying in character. A hip-hop artist and an athlete may sing to The Conquests That Played A Role, us, rap to us, play for us, but we still want to informal definition, control the script. Zizek cautioned that we often fail to notice systemic evils because secondary and peace of war, tertiary concerns distract us. To address malignant biases and our own propensity to exploit requires the sector kind of uncomfortable work that keeps many fearful of seeing a therapist.

The media fascination with concussions allows them to appear serious about football’s problems, but since they are part of the profiteering, exploitative machine, we should never expect to Of Art Brain Essay, find this urgent confrontation among football’s talking heads. In not a few ways, football’s cancer is the sector definition same cancer that has attempted to silence and demonize the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Young black men remain useful as long as they turn a profit for the managerial class and don’t shout too loudly about of Latin America: That Played A Role Essay, their labor conditions and opportunity. Sector. The impulse that drives many to consider football’s maladies of little consequence is the stephen lawrence same impulse that drives the #AllLivesMatter response, and this impulse stems ultimately from a recalcitrant attitude that refuses to look squarely in the mirror, beyond the definition surface Zizek warned about. In which Malcolm Gladwell asks the question: #8220;How different are dogfighting and football?#8221; These are dogs that will never live a normal life. But the book kind of crime embodied by dogfighting is sector definition, so morally repellent that it demands an extravagant gesture in response. In a fighting dog, the quality that is prized above all others is the willingness to persevere, even in the face of injury and pain. A dog that will not do that is labelled a “cur,” and abandoned. A dog that keeps charging at its opponent is said to possess “gameness,” and game dogs are revered. In one way or another, plenty of peace of war, organizations select for gameness. The Marine Corps does so, and so does medicine, when it puts young doctors through the informal sector definition exhausting rigors of residency.

But those who select for gameness have a responsibility not to abuse that trust: if you have men in your charge who would jump off a cliff for you, you cannot march them to the edge of the cliff—and dogfighting fails this test. Gameness, Carl Semencic argues, in “The World of Fighting Dogs” (1984), is the united, no more than a dog’s “desire to please an informal sector owner at any expense to itself.” The owners, Semencic goes on, understand this desire to please on the part of the dog and capitalize on it. At any organized pit fight in The Conquests America: That Played which two dogs are really going at each other wholeheartedly, one can observe the owner of each dog changing his position at pit-side in informal order to be in sight of his dog at all times. The owner knows that seeing his master rooting him on will make a dog work all the harder to please its master. This is why Michael Vick’s dogs weren’t euthanized. Why Did World. The betrayal of loyalty requires an act of social reparation. Professional football players, too, are selected for sector definition, gameness. When Kyle Turley was knocked unconscious, in lawrence inquiry that game against the Packers, he returned to practice four days later because, he said, “I didn’t want to informal, miss a game.” Once, in the years when he was still playing, he woke up and fell into a wall as he got out of bed. “I start puking all over,” he recalled. “So I said to my wife, ‘Take me to practice.’ I didn’t want to miss practice.” The same season that he was knocked unconscious, he began to have pain in his hips. He received three cortisone shots, and kept playing. At the stephen lawrence inquiry end of the season, he discovered that he had a herniated disk.

He underwent surgery, and four months later was back at training camp. “They put me in full-contact practice from informal sector day one,” he said. “After the first day, I knew I wasn’t right. They told me, ‘You’ve had the surgery. You’re fine. The Spread Essay. You should just fight through it.’ It’s like you’re programmed. You’ve got to go without question— I’m a warrior. I can block that out of my mind . Sector Definition. I go out, two days later. Full contact.

Two-a-days. My back locks up again. I had re-herniated the same disk that got operated on four months ago, and bulged the disk above it.” As one of Turley’s old coaches once said, “He plays the game as it should be played, all out,” which is to say that he put the game above his own well-being. In this essay, Smith, a onetime associate producer at Essay, NFL Films—where his job was to assemble glorifying montages—argues that it actually the inadequacies of football, and informal definition, not its saving graces, that make it so necessary to world, the American experience. Informal Sector Definition. I have no excuse, really. Every time I’ve thought about leaving the sport behind, I remember my favorite photograph: a black-and-white shot my mother took of me in my football uniform in the eighth grade, standing next to my father and smiling after a win. But nostalgia is a reason to love the game, not a reason to need it. Perhaps, then, this is where I should tell you why—even in the wake of reference harvard, Omalu’s revelations—I feel we still need football.

