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Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. Construction Of Race! 2. 2. (25 POINTS) AlphaDogs US patent has one claim: 1. A method of paying a company executive comprising: Calculating a salary, wherein the salary is calculated by multiplying the average non-executive company employee income by malay races an X-factor, wherein the construction, X-factor is braveheart, between 10 and 99; and. Paying the executive the construction, salary. During examination, the claim was amended. Essay On Substance! As originally filed, the claimed X-factor range was between 10 and 120. AlphaDog had amended the claim to avoid a prior art reference that discussed paying executives over 100-times the average employee salary. AlphaDog had discovered that reference after filing the patent application. The company amended the construction of race, claims, but did not tell the patent office of the Essay Substance Abuse, reference (believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention).

BetaDog has two employees the social construction, CEO and her secretary. Substance! BetaDogs CEO is paid 9-times the salary of the secretary. Although paid in US Dollars, BetaDog directly-deposits its CEOs salary in an offshore bank located in Bermuda. AlphaDog sues BetaDog and its CEO for patent infringement. Explain the relevant legal issues, and figure out who wins and loses. Law Professor at the University of Missouri School of social construction, Law. View all posts by Dennis Crouch →

33 thoughts on “ Patent Law School Exam: Essay No. 2 ” Regardign the mouse/trackball, I heard the first mouse was invented by flipping a trackball over and attaching a button to it. So a mouse inherently comprises a trackball. You could flip the Essay, mouse over social, and use the generator owl, trackball element without actuating the button. Or you could actuate the button. Its still a trackball on construction of race, the other side. Nobody123 wrote: As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and trackball. There is no way to use the spec to reject the claim under 102. Therefore, the claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at the time of apa citation owl, filing.

I disagree, a mouse that is also a trackball is supported by social the spec. In the Essay on Substance Abuse, English language the word or is not exclusive. Although the single input limitation may limit the number of inputs to social of race one, the input can still be characterized as both a mouse and a trackball. Under current US practises, this claim definitely fails the machine prong of Bilski because there is no structure recited in any step. You can argue that Paying the executive the braveheart synopsis, salary amounts to social a transformation, but this would be tough. Which problem would this patent be solving? I cant make out malay races, a problem which doesnt have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the social construction of race, problem they solve amounts to explaining the polly finn, idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for construction of race example). This one doesnt seem to be of that kind.

Im not sure what youre getting at. Essay On Substance Abuse! Other than statutory subject matter, utility is social, such a low bar that you can determine utility just by reading the title. Assuming that the issue is one of accidental anticipation, then EP enlarged boad decisions G1/02 and G2/03 allow you to exclude the accidentally anticipated values even if your new range 10-99 was not literally supported in the original specification. This allows the person drafting the application to avoid lists of the type not more than 120, 119, 118, 117 ad nauseum. In any case, such a claim probably cant be patented in the EP because it might be considered to on be lacking in construction of race, technical effect or to Essay be a method for performing a mental act or doing business. Example I use for training: spec at filing: a computer with a single input, wherein the input may be a mouse or a trackball. pending claim: a computer with a mouse and a trackball.

Using the spec as originally filed, there are 2 disclosed embodiments: 2) pc w/ trackball. As claimed, the pc has both a mouse and construction of race trackball. There is no way to use the spec to reject the polly, claim under 102. Therefore, the social construction, claim has new matter because the claimed embodiment was not in possession at Essay Abuse the time of filing. Even if it were obvious to combine mouse and trackball into a single pc, the spec would still need modification to social of race arrive at the claimed invention, and aunt therefore constitutes new matter. Even if the of race, spec at filing enabled Mr POSITA to make a pc w/ both mouse and Essay Substance Abuse trackball, this also is not germane to the new matter because applicant was not in possession of the claimed embodiment at filing. I see several issues in the comments.

Do we know the difference between written description and enablement? Written description = did applicant have possession of the claimed invention at social of race the priority date? Enablement = did the specification at the priority date enable Mr POSITA to practise the claimed invention? The originally filed claim recites 10-120. At most, the specfication should be objected to for lacking written description support. It is the rest of the spec, not the daisy buchanon, claim, that is deficient. In my personal opinion, narrowing to 10-99 does not constitute new matter because these embodiments were supported in the original specification as filed. The question would be did applicant have possession of the 10-99 embodiments at the time of filing? If the social construction of race, applicant had possession of 10-120, I would think that he/she/it had possession of 10-99. When I was trained for 112 1st, the test for new matter would be to apa citation generator owl use the spec available at construction of race the priority date to reject the claim. If you can write the rejection as a 102, then there is no new matter because the claimed embodiment would be fully supported as a single embodiment in the spec.

If you cannot write the rejecition as a 102, then the claimed embodiment is not supported in a single embodiment in the spec. Whether the modififications to the spec is obvious/enabled or not is not germane to new matter. If you cannot do a 102, then there is new matter. Even if the new matter is obvious from the spec, it is still matter because applicant did not have possession of the claimed embodiment. The question then becomes would a reference disclosing 10-120 anticipate a claim reciting 10-99? If yes, then there is no new matter. If no, there is new matter. Its pretty clear that 10-120 anticipates 10-99, right?

As for enablement, if all embodiments between 10-120 were supported by the spec as originally filed, then all embodiments between 10-99 would be enabled as well. Anybody care to comment? David French writes: Hey! Isnt amending to 10 to 99 new matter? I think it would be in Europe. The whole scenario just makes me weep inside. But anyway, claim invalid for non-statutory subject matter and/or lack of novelty/obviousness in light of the real world, and apa citation generator owl not infringed because amending to 10-99 to avoid 100 should also exclude 9. Just a comment about the patent. Which problem would this patent be solving?

I cant make out a problem which doesnt have either a trivial or arbitrary answer. Some patents are such that posing the problem they solve amounts to explaining the idea of the patent itself (those silly throw-dog-ball-sticks for example). This one doesnt seem to be of that kind. Anyone, please tell me why the X-factor being greater than or equal to 0, and social of race less than infinity would or would not be obvious? You know whats really sad? How is the US going to continue to on Substance Abuse lead the world in CEO pay if we cant protect new and creative ways of paying CEOs? And if America cant be competitive in construction of race, paying CEOs, then those CEOs will just move to other countries and our businesses wont be able to compete. Now more than we ever this country need new methods of determining CEO pay if we expect to remain competitive. /patent wanker off. Glad Im not in malay races, law school anymore. So are your professors.

Especially if you really needed clarification on a patent law exam that you should limit your discussion to issues of construction of race, patent law. Did anyone bring up the issue of malay races, whether the social construction of race, CEO can be liable for infringement? Personal liability would generally require active inducement or some other specific intent on the part of the individual to infringe the patent. Daisy Buchanon! The claim against the CEO is probably dismissed on a MTD for failure to state a claim (unless there is some other evidence presented). Question possibly fails because we dont know if the secretary is an executive. If no executive, then no non-executive salary to compare. Cannot assume that secretary is not an executive. Where is betadog company? Is it in America? Is it on Earth?

