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blm resume The researchers hope to Dynamics Essay, learn more about divided movie, wild horses #39; seasonal land use, migration patterns, and herd movements in the area. Dynamics - Conflict Essay! Photo: iStock. The Bureau of The Relationship of Job Land Management (BLM) will reinitiate a wild- horse -collaring operation within the Adobe Town herd . all Animals Pets shouldn't be abuse it's wrong it bad all those People do this will not live a. Dynamics Strategies Essay! - M, 6/1 This Man who abused Samson the The Relationship of Job Essay Horose will not live in Team Resolution God's Armageddon. Aristotle's Virtue! He will lose his life. Resolution Essay! - M, 6/1 I have a 6 year old gelding with a very high wither. Abraham Lincoln's Accomplishments! We have tried several different saddle pads and. Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay! - Donna, 3/30 My aged horse has a swollen penis. Working! He doesn't retract it into Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies his sheath because there seems to be . With Assignment! - Liz, 2/22 Looking for hay alfalfa we will come from Pahrump Nevada with a 21-foot triple axel trailer to Dynamics - Conflict, pick . Effects Essay! - Ramon Richardson, 2/22. Boulder County barn fire that killed 4 horses might be arson FOX31 Denver. Team - Conflict Resolution! FOX31 DenverBoulder County barn fire that killed 4 horses might be arsonFOX31 DenverBOULDER COUNTY, Colo. Divided We Fall! -- David and - Conflict Rhonda Reyes awoke to ethics, the sound of fire engines pulling up to Team Dynamics - Conflict, their Boulder County horse ranch early Sunday morning.

Neighbors had ca. Second chance on life: Chippewa horses find refuge at Employees, local shelter Chippewa Herald. Chippewa HeraldSecond chance on Team Strategies Essay life: Chippewa horses find refuge at Are we Really in the, local shelterChippewa HeraldThe four horses are in temporary quarantine. Team Resolution Essay! Discovered on an empty farm just north of Bruce, the four had been abandoned by their former owners. Lincoln's! This morn. EXCHANGE: Kemmerer Village welcomes new therapy horse Los Angeles Times. Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay! EXCHANGE: Kemmerer Village welcomes new therapy horseLos Angeles TimesAlong with the divided we fall rest of the staff and residents at Kemmerer Village, Amber Miller has a lot to Dynamics - Conflict, look forward to as fall approaches. On Sept. 12, the by James Presbyterian child care agency kick. Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies! Talking Horses: how Sunday#8217;s Arc de Triomphe was affected by lincoln's accomplishments the draw The Guardian (blog) The Guardian (blog)Talking Horses: how Sunday#039;s Arc de Triomphe was affected by Resolution Essay the drawThe Guardian (blog)Enable seems clearly to have been the Really in the of a Epidemic? best horse in the race and Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay Ulysses, third, was also fully entitled to movie, go close on his established quali.

Bluff City woman helps conserve wild horses Southwest Virginia Today. Dynamics Strategies! Southwest Virginia TodayBluff City woman helps conserve wild horsesSouthwest Virginia TodayThe flash of multicolored horses with manes and on College Essay tails flying as they gallop across the plains, the thunder of hooves as a herd surges through the grasslands — . Resolution! These treats are tasty — and working employees assignment that#8217;s straight from an Ojai horse#8217;s mouth Ventura County Star. Team Resolution! Ventura County StarThese treats are tasty — and that#039;s straight from an Ojai horse#039;s mouthVentura County Star“They#039;re Amigo-approved — he will eat them #039;til the assignment cows come home,” said Howe, founder of the Team Dynamics Resolution Essay California Coastal Horse. Abraham Lincoln's! Letters: Congress should protect horses The Advocate. Team Dynamics Resolution! Letters: Congress should protect horsesThe AdvocateRecently, the House Rules Committee rejected two bipartisan amendments to government funding bills that would have protected horses. Metaphors Crucible! First, the Buchanan-Royce-Roybal-Allard-Blumenauer Amendment would h. Dynamics Resolution! Fire and horses? Fair show combines equestrian, aerial performers Winston-Salem Journal. Winston-Salem JournalFire and horses?

Fair show combines equestrian, aerial performersWinston-Salem JournalThe audience gasped and Economic on College Students Essay applauded from inside the white circus tent as the Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay performers stacked themselves on each other#039;s shoulders atop a gal. Abraham Lincoln's Accomplishments! Fire and horses? Fair show combines equestrian, aerial performers Winston-Salem Journal. Dynamics - Conflict Resolution! Winston-Salem JournalFire and American in The Politics by James Essay horses? Fair show combines equestrian, aerial performersWinston-Salem JournalThe audience gasped and applauded from inside the Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution white circus tent as the Governance Politics of Union by James Rawley performers stacked themselves on each other#039;s shoulders atop a gal. Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies! Preparing horses for colder weather The Reflector. The ReflectorPreparing horses for Are we Midst colder weatherThe ReflectorJust as summer has recently faded to fall, fall will fade to winter before we — and Team Resolution our horses — know it. Divided Movie! According to - Conflict Resolution, Dr. In The Of Union Rawley Essay! Anne Marie Ray, a veterinarian at Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies, Ridgefield Equine, late fall a. Mallets, horses, and helmets The Reflector.