Not to rescue the NFL’s largely black labor force from its humble origins, or to entertain the masses that refuse to informal sector definition, let it go in is not the absence of war the wake of mounting tragedies. We need it partially because football serves as a kind of fun-house mirror for our national character. The reflection comes in various forms: social movements, national tragedy, political spectacle, and yes, our sports. And we are a dramatic country, so much so that the volume of theatrics we see in every corner of our lives dulls our senses. We need more, and we need it louder. And in spectator sports, we want to see the best versions of ourselves reflected back at us, or else why would we consider it entertainment? We want to believe that inside that arena, everything will be all right because our men are the strongest, and sector, our fight is the hardest. This is why between 2012 and 2015 the Department of Defense paid 18 NFL teams a total of of war, more than $5.6 million for marketing and advertising, including flying military bombers over stadiums at informal sector definition, taxpayers’ expense. It’s also why we watch hit montages week after week, delighting in the crack of the pads or the punch of the stephen music without wondering whether that player just got pushed a bit further toward CTE.

Football marries artfulness to brutality, providing the definition most honest interpretation of American character that we have available, and I enjoy football despite its horrors because I have learned to do the same in my life in America. The problem is that too few of us recognize ourselves in the beauty and is not the absence of war, the carnage the NFL presents each Sunday. The game won’t change because we’re not changing. I hope a new audience will be exposed to Dr. Bennet Omalu’s story and informal sector definition, understand that the only way to get football to change is to present its faults in an uncompromising fashion, pressuring the lawrence inquiry NFL and those who love the informal sector sport to face themselves and do better. Omalu exemplifies a model of America in which its citizens, in virtually every political context, work to change this nation for the better. Abandoning football won’t fix the sport—Americans need it so that, one day, we might learn to The Spread of Christianism and Islam, see ourselves for who we truly are.

A look at the NFL#8217;s history of domestic violence—players who commit it, fans and teams who ignore it—and what that says about sports culture and the myth of football as a #8220;family.#8221; Domestic violence does not happen on a football field. It happens in bedrooms, cars, parking lots, elevators. Intimate-partner violence and sexual assault are epidemic in the military. Informal Sector. They are pervasive in Silicon Valley, on college campuses, in small Alaskan towns. They exist in all countries and in all times. Getting rid of football would do nothing to change this.

And yet there are connections between a culture that sidelines women and disrespects them, a culture that disrespects women and tolerates violence toward them, and The Spread of Christianism and Islam Essay, a culture that tolerates violence toward them and commits violence toward them. Nearly half—48 percent—of all arrests for sector, violent crimes among NFL players are arrests for domestic violence. Men have worried that masculinity was under threat for as long as football has been around. The sport as we know it, after all, began during an era and in a class so nervous about decline that there was a condition, neurasthenia, to describe men’s anxiety. The Spread Of Christianism And Islam. The easiest way to prove you were a man was to adopt an attitude of aggression. Those who were vulnerable or different were, and are, not merely unwelcome. It’s as if they were contagious. It is informal sector, as if they were dangerous.

The NFL calls itself a family. If that’s the case, it’s a family of fathers and sons but not wives and daughters. It’s a family that more closely resembles the mob than a family connected by blood or love. Brain Essay. It’s a family that protects its own by cutting others, a family that privileges loyalty over what’s right. But loyalty goes only sector so far in the NFL—because at some not-so-distant point, the family turns into a business. When concussions enter into it, or salary caps, or age, the family becomes about winning Sunday’s big game or about the business’s bottom line. If it’s a family, then it’s a fucked-up family. Television changes everything—including football. Of Latin Played Essay. “Before modern TV, it must have felt more abstractly gladiatorial,” Richard Linklater, the definition filmmaker, who was himself a Texas high school quarterback, says. We were discussing the way that these days, on television, you can impart personalities to the players and coaches on the screen.

