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Phonetics and Phonology Essay Sample. English is a widespread language, spoken all over the world. It is the mother tongue of people of different nationalities, such as: British, American, Australian, Canadian and of africa, South African. It is the second language (language of instruction, used in administration and education) of several countries in Asia and Africa and it is learned as a foreign language in almost every country. Languages have different accents meaning they are pronounced differently by different people depending on geographical factors, social classes, age groups and educational backgrounds. When we speak of an lives, jacob riis accent, however, it is of africa, important to differentiate it from a dialect, which we use to refer to a variety of a language that differs not only in pronunciation but in vocabulary, grammar and word-order, too. The term accent refers to pronunciation differences only. Pronunciation can be studied from two points of view: the elizabethan great of being phonetic and the phonological.1.

Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and describes the of africa sounds of speech in a language, the way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds. Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to of Clothing Ancient World produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of speech sounds, and images, auditory phonetics which studies the way people perceive speech sounds. In this paper I concentrate mostly on the articulation of speech sounds in the English language, with little mention of their acoustic and auditory characteristics. Phonology is the study of when, sound system of a language, the general properties displayed by images, this system; it studies how sounds function in relation to each other, the way the speech sounds form systems and patters in human languages. The accent that I concentrate on in this paper; the accent that is one that is most recommended for foreign learners studying British English, is the accent that is familiar as being used by most announcers and newsreaders on national and international broadcasting channels. It is known as Received Pronunciation (or RP). Elie Essay? RP has been selected by phoneticians as a type of speech which represents a number of types of speeches used by educated people from different parts of the country. It is the language of Southern English speakers, particularly from London and surrounding counties where the oldest grammar schools and universities are, and is most widely recognised and understood all over images, the world. 1. Types of Essay, Spoken English in Britain.

The forms of spoken English in Britain vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken.2 1. Received Standard English (RSE) is the speech that strictly follows the rules of RP, (Received Pronunciation). 2. Standard English has various types: London Standard, Southern Standard, Scottish Standard, etc. Although these standards have certain features in common, they differ and each standard is to some extent coloured by the geographical area in which it is spoken. It is largely the speech of the educated people in these areas and is usually completely intelligible throughout the images of africa country. 3. Modified Standard is the speech of The Significance in Both and Modern, people who have been brought up among the people who speak a local dialect or substandard form of speech, or have spoken one of these themselves. Images? During instruction, this form has been modified to Essay somewhat halfway between dialect or substandard speech and standard. This type of spoken English can be heard in images of africa cities and urban areas among people who have had a secondary level of education. Selfishness? 4. Images Of Africa? Substandard speech is probably what is commonly referred to as vulgar speech and it is usually heard in the large cities among the The Significance of Clothing in Both Ancient and Modern working class and especially among those who are uneducated. 5. Regional dialects represent a pure form of speech that has developed in a given rural area. Images? It actually represents a particular type of English pronunciation, which has developed naturally among people over selfishness quote, centuries.

Since population in rural areas is very static, this form of speech has generally been unaffected by other forms of images, speech. It is intelligible over a small area, this regional dialects are usually mutually unintelligible. A few words on American English. Although there are regional differences in the pronunciation, American English shows surprising uniformity. Selfishness? Standard speech in the United States is images, a rather normal habitual speech used by when was america colonized, the educated members of the American society, both in formal and informal situations. American English is divided into three regional types: Eastern (spoken by about 10% of the population of the US), Southern (spoken by about 25% of the total population) and images, General American (GA, spoken by elizabethan chain of being, the rest of the country – the images of africa mid-West and the North). GA is the English spoken by TV announcers, newsreaders and commentators, mainly described in American textbooks and courses of English. 2. Elie Wiesel's Night Essay? Physiology of Speech Organs. The first requisite of speech is breath.

During the act of normal, healthy breathing, air is set up from the lungs through the windpipe and out either through the nose or through the mouth. Normally, the breath is silent and in order to convert it into speech we must make some kind of intentional modification of the stream of breath (breath stream). This breath stream can then be modified intentionally at a great number of different points on of africa, its way out of the lungs, through the respiratory tract and through the selfishness mouth and nose. These points at which the breath stream can be modified to produce sounds are called speech organs. They are: the vocal cords, the tongue, the of africa lips and the roof of the Wiesel's Night Essay mouth. The first three speech organs are movable, while the last is fixed, except for the soft palate. 2.1. The Vocal Cords. The first point at which the breath stream can be modified is the larynx. It. is placed at the upper end of the wind pipe and it is a bony structure rather like a “box” which contains two lip-like structures stretched from the front to the back of the larynx called the vocal cords.

In the front they are fixed, but in the back each vocal cord is attached to cartilages which are movable. The vocal cords can thus take up four different positions: i. Wide apart – when the vocal cords are wide apart for normal breathing and usually during voiceless consonants like p, f, s. ii. Narrow glottis – if air is of africa, passed through the glottis when it is elizabethan great chain, narrowed the result is a fricative sound, which is images of africa, not very different from a whispered vowel. It is called a voiceless glottal fricative. iii. Position for vocal fold vibrations – when the edges of the vocal cords are touching each other, or nearly touching, air passing through the glottis will usually cause vibration. iv.

Vocal cords are tightly closed – the vocal cords are firmly pressed together so that air can not pass between them. When this happens, we call it a glottal stop or glottal plosive.3. The tongue is the when was america colonized most flexible speech organ. For the purpose of phonetic study it is divided into four imaginary sections: the tip of the tongue, the blade, the front and the back. It has great elasticity and therefore can raise or lower either its back or front part, and the tongue can also glide from images of africa, one position to another, this way producing sounds with different qualities. When the front part is raised to was america different height towards the hard palate, the front vowels are formed. Images? The back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate in the articulation of the back vowels. When either the front or back of the tongue glides from one position to another, various diphthongs are formed. To produce consonants, the was america colonized tongue is used to block the breath stream at one or more points in the mouth (plosives, nasals), or by narrowing the breath passage so that audible friction is created (fricatives).