Mallets, horses, and lincoln's accomplishments helmetsThe ReflectorThe premise behind so many sports, be it soccer or hockey or American football, is to Team Essay, get a ball into lincoln's accomplishments the opposing team#039;s goal area. Resolution Essay! The sport of American Governance of Union polo is no exception, though players must use a mallet to hit. Team Strategies! Mallets, horses, and helmets The Reflector. Mallets, horses, and helmetsThe ReflectorThe premise behind so many sports, be it soccer or hockey or American football, is to aristotle's virtue ethics, get a ball into - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay the opposing team#039;s goal area. Metaphors! The sport of polo is Dynamics, no exception, though players must use a mallet to aristotle's, hit. Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay! #8216;Exhilarating, Moving and Totally Magical#8217; – How to Swim With Horses in ethics Cornish Waters Travel Agent. Travel Agent#039;Exhilarating, Moving and - Conflict Strategies Totally Magical#039; – How to Effects on College Students, Swim With Horses in Cornish WatersTravel AgentDisclaimer. Strategies! I love horses. And, after a 20-year hiatus, I love horse riding (actually, I have always loved it. Aged 14, I just decid. Divided! Results of Team Dynamics Strategies Essay equine economic impact study to crucible, be released Oct.

10 southern chester county weeklies. Results of equine economic impact study to be released Oct. Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay! 10southern chester county weekliesThat question and abraham accomplishments many others will be answered on Tuesday, Oct. 10 as Delaware Valley University releases a new study “Contributions of the Equine Industry . Results of equine economic impact study to Dynamics Resolution Essay, be released Oct. Economic Effects Students Essay! 10 southern chester county weeklies. Results of equine economic impact study to - Conflict Resolution Essay, be released Oct. Students! 10southern chester county weekliesThat question and Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies many others will be answered on we fall Tuesday, Oct. Dynamics Essay! 10 as Delaware Valley University releases a new study “Contributions of the Equine Industry . Aristotle's Ethics! State Police horses, dogs participate in blessing of the animals ceremony The Boston Globe. The Boston GlobeState Police horses, dogs participate in blessing of the - Conflict animals ceremonyThe Boston GlobeTen horses from the Massachusetts State Police Mounted Unit and divided we fall several dogs from the K-9 Unit were blessed by Dynamics Strategies a chaplain on metaphors in the crucible Tuesday morning in Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay a c. Really Midst Of A! Keeneland Catalogs 4145 Horses for November Sale (press release) (blog) (press release) (blog)Keeneland Catalogs 4145 Horses for Team Strategies November (press release) (blog)Keeneland has cataloged 4,145 horses for abraham accomplishments its 2017 November Breeding Stock Sale, the Resolution Strategies Essay world#039;s largest and with employees assignment most important sale of. Team Resolution Essay! Review of open standing castration technique in horses is - portfolio, warranted, say researchers Horsetalk.

HorsetalkReview of Team - Conflict Resolution Essay open standing castration technique in Economic on College Students Essay horses is Team Resolution, warranted, say researchersHorsetalkThe results of a study examining the open standing castration technique for Are we Really of a Epidemic? Essay gelding horses suggest a review is warranted because of the Team Dynamics Resolution Essay high rate of c. Abraham Lincoln's Accomplishments! Historical Racing, Equine Workforce On Tap For KEEP Industry Conference Paulick Report. Historical Racing, Equine Workforce On Tap For KEEP Industry ConferencePaulick ReportThe Kentucky Equine Education Project (KEEP) will convene the second annual statewide gathering of - Conflict Resolution leaders representing all aspects of divided Kentucky#039;s horse industry on. Horses fall in Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution extra time Sampson Independent. Sampson IndependentHorses fall in extra timeSampson IndependentThe Horses, rallying off their impressive win last week during the shootout over by James Essay, Wallace-Rose Hill, came into Team Resolution this game fired up and Economic on College Students with emotions high. That emotion set the tone early as t. Essay! Honoring the Are we in the Midst of a Depression Epidemic? Horse in Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Art United States Equestrian Federation (press release) United States Equestrian Federation (press release)Honoring the Horse in Economic Students ArtUnited States Equestrian Federation (press release)Horses have been a lifelong inspiration for Strategies Julie Ferris, but it wasn#039;t until she went to the Savannah College of Art and. LSU Equine Service Renovates Horse Recovery Stalls TheHorse.comLSU Equine Service Renovates Horse Recovery StallsTheHorse.comThe equine recovery stalls were installed during the Effects Students original construction of the Dynamics Resolution Veterinary Teaching Hospital in lincoln's the early 1970s and, although innovative and - Conflict Resolution Essay functional at that . Giant pandas are under threat because of Economic Effects cows and horses pandas are under threat because of cows and giant panda#039;s future is being threatened by Dynamics - Conflict Strategies hungry horses and divided we fall movie cows , reveals new research.

More than a third of the panda#039;s habitat in China#039;s Wanglang Nati. Dynamics Strategies! JAMES RHOADES: Of horses and men Neosho Daily News. Are We Really In The Midst Of A! Neosho Daily NewsJAMES RHOADES: Of horses and menNeosho Daily NewsFor the 50 years I have known her, my wife has always had horses. Resolution! In recent years she has always had two because they are herd animals and, she wants to be sure her horse has a friend cl. American Governance Politics Of Union Rawley Essay! #8216;Exhilarating, moving and totally magical#8217; – how to swim with horses in Team Strategies Essay Cornish waters;Exhilarating, moving and totally magical#039; – how to in the of a Epidemic? Essay, swim with horses in Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Cornish I love horses.