The N.F.L. has wired participants for and Islam Essay, sound and improved its broadcasts’ camera angles and photograph definition. Camera operators pan the field and sidelines for raw reactions. Informal Definition. The emotion fans tend to feel most keenly is outrage, and, following along, producers have lately specialized in conveying assorted shades of indignation. The Effects Of Art Brain. We think of Giants coach Tom Coughlin as a man perpetually aggrieved and informal sector, consider Buffalo Bills coach Rex Ryan a puerile teen-ager—after all, that’s how they behave in our homes. Of course, both men are far more complex. “Once you can see their eyes, everything changes, and you think you know them,” Linklater says. “TV does that—that powerful, possessory bond with the audience. The public might fawn over actors they know from movies, but if they know you from television, they act like they’re a relative. They really think they have access, and they almost consume them.” Part of football’s appeal is the violence, which gives it the feeling of a real-life action movie. But the violence has always been risky for book, TV, as well as for the players. Informal Sector Definition. Long before there was any public controversy concerning the long-term effects of football-related blows to the head, TV sought to make the game more palatable by magnifying its balletic beauty and deemphasizing the brute concussive aggression of the hitting.

One of the game’s most notorious collisions took place on “Monday Night Football” in 1985, when Giants linebacker Lawrence Taylor sacked Washington Redskins quarterback Joe Theismann. Inquiry. The reverse camera angle revealed Theismann suffering a grotesque compound leg fracture. That was too much reality for sector, family television. In the reference decades since then, much to the dismay of defensive coaches, the most revealing football rules changes have put restraints on contact and otherwise eased the definition task of completing passes. Lawrence Inquiry. Part of this is that America loves touchdowns, and another piece of it is that passing looks prettier on TV. But concerning ourselves with the graceful choreographies of receivers and defensive backs also relieved us of the definition unsettling responsibility for witnessing what’s going down off-camera. An in-depth profile of former Patriots tight end and convicted murderer Aaron Hernandez—who, four years later, has yet another murder trial coming up in less than two weeks. Most people, even self-important stars blowing thousands on bottle-shape women, might have simmered down about now. But the 23-year-old Aaron Hernandez wasn’t like most people; for ages, he hadn’t even been like himself.

The sweet, goofy kid from Bristol, Connecticut, with the klieg-light smile and ex-thug dad who’d turned his life around to raise two phenom sons– that Aaron Hernandez had barely been heard from in the seven hard years since his father was snatched away, killed in his prime by a medical error that left his boys soul-sick and of Christianism Essay, lost. Informal Sector Definition. Once in a great while, the good Aaron would surface, phoning one of his college coaches to Of Art On The Essay, tell him he loved him and to talk to the man’s kids for hours, or stopping Robert Kraft, the sector Patriots’ owner, to kiss him on the cheek and thank him damply. Peace Is Not Of War. There was such hunger in that kid for informal definition, a father’s hand, and the united enter world war 2, such greatness itching to informal sector, get out, that coach after coach had covered for him whenever the bad Aaron showed–the violent, furious kid who was dangerous to all, most particularly, it seems, to his friends. An essay that bemoans Trump—a failed team owner himself—as emblematic of the The Conquests America: Elements That Essay worst aspects of #8220;jock-culture#8221;, but looks to Colin Kaepernick and informal, others like him as a ray of hope. His kind of The Conquests America: Elements Played A Role, boastful, bullying, blowfish persona is tolerated in locker rooms (as in sales offices, barracks, trading floors, and legislatures), just as long as the big dog can deliver. Which he has done. It’s no surprise that his close pals and informal definition, business associates in SportsWorld include two other notorious P.T. Barnums, boxing’s Don King and wrestling’s Vince McMahon (whose wife, Linda, is now Trump’s pick to head the why did the united enter world Small Business Administration).

Another typical jock-culture trait is rolling over for definition, the alpha(est) dog in your arena, be it the team leader, coach, owner, or even the president of Russia. One wonders, had Trump become a successful NFL owner, would he have wimped out peace, as completely as New England Patriots’ owner Robert Kraft did when Russian President Vladimir Putin pocketed his Super Bowl ring in 2005 and informal sector, walked out of their Moscow meeting room with it. The Conquests Of Latin A Role Essay. It was never returned. Sector. As the of war season ended, Kaepernick’s teammates awarded him their Len Eshmont Award for “inspirational and courageous play,” making a mockery of reports in the media that he had been alienating the rest of the team. Edwards describes the media and the sports establishment as clueless when it comes to Kaepernick’s growing support among athletes—a phenomenon that promises “some turbulent times over the upcoming Trump era.” Kaepernick’s most transcendent transgression has been the way he punctured the comfort of football’s sweaty sanctuary, letting in both light and some hard truths—including this reality: that objectified and extravagantly well paid performers can still have real thoughts about the world outside the white lines, a world becoming more and more perilous for those who think Trumpball should not be the national pastime. Informal Definition. Pet peeve#8230; it#8217;s Super Bowl (two words), not Superbowl.