So what if pay is in US dollars. By the way, does discuss all relevant legal issues include failure of betadog to construction disclose foreign bank account to IRS? Not to mention possible criminal laws? You should clarify location of aunt huck, betadog company or where there business is transacted. You should clarify that relevant legal issues should be limited to patent law. You should clarify that secretary is not executive (or maybe you did intend to leave this as gray area??) By the way, 10*0=0 so any start up company in which the CEO and nonexecutives paid by stock probably anticipate the patent. Claim should say executive salary is social construction of race, greater than zero. Glad Im not in law school anymore.

You should prepare your students for dealing with the USPTO by requiring them to use 14pt font and have a page limit of 2 pages and then ignore all requests for reason. haha. Nice question. If you can get it down to only a claim and Discuss, youd be in the company of Currie. Here are the issues I see and how I might call them: Written Description or Alternately Enablement under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1. Its unclear where the basis is for the upper end of 99 for the range. Braveheart! I know there is case law, such as In re Wertheim that might support such a narrowing, but Im not sure it would apply here. My view is social, that Claim 1 goes down under 35 USC 112, paragraph 1.

Inequitable Conduct. The fact that the claim was amended to avoid the uncited reference is a real red flag here. For sure, this uncited reference is material. Intent to aunt polly huck deceive is a bit more problematical, but given how material the uncited reference is likely to be considered, theres a good chance that intent to deceive will still be inferred. Likely to of race be held invalid/unenforceable for aunt polly finn inequitable conduct. Patentability under 35 USC 103. Given that the difference here is social construction, 1 for daisy buchanon the multiplier, hard to construction of race believe that Claim 1 would be considered unobvious, without some sort of surprising or unexpected result, which I dont see here. Likely to be held unpatentable under 35 USC 103. Patentable Subject Matter under 35 USC 101. Claim 1 is too close in character to the one that went down in Bilski.

What we have defined here is apa citation generator, primarily a calculation step which wont fly under Bilskis transformation prong (the machine prong wouldnt apply). Almost certainly invalid under 35 USC 101. Literal Infringement of Claim 1. Unlikely, especially as there is no about before the lower limit of 10. DOE Infringement of Claim 1. Possible, as the end of the construction of race, end of the range in play (10) isnt the one that was amended to get around the art. This is similar to the situation in Warner-Jenkinson. Infringement under 35 USC 271(a) et al. Most likely, none, as one of the method steps requires paying the CEO which, in this case, happens outside the U.S.

In NTP v RIM the Federal Circuit made it clear that all steps of the apa citation, method must occur in the U.S., or there can be no infringement of the method Claim under 35 USC 271(a). Just Visiting that case involving pH ranges would be Hilton Davis. And you are correct in that estoppel for DOE can apply to just one end of the range. Just Visiting said: I vaguely recall an older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the social, upper limit to get around the art would not affect the malay races, lower limit. That case was decided by the Supremes in 1997. See Warner-Jenkinson Co., Inc. v. Of Race! Hilton Davis Chemical Co., 520 U.S.

17. You remember correctly. Owl! The principal holdings were that DOE must be applied on a claim-by-claim basis, and that DOE should be applied within the social construction, context of file wrapper estoppel. Essay Substance! In Warner-Jenkinson, the record wasnt clear on the patentees reasons for adding the lower limit (only the upper was necessary to avoid the prior art), and so this issue was to be determined on remand. Good points Just. When the social construction of race, EPO objects that an intermediate limitation constitutes new matter I try to explain it to American clients as being like your written description requirement. Malay Races! As to ranges, I am always mystified why they should qualify under DoE for stretching.

I should have thought that the construction of race, range claimed is The Definition of Cyberpunk, already at the limit of the social, imagination of the inventor/attorney, at the filing date. Daisy Buchanon! Its unconscionable, to demand yet more scope of protection, after the filing date. But, litigators, they have no shame, right? I dont think anyone mentioned a possible written description issue regarding an upper limit of social, 99 not being supported in the specification as filed. Also, there is a fairly recent CAFC case regarding application of DOE to ranges.

9 is possibly equivalent to 10-100. Perhaps 10 or more would be interpreted differently. I vaguely recall an aunt finn older case involving pH ranges that would allow arguing that amending the upper limit to get around the social of race, art would not affect the lower limit. Humorless, your name is truly ironic. Malay Races! I laughed a lot, on reading your above contribution. Compliments of the social construction of race, season to you, Sir or Madam.

Frank H. Caligula, PhD, Esq? Hello Gopher, thanks for the kind seasonal greetings, in excellent German. In return, I would wish you a Happy Chrtmas, except that it isnt PC, right? Instead, Happy holiday season and a good slide into braveheart 2009. Anyway, I dont know any US patent attorneys I would classify as pesky, only social construction diligent ones, trying with all their honest their professional skills to advance the interests of their clients as best they can, in apa citation, the difficult conditions that currently prevail in their jurisdiction. Construction! Or is pesky a designation of full measure of professional competence attained, amongst your brother and sister attorneys at law (Im here to learn). No doubt this hypothetical was taken from malay races a real case, in which plaintiffs counsels last name is social construction, a homonym for a certain Roman Emperor -5 for Dennis for naming this thread with the same starting letters past the abbreviation point on daisy buchanon, Recent Comments.

Now, when I want to make sure I see whats new, I will have to visit each thread, scroll down and social of race hit next repeatedly (still). 1. Outside the USA, but inside the malay races, legal field of patents for inventions, there are no issues.2. Who loses? The USA (but your readers dont want to social construction know that).Posted by: MaxDrei. On behalf of all us pesky u.s. patent attorneys: Froehliche Weihnachten und ein glueckliches neues Jahr! On the IC issue, the test for IC is daisy buchanon, intent and materiality. Materiality is defined as anything that a reasonable Examiner would find important for examination.

I think materiality is certainly present for the 100X reference. You can make an argument that intent is not given that the social construction, patentee may have thought they had a good basis for not submitting the reference, but given the way that the CAFC hammers patentees and the current case law, this one would be absolutely dead at aunt huck the CAFC. Also, it appears that the 100X reference doesnt teach quite the social of race, same thing as the generator, claim requires. The 100X reference teaches 100-times the average employee salary whereas the social of race, claim recites the average non-executive company employee income. You have Festo estoppel for any range above 100.

Some examiners would 112 the average non-executive company employee income. I wont touch the rest of the issues. Festo kills DOE. Apa Citation Generator! The narrowing amendment was made for a reason of patentability. Possibly invalid for inequitable conduct for not pointing out the social, reference to the examiner. The reference was probably material for 103 reasons, even if the claim had been narrowed to avoid anticipation; but, if it wasnt divulged because it really wasnt considered relevant, the patentee might win on intent. (believing that it was no longer relevant to the claimed invention). Woodruff that range right out of town! And of course Bilski. Looks like the first poster beat me to em all anyway. But yes he touched most all I see.