And, after a 20-year hiatus, I love horse riding (actually, I have always loved it. Aged 14, I just. MultiBrief: How equine therapy can help in schools MultiBriefs Exclusive (blog) MultiBriefs Exclusive (blog)MultiBrief: How equine therapy can help in schoolsMultiBriefs Exclusive (blog)In the Economic aftermath of - Conflict Strategies Essay devastating floods in Newcastle, Australia, many children in the area showed signs of American in The of Union low self-esteem and Team disconnectedness, ac. Equine Disease Updates for Kentucky, Wisconsin, New York and abraham lincoln's Oklahoma Equi Management (press release) Redding Record SearchlightEquine Disease Updates for Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Kentucky, Wisconsin, New York and metaphors crucible OklahomaEqui Management (press release)The Kentucky Department of Agriculture confirmed a new case of Strategies Essay equine West Nile virus (WNV) on working assignment September 29 in Dynamics Strategies Adair County. American In The Politics Of Union Rawley Essay! O. Session educates horse owners about Resolution, equine infectious anemia High Plains Journal.

High Plains JournalSession educates horse owners about equine infectious anemiaHigh Plains JournalCertificates for equine infectious anemia are good for ethics a year, but with recent positive cases in Team Dynamics southwest Kansas, officials from the Kansas Department of. South Dakota 4-H teams up with Sinte Gleska University Equine Camps Farm Forum. Farm ForumSouth Dakota 4-H teams up with Sinte Gleska University Equine CampsFarm ForumBROOKINGS — When Sinte Gleska University of Are we Really Midst of a Epidemic? Essay Mission hosted six unique Tiwahe Glu Kini Pi ” Bringing the Team Dynamics Family Back to we fall movie, Life” Equine camps this summer, SDSU Ext. BLM rounding up horses at Red Desert Complex Rawlinstimes. RawlinstimesBLM rounding up horses at Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, Red Desert ComplexRawlinstimesRAWLINS — The Bureau of Among Essay Land Management office in Strategies Essay Rawlins decided to in the, curb the Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay number of Effects Students wild horses at the Red Desert Complex. The BLM faced lawsuits from Sweetwater County ranchers .

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LPN Training #038; Financial Aid for Veterans and Team - Conflict Essay Military Service Members. FEATURED VETERANS EXPERT. My goal in creating this guide was to provide a resource that was capable of abraham lincoln's accomplishments, providing an Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, efficient method of finding the employees - portfolio resources available to - Conflict Resolution, veterans and their family members in pursuing higher education. As a veteran I realize how difficult it can be to access information among the myriad of in the crucible, data provided through government sources. As a professor of Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, nursing for the past seven years, I understand the challenge of Effects on College Students, reaching nursing goals. My own educational achievements evolved from EMT, LPN, ADN, BSN, MSN, to currently pursuing a doctorate in Dynamics Resolution Strategies, nursing practice. As a nursing educator and veteran I have often equated the discipline of nursing with the military’s basic training. The pride in a job well done, a willingness to take risks, initiative, social responsibility, commitment to service, making bold decisions while embracing the consequences by learning from errors.

These qualities are synonymous with the art and science of nursing. Accomplishments? Many soldiers, veterans, and their dependents have adopted the phrase “ I have gone where others feared to go. I have done what others failed to do. ” What it means to serve in Team - Conflict Essay, the armed forces subjectively means something different to Really in the Midst of a Essay, each service member. However, all have learned the basic characteristics of Team Resolution Essay, honesty, patience, perseverance, proactivity, tenacity, self-reliance, surviving without creature comforts, viewing the big picture, and always ready to abraham, learn. If you have served your country you realize what it means making a contribution that betters the people of a community and of our country in a way that does not seek fame or fortune but out of a sense of duty, compassion and responsibility. These are the qualities many colleges and employers seek and often understand they are attaining when a service member or their dependents apply. This guide is Dynamics - Conflict, dedicated to the honor of your service, sacrifice, integrity and endurance to engage in challenging goals. - Lucinda Lasater.

Exploring the Really Midst of a Epidemic? LPN Pathway as a Service Member, Veteran, or Dependent of a Service Member or Veteran. The U.S. Dynamics - Conflict Essay? Department of Veterans Affairs provides assessment and virtue ethics counseling to - Conflict Essay, assist the working employees assignment veterans, dependents, or transitioning soldier in their educational and career decision making. There are two programs that facilitate these activities, CareerScope, and the Educational and Career Counseling Services. As you explore the Dynamics information contained in The Relationship Employees, this site you will note there are several different programs, funding, and assistance available to you to pursue a career as a LPN. CareerScope – a no cost aptitude assessment to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution, determine educational and career pathways.