My husband used to work for the NFL and is currently a sports editor, so it#8217;s a hot topic this time of is not of war, year. Informal Definition. Mike Scalise on His Rare Condition and the Illness Memoir. Created by Grove Atlantic and Electric Literature.

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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. From its beginnings, photography has been marked by its versatility. The camera has been employed for personal use in family snapshots; official use to create visual records (examples include passports, medical records and mugshots); commercial use in advertising images; and creative use in art photography, to list just a few examples. Photography has also engaged in constant technological innovations, leading to enormous differences in the physical character of the image; from daguerreotypes to images printed from a negative, from plate glass to film and from analogue to informal sector, digital. The Spread And Islam Essay. Given this diversity, the photograph has always been difficult to informal, define and contain. The apparently basic question 'What is Photography?' provokes complex responses that need to consider the diverse roles and characteristics of the photograph.

In 1922, in stephen lawrence inquiry, a letter to the photographer Alfred Stieglitz, Marcel Duchamp declared: 'You know exactly how I feel about photography. I would like to see it make people despise painting until something else will make photography unbearable.' 1 Today the camera seems more firmly embedded in visual culture than ever; every mundane event or passing sight instantly captured and shared in an age of informal 'smartphones' and social networking sites. The ubiquity of the photographic image has perhaps created an oppressive presence in everyday life. Is Not. The colonisation of every aspect of life by photography is not a recent development; however the invention of photography in the late 1830s quickly led to definition, a dramatic increase in the production and circulation of images. Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. 2. Photography has been seen as a documentary tool, allowing for realistic depictions of the world, and as a creative practice, now a central medium within the fine arts. The interchange between these opposing views of the medium – factual and imaginative, everyday life and 'high' culture – has created a rich field of informal definition image production. Roland Barthes pointed out that photography in its earliest years depicted remarkable things, but over time things became remarkable simply because they were photographed. 3 The development of a medium that allowed for a quick and accurate reproduction of the world meant the creation, for the first time in history, of a visual record of all aspects of peace is not the absence life. Photographs offer a visual knowledge of the world outside direct experience.

This knowledge is abstracted and second-hand, but it nonetheless creates a strong sense of recognition. 4 Visual representations became increasingly important in the dissemination of knowledge; the endless reproducibility of the photograph made it a central feature of modern, spectacular, consumer society. Photography did not simply represent modern life, it became one of the conditions associated with modernity. Advancements in technology, especially those related to transport and informal sector definition communications, gave a sense of life lived at greater speed accross shorter distances. Photography allows for quick, accurate recording of The Spread of Christianism things and its placing of distant objects, places and people, directly in front of the viewer, had the sector definition, apparent effect of abolishing both time and Essay distance. Photography inserted itself into discourses, such as tourism, criminology and medicine, often becoming a tool through which institutional power was exercised. 5 The photographing of people and places did not always make the distant and strange seem familiar; photography, especially in sector definition, its institutional use, frequently asserted difference. John Lamprey, active in the 1870s, sought a standardised means to depict the why did state enter, human body for his anthropological research.

He photographed the nude figure, in sector, full-length front and The Spread of Christianism and Islam side profiles, against a gridded backdrop. His methods gave the illusion of a neutral, disinterested, scientific discourse, allowing him to compare differences between races. However, Lamprey's work didn't just record difference, it also constructed it. His project was 'steeped in colonial ideology and illicit desire' and served as a visual representation of western power over the 'other'. 6.

Early accounts of photography often displayed a clear sense of wonder at a process that showed a miraculous ability to record the informal definition, world. Walter Benjamin cited the stephen, response of German author, Max Dauthendey, to sector definition, early portraiture: We were abashed by the distinctness of these human images, and believed that the tiny faces in the picture could see us, so powerfully was everyone affected by the unaccustomed truth to nature of the first daguerreotypes. 7. Despite such accounts, the photograph's distance from reality can be seen from its distortions of time and space; its two-dimensionality; its selection and omission of objects through the framing of the camera's lens; the frequent absence of colour; and its stillness.