The tongue takes part in the formation of almost all English sounds. As a moveable speech organ, the lips are capable of of africa, producing sounds themselves, e.g. /p/. They can also combine with other speech organs to produce vowels and Anthony Reasons Apart Essay, some consonants, for example /i:/, /f/, /v/, or /w/. Since they are flexible, they can take up several positions: spread, open wide, close rounded, open rounded, neutral and closed. i. Images? Spread – the lips are slightly apart and when colonized, energetically spread. The vowels produced in this position are: /i:/, /i/, and / e/. ii. Wide open – the lips have no effect on the breath stream. The only vowel produced with lips in this position is /?:/. iii. Images Of Africa? Close rounded – the lips are rounded with a small gap between them and they can be flat rounded, / ?/, or protruded, /u:/ and /w/. iv. Open rounded – the lips have a rather large gap between them: in this position they can be flat rounded to form / ?/, or protruded to produce /?:/. v. Neutral – the lips are held in a relaxed position with a medium distance between the jaws. This is the position of the lips to produce /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/. vi. Closed lips – when the when lips are completely closed so that the passage of the breath stream is blocked all together.

Then either the lips suddenly open /p/ and /b/ or the soft palate lowers /m/. The lower lip can be brought into contact with the upper teeth to from a narrow passage so that audible friction is created when the breath stream pushes its way through the passage /f/ and /v/. 2.4. The Roof of the Mouth. The roof of the mouth can be divided into three sections: the teeth ridge, the hard palate and the soft palate. i. Of Africa? The teeth ridge is a fixed speech organ whose chief function is to serve as a point of contact, for chain of being the tip of the tongue, in the production of some consonants.

It also serves both as a place for narrowing the passage of the breath stream together with either the images of africa tip or the blade of the tongue, in the production of /s/, /z/ and /r/ and as a place of vibration of the tongue for the thrilled consonant /r/. Half Lives, Exposed? Furthermore together with the hard palate it takes part in the production of /?/, /?/, / t?/ and /d?/. ii. The hard palate is the hard part of the palate between the teeth ridge and the soft palate. It is also a fixed speech organ. Images Of Africa? Its chief function is to serve as a point at which the breath stream can be narrowed by the front of the elizabethan tongue in the production of the single voiced palatal fricative /j/. The hard palate together with the alveolar ridge is used in the creation of /t?/, /d?/, /?/ and of africa, /?/. iii. The soft palate is a movable speech organ which has three main functions: to serve as a point of contact for was america colonized the back of the images of africa tongue in the production of the velar consonants /k/, /g/ and / ?/. to serve as a place towards which the back of the in how the other half lives, jacob riis tongue is images of africa, raised when the back vowels /?:/, /?/, /?:/, /?/ and /u:/, and the diphthongs /??/ and /??/ are formed. Elie? it can be raised so that it touches the back wall of the pharynx. In this position the breath stream is prevented from images of africa, escaping through the nose and it all goes through the mouth regardless of whether there is an obstacle or not. All English sounds produced with the soft palate are known as oral sounds and they include vowels, diphthongs and the majority of English consonants. When the soft palate is lowered, nasal consonants /m/, /n/ and /?/ are produced. Fig.

1 Speech Organs. 3. The Significance And Fashion Ancient And Modern? General Characteristics of English Sounds. English speech sounds have six main characteristics. They are: 1) Quality of sound, which mainly depends on the speech organs that take part in images of africa its production, as well as the position they take in the formation of the sound.

This is especially true of vowels, with the raising and elizabethan great chain, lowering different parts of the tongue to determine the shape of the mouth cavity when pronouncing, for example /i/ in comparison to /I:/. In this sense, the difference is mainly in the quality of the sound, not the length. 2) Quantity of sound, which usually refers to the length. Images? It often helps to distinguish minimal pairs, which include voiced and voiceless sounds at the end: e.g. Selfishness Quote? heard [h?:d] and hurt [h?:t]. Unlike, say, plosives and affricates which are incapable of being lengthened, difference in length is of africa, noticeable in vowels, especially long vowels and diphthongs. 3) Vibration of the Anthony Burgess's Reasons at the Seams Essay vocal cords. A common characteristic is that the of africa sounds may or may not be accompanied by vibration, i.e. may or may not be noticed. As all vowels and diphthongs are voiced, the Elie Essay vibration of the cords renders phonemic differences when consonants are in question. For example /p/, /b/, /s/, /z/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, /f/, /u/, /t?/ and /d?/. 4) Sonority of sounds, also knows as audibility of sounds, means that a given sound may or may not penetrate over a great distance. The degree of sonority depends on its quality and has been determined scientifically.

What has been discovered is that vowels, diphthongs, semivowels and continuants have the greatest degree of sonority. Voiceless fricatives and plosives have the least. 5) Degree of force (stress). Each sound can be pronounced with a varying degree of of africa, force, i.e. a greater or lesser amount of air pressure that is used in the pronunciation. The stronger the stress is, the louder the sound is pronounced. 6) Pitch (intonation). This characteristic is generally applied to voiced sounds.

A speech sound may be high or low in pitch or may have a pitch which is somewhere between high and lives, riis, low. Furthermore, syllables and words connected in speech have their own particular pitch and together produce what is known as the images of africa intonation of the sentence. We have already said that the stronger the stress – the louder the sound. It also means that the sound has a higher pitch. When the stress is weaker, the pitch is generally low.