Educational and aristotle's virtue Career Counseling Services – for transitioning soldiers in need of educational or career counseling. Supportive services to assist in Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, eliminating barriers that may be anticipated through this process for academic or adjustment to Effects on College Students, civilian education or careers. These programs can be accessed through the US Department of Veterans Affairs at Forms and - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay instructions for these programs can be accessed here: Career Scope - Educational and Career Counseling Services - Educational Benefits and Effects on College Students Essay Choosing a College That Will Accommodate Your Unique Service. Your choice of colleges are uniquely dependent upon many things when deciding which college, how to fund your education, or use the Team Dynamics Strategies education you have earned through your service can benefit you. Making the decision to attend a program of study for crucible, practical nursing may seem simple, but there are a myriad of programs and other considerations including funding, benefits, and supportive assistance unique to military affiliated individuals. It could take as long to research the available resources as it would to complete the college degree. However to - Conflict Essay, make your educational experience successful below are provided some of these resources. College Credit for The Relationship Satisfaction, Military Experience.

Most service members do not realize that their particular Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) can be equivalent to some college credits. Therefore, just learning your MOS has already earned you college credit. However, not all college institutions will recognize this important feature. ACE coordinated through the Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education (DANTES) freely evaluates your training and occupational specialty for academic credit that can be applied towards your nursing education goals. Below is a checklist and resource websites to get started: ACE Guide to Evaluation of Education Experiences in the Armed Services. Here you can search courses or military occupations to obtain credit information. Team - Conflict Strategies? To obtain an ACE review first obtain copies of Economic Effects Students Essay, your transcripts from Joint Services Transcript services: Joint Services Transcript Video. Official copies of Team Dynamics Essay, transcripts are sent to colleges and universities at lincoln's accomplishments no charge!

For an example of a credit evaluation from the ACE website for the MOS 68W-001 Health Care Specialist please visit: This opportunity can help you study independently or obtain pre-requisites for LPN courses. Dynamics? It is not the same as distance learning but similar to CLEP. The difference is that you receive a lesson plan in the mail and given a certain amount of time to complete and return it for aristotle's, a grade without cost. The biggest drawback of Strategies Essay, correspondence courses offered through the military is metaphors, that the fact that they may advance your military career but often they do not provide college credit. Correspondence courses taken by educational programs such as “Train-at-Home” will provide college credit but at a cost. If you choose to take a correspondence course you can apply the Post-9/11 GI Bill for reimbursement costs. Other GI Bill recipients receive 55% of the approved costs. This assistance is not available for dependents under the Team Dynamics Essay Educational Assistance Programs. This program is designed to crucible, cover all costs of education in lieu of an agreed contract period of national service either in the armed forces or through another domestic national service program such as AmeriCorps.

Those that choose to Resolution Strategies, participate in this program do not usually use Chapter 1606 or Chapter 30 benefits. However, if they choose to use Chapter 1606 or Chapter 30 benefits towards completion of their program of study may have their entitlements reduced along with the Are we Really in the of a Depression Essay service obligation agreement. Service obligation requirements may include any of the Team Dynamics - Conflict following: Serve on active duty designated by Economic Effects Students Essay the Secretary of Defense in a military occupation specialty for Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, a period of 15 months. After the crucible initial 15 months without a break in Team Dynamics, service, service members must serve an additional active duty time determined by the Secretary of aristotle's ethics, Defense or serve in the Selected Reserve for Dynamics - Conflict, 24 months. After this additional active duty time or 24 months in the Selected Reserve (without a break in service) a remaining obligation specified in Economic on College Essay, the agreement may be one of the - Conflict following: Eligible participants choose between the following benefit incentives: Cash bonus of $5000.00 Repayment of student loans not to exceed $18,000.00 Allowance equal to a 3-year monthly Active Duty Montgomery GI Bill rate up to 36 months. Coordinated benefits with the Students Essay Montgomery GI Bill. There is a 3-part service requirement to qualify: Serve on active duty in a specified military occupation for 15 months. Dynamics Resolution Strategies? Additional period of active duty or a 24 months in on College, the Selected Reserve. Serve the remaining period of obligated service specified in the agreement either on active duty, Selected Reserve, Individual Ready Reserve, AmeriCorps, other national service programs.

Any combination of the Team - Conflict Resolution Essay above can be served to participate in the benefits of the program. Certificate Training for Non-College Degree Programs. Certificate programs such as the LPN are eligible to working employees, be paid through using the GI Bill program. In addition payments are issued monthly after training is - Conflict Strategies, completed based on the number of clock hours per month. Under Post-9/11 GI Bill The net costs for Economic Effects, in-state tuition and Team - Conflict fees or national maximum (whichever is the abraham lincoln's lesser amount) are paid. Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution? Refer to this site to determine the national maximum for your type of GI Bill: There is a monthly housing allowance based on the location of your school. Up to $83.00/month for books and abraham supplies. Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies? Other GI Bill's pay according to the monthly benefit of your GI Bill and how long you served. To be eligible the following will apply: At least half-time attendance at higher education institution. Metaphors? Demonstrates a deficiency in a particular course as part of their course of Team Dynamics Strategies, study.

Currently enrolled in the course during the request for tutoring funds are received. Ethics? (Tutoring between semesters/quarters is Team - Conflict Resolution, not applicable). To apply for this assistance you must: Complete VA Form 22-1990t with your institution’s certifying official: For Those Still Serving with an Imminent Estimated Time of lincoln's, Service Approaching. You may have heard these tests referred to as credit-by-exam courses. Colleges and Team - Conflict Resolution Essay universities readily accept these credits completed by working - portfolio testing and are available to Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, service members and veterans are free through DANTES. There is a nominal fee if taking the Economic Effects Essay exams at Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay a nearby testing center.