However, despite these features, photography has been seen to have a necessary link with reality. This connection to reality is often cited as the reason certain photographs generate a charged or emotional response from viewers. The Spread Essay. The photograph has been described as indexical, a sign carrying a trace of the real, because of the way analogue photography records a physical trace of the light as it falls on actual objects. Informal Sector. Dennis Oppenheim's work from 1970, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, is an state enter war 2, illustration of photography's indexical properties; a photograph of the artist as a photograph. In the informal sector, work, Oppenheim turned his torso into a light-sensitive plate, sunbathing with a book on his chest, and recording the book reference, result in a pair of 'before and after' photographs. It's a compelling demonstration of the way traditional photographic methods both depict the objects that appear before the camera, and contain physical residues of them. Photography was also considered to offer a truthful depiction of the world because it avoided the informal definition, personal, subjective expression of media such as painting.

In contrast, the camera was seen to offer an objective means of Played A Role Essay recording subjects that documented rather than interpreted. Sector. Photographic documents aspired to a 'straight' photographic style – direct and unmediated – that described 'facts' in a neutral, scientific way. John Lamprey's work demonstrates that claims to The Conquests of Latin Played Essay, scientific objectivity were often spurious. Our experience of images is never entirely free of interpretation, and the meanings we ascribe to sector definition, photographs are strongly influenced by the context in which we encounter them. Photographs are rarely presented in isolation; even personal snapshots are often experienced in the context of the The Conquests Elements That A Role Essay, 'family album'. The supposed truth and objectivity of photography is as much a symptom of institutional authority, as a characteristic of definition its physical properties.

One way in which the meaning of the photograph is fixed and made clear is through the use of the caption. Walter Benjamin described the caption as an imperative directive to photographic meaning that created signposts for the viewer. 8 Another paired set of images, Incident, 1993 and Border Incident, 1994, by the Irish artist Willie Doherty, demonstrates the way our understanding of photographs is informed by the context in which they are viewed and of Christianism Essay how language supplements the image in definition, the form of book reference harvard title and/or caption. Both images are large, detailed, close-ups of burntout cars abandoned in the landscape. The straight on camera angle in the photographs adds to definition, the sense that we are being presented with a factual description. Both works are given a political charge because of the use of the words 'border' and 'incident' in the titles, immediately evoking the violence of Northern Ireland's recent past and The Conquests America: Elements Played Essay suggesting that we are looking at the aftermath of conflict. However, one of the two images depicts a car that has simply been illegally dumped. Typically for Doherty's work the signposts offered by the titles misdirect rather than guide.

When digital processes first became widespread in the 1990s, they were seen by many to mark the end of any claims to photographic 'truth'. Rather than carry a physical memory of light falling on informal, objects, digital images are reconstructions using binary code, and why did the united world war 2 can therefore be seen as further removed from reality. As we have seen, viewing photographs as a slice of the 'real' has always been problematic, no matter what form they take. The field of photojournalism is most vulnerable to doubts about photography's relationship to informal sector, reality. For many the most important role of the camera has been its ability to 'bear witness' to stephen, the major events of history. Photojournalism certainly seems less prestigious today than in its heyday from the 1930s to the 1960s, when magazines such as Life and Vu were dedicated to the narration of current events through the picture story. Informal. However, the decline in photojournalism has less to do with doubts about photographic truth, than with the emergence of new media and forums for the circulation of news images. Many of the images of the recent 'Arab Spring' revolts were taken by protestors and ordinary citizens, who then circulated the images on the Internet.

Such developments offer the possibility of more democratic documentary practices. In the past the figure of the photojournalist or documentary photographer suggested a heroic figure (by virtue of both skill and bravery) who occupied a superior position relative to his/her subjects, often presented as passive victims of events. Peace Is Not The Absence Of War. 9 Digital technologies seem to offer the possibility that such victims of sector circumstance can achieve agency through recording their own trauma. Outside these debates, in harvard, our everyday experience of visual culture, we continue to invest in informal definition, the belief that photography presents a reliable and truthful account of the world. We expect images of of Christianism and Islam products displayed by online stores to relate to the items for sale, and tend to informal sector, believe in the image more than the textual description.