This shows clearly that the question of selfishness, intonation is images, already related to the phenomenon of stress. The smallest sound unit in a language that is capable of conveying a distinct meaning is called a phoneme. When? If we compare words such as heat, seat, feet, sheet, cheat, meat and neat, we shall notice that they differ in respect to only one sound: /h/, /s/, /f/, /?/, /t?/, /m/ and /n/ in initial position. These are called minimal pairs. Minimal pairs are pairs of words that differ in only one segment (speech sound) displaying systematic contrasts and consequently exemplifying difference in meaning. So, an essential property of of africa, a phoneme is that it functions contrastively, i.e., it distinguishes one word from the other.

Every vowel, diphthong and when, consonant in the sound system of images, a language has no meaning in itself, but when contrasted with other vowels, diphthongs or consonants of the same language, they form words which carry meaning. This sound is then called a phoneme of that particular language. A concrete realization of a given phoneme in a language is called an allophone. Elie Wiesel's Essay? Allophones are actual spoken variants of a given phoneme. Where phonemes are abstract linguistic units, allophones are concrete speech sounds. Conditioned vs. Free Variants. Conditioned variants are in fact allophones of a phoneme. They are conditioned because they depend on a particular phonetic environment.

Thus, for instance, the English phoneme /l/ has at of africa, least three allophones (conditioned variants) that are complementarily distributed: clear [ l ] (in pre-vocalic position and when colonized, before /j/) e.g. lip, flow, will you dark [ l ](in post-vocalic and pre-consonantal position) e.g. tell, cold, film devoiced [ l ](following voiceless plosives) e.g. play, clean. On the other hand there are cases where there is a choice between two or more allophones of the same phoneme in identical phonetic environments. A good example of this is the images of africa word water: [w?:t ?] or [w?: r ?] (in Australian English). These examples display cases of free variation i.e. free interchange of speech sounds on allophonic level. Selfishness Quote? However, free interchange of speech sounds (without changing meaning) can appear on phonemic level as well.

Consider these examples: issue/isju:/ or /i?ju:/ would you/t isju:/ or /t i?ju:/ could you/kudju/ or /kud?u/ the suffix –ed/reitid/ or /reit?d/ Free variants are present in both standard English and its dialects and whether they occur on phonemic or allophonic level, they are perfectly acceptable pronunciations. The only difference is in personal preference. Therefore, free variants are acceptable pronunciations of one and the same word. 5. Classification of English Speech Sounds. There are two main classes of of africa, speech sounds known as vowels and consonants. A vowel may be defined as a typically voiced sound in the pronunciation of which the breath stream has a free passage through the mouth and/or nose, and for which there is no audible friction.

There are two sub-classes of vowels: pure and compound vowels – diphthongs. A pure vowel consists of only one vowel elements, while a diphthong is composed by two vowel elements. A consonant may be defined as a sound, voiced or voiceless, in the pronunciation of which there is either a complete or partial obstruction, or audible friction which prevents the breath stream from escaping through the mouth or nose. This distinction is purely physiological. Selfishness Quote? The acoustic distinction is of africa, based on the relative sonority of the speech sounds, vowels being more sonorous than consonants. The third distinction given by linguistic analysis is the pronunciation of the [?i] in front of a vowel and an [?n] in front of a consonant. 5.1. Classification and Wiesel's Essay, Characteristics of of africa, Vowels.

Vowels can be classified in four different ways according to: The part of the tongue used in their formation, according to which we have front vowels: /i/, /i:/, /e/, /?/ and /?/, as they are formed when the front part of the tongue is raised towards the Anthony Reasons Why America is Falling Apart hard palate to different heights, back vowels: /a:/, /?/, /?:/, /u/ and /u:/, in the pronunciation of which the images back of the tongue is raised towards the soft palate to chain different heights, and central vowels: /?:/ and /?/ which are formed by raising the images of africa centre of the tongue towards the junctures between the front and the back of the roof of the in how the other jacob riis mouth. The height of the tongue in the mouth, according to which we distinguish closed vowels: /i:/, /i/ and / u:/, /u/, produced with the tongue in of africa a high position in the mouth., half-closed vowels: /?u/ and /ei/ formed when the tongue is raised to The Significance of Clothing in Both World a half-closed position in the mouth (but no pure vowels are articulated this way), half-open vowels: /e/, /?/, /?:/, /?:/ and of africa, /?/, produced with the tongue raised to a half-open position, and open vowels: /?/, /a:/ and /?/, produced with the tongue in low position. The position of the lips the vowels occupy in their production, according to which two types of vowels are formed, rounded vowels: /?:/, /?/, / u:/ and /u/, produced with rounding of the lips, and unrounded vowels: /i:/ , /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /a:/, /?:/ and /?/ which do not require rounding. The inherent length of the vowel, according to which we distinguish long vowels: /i:/, / u:/, /?:/, /?:/ and /a:/ which are normally longer in duration, and short vowels: /i/, /e/, /?/, /?/, /?/, /u/, /?/, which are normally of shorter duration. 5.2. Classification of Diphthongs. A diphthong is defined by Jones as “a sound made by selfishness quote, gliding from images of africa, one vowel to another … represented phonetically by sequence of two letters.” Some are classified in accordance with the movement of the tongue defined in Essay the cardinal vowel system: opening diphthongs are those in which the second element is images of africa, a more ‘open’ vowel than the first: that is, the tongue ends lower in the mouth, for example /??/ (‘oh’); conversely, closing diphthongs are those in which the second element is a closer vowel than the in how the other half jacob riis first: that is, the tongue ends higher in the mouth, for example /ai/ (‘I’); centring diphthongs are those in which the of africa second element is schwa: that is, the tongue ends in the most ‘neutral’, or central, position in the mouth, for example /e?/ (‘air’).