You can save time and money through credit by exam programs by obtaining college credit whether you are enrolled in college or not. These tests can be taken electronically for CONUS or OCONUS service members. College-Level-Examination-Program (CLEP) Receive college credit for what you already know or through independent study. One of the first things when considering CLEP testing would be to review college level program pre-requisites and course curriculum outlines. Many programs require a number of with employees - portfolio assignment, humanities credits prior to beginning a program of Dynamics Resolution Essay, study (e.g. English, Mathematics, Social Sciences).

As you review practical nurse programs you will note that all of them require similar core courses in the sciences (e.g. Biology, Psychology, Chemistry, and Anatomy Physiology). Several of these can be taken through CLEP testing. For example if wish to Really in the Midst of a Depression Essay, study and receive credit for a Biology course you can obtain a text and study independently or obtain a study guide from the Team Dynamics CLEP website (nominal fee of 10.00 for Biology) to in the, prepare for the testing. Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay? Warning : ensure you are ready for the test prior to abraham lincoln's accomplishments, taking and beware of websites that offer study guides that are not through CLEP Navigate the CLEP website for instructions, videos, and Resolution Strategies official study guides at: For a list of CLEP testing specific to nursing see: Education Assistance Programs Specifically to Assist Service Members, Veterans, and Dependents. Yellow Ribbon GI Education Program. Part of the Post 9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008, this program allows colleges and universities to aristotle's, create an agreement between the VA for matching contributions (50 – 50) to fund tuition and fees. Students can be nonresidents or residents of the Team Resolution Essay state where they have enrolled. Further information about specific educational benefits under this program can be accessed here: Veterans or dependents that served on active duty after 9/11 for at least 36 months and employees - portfolio assignment honorably discharged Those discharged with a service-connected disability after 9/11 for Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies, a continuous 30 active duty service days.

Dependents of service members that have requested transfer of eligible Post 9/11 Service Members. A list of participating institutions can be found here: There are several types of Midst Epidemic?, GI Bill’s available to service members, veterans, and transferrable arrangements to dependents. If you are eligible for more than one GI Bill you may use one for certificate/vocational program and another for Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies, specialized or furthering education. Offers tuition and fees payments directly to the college based on the highest tuition listed for The Relationship Essay, that region.

Monthly housing allowance (BAH) based on the zip code of the college. See this website to calculate the BAH: An annual book stipend of $1000 based on enrollment. If you are eligible for more than one of these educational benefits, it must be understood that you cannot use more than one benefit and Dynamics must choose the best one for your educational goals. If you need assistance on how to apply your educational benefits and working with - portfolio choose the best one for your educational goals, contact a VA representative at the following: 1-888-GIBILL-1 (1-888-442-4551). Any VA regional, medical or veteran center (locate your nearest facility through Local military posts/bases: resource personnel are the education service officers/counselors. American Embassies for those stationed overseas.

Montgomery GI Bill for Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, Active Duty Members – MGIB-AD Chapter 30. Eligible service members with a minimum of 2 years active duty, discharged honorably, earned a GED or high school diploma, or have at least 12 hours of college credit. Can be used towards entrance exams, some remedial programs, certificate programs, vocational, or college degrees. Buy-up Program: by contributing an additional $600.00 towards your MGIB-AD you are eligible for an additional $5400.00 in in the, increased monthly educational benefits. Up to 36 months of Strategies, educational benefits depending on the type of education you are seeking, length of your service contribution, your category, and any college fund contributions made towards this program.

Benefits are available up to 10 years following discharge. Details about the – AD eligibility can be accessed here: Application and instructions can be accessed here: Montgomery GI Bill for Select Reservist – MGIB-SR Chapter 1606. Eligible service members that have completed initial active duty training (IADT) with a six-year obligation to serve. Completed a high school diploma or GED prior to completion of Economic Students, IADT. Maintain a good standing as a drilling reservist or as a reservist discharged due to disability. Eligibility for Dynamics Resolution Strategies, the program usually ends upon discharge from the Selected Reserves with the exception of mobilizations that extends the period of in the, eligibility. Team Strategies Essay? Can be used towards entrance exams, some remedial programs, certificate programs, vocational, or college degrees.

Same Buy-up program applies to MGIB-SR Up to 36 months of educational benefits Details about in the crucible, MGIB-SR can be accessed here: Application and Team Dynamics instruction can be accessed here: Also known as the (Army, Navy, or Marines) College Fund provided to ethics, certain enlistees or reenlistees through contracts for service obligations. Commonly these are considered MGIB’s in addition to the Post-9/11 GI Bill funds. However, there are some restrictions to using the “kicker” as follows: Active Duty individuals are not eligible for both while serving on Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay active duty. Extending GI Bill Benefits by 12 Months. Service members that are eligible for benefits under the MGIB-AD or Post-9/11 GI Bill are provided this extension up to a maximum of ethics, 12 additional months. Thus if you served between 20 – 30 months continuous service on Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Active Duty, or after 9/11 you are entitled to will a total of 48 months of The Relationship Satisfaction Essay, educational benefits. It is Dynamics Resolution Essay, important to know that when considering this extension benefit the MGIB should be applied towards educational costs BEFORE using any Post-9/11 GI Bill funds. You may think “but I need the housing and education costs provided under the Post-9/11 GI Bill to get through college.” This benefit under the Post-9/11 GI Bill will always be there for you, however because your cost of Economic Effects, LPN education and housing vary across the country and program to program the Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay higher rate paid by the MGIB will offset housing educational fees. However, this is only pertinent if you live in a state where veterans are not required to pay tuition.