I disagree with the DOE one though. 9 is not equivalent to The Definition 10 or more. Oh, and social construction add that I would make a validity charge based on 103 and google some art additional art. Also, 684 is right, there should be a page limit. Will keep my contributions short, Dennis, because:

1. Outside the USA, but inside the legal field of patents for apa citation generator owl inventions, there are no issues. 2. Of Race! Who loses? The USA (but your readers dont want to malay races know that). I hope there is social construction of race, a page limit for that one. maybe invalid (103-the 100x reference) unenforceable (inequitable conduct) noninfringement (no evidence that Betas CEO pay is calculated, it could be negotiated to a value that happens to be 9x secs pay; no evidence that even if calculated, was calculated based on X factor, could be calculated based on current year times 1,000 which happens to be 9x sec. salary, etc.) infringement maybe under DOE (assuming salary is calc as 9x X factor, then need to argue that 9 is equivalent to aunt finn 10 or more. Didnt give up that equiv when amended claims b/c only modifed the 120, not the 10) geographical issues: method must be performed in US. location of method = where all the steps are performed.

Whether all steps are performed in the US is key question NTP. Assume calculating was performed in social of race, US office. Where did paying occur? Id argue it occured at site where order to DD the salary occured (i.e., from Betas US bank). Comments are closed. Dennis Crouch Associate Professor, University of polly huck finn, Missouri School of Law SSRN Articles Jason Rantanen Professor, University of Iowa College of Law SSRN Articles Occasional guest posts by IP practitioners and academics. About 25,000 individuals now receive Patently-O via e-mail each morning. We regularly post top patent jobs from leading firms, corporations, and construction of race government and educational institutions.

Find a patent professional among the 15,000+ monthly visitors of the job board, many of whom are patent professionals at large firms and corporations.

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Parsons MA Fashion Studies Class of social construction of race, 2013 Thesis Abstracts. We have complied the MAFS Class of 2013s thesis abstracts in Essay on Substance Abuse an effort to social, highlight the diverse and limitless possibilities in the growing field of Fashion Studies. Veronica Gisela Aguilar graduated with honors from Loyola Marymount University in Substance Los Angeles in 2007 where she studied Graphic Design and social, minored in Communication Studies. Her work within the MA Fashion Studies program explores her interests in fashion publications, new media, and visual and material culture. Her MA thesis examines the evolving relationship between print media and digital media and their distinct modes of fashion mediation and consumption. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The New Landscape of Fashion Media: How The Gentlewoman Repositions Print Publications in a Digital Culture. With the emergence of new media technologies, the contemporary fashion consumer now has an overwhelming selection of apa citation generator, sources from which to obtain fashion-related news, from construction magazines (both print and digital), fashion blogs, to social networking sites, and image-sharing portals. Thus, never before has the on Substance, public had such instantaneous and uninterrupted access to fashion in all its forms.

Nevertheless, how has this hyper-saturated influx of fashion ephemera affected the cultural valence of print fashion magazines, which were once the singular, authoritative outlets for fashion discourse? Since the start of the millennium, a new breed of construction of race, niche fashion magazines has emerged in direct response against the hurried, homogenized, and half-digested content that is disseminated by mass market fashion magazines and on, online channels. Considering that fashion enthusiasts fluidly consume both print and digital media, it is no longer adequate to embark in the analysis of contemporary magazines without contextualizing them in the greater digital culture in social construction which they now exist. Braveheart Synopsis. In this thesis I attempt to carry out a comparative study of the biannual niche style magazine The Gentlewoman and various fashion websites to unpack their modes of consumption and social construction of race, production of fashion discourse. Through this investigation, I aim to Essay on, deconstruct their visual and written narratives to extricate how these seemingly disparate mediums produce new values, experiences, and languages that mediate fashion. Though I acknowledge that we are in the midst of a digital transformation that will continue to progress after this project is complete, my intention is to expose the social construction, symbiotic relationship between print and polly huck, digital media as a fertile topic worthy of critical examination within the field of fashion studies and beyond. Katie Bradley graduated from the University of California, Santa Cruz with a dual BA in of race The History of malay races, Art Visual Culture and Film Digital Media in 2010. Her work in the MA Fashion Studies program focuses around the intersections of fashion, fame, and consumption in popular culture, and her thesis work explores the role of celebrities as fashion designers.

THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: $ELLEBRITY: A Consideration of the Celebrity as Purveyor of Design in the Fashion World. The past decade of of race, fashion has been marked by the introduction of the celebrity fashion designer, a result of a newly appropriate blending of industries as well as newfound access to the everyday happenings of of Cyberpunk, celebrity figures through popular media outlets. In response to todays increasingly fast-paced cycle of construction, fashion, more celebrities are launching their own labels and quickly changing the ways people consume fashion. This influx of celebrity designers has profoundly stimulated an awareness of fashion within the everyday while allowing celebrities to commodify their image into a profitable product. In order to finn, reveal how and why the celebrity designer has altered the fashion world, their presence in mainstream media and popular fashion is analyzed in this project to form a better understanding of their successes, failures, and steps made to achieve such prominence.

This project analyzes the ways in which the presence of the celebrity designer has influenced consumption practices, methods of social surveillance, and created new forms of capitalism based on image branding by construction of race performing case studies on The Definition of Cyberpunk Essay individual celebrity designers and utilizing archival research. By searching the extensive archives of Time Inc. in New York City, the construction, emergence of the celebrity designer and the changing dialogue surrounding their presence is revealed. Using the archives electronic database, an The Definition exhaustive study of the celebrity in fashion is exposed and chronologically quantified to present a proper analysis of this new class of designer as it relates to social of race, contemporary fashion. Interviews with experts in the fashion industry help to Substance Abuse, better outline the shifts made by celebrities and how they are effectively carving out a new niche within the pre-established divisions of fashion and class. Merging the desire of a label with the desire for another person, celebrity fashion designers are turning contemporary fashion not only into a process of construction of race, desiring things, but one of desiring people.

Cally Carbone graduated from Stephens College with a degree in Fashion Marketing and braveheart synopsis, Management. Social. After a few years working in the fashion industry, Cally entered the MA Fashion Studies program to explore the role of fashion brands on personal identity, particularly through the scope of licensed products. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Leau de Fashion: Fragrance as an Experience of daisy buchanon, Fashion through the social, Use of COCO Chanel Parfums. Fragrance is malay races as intimate as a piece of clothing, if not more. It is the invisible accessory. The wearer applies it to social construction, their body as a form of adornment. Because fragrance enacts a specific bodily sense, its meaning is generator owl even more than just to freshen body odor.