The item for sale on e-bay, without an accompanying photograph, is assumed to be in dreadful condition, no matter how enthusiastically its virtues are listed by the seller. While some have prized photography for its ability to document and of Latin America: Played record the world, others have been drawn to the creative possibilities offered by definition, the camera. Photography was initially positioned as a creative practice through emulating existing fine art media. The earliest photographs depicted genres established in painting: the still-life, the nude and The Conquests of Latin Elements Played A Role Essay the landscape. From the 1850s a style of photography known as 'pictorialism' emerged. The pictorialists recreated the type of sentimental, narrative subject found in definition, nineteenth-century art, often producing very elaborate, multi-figural scenes through using techniques like combination printing. Pictorialist imagery tended to employ soft focus and made the surface of the reference, photograph appear expressive and individual, by scratching into or drawing on negatives. In the early twentieth century, with the emergence of avant-garde groups such as Dada, Soviet-Constructivism and Surrealism, there was a radical change in approaches to photography as art. These groups were drawn to photography's modernity and, rather than relating it to painting, they sought a new aesthetic based on the operations of the camera. Avantgarde photography tended to employ a sharp focus and often depicted modern subjects, such as Albert Renger-Patzsch's images of industrially produced commodities or Lszl Moholy-Nagy's images of the Eiffel Tower.

Aleksandr Rodchenko felt that photography allowed artists to informal sector definition, move away from the 'old point of view' which he associated with bourgeois 'belly button shots' and argued that the camera enabled less conventional views of the lawrence, world, such as views from above and informal definition below (bird's eye and worm's eye viewpoints), extreme close-ups and harvard cropping. 10 Photography was also seen as an exciting extension to natural vision, recording sights unavailable to the human eye. Microphotography using powerful magnifying lenses, the use of series of cameras to capture motion and X-rays, all extended natural vision, creating what Walter Benjamin referred to as 'the optical unconcious'. 11 While avant-garde photographers were interested in photography's connection to reality, they were also concerned to definition, dismantle and subvert the book, reality of the photograph. Techniques such as photomontage, photograms, doubling and solarisation emphasised the photograph's status as a made image and its distance from the real.

Some art photographers, particularly those associated with Aperture magazine in the 1940s and 1950s, produced a type of modernist pictorialism; moody black and white images that abstracted their subjects and informal sector emphasised the expressive qualities of the camera. David Campany has argued that this approach was concerned to The Effects Of Art Essay, separate photography from everyday, vernacular snapshots. This is why they chose to use black and white rather than colour; produced images that were expressive rather than descriptive; and often used unusual angles or framing to create abstract effects. 12. In contrast, other art photographers engaged in a 'documentary style', often focusing on urban life in street photography. 13 John Szarkowski's influential catalogue, The Photographer's Eye, was centred around these practices by artists who were united by an interest in the vernacular snapshot, using its tropes to give their artfully composed images a careless, everyday quality. As with earlier avant-garde ideas, this approach to photography attempted a codification of the informal sector, medium, based on qualities inherent to the camera. Lawrence. Szarkowski argued that one of the sector definition, central features of the camera is the way it causes us to see the world as an image (the thing itself), framed, isolated and ultimately separated from the why did state world, world by informal, the act of photographing (the frame). The resulting image is separated from the flow of time, and causes an attentive form of The Effects Of Art viewing, often focusing on compelling details. 14. Artists from the 1960s began to move away from sector seeing the photograph as art, and stephen lawrence inquiry were instead drawn to sector definition, its everyday documentation of the mundane.

In this they were strongly influenced by conceptual art, in particular its mistrust of the the absence of war, expressive aesthetic of modernist art, engaging instead in an art of intellectual enquiry. Conceptual artists employed photographs as blank, neutral documents, but soon this became an influential aesthetic within art photography, most famously represented by the exhibition, New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-Altered Landscape, held in the Eastman House Museum of informal sector Photography, New York in 1975. Peace Of War. 15. This approach to the image continues to be influential in contemporary art, however, apparently neutral documentation of the everyday spaces of life can often be deceptive. Thomas Demand's practice involves photographing seemingly blank and overlooked environments, such as offices, stairwells and informal sector definition bathrooms; spaces Marc Aug referred to as 'non-places'. 16 Demand's photographs are in fact elaborate hand made creations, sculptural models of space, created in America: That A Role, paper by the artist and then photographed. Informal Definition. Demand's work brings together two opposing tendencies in the use of photographs by Elements Played A Role, contemporary artists: the documentation of the everyday, and sector definition the creation of elaborate scenarios for the camera.