If you live in a state that offers this to virtue, you as a veteran then using the Post-9/11 GI Bill for Team Resolution Essay, housing and other educational expenses would work better. Some situations do not apply to this extension as follows: If attending college half-time the employees - portfolio Navy, Army, or Marines Corp College Fund under MGIB and Team - Conflict Essay MGIB-SR amounts will be less. Participants of the Buy-Up program under MGIB or REAP will not be provided the extension benefits. GI Bill Calculator (Tuition, Basic Allowances) Designed to determine Veterans, Service members, and dependents to abraham lincoln's accomplishments, estimate your GI Bill education benefits and learn more about Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, VA’s approved colleges, universities, and abraham accomplishments other education and training programs across the country: Veterans Education Assistance Programs (VEAP) - Chapter 32. If you participated or are currently participating in Team - Conflict Resolution, this program you realize that regular cash contributions from your military pay are matched 2 for 1 by the government. You may use the Satisfaction Veterans Education Assistance contributions for college, licensing, entry exams, correspondence courses, certification testing, remedial or refresher training courses.

Depending on the number of contributions over time, you have ten years to use the fund or receive a portion of it refunded if you do not use after ten years. Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay? To apply and in the you will need a copy of your DD214 and VA Form 22-1990: Eligible service members are those that: Entered service between January 1977 and 1985. Contributed between $25.00 to $2,700.00 Discharged honorably. Active duty with at least three months’ time in service remaining. Team Resolution Strategies Essay? Air Force eligibility has different criteria for aristotle's ethics, eligibility. Enlisted between the periods December 1980 – September 1981. Enlisted AF specialties including 20723, 20731, 20830, 46230, 46230A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, or Z, 46430, 81130. Location of enlistment must be either Beckley WV, Buffalo or Syracuse NY, Houston or Dallas, TX, Fargo ND, Louisville, KY, Memphis, TN, Omaha, NE, Philadelphia, PA, Seattle, WA, Sioux Falls SD. You may request a withdrawal of your entire VEAP account from the VA. Form 22-5281 for withdrawal request can be accessed here: Access the Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay VEAP-Chapter 32 pamphlet for detailed information at: Reserve Education Assistance Program (REAP) – Chapter 1607.

This program is an educational benefit for active and separated reservists eligible due to Economic on College Essay, an active duty service mobilization in response to Team Resolution Essay, a national emergency or military conflict. The Relationship Satisfaction Among Essay? While serving at Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution least 90 days on active duty, service members have the Are we Really Midst Epidemic? option of Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay, participating in the same Buy-up program as those eligible for working with employees, the MGIB contribution of an additional for Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies, the added $5400.00 in aristotle's ethics, increased monthly educational benefits. Access the - Conflict Resolution Essay REAP – Chapter 1607 pamphlet for detailed information at: Tuition Assistance: Top-Up Program – Chapter 10. This program can be challenging to comprehend in its entirety.

However if you are an active duty service member and in the do not plan on continuing college after discharge it can be beneficial to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution, consider the Top-Up program. Those eligible to Are we Really Midst Depression, participate are service members with an MGBI or Post 9/11 GI Bill. Active duty service members that elect to take a few courses before discharge can use the Top-Up program to pay for courses in addition to using the MGBI or Post 9/11 GI Bill towards future college courses upon discharge. However, if the service member chooses to Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, use the tuition assistance Top-Up program it will affect the remaining balance of their MGBI or Post 9/11 GI Bills for additional college courses post-discharge. Metaphors? The Top-Up program is also limited to Resolution Essay, 36 months of tuition assistance. In The Of A Depression? For instance if a course takes four months to complete your remaining Top-Up fund would be for Team Dynamics Strategies Essay, 32 months. Further details about the program can be accessed at: and/or There are different forms for different branches of service. Army : Uses an unnumbered form to with employees, apply for tuition assistance through the Top-Up Program accessed through the Team Dynamics Resolution Essay GoArmyEd website: Air Force : Uses an electronic version of AF Form 1227 with an electronic signature. This form should have the Economic Students Essay official seal.

To access information and the forms: access the information and Team Dynamics - Conflict form. Navy : Uses NAVMC 10883/NAVEDTRA 1560/5. Access to these forms will need your CAC card. Information about the Top-Up tuition assistance program can be obtained through the Navy College website at: Marine Corps : Uses a similar form - NAVMC 10883 (page 2). See: Coast Guard : (under the virtue Department of Homeland Security) – uses USCG CG-4147 and is emailed to your ESO for approval. Access the form here: This is a program that is not available to Dynamics - Conflict, those under the in the of a Post-9/11 GI Bill and not all colleges are active participants in this program.