Fragrance becomes an olfactory experience; stimulating feelings, memories, and can even become part of a personal identity. The initial appeal of a perfume can be due to a number of reasons, such as designer name and prestige, an social construction of race immediate response to the scent, or bottle design. However, once time is spent wearing the fragrance, the chosen perfume no longer is the designers, but that of the wearers. Fragrance creates a bodily experience through the essence of apa citation, fashion, a sensuous enhancement to ones fashion wardrobe. The intent of this research is to construction, explore the generator owl, relationship between fashion and fragrance; more specifically how and why the fashion industry turned perfume into a branded accessory and the aspirational experience it yields. Construction Of Race. In other words how fashion took on scent, an intangible, and reshaped the way it is developed, packaged and sold to consumers. Historical research of industry pioneers and analysis of fashion branded fragrances starting in the 1970s shows the important role fragrance plays in keeping the on Substance Abuse, fashion industry monetarily stable and explains how perfume becomes an entry point for consumer brand adoption. Social. By analyzing Chanel COCO fragrances I illustrate the process the brand takes to assimilate fashion into fragrance through aspirational influences.

Rebecca grew up in Sydney, Australia. After graduating from the University of NSW with a Bachelor of Architecture in 2010, she decided to apa citation, move to New York City and further her education through the construction, realm of fashion. Becca was (and continues to be) fascinated by how fashion, architecture and space are so profoundly interconnected in how we cultivate and daisy buchanon, understand our sense of self THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Terminal Perfection: Cultivating Self Through Dress, Design Decoration. Bill and Babe Paley were the defining cultural narrative of America during the mid twentieth century. Set within a period of social, transformation for the mass media and visual representation at large, this couple was the most visually illustrious embodiment of the shift in social power from daisy buchanon aristocratic, noble birth, to the newly developing jet-set, executive lifestyle. Based on social of race this shift in cosmopolitan ideal and its resulting re-imagined use of mass media, architecture, fashion and the decorative, this paper investigates the relationship between our inner self and the physical, spatial and assorted aesthetic constituents of ones surrounding environment.

By critically analyzing the legacy of perfection that Babe has left behind, we are able to more deeply consider the degree she was supposedly trapped both within the generator, eye of the media and by her relationship with Bill. The enduring power of Babes image raises the question of what it means to construction, live a decorated life? Where decoration, in daisy buchanon the world of picturesque American socialites, supposedly concealed the pain behind the glamour. Construction. Henry Jamess theory of consciousness, as articulated in novels such as The Portrait of a Lady, The Golden Bowl and The Spoils of Poynton, is used as a moral framework to consider whether Babe was presenting her true self to the world, or constructing an artificial or superficial identity. Further, the calculated way in which she cultivated her own mythology as a contemporary embodiment of historically powerful female figures adds a subversive element to the fashioning of The Definition of Cyberpunk, her image.

Therefore, the images she produced in collaboration with various photographers are interrogated through various theoretical frameworks. Some of these include James notion of the divided self, film noir cinematic theory, Baudelaires theory of the beautiful amidst the horrible and analysis into artists including Ingres and his grotesquely beautiful forms. Ultimately, it is construction asserted that Babes image and her pursuit of beautiful things, despite often seeming vulgar and materialistic, is what allowed her to authentically connect with both her self and the universe. However, with such a supremely beautiful life, inevitably come elements of destructive darkness. Despite the apa citation owl, fact that the human soul can incorporate art and remain not only human, but perhaps be further humanized in the process[1] a decorated life both liberates an individuals soul and sense of self, whilst trapping them in a terminal pursuit of perfection.

[1] Mary S. Schriber, Isabel Archer and Victorial Manners. Studies in the Novel (University of North Texas) 8, no. Construction. 4 (1976): 450. Roberto Filippello graduated magna cum laude from the faculty of Letters and Philosophy of University of Rome. Upon graduation, he gained experience in Milans fashion industry working as a fashion writer and then moved to of Cyberpunk Essay, New York to join the MA Fashion Studies program at Parsons. His research is focused on mens style and its visual representations in fashion magazines. He wrote essays on social Bruce Webers ad campaigns for Gianni Versace, Medieval nuns religious clothing, queer style in the New York LGBT night scene, and braveheart, the Sicilian Baroque in Dolce Gabbanas aesthetic heritage. Social. He currently works at Vogue and polly, next Fall will be teaching an social advanced course titled Visionaries: Stylists and Photographers of the 20th Century. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The New Man: Fashion, Bodybuilding, and AIDS in the 1980s. Images of hypermasculinity first started appearing in fitness magazines in the early twentieth century and by the 1930s in fashion photography.

However, it was only in the 1980s, thanks to the impact of aunt polly finn, Bruce Webers photographs, that images of hypermasculinity became widespread. This trend was epitomized by the hypermasculine male models that Gianni Versace sent down the construction of race, runway and had photographed by Bruce Weber himself. Thus, in Substance the late 1980s, what can be considered a new aesthetic phenomenon arose in Western society: young men started to develop hypermuscular bodies, meanwhile cultivating a new idea of masculinity. Masculinity became associated with muscularity and butch dressing, which were both being marketed by fashion companies through advertising campaigns that blatantly sexualized and objectified the of race, male body. The image of this New Man was being fabricated by fashion advertisements and by the gay city nightlife. Indeed, it arose as a result of different factors: the incorporation by the LGBT community of huck, specific items of clothing traditionally associated with virility, i.e. with heteronormative masculinity; the diffusion of bodybuilding, especially within the gay community, mostly as a reaction to the fear of the social of race, AIDS epidemic; and, finally, the spread of AIDS itself, which pushed men to take care of their body through both intense fitness workouts and clothing consumption, in order to exorcize the fear of the polly finn, disease as well as to metaphorically hide it through forms of self-decoration. This web of factors poses the question of how healthy the male body from the late 1980s onwards really was. To address this issue, another element related to construction of race, the emergence of bodybuilding as part of a commonly shared lifestyle seems to be relevant: the malay races, use of of race, anabolic steroids, which in order to help shape a fit body, poisoned the body itself. The idea of The Definition, health, hence, gradually lost any medical connotation and construction of race, entered the realm of beauty, which became constructed independently from the daisy buchanon, traditional notion of social, health. This ubermasculinity, although by now widespread in the heterosexual community, is an daisy buchanon inherently queer social construction, not only as it took form within the gay community, but also because it began a camp performance that while creating a parody of straight masculinity, also resists and displaces common assumptions on social construction of race masculinity itself.

Kelsey Glein graduated from Essay on Abuse Pepperdine University with a BA in Political Science and Sociology. She interned for U.S. Senator Patty Murray, where she recognized the importance of image and fashion in the political realm. This led her to pursue graduate studies in fashion where she could merge her passion for politics and fashion. As an MA Fashion Studies student she has enjoyed internships with Diane von Furstenberg, Vogue, and social construction, Harpers Bazaar. She is most captivated by the connection between fashion, gender, and power. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: The November Issue: The Role of Fashion and Politics in the 2012 Presidential Election.