A second classification is by the comparative importance of the different elements: rising diphthongs are those in which the second element seems to be the more important, such as ‘view’, in which the /u:/ (‘oo’) sound is dominant over the introductory short /j/ sound which precedes it, falling diphthongs are those in which the first element seems to be the more important, such as /??/, in which the selfishness /?/ is images of africa, heard as ‘stronger’ than the /?/. Most English diphthongs are falling diphthongs. Diphthongs may also be classified by the extent of the movement of the tongue: wide diphthongs show a larger movement, e.g. Elie Essay? from an ‘open’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /a?/ (‘I’) and /a?/ (‘ow’); narrow diphthongs show less movement, e.g. from a ‘half-close’ vowel to a ‘close’ one, such as /e?/ (as in images ‘day”). 5.3. Classification and Characteristics of The Significance in Both and Modern, Consonants. Consonants can be classified in three different ways, according to: The manner of production or articulation: a) plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/, articulated with complete obstruction at images of africa, the mouth passage entirely blocking the air flow for a moment b) nasals: /m/, /n/ and /?/,where we have a complete obstruction of the mouth passage allowing the air to pass through the nose c) laterals: /l/, where we have partial closure of the breath passage allowing the breath stream to escape freely out of the mouth d) fricatives: /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /h/, /r/, /?/, /?/, /?/ and /?/, articulated by narrowing the mouth passage so as to make the air-flow turbulent, while allowing it to was america pass continuously e) affricated: / t?/ and /d?/, articulated with first a complete obstruction and then a narrowing of the mouth passage f) semivowels: /j/ and /w/, articulatory like vowels, but function like consonants because they are not syllabic An obstruction is of africa, formed stopping the Anthony Apart at the Seams Essay breath stream completely at some particular point so that the breath stream is compressed behind this obstruction to build up air pressure which when released produces plosives.

There are four points for of africa air obstruction and they are 1) the lips /p/ and /b/ = bilabials, 2) teeth ridge /t/ and The Significance in Both Ancient, /d/ = alveolars, 3) the soft palate /k/ and /g/ = velars and images of africa, 4) the vocal cords / ? / (glottal stop) = glottal. Closing the great chain of being mouth passage completely and at the same time lowering the soft palate so that the breath stream escapes through the nose is how the nasals are formed. The place of articulation. We distinguish eight main groups according to this classification and they are: a) bilabials /p/, /b/, /m/ and /w/ which are formed at of africa, the lips. b) labio-dentals /f/ and /v/ which are produced by was america colonized, the conjunction of the lower lip and the upper teeth. c) interdentals /?/ and /?/, formed by the insertion of the tip of the tongue between the teeth. Images Of Africa? d) alveolars /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ and /r/ pronounced with the tip of the The Significance and Fashion blade of the tongue near or against the teeth ridge. e) post alveolar / t?/, /d?/, /?/ /?/, the of africa area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate f) palatal /j/, which is the hard palate or roof of the mouth g) velar /k/, /g/, /?/, pronounced with the Anthony Burgess's Reasons Why America at the Seams Essay back of the tongue and the soft palate h) glottal /h/, produced at the space between the vocal cords Classification of images of africa, consonants according to the vocal cords: a) voiced: /b/, /v/, /?/, /m/, /d/, /z/, /l/, /n/, /j/, /?/, /d?/, /g/, /?/, /w/ and in how half, /?/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords vibrate. b) voiceless: /p/, /f/, /?/, /t/, /s/, /?/, /t?/, /k/ and /h/ in the pronunciation of which the vocal cords do not vibrate. 6. Syllables and images, Their Parts. Words can be cut up into units called syllables.

Humans seem to need. syllables as a way of segmenting the quote stream of speech and giving it a rhythm of strong and weak beats, as we hear in music and they exist only to make speech easier for the brain to process. A word contains at least one syllable. Most speakers of English have no trouble dividing a word up into its component syllables. Sometimes how a particular word is images of africa, divided might vary from one individual to another, but a division is always easy and always possible. Anthony Reasons Why America Is Falling At The? Syllables have internal structure: they can be divided into images parts. The parts are onset and rhyme; within the the other half lives, riis exposed rhyme we find the nucleus and coda. Not all syllables have all parts; the smallest possible syllable contains a nucleus only.

A syllable may or may not have an onset and a coda. Onset is the beginning sounds of the of africa syllable; the ones preceding the nucleus. These are always consonants in English. The nucleus is a vowel in most cases. Of Clothing And Fashion In Both Ancient And Modern? If a word contains more than one syllable, each syllable will have the usual syllable parts: e.g. win-dow, to-ma-to, pre-pos-te-rous, fun-da-men-tal.

Rhyme (or rime) is the images of africa rest of the syllable, after the onset. Elizabethan Chain Of Being? The rhyme consists of a nucleus and coda. The nucleus, as the term suggests, is the core or essential part of a syllable. A nucleus must be present in order for a syllable to be present. Of Africa? Syllable nuclei are most often highly ‘sonorant’ or resonant sounds that can be relatively loud and carry a clear pitch level. Elizabethan Great Chain? In English and most other languages, most syllable nuclei are vowels. The English “liquids” [ r , l ] and the nasals [ m , n ] can be the nuclei of syllables under certain conditions. Images? [ r ] can be a nucleus as easily as a vowel, in any position: the words ‘bird’, ‘word’, ‘her’, ‘fur’; there is no vowel in the pronunciation of these syllables, even though they have one in in how the other lives, the spelling. [ l ] and the nasals [ m n ] become syllable nuclei when they follow an alveolar consonant in the last syllable of a word. This happens in the relaxed or casual rather than very formal articulation of the word. Compare casual vs. Images Of Africa? formal pronunciations of Night, ‘button’, ‘bottle’, ‘bottom’. 7. Stress and Intonation. There are two kinds of stress: words stress and sentence stress.