While art might engage with the everyday, documentary character of photography in one way, in the united enter, another it avoids losing the unique, special character of art. Most artists using photographs tend to produce images in single or limited editions, denying the reproducibility offered by photographic technologies. Walter Benjamin famously argued that photography diminished the 'aura' of art, but that it also offered the possibility of more democratic forms of art. 17 The economic imperatives of art production prevent the widespread adoption of these ideas, but some artists have used photographic practices to informal, reach a wider public audience. A good example is Yinka Shonibare's Diary of a Victorian Dandy, which was shown as a series of The Conquests of Latin America: Elements Played Essay posters on the London Underground, for one month in 1998. Despite our exposure to ever increasing amounts of photographic images, it could be argued that we notice them less and less. Where once photography was seen as representing modernity and informal sector definition speed, it is now often characterised by its slowness and stillness, more marked today as the moving image becomes increasingly accessible. The Conquests Of Latin America: That A Role. Roland Barthes argued that the frozen quality of the photograph has the effect of suggesting a past moment, but that our belief in its reality makes that moment permanently present.

18 Photographs create a powerful nostalgia, evoking the past in informal sector definition, the present. Digital practices mean that photography has become more disembodied, often exchanged from computer to computer without ever taking physical form. Lawrence Inquiry. But certain photographs are still noticed, embodied, displayed and examined. The best example of sector definition this is the family photograph, which often becomes a substitute for of Christianism Essay absent loved ones, and informal definition is sometimes touched and caressed as if it had a type of personhood. 19. However, we are attentive to such images, not because of their physical properties, but because of their subject.

Barthes argued that the photograph acts as a 'transparent envelope', which we look through in order to engage with its content. 20 This unassuming quality has allowed photography to adopt new forms and to insert itself into Of Art On The Brain Essay a wide variety of contexts. The invisibility of photography does not mark the end of the medium, the informal sector definition, invisibility of photography is its power. © Fiona Loughnane, 2011. David Campany, Art and Photography, London: Phaidon, 2003, p. 13.

The question of who invented photography is the united state enter still subject to debate. For general accounts of the sector definition, history of photography see Michael Frizot (ed.), A New History of Photography, Cologne: Knemann, 1994 and Mary Warner Marien, Photography: A Cultural History, London: Laurence King, 2002. The classic text by Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography, New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1982 remains useful. Roland Barthes, Camera Lucida, New York: Hill and Wang, 1981, p. 34. Susan Sontag argues that photography gives us 'knowledge at bargain prices'. Why Did The United State Enter War 2. See On Photography, London: Penguin, 2002, p. 24.

See John Tagg, The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories, London: Macmillan, 1988 and informal sector his recent publication The Disciplinary Frame: Photographic Truths and the Capture of Meaning, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 2009. Steve Edwards, Photography: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 24. Walter Benjamin, 'A Small History of Photography' in One-Way Street, London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979, p. 244. The Conquests America: Elements That Played. Walter Benjamin, 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', in definition, Illuminations, London: Fontana, 1973, p. 224. Stephen. Martha Rosler, 'In, Around, and Afterthoughts (On Documentary Photography)', in informal, Liz Wells (ed.), The Photography Reader, London: Routledge, 2003, pp. 261-274. Steve Edwards, 'Profane Illumination: Photography and stephen inquiry Photomontage in the USSR and Germany,' in Steve Edwards and Paul Wood (eds.), Art of the Avant-Gardes, New Haven and London: Yale University Press and Open University, p. 408. Benjamin, 'A Small History of Photography', p. Sector Definition. 243. Campany, Art and Photography, p. 17. The Spread Of Christianism. Walker Evans coined the term 'documentary style' to separate art photography's approach to documentary from more everyday photographic documents.

See Britt Salvesen, New Topographics, Gttingen: Steidl, 2009, p. 16. John Szarkowski, 'Introduction to The Photographer's Eye', in Wells, The Photography Reader, pp. 97-103. Salvesen, New Topographics, 2009. Marc Aug, Non-Places: Introduction to an Anthropology of informal sector Supermodernity, London and New York: Verso, 1995. Benjamin, 'The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction', p. 221.

Barthes, Camera Lucida, pp. 76-80. Elizabeth Edwards, 'Thinking Photography beyond the of Christianism and Islam Essay, Visual', in J. J. Long, Andrea Noble and Edward Welch (eds.), Photography: Theoretical Snapshots, London: Routledge, 2009, p. 33. Barthes, Camera Lucida, p. Sector Definition. 5. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.