In todays media-run culture that is Essay on Substance highly focused on the visual, the social, fashion system and the political system each exist as both substantive and daisy buchanon, superficial entities. Social Of Race. Each of these systems subsists independently of one another, and this thesis will argue that the fashion system and the political system overlap in several significant ways. Of Cyberpunk Essay. There are parallels and commonalities between systems in society, with the fashion system and the political system being prime examples. Both fashion and social construction of race, politics represent a merging of the public and private selves, and combine the artificial with the real. The fashion system and the political system both dictate our lives, and both are personal and impersonal simultaneously. This research paper proposes that the fashion system overlaps with the political system in the United States of America, and that in braveheart synopsis the 2012 Presidential Election fashion inserted itself into the political system both aggressively and passively. The media played a significant role in this insertion, incessantly endorsing the of race, link between fashion and politics and braveheart, revealing the nature of systems as a means of conveying and identifying fashion. In the 2012 election season in the United States, fashion played a significant part that shaped the way we viewed the candidates and their wives.

This thesis puts forward that the social of race, fashion system and the political system in the United States of America are similar and overlapping, and uses key points of collision as an illustration of these ideas. Specifically, examples of this overlap that have taken place in the 2012 Presidential Election season are looked at and juxtaposed with fashion and political theory. Case studies used to illustrate fashions involvement and influence in politics include the fundraising efforts of Essay Substance Abuse, Vogue Editor-in-Chief Anna Wintour and social construction of race, Council of Fashion Designers of America President Diane von Furstenberg for daisy buchanon, the reelection of President Barack Obama, and the focus of the media on the physical appearance and fashion choices of political wives and First Lady Michelle Obama on the campaign trail as well as the deliberate fashion selections of these women. Overall, this thesis will create a better understanding of the construction, insertion of malay races, fashion into the present political system in the United States, specifically in the most recent election season, and will allow for a deeper knowledge of the way fashion and politics as social structures impact society and our identity. Ann Jacoby graduated with honors from the University of Delaware where she received her BS in Fashion Merchandising. In her time at Parsons, she has worked as a teaching assistant and has gained a multitude of experiences working at various magazines and archives. Her MAFS thesis focuses on fashion and politics in the early American nation, particularly the way in construction which womens roles and dress practices cultivated an malay races early national identity for the burgeoning republic of America. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Pledging Allegiance: Defining the American Image through the Politics of of race, Dressing in the Early Republic.

Following the United States victory in their fight for independence, the American people would use their newfound freedom from a monarchial society to The Definition, forge a culture based upon the virtuous and egalitarian tenets of republicanism. To visually establish such an identity for their nation, the population relied heavily on of race dress as its materiality and visibility made it one of the most evident badges of ones loyalty to the American cause. Turning to the homemade production of fabric and renouncing objects that evoked the alluring yet threatening European charms of apa citation, luxury and regality, America defined their national identity through an aesthetic that boasted a conservative and sensible refinement. Construction Of Race. By closely reading the life and style of American celebrity, Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte, noting her scandalous and daisy buchanon, unpatriotic display of dress, one understands the importance placed on citizens appearances and the meanings specifically attached to dress in social the vulnerable environment of the early American republic. Elizabeth flaunted her French fashions (a body-baring version of the neoclassical style) and opulent jewels throughout American society and was highly criticized as the polly finn, ideologies behind such a style were incongruent with the American cause of democracy. Analyzed against other female figures from the early nineteenth century, Elizabeth is likened to liberal Parisian social figures like Juliette Recamier and Empress Josephine and contrasted by American representations of ideal republican motherhood. The conflicting nature of her American citizenship and European appearance reflected poorly upon the image of the nation and explains larger issues of how fashion informs national identity. Studying the body politic and the post-American Revolution shift from the royal embodiment of the state by a sovereign king to embodiment by the democratic commonwealth of citizens, we see that women like Elizabeth (upper class, visible bodies) had the unsettling power to taint the representative form of the body politic through fashion. Drawing upon readings which connect the body, dress practices, and construction of race, political communication, this research defines fashion and its political importance in the formative time and space of the early American nation. Kim Jenkins holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in polly finn Anthropology and social of race, Art History, which has informed her interests in how fashion materializes ones identity and navigates adversity.

Kim enjoys practicing her research in fashion studies through exhibition curation, editorial work, film and huck finn, public speaking throughout New York City. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: That Was My Veil: Sartorial and Cosmetic Constructions of construction of race, Resilience in Divorced Women. Through a close look at personal stories, media representation and learned sociocultural norms, it is presumable that social conditions have existed over time that have made the daisy buchanon, re-construction of a divorced womans appearance obligatory to social construction of race, encouraging a sense of resilience. Simply put, a womans psyche, when experiencing divorce, becomes tempered by belief systems developed within the culture that surrounds her. Daisy Buchanon. Consequently, this cultural agitation plays a key role in producing the dichotomous effect of how a woman presents herself publicly to society whilst managing her emotions privately in the wake of a divorce. Offering ground-breaking research in the field of fashion studies, this paper narrows its focus on how a womans sartorial and cosmetic practices become significantly influenced through negotiating the management of her physical appearance and identity both during and following the process of a divorce. Engaging an social ethnographic approach through interviews with divorced women, as well as a critical analysis of media representation, I will show how the sartorial and cosmetic practices of the divorced woman can explain how we cope with adversity through the transformation of daisy buchanon, our appearance, and social construction, how psychology and social expectations can directly influence our everyday dress practices more than we acknowledge. Kaitlin Kennedy Globensky graduated from Manhattanville College with her BA in communications and broadcast studies, double minoring in film and aunt finn, history. Kaitlins academic inspiration stems from social construction twentieth century Hollywood and the cultural effects of cinematic costume design.

THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Platinum Glamour: Jean Harlow, Fashion Cinematic Escape. Using Jean Harlows styling as a lens, this thesis explores how (and why) fashion and pre-code Hollywood cinema coalesce to malay races, utilize glamour as a carefully crafted vehicle of escapism for society during the construction of race, Great Depression. Braveheart. Understanding cinema fashion as a product of its time, this thesis examines how the stylization of Jean Harlows screen image and costuming relates to broader societal shifts in the production and definition of glamour from the social construction of race, liberated social setting of the 1920s into the more reformed, morality- driven setting of 1930s America as embodied by the Motion Picture Production Code. During her short career, Harlow connected the glamorous world of film fashion with the massconsumer retail market. She is The Definition Essay explicitly tied to social of race, the fabric satin, and is continually referred to in relation to that glamorous material throughout media representations. The Definition Of Cyberpunk Essay. Harlows star image establishes her as the white-ideal blonde-bombshell which cinema embraces through the years of the Motion Picture Production Code. Social. She was one of the few stars able to transition not only from silent cinema to sound, but also from apa citation generator owl pre-Code to post-Code which proved detrimental to the careers of many other stars. Finally, this thesis discusses the importance of Harlows whiteness and blondeness in the construction of her image. A specific focus is the vital influence of costume and the costumer in both cinema and cultural fashions.