In English, one or more of the syllables in images of africa each content word are stressed. In some words, where more than one vowel is stressed, one vowel receives great. stress or accent (primary/main) marked with ? where the other stress vowel gets secondary stress marked with ` e.g. resignation linguistics stress is quote, contrastive in English and essential in cases where it is used to distinguish between nouns and verbs e.g. subject (noun) subject (verb) When words are combined into images phrases and sentences, one of the syllables receives greater stress than all of the others, only one of the The Significance in Both Ancient and Modern vowels in a sentence/phrase receives primary stress (or accent). All the other stressed vowels receive secondary stress. Primary stress is placed on images, an adjective followed by a noun when the two are combined in a compound noun, but when they are not joined in this way it is the noun that receives the main stress. e.g. example: tightrope tight rope Intonation Intonation is important because it shows syntactic differences example: Josh is going. (statement) Josh is going? (question) A written sentence which is ambiguous may become unambiguous when spoken by use of intonation e.g. Josh left direction for Ana to follow. – if Ana is to follow Josh, the rise in pitch would be on the first syllable of the word “follow”, followed by a fall in pitch follow – if Ana is to follow the selfishness quote directions Josh left, then the pitch comes on the second syllable of the word “directions” di rections.

8. Aspects of Connected Speech. In most of the discussion so far, we have been describing speech sounds separately, in syllables and words as if they are always going to be pronounces carefully and images, deliberately. But normal, every day speech isn’t like that, especially when spoken by colonized, a native. Most of images, native speakers’ talk is fast and great chain of being, spontaneous and it requires the articulators to move rapidly from images, one sound to another without stopping. However, the process of producing “connected speech” affects the Elie Essay pronunciation of certain segments; some segments have a tendency to images run together, extra segments may be inserted to ensure smoothness of speech, some segments adopt a less defined phonetic form and some completely disappear. 8.1. Assimilation. When two sound segments occur in sequence and The Significance in Both Ancient and Modern World, some aspect of images, one segment is great chain, taken by images, the other, the process is known as assimilation. This process happens because it is quicker, easier and more efficient for our articulators as they do their job. Consonants and vowels alike are subject to assimilation. The phrase have to, for example, is very often pronounced [h?ft?], informally even written “hafta”, because the adjacent sounds influence each other to become more alike.

In the phrase I have to go, the sound /v/ is influenced by the following sound /t/ in a way that in connected speech we produce a voiceless version of /v/ resulting in what sounds more of a /f/, showing the assimilation from a voiced to a voiceless sound. The vowels /i/ and /?/ in elizabethan chain isolation are pronounced without any nasal quality. However, when we say the images of africa word pin or pan in everyday speech, the anticipation of forming a final nasal consonant will make it easier to go into quote the nasalized articulation in advance and as a result the vowel sounds in these words will be nasalized. Elision is the process of eliminating sounds in normal, rapid pronunciation. Elision mostly occurs where clusters of images, consonants exist. Take the quote word government, for example, /g?v?m?nt/, mashed potatoes /m?? p?teit?uz/, next day /neks dei. etc. Who syllables may be elided, in words such as library /laibri:/, and some words are simply prone to elision, such as of images, before consonants in cup o’ tea, lots o’ people, and others such as gonna and wanna, from selfishness, going to and want to, respectively.

A sound may be introduced between words or syllables to help them run together more smoothly. Of Africa? A primary example of this is the pronunciation of word-final /r/ in RP. RP speakers pronounce /r/ is such words as clear and mother when they are followed by a vowel, e.g. clear answer /kli?r/, but /kli?/ in clear question. The intrusive “r” is also very present with native speakers of RP, who regularly link adjacent vowels with an “r” even when there is no ‘r’ in the spelling ( example a) as well as with open back vowels (example b). e.g. a) media interest /mi:di?(r)intr?st/ b) law and order /l?:(r)?nd ?:d?/ There are two sub-disciplines in linguistics which deal with sound and they are phonetics and phonology and in order to understand the sound system of the English language, its various accents and when was america, how these sounds combine and pattern together, we need aspects of both. Phonetics provides objective ways of describing and analyzing the images of africa range of sounds humans use in their languages. More specifically, articulatory phonetics identifies precisely which speech organs and muscles are involved in producing the was america different sounds of the language.

Those sounds are then transmitted from the speaker to the hearer, and acoustic and auditory phonetics focus on of africa, the physics of speech as it travels through the air in the form of sound waves, and elizabethan great, the effect those waves have on images, a hearer’s ears and brain. Burgess's Reasons Why America Is Falling Apart At The Essay? While phonetics deals with the production, properties and perception of the speech sounds, phonology, deals with the sound patterns of the particular language, and in images what speakers and hearers need to know to be speakers of The Significance and Fashion Ancient World, that language. Phonologists investigate which function a sound has in a language and which sounds can be combined; which sounds can follow each other, and of africa, which can not. Unlike most European languages, English is not a phonetic language: words can have identical vowel letters and be pronounced in different ways, e.g. great, treat, and threat; vice-versa, words with phonologically identical vowels may have different spellings, as in sea, seize, and precede, hence, the importance of teaching both pronunciation and quote, spelling. Nowadays, everyone is expected to speak a bit of English, but trying to find someone in Italy who can speak it ‘clearly’ – intelligibly -, without mangling it, is no easy task at all. That is where phonetics and images, phonology comes in, and it is a fascinating subject and essential for Elie Wiesel's Night any student wanting to learn (and understand!) a foreign language – especially English! Is this the images perfect essay for you? Save time and order Phonetics and Phonology.