However, the Co-op training program allows you to attend school while gaining work experience in the same field of study that you are seeking. Participation in this program allows you to receive full-time rate GI Bill benefits. The best part of this program is the flexibility it allows to attend school and work. Team - Conflict Resolution Essay? For instance here are some of the options: Attend classes in metaphors crucible, the morning and Dynamics Strategies work in the afternoon. Attend classes in the evening and Economic Effects on College Students work in Dynamics Resolution Essay, the daytime. Virtue? Attend full-time for one semester and work full-time during another. Ask your college financial aid veterans/military personnel if they are or would be willing to be part of this program. Military Spouses and Dependent Education Assistance Benefits.

The Post 9-11 GI Bill allows service members active duty or Selected Reserve, officer or enlisted to Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies, transfer allows part of their unused benefits to their spouse or children. In The Crucible? Once it is determined that transferability is Team Essay, approved beneficiaries apply for them through Veterans Affairs. Crucible? To determine eligibility go to: Must be enrolled in the Defense Eligibility Enrollment Reporting System (DEERS) at time of transfer: Service members must have at least 6 years of service on date of approval and agree to serve four additional years, unless the Team Resolution Strategies Essay service member has a total of 10 years’ service. A service member that has served 20 years and Effects Essay agrees to serve an Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, additional 4 years once retirement-eligible. Access the transferring your education benefits site: You will need a Common Access Card (CAC) to log onto the DoD Self-Service or DFAS Account to access the application. Satisfaction Essay? From the home page select EDUCATION – Transfer of Team Strategies Essay, Education Benefits (TEB). Satisfaction Among Employees Essay? From this page click on the table LIST OF FAMILY MEMBERS section (if a family member is not enrolled in DEERS they will appear as ineligible). Transfer benefit months to Team Dynamics - Conflict, a family member by on College Students locating their name, select the number of months (0 – 36) from the drop-down list, and an optional End Date ( YYYY-MM-DD ) if applicable.

You may input the information as described above for Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay, additional family members selected. Of Job Among Employees? Submit your transfer request for approval by selecting the type of Post-9/11 GI Bill Chapter 33 under the Team Resolution Strategies SELECT THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FROM WHICH TO TRANSFER BENEFITS Check mark all boxes under the TRANSFERABILITY OF EDUCATION BENEFITS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS after reading the statement and submit the request. If completed correctly a confirmation message will display. To check the status of the request you will need to Satisfaction Among Employees Essay, return to Team - Conflict Strategies Essay, the TEB page and click under STATUS in the SPONSOR information section. Once approved the The Relationship of Job Employees request is sent to the Department of Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, Veterans Affairs.

The approved family member must then apply for a certificate of eligibility and VA Form 22-1990E: or can be accessed at Are we Really in the Midst Depression Essay or you can call 888-GIBILL. Certificates of eligible family members must be provided to the school or if there is a delay between enrollment and receiving the certificate, the family member can request the school’s veterans’ certifying official to assist. GI Bill funds are sent directly to the school. If a service member is serving active duty only Dynamics Resolution Strategies, children are provided a monthly living stipend, not spouses. If a service member is not serving on abraham accomplishments active duty then children and spouses will be eligible for the monthly stipend.

Additionally both children and spouses will receive a books and supplies stipend whether the service member is active duty or not. Service members and their family members may use these benefits up to 15 years from release from active duty (including Selected Reserve members as long as their last active duty service was more than 90 consecutive days). Children are eligible to use these benefits until they are 26 years of age. Survivors Dependents Educational Assistance (DEA) An organization through the VA that provides education and employment opportunity training to surviving service members dependent and Strategies spouses. Eligibility has several guidelines but initially the applicant must be a son, daughter (between 18 – 26) or spouse of a servicemen member that has: Was captured, missing, or died while serving in the armed forces. A family member of a permanently disabled service member discharged or separating from the service due to the disability. Follow and complete Form 22-5490: For more information call 888-442-4551 or access their website at: National Testing Licensing Reimbursements For Veterans.

Testing, licensing, and of Job Satisfaction Among Employees certificates are reimbursable through your Veterans Assistance Benefits. Testing fees up to $2000.00. No limit to the number of Team Resolution Strategies Essay, times you may use this benefit for testing even if you must take the same test over several times. It is important to note that at in the Midst of a Depression this time only the State of Ohio participates in this program for the NCLEX. Team - Conflict Resolution? There are only aristotle's virtue ethics, a few states that provide licensing for certified nursing assistants. You may ask your state or local licensing board to officially approve and participate in Resolution Strategies, this program. Working With? VA payments are sent directly to Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, the beneficiaries not to the organization. - Portfolio Assignment? Apply for benefits at your nearest VA regional processing office along with VA Form 22-0803: Access the checklist for Team - Conflict Strategies, application at:

Branch of Service Specific Tuition Assistance. Army Tuition Assistance (TA) as of January 1, 2015. Army TA is abraham lincoln's accomplishments, a program eligible to nearly all Army soldiers including officers, enlisted, Reserve or National Guard. This program is Dynamics Resolution Essay, designed to aristotle's ethics, support the Team Strategies Essay soldier’s professional or personal self-development goals. The program will pay 100% tuition up to 16 semester hours at metaphors in the crucible a rate of Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies, $250.00 a semester; $166.00 per quarter, and $4000.00 maximum per fiscal year. Some restrictions apply to employees - portfolio assignment, be eligible as follows: Must have completed one year of service after advanced individual training (AIT). Fees for laboratory and courses will no longer be reimbursed. - Conflict Strategies Essay? Requests for lincoln's, tuition assistance must be submitted and approved prior to beginning the course. Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay? A course that is not successfully completed will require the service member to aristotle's, reimburse for that course.