The work of M-G-Ms famed costume designer Gilbert Adrian, exemplifies the successful transition of glamour from the of race, movie screen into the American fashion system, proving that cinema costume is daisy buchanon a product of society and a direct reflection of its time. Cinema adaptations of glamour created by filmmakers of the 1920s and social, 1930s provided a visual mise-en-scene that supplied moviegoers with a more optimistic view of the workings of society. Harlow is The Definition of Cyberpunk Essay a key figure of this cinema system whose star image was able to perpetrate glamour as a form of escapism for Americans through some of the darkest times of the Great Depression. Social Of Race. Her fashionable and fashioned image still represents a modern, societally understood example of glamorous style and American beauty, illustrating that even with the drastic shift in her image in conforming to the more highly regulated Motion Picture Code, her glamorous pre-code star image has had the power to prevail by continuing to influence contemporary cinematic fashion. LAURA JANE KENNY. With a background in research, writing and sociology, Laura Jane Kennys deep curiosity in fashion, its evolutions and its implications, has found a home in the fashion studies field.

With a background in journalism, Laura Janes skills coincide with her research interest which include sociology, gender theory, material culture, urban and inner-city culture and how all of these things interact with fashion. Her masters thesis explored the relationship between racial profiling and dress practices through New York Citys stop and frisk campaign. After graduating from the MA Fashion Studies program, Laura Jane hopes to work in the fashion journalism and curation field before ultimately pursuing her Ph.D. in order to conduct further research and finn, teach. Hailing from Colorado, Laura Jane Kenny is proud to now call Brooklyn her home. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Criminalizing Dress: Exploring the Intersections of social construction of race, Dress Practices and Racial Profiling through New York Citys Stop and Frisk Campaign.

New York City is home to some harsh fashion critics. While ones clothing choices are often scrutinized in such a fashion-focused city, unique consequences emerge from the inspecting gaze of the New York City police. The examination of individuals dress practices in New York Citys stop and frisk campaign, a policy which encourages New York City police officers to stop anyone they deem suspicious, gives new meaning to the term fashion victim. When police look to visual cues to of Cyberpunk, decipher possible level of social construction of race, suspicion, dress practices becomes a crucial part of the conversation. The use of this new policy suggests that the importance of ones appearance is rapidly increasing with more serious consequences than ever. The New York City stop and frisk campaign has received a recent increase in media attention as the number of stops reported hit an all time high in 2012.

The campaign has been accused of racial profiling as reports showed nearly 85 percent of those stopped in New York City were Black or Hispanic. A number of issues are at on Abuse, play in the stop and frisk campaign and their relationship to dress practices begs exploration. The urban landscape, embodied identity, and the power of viewing and surveillance are just a few of the ideas that are examined. Utilizing interviews of those who have been stopped and frisked, collected and published by the Center for social, Constitutional Rights, this thesis highlights trends in the relationship between clothing and racial profiling. The theoretical framework of daisy buchanon, fashion studies alongside theories surrounding the gaze and surveillance aids in our understanding of the invasive impact of stop and frisk seen both in construction the adapted dress practices of those stopped as well as in The Definition their constructed identity. This thesis seeks to of race, gain further understanding of how ones personal dress practices are affected by the threat of looking suspicious and explores the daisy buchanon, impact of social construction, dressing innocently. Rachel Kinnard graduated from daisy buchanon Parsons The New School for Design in construction 2008 with a BA in Fashion Design.

Rachels research interests explore the boundaries between fashion and body, specifically within technology and medicine. Her MA thesis considers how the experience of dressing through bras and clothing can anticipate the decision to undergo a breast reduction or breast augmentation procedure. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: From Silk to Silicone: Considering Bras, Breasts, and Cosmetic Surgery. In the twenty-first century, the distinction between dress and The Definition of Cyberpunk, body is increasingly becoming more indistinguishable. A thorough analysis of the relationship between dress and cosmetic surgery is vital to social, the field of fashion studies.

In western histories of apa citation generator, dress, considerations of cosmetic surgery are typically found as a concluding chapter, presented to the reader as a commodity of post modernity and the future of body shaping. This thesis is an analysis of cosmetic surgery through the construction, perspective of fashion studies in which I ask: what is the relationship between temporarily shaping the body through clothing and permanently shaping the body through cosmetic surgery? If bodies undergo cosmetic surgery procedures as a response to the experience of wearing fashionable clothing, can cosmetic surgery then be understood as a permanent form of dress? Focusing solely on cosmetic procedures of generator, breast for this case study, I explore how the experience of dressing through bras and social construction, clothing can anticipate the decision to undergo a breast reduction or breast augmentation procedure. My analysis includes interviews with three women, currently in their twenties, who underwent either a breast reduction or breast augmentation operation when they were between the ages of sixteen to twenty years of age. Through these interviews, I situate clothing as agent of influence on The Definition an individuals self-perception of their own body. In doing so, I argue that cosmetic surgery creates bodies that mirror the practices of dress. This thesis aims to demonstrate how our second skins, our undergarments and social construction of race, our clothing, are instrumental in fashioning our primary skin, our bodies.

Jennifer McDonough is from West Chester, Pennsylvania and received her B.A. from polly huck Columbia College Chicago in Arts, Entertainment, and Media Management in social construction 2008. Her interests in fashion range from museology and historical studies, to subcultural studies and the role that garments hold in subcultures. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Slenderizing Excess: Exploring Weight Loss through Dress Practices. Watching television we are bombarded with advertisements for malay races, weight loss companies that show a photograph of an overweight woman wearing drab clothing placed next to an image of her after she has participated in their program, in which she is smiling and stylishly dressed. The obesity epidemic that is plaguing much of the Western world has led to a large amount of women spending years in an obese body before losing a substantial amount of weight. While many researchers have looked at social of race, the style practices of aunt polly finn, plus-size women, there is little research on the style practices of social construction, women after they have lost a large amount of weight. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the obstacles that an increasing number of daisy buchanon, women face in reconstructing a wardrobe after losing weight, particularly those women who have lost over one hundred pounds.

This research will question the effects of of race, losing a large amount of polly huck finn, weight on a womans wardrobe and dress practices. Issues that will be addressed include changing attitudes toward body image, the anxiety, or freedom shopping for a smaller body, learning how to dress a new body, and learning how to express identity through clothing. Devon Novotnak graduated from Swarthmore College in 2011 with a degree in Sociology/Anthropology as well as Peace and Conflict Studies. Fresh from academia, Devon entered the MA Fashion Studies program to expand her research. Social Construction Of Race. This opportunity and approach to fashion will be used as she enters the industry working within buying and product development. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Dressing in Pink and Making a Ruckus: Dress Practices of the Feminist, Anti-War Group Codepink. Fashion studies has not specifically looked at the use of dress by women in the context of protest. This research attempts to fill this void by polly finn using a specific protest group as a point of of race, mediation in the examination of dress. The feminist anti-war group Codepink is used as a case study to aunt polly huck, examine the relationship of dress to social of race, protest, specifically as used by women. Essay On Abuse. As a group working towards nonviolence in protest in the United States in the beginning of the twenty-first century, Codepink uses dress as a tool for women to bring shock, draw attention, and create a space for dialogue and power in protest. Their protests push the boundaries in the way in which dress has been used in of race the context of protests.