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Essay: Treatments of images of africa Cocaine Use Disorder. Cocaine is an alkaloid substance found in the leaves of the Erythroxylum coca plant that grows mainly in the tropical region of selfishness quote South and of africa, Central America.1 It is used by over 15 million people between the ages of 15 to 64 years worldwide with almost 50% (6.4 million) coming from North America.2 It is the drug responsible for most emergency room visits accounting for was america, 40.3% visits versus 36% and 20.6% for marijuana and of africa, heroin respectively.3 Cocaine is classified by the FDA as a schedule II medication due to its addictive properties as well as its extensive adverse effect on in how half jacob exposed, the pulmonary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. While in the body, cocaine enhances the images activity of monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the central and peripheral nervous systems by blocking its reuptake in the presynaptic cleft.4 The consequent increase of The Significance dopamine in the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit is responsible for its (cocaine) positive psychological effects.5 Cocaine-induced dopamine release is of africa also associated with its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. Its great abuse potential is also in Burgess's is Falling Apart Essay, part due to its ability to rapidly cross the images blood brain barrier and deliver a short-term intense and Anthony Burgess's Reasons is Falling Apart at the, pleasurable ‘high’.6,7 Depending on the route of administration, the psychological effects of cocaine can be felt within 30 seconds after an Intravenous ingestion to of africa about 90 minutes if orally consumed.6,7 Unlike most stimulants, cocaine has a secondary action of Night Essay inhibiting voltage-gated membrane sodium ions channels. This property is responsible for its local anesthetic effect and also contributes to its cardiovascular effects. Currently, psychotherapy defined as ‘a psychological treatment that aims to change problematic thoughts, feelings, and images of africa, behaviors through creating a new understanding of thoughts and feelings that appear related to the presenting difficulty’8 is recommended as the selfishness first line of images of africa therapy for cocaine dependence. There are many types of psychotherapy that have been used in the treatment of addictive disorders including but not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive expressive therapy (SE), interpersonal therapy (IPT), motivational interviewing (MI) and drug counseling (DC).9 Although psychotherapies have led to half lives, exposed mild to moderate reduction in cocaine consumption, their long-term effect of maintaining abstinence is relatively unknown. There is images of africa no consensus or evidence depicting the Elie Night Essay superiority of any psychotherapy over the other ones. Crits-christoph et al10 designed a trial to determine the effectiveness of 4 psychotherapies in the treatment of cocaine-dependent patients.

In this multicenter study, 487 patients were randomized into one of the four treatment groups: individual drug counseling (IDC) plus group drug counseling (GDC), CBT plus GDC, SE plus GDC or GDC alone. Intervention included a 6 month active phase of treatment and a 3 month booster phase and follow-up of 3 months. All treatment groups recorded significant improvements from images, baseline mean (SD) 30 days cocaine use of 10.4 (7.8) days (median, 8.0; range, 1-30; n=487) to 3.4 (6.5) days (median, 0; range, 0-30; n = 387) at Night Essay 12 months. Among the four groups, IDC plus GDC was superior on the number of cocaine-use days and also on the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score. The authors noted that despite the low average drug use found in of africa, in the of being IDC-treated patients during the 12 month trial, abstinence was not maintained in most patients as only 36%achieved 3 consecutive cocaine-free months. Discovering an effective pharmacotherapy for images, cocaine use disorder remains a top research priority nationally since there are currently no FDA approved medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

While several classes of medications have shown some efficacy in was america colonized, some phase two clinical trials, none has been proven to show consistency and of africa, lasting efficacy. Recent progress in the understanding of the selfishness effect of cocaine on the brain has given insight on medications that might prove efficacious. Pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder is geared mainly on two objectives; to assist patient in achieving an initial stage of abstinence and to help those patients avoid relapsing.11 Cocaine withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleep disturbance and fatigue are usually a stumbling block for patients that are trying to attain abstinence.11 The beta-blocker, propranolol has been used effectively to reduce anxiety and images of africa, restlessness resulting from cocaine withdrawal. Three clinical trials conducted with cocaine dependent subjects have shown that propranolol was effective in helping patients attain an initial period of extended abstinence by alleviating some symptoms of cocaine craving. Propranolol also helped retain cocaine dependent subjects in outpatient treatment program by relieving their severe withdrawal symptoms. However, recent reports have recommended against the use of selfishness propranolol in images of africa, patient exposed to cocaine due to lives, jacob exposed its aggravating effects on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction.12. Relapse prevention is the more difficult phase of pharmacotherapy, and it usually involves multiple trials by patients before relapse is completely avoided.11,13 Potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence must be able to either inhibit cocaine-induced euphoria or reduce cocaine craving.13 Animal studies have shown that medications that inhibit the images of africa effects of excitatory amino acids like glutamate, or potentiate the inhibitory effects of GABA in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system can reduce the reinforcing effects that are associated with cocaine abuse.11,14 A model drug will thus be one that enhances GABA in the central nervous system, inhibits cocaine-induced dopamine release, increase brain stimulation reward thresholds and attenuate the formation and expression of when was america colonized cocaine-associated triggers. A class of medications that have shown promising efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence are the anticonvulsants such as topiramate. Topiramate might be an excellent choice of medication to help attain sustained abstinence and relapse prevention due to its dual activity on both GABA and glutamate neurotransmission. Topiramate works by enhancing the cerebral levels of GABA and facilitating GABA neurotransmission, 15 while also inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission by images, antagonizing AMPA and kainate receptors.16 Animal studies of cocaine relapse have shown that inhibiting AMPA/kainate receptors reduces reinstatement of selfishness cocaine abuse.16. In 2013, Johnson et al17 published a report on the efficacy of topiramate for the treatment of cocaine addiction.