Specifically this work identifies three general themes in Codepinks use of dress. Polly Huck. The first is the way in which traditional gender roles have been used and subverted by a predominantly womans organization. This becomes evident in the examples of the general use of the color pink, the Stolen Beauty campaign, and the protests of Guantanamo bay. The second theme identified is the representation of the social construction of race, body, particularly the malay races, female body by Codepink. The examples used for this section include the Vagina Brigade, the Stripped of Rights campaign, and the BP Oil Spill protests. The last theme examined in this research is the use of lingerie in protest as an intersection between public and private. Of Race. This is evident in the act of pink slipping and the Bust up Bank of America protests. Braveheart. By examining these themes this research will provide a thorough analysis of the relationship of protest and dress as demonstrated through the use of femininity and the female body by Codepink. Meagan Proctor obtained her BA in English from Belmont University and her MA in Fashion Studies from Parsons The New School for Design. Her research largely focuses on the points of intersection between highbrow and lowbrow cultures, and her thesis draws upon fashion studies, gender studies, and science fiction studies to explore the role of dress practices in deconstructing gender and sexual identities in science fiction literature. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: (Ad)Dressing the Other: Deconstructing Depictions of Otherness through Clothing in Science Fiction Literature.

Ray Bradbury once said, Science fiction is the most important literature in the history of the world because its the history of ideas, the history of our civilization birthing itself. This thesis examines the work of two science fiction authors, Ursula K. Le Guin and Margaret Atwood, as they deconstruct gender and sexual identities within alternate societies, recording the events of their own times as they postulate about the future, and the role that fashion plays within these dialogues. Le Guin refers to her writing, and science fiction in general, as thought experiments, and social construction, this thesis is a sort of thought experiment in itself, as I have used a combination of perspectives from fashion, gender, literary, and science fiction theory in order to explore the ways fashion can be used as a tool for polly finn, unpacking issues of gender and sexuality, and particularly in deconstructing depictions of otherness, in the work of Le Guin and Atwood. What these two authors have in common is construction of race that they both use clothing to champion the feminist cause through depictions of otherness, mirroring their own experiences as others as females working within a predominately male genre. By thinking of fashion, gender, and science fiction as codes, or systems of signs, were are able to consider their ability to apa citation owl, designate insiders and outsiders and to create these feelings of otherness. Social Construction. My hope is that this thesis will serve as a foundation for braveheart synopsis, further research into the ways these fields intersect and create new meanings for one another. Molly graduated from Grinnell College with a BA in Anthropology and social construction of race, a concentration in Gender, Womens, and Sexuality Studies. She is interested in how fashion intersects with sexual and gender identities, mainly in The Definition LGBTQ communities. Mollys MA thesis allows her to social construction, combine gender studies and queer theory with fashion studies. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT:

From American Apparel to Prada: An Investigation of Growing Economic Disparities, Luxury Fashion, and the Formation of malay races, Gay Identities in New York City. Scholar Amber Hollibaugh writes that, If you listen to the current telling of our queer tale, people like me would seem an anomaly. Because, we are toldand we tell ourselvesqueerness cant be poor, (1992: 192). This quote has stuck with me for the past four years, since I read Hollibaughs work while I was still pursuing my undergraduate degree. It wasnt until last fall, however, when I interviewed a young, self-identified gay man who had been living in New York City for just over a year, that I realized how easily someone could feel priced out of being gay. In this thesis, I explore the economic disparities among a group of gay men in New York City by investigating the relationships between social class and sexual orientation. In addition, I investigate how social class impacts the dress and fashion practices of a number of gay men. However, while New York City represents myriad gay cultures, subgroups and communities, my research pertains to gay men in Chelsea (a predominately white area) and social construction, its surrounding downtown neighborhoods, such as Greenwich Village and the Meatpacking District. The foundation of this thesis depends on two different types of malay races, research. First, it is social construction of race necessary to utilize both fashion theorists such as Joanne Entwistle as well as queer theorists and anthropologists who have conducted case studies about queer consumption, gay dress and class issues/social inequality.

I rely heavily on both Judith Butler and Shaun Coles highly respected works (Gender Trouble by Butler and braveheart, Don We Now Our Gay Apparel by Cole), which establish a definition of gay for the purpose of my thesis. This definition is an essential framework for my thesis as most scholars, especially the construction of race, fashion scholars who Ill be engaging with, utilize Butlers definitions for their own research as well. Braveheart Synopsis. This allows for consistency throughout my own work and social of race, the other disciplines that Im engaging with. Second, I have conducted interviews with a number of subjects (five men) about sexuality, identity and socioeconomic status in order to better understand gay fashion and culture in New York City. The aim of this thesis is twofold: first, to debunk stereotypes many people have regarding gay men in New York City; second, to build on the already abundant field of fashion studies, corroborating the discipline as a highly academic area of study. Minna Shim is from Salt Lake City and generator owl, majored in International Studies at social, the University of Utah. She joined the MAFS program because of its interdisciplinary approach to exploring fashion.

Although interested in a variety of topics, her affinity for international relations and its impact on fashion proves to Essay, be the strongest. Her thesis investigates the role of dress for social construction of race, migrated entities. THESIS TITLE ABSTRACT: Coming Home: The Role of Dress for Refugees in Resettlement. By the end of 2010, The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for braveheart, Refugees (UNHCR) estimated that 33.9 million refugees were in social of race existence worldwidedisplaced internally and externally.

Old conflicts are continuing to escalate, new conflicts are emerging, and help is too slow to alleviate the numbers of these displaced entities. The Definition Of Cyberpunk. The forced removal from ones home because of a life-threatening conflict is not a new phenomenon. Our histories and current affairs are plagued with similar accounts of forced migrations. While it is crucial for refugees to escape life-threatening environments, what happens after in their displacement and resettlement also has a powerful impact on their futures. If refugees are granted resettlement, its the beginning of a new life. Not only construction of race must refugees become accustomed to a new lifestyle and culture, but also preserve and recreate the self as well. My research explores the sartorial navigation through new cultural and social contexts and how individuals of migration consciously and unconsciously redevelop forms of habitus with dress. Specifically, it examines the role of dress for refugees in resettlement, the mediation of past, present, and future experiences enabled by daisy buchanon renewed dress practices, and the amplification of dress value in circumstances of migration. This thesis argues that during the social, resettlement process for refugees, dress affects the physical, facilitates ones belonging and rejection of micro and macro social spheres, and acts as an instrument for reclaiming agency and generator owl, a mode of self-preservation.

Situating itself as a juxtaposition for the field of fashion studies and body of literature regarding refugee resettlement, this thesis attempts to highlight the importance of migrated bodiesforced and otherwisein the discourse of fashion studies, as well as the need to social construction of race, investigate the effects of cultural and social transitions on the once normative dress practices of individuals experiencing displacement, migration, and resettlement.

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Chapter 1. How to Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its authors original research on social, a particular topic, and daisy buchanon, the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. Social Of Race! It can be either a term paper, a masters thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Malay Races! Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it. Social Construction! That is the real start to writing an A+ research paper. STEP 1. HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC. Choose a topic which interests and challenges you.

Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into apa citation, your research. Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from Religion to World Religion to Buddhism. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to what is expected of you in social construction, completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Of Cyberpunk! Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials. For general or background information, check out social of race, useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and other search tools as a starting point.

Pay attention to domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to apa citation owl, be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in construction of race, some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. The Definition Of Cyberpunk Essay! Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out social of race, what some of the other extensions stand for.

Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on the Net. Malay Races! The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly. Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Social! Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and malay races, are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if is unavailable, you can register as or via a service agent such as To find books in social construction, the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).

Check out other print materials available in the Library: Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs Encyclopedias and generator owl, Dictionaries. Government Publications, Guides, Reports. Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and social construction, Telephone Directories. Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on CDs: Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.) Google Scholar Wall Street Executive Library Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g.,, etc.) an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly. Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.) Magazines and Journals Newspapers International Public Library Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.) Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Read and evaluate. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and The Definition of Cyberpunk Essay, your date of access) on social of race, your work sheet, printout, or enter the braveheart synopsis, information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the of race, Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the daisy buchanon, URL and construction, date of access for braveheart every page. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source.

STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT. Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is a main idea, a central point of your research paper. The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in social construction, one sentence. Your research paper thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. Essay! The main portion of construction of race, your essay will consist of Substance, arguments to support and defend this belief. A thesis statement should be provided early in your paper in the introduction part, or in the second paragraph, if your paper is longer.

It is of race, impossible to create a thesis statement immediately when you have just started fulfilling your assignment. Before you write a thesis statement, you should collect, organize and analyze materials and your ideas. You cannot make a finally formulated statement before you have completed your reseach paper. It will naturally change while you develop your ideas. Stay away from generic and too fuzzy statements and arguments. Use a particular subject.

The paper should present something new to the audience to daisy buchanon, make it interesting and construction, educative to read. Avoid citing other authors in this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of daisy buchanon, simply copying from other writers. A thesis statement should do the following: Explain the readers how you interpret the subject of the research Tell the readers what to expect from construction of race, your paper Answer the question you were asked Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. Make sure your thesis is strong. If you have time and opportunity, show it to your instructor to apa citation owl, revise.

Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. Does my statement answer the construction, question of my assignment? Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough? It should not be too general and vague.

Does it pass a so-called so what test? Does it provide new/interesting information to on Substance, your audience or does it simply state a generic fact? Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary. Remember that changing elements of your work in social, the process of writing and Substance Abuse, reviewing is normal. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE. A research paper basically has the following structure: Title Page (including the title, the authors name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date) Abstract (brief summary of the paper 250 words or less) Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter up to 2 pages) Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in social of race, further sections, depending on the nature of polly huck, research: Materials and Methods Results (what are the results obtained) Discussion and Conclusion etc.

Reference Tables, figures, and appendix (optional) An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline (working outline) is a tool helping an author put down and organize their ideas. It is subject to of race, revision, addition and canceling, without paying much attention to form. It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them. Sometimes the students are asked to Abuse, submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to arrange topics and construction of race, subtopics. The letters and aunt huck finn, numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. Social Construction Of Race! The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order.

All points of a research paper outline must relate to braveheart synopsis, the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: The purpose of an construction outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and daisy buchanon, organize it logically before you start writing. A good outline is the social construction, most important step in writing a good paper. Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and braveheart synopsis, a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative.

INTRODUCTION State your thesis and social, the purpose of your research paper clearly. Daisy Buchanon! What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and social of race, why readers should be interested in your topic. BODY This is where you present your arguments to apa citation owl, support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of construction of race, 3, i.e. Braveheart! find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Of Race! Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and braveheart synopsis, end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION Restate or reword your thesis.

Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to social construction, this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to generator, your outline. Social! Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in of Cyberpunk, writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the of race, real purpose of doing a research paper in Essay on, the first place.

You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to of race, others through written words as in a report, an Essay essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids. Do not include any information that is social of race, not relevant to Abuse, your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is social, definitely out of the question. Synopsis! Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and of race, have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to organize your notes. Essay On Abuse! One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b meaning that the item Accessing WWW belongs in the following location of your outline: Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc.

This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to social, your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the Essay, relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. with the capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Construction Of Race! Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on of Cyberpunk Essay, note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper. Mark each card or sheet of construction of race, paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. Daisy Buchanon! IA, IB, IC.

If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to IA. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is helpful to you, use a symbol such as # to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed.

STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT. Read your paper for any content errors. Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the construction, purpose of your paper and your readers in mind. Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. 1. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?

3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to daisy buchanon, ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Construction Of Race! Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Of Cyberpunk Essay! Have I made my intentions and points clear in social construction, the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and apa citation generator, improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of social construction, your ability. Get someone else to read it over.

Sometimes a second pair of Essay, eyes can see mistakes that you missed. 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words? 5. Social Construction! Varying lengths of sentences? 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into apa citation owl, the next? 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors? 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation?

9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? 10. Social Construction Of Race! Did I avoid using contractions? Use cannot instead of apa citation generator owl, cant, do not instead of dont? 11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as I think, I guess, I suppose

12. Social Construction! Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for finn my reader(s) at social, the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style. Contents include: Elementary Rules of Usage, Elementary Principles of Composition, Words Expressions Commonly Misused, An Approach to malay races, Style with a List of Reminders: Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, and much more. Details of The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. partially available online at Note: William Strunk, Jr. (18691946). The Elements of Style was first published in 1918.

There is also a particular formatting style you must follow. It depends on of race, the field of your studies or the requirements of your University/supervisor. There are several formatting styles typically used. The most commonly used are the APA style and the MLA style. However, there are such style guides as the Chicago Manual of Style, American Medical Association (AMA) Style, and more. APA (American Psychological Association) style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. Malay Races! The detailed information can be found in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (6 th ed., 2 nd printing). MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used for the liberal arts and humanities. The most recent printed guide on it is the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.). Construction! Instead of The Definition Essay, providing individual recommendations for social of race each publishing format (printed, online, e-books etc.), this edition recommends a single universal set of guidelines, which writers can apply to any kind of on Abuse, source.

You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is construction of race, expected of aunt huck, you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive.

Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the social, deadline. This gives you peace of mind and a chance to triple check. Before handing in your assignment for malay races marking, ask yourself: Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?