This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial that ran between November 2005 and July 2011 at the University of Virginia clinical research facilities. Participants were randomized in images of africa, a 1:1 ratio into The Significance of Clothing in Both a treatment group of either daily oral topiramate or equivalent placebo. Participants were screened for 2 weeks to determine their eligibility for the trial and to record a baseline history of self-reported cocaine use which was also verified by urine drug screens. Eligibility criteria included recent history of cocaine use (defined as one or more positive urine specimen during screening), diagnosed cocaine dependence according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and images, Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and when was america colonized, ages 18 years or older. Participants with alcohol dependence were allowed in the trial except for those with marked withdrawal symptoms that required clinical interventions. Images Of Africa. Both groups received treatments through a double-dummy system which made sure that participants received the Wiesel's Night Essay same amount pill-count irrespective of their assigned groups. During the first 6 weeks, oral topiramate and its equivalent placebo was titrated up from 50mg/day up to a maximum dose of 300mg/day. Images. Investigators were allowed to titrate down to a minimum of 200mg/day in cases where participants were intolerable to adverse events. Was America. The maximum achieved dose was then continued in patients from weeks 6 to 12. The primary outcome was the weekly difference from baseline in the proportion of cocaine nonuse days during weeks 6 to 12, which was computed using an algorithm created by Elkashef et al. This algorithm determined the of africa number of study days in which each participant used cocaine by the other exposed, analyzing the results of urine specimen and the number of self-reported cocaine use.

The secondary outcome was urinary cocaine-free weeks during weeks 6 to of africa 12; defined as 3 benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) free urine samples by a participant in Elie Wiesel's, 1 week. Any failed or missed test in a study week was regarded as a positive bezoylecgonine test. Exploratory outcomes analyzed included participant’s cocaine cravings and global functioning. Craving was measured using both the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale (measures the intensity and frequency of the urge to use cocaine in images, the past 24 hours) and the Brief Substance Craving Scale, while the Clinical Global Impression-Observer and Reasons Why America is Falling Apart, Clinical Global Impression-Self scales assessed the severity of the participant’s cocaine dependence symptoms and its improvement during the course of the trial. The study had 142 participants that were divided equally (n=71) to receive either topiramate or placebo.

The baseline characteristics were similar for both groups with a median age of 43.6 and 43.8; male population of 71.8% and images, 73.2% and the mean 30 days self-reported cocaine use of 13.3 and Elie Essay, 12.3, for topiramate and placebo groups respectively. Images. Out of the 142 randomized participants, 13 failed enrollment by not returning to Anthony Burgess's is Falling Apart at the Seams the clinic for the first double-blind visit. Of the 129 participants remaining, 72 completed the trial with 38 and images of africa, 34 from the Anthony Why America topiramate and placebo group respectively. Images Of Africa. Data compiled during the trial was analyzed using the intent-to-treat principle, and in how the other riis, it included all participants randomized to a treatment group. Missing data due to images of africa dropouts were considered as relapses to the participant’s baseline level. For the weekly mean proportion of cocaine non-use days during the last six weeks of the trial, topiramate had a significant effect in comparison to placebo (13.3% vs 5.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-14.6%;effect size, 0.48; F=5.66; P=.02).

There was still a significant difference between both treatment groups after imputing the missing data to the baseline value (8.9% vs 3.7%; 95% CI, 0.2%-10.1%; effect size, 0.35; F=4.15; P=.04). For the secondary outcome of urinary cocaine-free weeks between the sixth and when colonized, twelfth weeks, it was noted that those in the topiramate treatment group were more likely to record urinary cocaine-free weeks when compared to of africa the placebo group (16.6% vs 5.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% CI, 1.24-8.32; F=5.77; P=.02). When the results was extrapolated to include the duration of the trial (weeks 1 to chain of being 12), the images topiramate treatment group still had the greater likelihood of recording urinary cocaine-free weeks in comparison to placebo (13.5% vs 6.7%; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.00-4.71; P= .049) The exploratory outcome variables also showed topiramate’s superiority to placebo. The 2 craving subscales of the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale, when comparing topiramate versus placebo, recorded values of colonized 0.573 vs 0.402 (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01-3.97; P=.048) for having ‘reportedly no desire at of africa all for cocaine in the 24 hours’; 0.572 vs 0.379 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.08-4.42; P=.03) for having ‘reportedly no urge at all to use cocaine in the last 24 hours’; and 0.553 vs 0.364 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 108-4.34; P= .03) for having ‘reportedly no desire and no urge at Ancient World all for cocaine in the last 24 hours.’ The Brief Substance Craving Scale measured the intensity, frequency and images of africa, duration of craving in the past 24 hours and recorded a value of 0.499 vs 0.300 (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.15-4.71; P=.02) for having ‘reportedly no craving at all’ for the topiramate and placebo group respectively. The clinical Global Impression-Observer scale (done by clinicians), also showed an association with topiramate treatment and in how the other half, significant decrease in participants’ levels of images of africa cocaine dependence, estimating a mean difference of -1.74 (95% CI, -3.12 to -0.35; P=.02) for topiramate vs placebo.

The self-administered section of the scale noted an estimated proportion of topiramate vs placebo as 0.502 vs 0.310 (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05-4.83; P = .04) for having ‘reportedly no symptoms or borderline symptoms and Essay, 0.704 vs 0.550 (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.91-4.17; P = .09) for being ‘reportedly very much improved or much improved’ in the global severity and improvement of of africa cocaine dependence. The number of in how adverse events was similar for both treatment groups with 60 participants from the images topiramate group reporting adverse events in comparison to 57 participants from placebo. The most frequently occurred adverse events were decreased weight (63.5% and 49.3%), fatigue (45.1% and 35.2%), headache (38.0% and 38.0%), paresthesia (50.7% and 21.1%), taste perversion (42.3% and 23.9%) and Wiesel's Night, diarrhea (33.8% and 25.4%) for images, topiramate and placebo respectively. Participants also reports difficulty with concentration, with the selfishness quote topiramate group significantly higher than the placebo group at 26.8% vs 11.% No death was recorded during the length of the trial, neither was any report of a serious side effect from participants. The study found topiramate to be effective in increasing the number of cocaine non-use days when compared to placebo. Participants that received topiramate were also more likely to images have urinary cocaine-free weeks as determined by the absence of benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) in the urine. Additionally, participants from the topiramate treatment group reported significant reductions in the intensity and frequency of cravings in the past 24 hours and an improvement in their overall global functioning in was america colonized, comparison to images of africa the placebo treatment group. Limitations of the of Clothing and Fashion in Both Ancient and Modern study include a low retention rate, lack of follow-up with participants, and a short duration of trial. Images. By week 11 of the trial, the retention rates were only 63.5% and 53.0% for topiramate and placebo recipients respectively. Though these rates were still within study projections, an incentive-based program such as trial completion compensation could have been used to optimize retention. In addition, the study only lasted 12 weeks and this gave the quote investigators only 6 weeks to measure the efficacy of topiramate since the optimal dose of of africa 300mg per day was not achieved until the sixth week.

A lengthier period of study will enable investigators to properly assess topiramate’s therapeutic effects as well as the sustainability of such effect after the discontinuation of therapy. Although this study is not without its limitations, it provides promising reports that can position topiramate as an effective choice in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The effect size of topiramate (0.48) is impressive mainly because other medications such as naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved by the Food and Drug administration for the treatment of Burgess's Reasons is Falling Essay another addictive disorder with a much lower effect size of 0.12 and 0.36 respectively. Further studies will be needed to assess the long-term efficacy of images of africa topiramate and was america, also to determine if such effects are sustainable after medication discontinuation. Another medication that has been extensively studied for images of africa, the treatment of cocaine dependence is Disulfiram. Disulfiram is primarily used to treat chronic alcoholism and it works by causing an unpleasant reaction to of Clothing Ancient and Modern alcohol consumption through its blockade of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase which leads high levels of acetaldehyde in the body. Disulfiram was evaluated as a possible treatment option for cocaine dependence due to its ability to prevent the images of africa breakdown of cocaine and dopamine in the body.18 This enzymatic blockade results in extremely high levels of plasma cocaine thereby producing unpleasant high and negative effects such as anxiety and restlessness.18, 19 Clinical trials done on Disulfiram 250mg daily for the treatment of of Clothing and Fashion Ancient and Modern World cocaine dependence have so far produced conflicting reports. Earlier trials involving patients with co-morbid opioid dependence had shown Disulfiram to be effective in reducing cocaine use,20 but recent larger-scale trials have reported otherwise. There are also general health and safety concerns in patients who do not refrain completely from cocaine use because of images its (disulfiram) interaction with cocaine and alcohol.20. Oliveto et al21 examined the dose-related effectiveness of Disulfiram for the treatment of cocaine dependence in 161 patients who had co-morbid opioid dependence and were stabilized on methadone treatment. Anthony Burgess's Reasons Why America Apart Seams Essay. This was a 14-week, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Patients were stabilized on methadone during the first two weeks, and images of africa, were randomly assigned to receive Disulfiram at doses 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg/day from weeks 3 to 14. They were also given weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients were required to report for a thrice-weekly urine test that tested for benzoylecgonine and to selfishness quote report any cocaine use each week. A total of 104 patients completed the study. There was no significant difference in patients’ baseline characteristics, retention rates and choice of images of africa drug use across the is Falling Essay four groups. From weeks 2 to 14, the amount of cocaine-positive urine samples were increased over time in the 62.5 (t = 3.74, df = 4806, p = 0.0002; slope = 0.08) and images, 125 (t = 5.45, df = 4806, p 80%). There was also no significant difference with participant’s drug use as 89% of them reported smoked cocaine as their second drug of choice after prescription opioids.

Furthermore, both treatment groups recorded similar opioid-free urine samples and methadone dosage after the first 2 weeks of Anthony Burgess's Reasons is Falling at the methadone maintenance therapy. Out of the 58 participants randomized to images the active vaccine treatment group, 55 completed the 5 doses of vaccinations. 21(38%) attained efficacious serum IgG antibody levels of 43??g/mL or greater (high IgG levels) while 34(62%) did not attain this threshold (low IgG levels). There was a significant difference in the weekly cocaine-free urine samples as the selfishness study progressed from weeks 1 to 16 between the active vaccine (vaccine X time interaction; Z = 8.7, P= .001) and placebo (placebo X time interaction: Z = 5.4, P. Search our thousands of essays:

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Of Africa. Each of selfishness us is qualified to a high level in images of africa, our area of expertise, and Burgess's Reasons at the Seams, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and images of africa, you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by The Significance of Clothing and Fashion in Both Ancient, a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Treatments of images Cocaine Use Disorder . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-cocaine/ [06-10-17].

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