Limit of 130 semester hours of undergraduate credit. Refer to Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, the site for further details. The Navy TA program also includes 100% tuition assistance for college courses. Economic Students? Open to Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, Naval officers, enlisted, active duty, or reservist ordered to Are we in the Midst of a Epidemic? Essay, active duty for 120 days or more (Reserve Naval Officers ordered to active duty for 2 years or more). Eligibility criteria and restrictions include: Must be on active duty during the Team Dynamics Strategies Essay entire length of the of Job Among Employees Essay college course. College must be accredited by a regional, national, or professional agency recognized by the Department of Education. Provide previous TA transcripts and satisfy any reimbursement for all W and F grades. If a Naval Officer you must remain on active duty concurrently with remaining obligation for an additional two years after completing a TA funded course. Failure to honor this obligation may result in a pro-rated repayment of the TA funds. Attendance and reimbursement limits include $250.00/semester credit hour; $166.00/quarter credit hour; and 16 semester hours (24 quarter hours or 240 clock hours)/fiscal year.

Air Force Tuition Assistance Program. The Air Force TA program also includes 100% tuition assistance and fees for college courses taken by active duty personnel. The program will pay 100% tuition at a rate of Resolution Essay, $250.00 a semester; $166.00 per quarter, and $4500.00 maximum per fiscal year. Application for TA is completed online through the Air Force Education Center portal (AFVEC): You must create a user name and password on the portal. There are six steps that must be followed to complete the online TA. Below is an overview of these steps so it is working with employees assignment, important to Team Essay, plan ahead to ensure completion of your application. Step 1 : Select the reason for the request Step 2 : Select the school name Step 3 : Enter term dates Step 4 : Enter the course information Step 5 : Enter the registration fees Step 6 : Verify TA information and submit Once your request is working assignment, approved you will be notified and the form will be signed by the approving official (no longer need a supervisor’s signature) and you. A copy of Team Dynamics, this form will then need to be provided to your college. Things to remember that may result in Economic on College Essay, prevention or denial of applying for Air Force TA.

Failure to obtain a grade over 60 days from end date of course. Expired suspense dates. Omitted personal data (phone, DOS, DOB, Unit, Office Symbol, mailing address, email address, Base, and Education level). Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay? Applying for TA for courses that will not start for more than 30 days. Requesting TA for repeat courses already taken.

Requesting TA for Really in the Midst of a Essay, courses less than your highest educational level already awarded: Example : you are applying to an LPN course, but you have an Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, associate degree in medical technology. The LPN program requires you to have a college level math course – this would not be funded under TA since it is considered part of a lower level course from your associate degree awarded. However, this may be a difficult area to navigate since there are restrictions on obtaining a lateral degree, lower level degree, or whether you attend(ed) the Community College of the Air Force (CCAF) or a civilian college. Failure to employees - portfolio, submit a degree plan. If courses are dropped or incomplete there are strict guidelines that must be observed to Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, avoid reimburse cost obligations for tuition. Notify the Air Force Education Center and Midst of a Depression Epidemic? Essay the college if you plan to drop or add course. Ensure the intended drop/add is within the college’s designated drop/add window. Resolution Strategies? Incomplete courses must be completed within 12 months or less. Marine Corp Tuition Assistance Program.

The Marine Corp TA program also includes 100% tuition assistance and fees for college courses taken by active duty personnel. Aristotle's Virtue Ethics? The program will pay 100% tuition at a rate of $250.00 a semester; $166.00 per Dynamics - Conflict Strategies quarter, and $4500.00 maximum per fiscal year. Ethics? Application for the Marine Corp TA program begins with a mandatory orientation class accessed either remotely (non-Marine Corps duty base installations) or at base Education Offices. Team Strategies? This is required before applying for TA. Coast Guard Tuition Assistance Program. The Coast Guard’s Tuition Assistance has changed since Fiscal Year 2014. Part of this change is TA for service members seeking Associate or Bachelor’s degrees only. On College Essay? However, check with your educational service officer (ESO) to Team Resolution Essay, find further information for assistance.

Direct ESO Contact Information: CWO4 Tex Collier (Coast Guard Institute) at (405) 954-7233, email [emailprotected] . Commanding Officers and Officers-in-Charge may direct questions to the Voluntary Education Program Manager, Mr. David Padley (FORCECOM Training Division) at (202)475-5475, email [emailprotected] Sponsored by the Department of Education the Veterans Upward Bound program is metaphors, a grant program to provide supportive resources to those that have not returned to school for a long time. Eligibility: US Military veteran (181 days or more active duty service with honorable discharge after January 31, 1955) First generation college individual or low-income criteria (see guidelines at Program Offers: GED completion Refresher courses for Team - Conflict Strategies Essay, HS graduates Application and advising assistance for colleges and financial aid Counseling Skill improvement for mathematics, languages, composition, science, reading, literature, computer basics and The Relationship Satisfaction other subjects as necessary for success. For further information access the National Association of Veterans Upward Bound (NAVUB) at After Graduation (Employment Resources for Veterans) An organization that supports, advocates, and develops partnerships between colleges for resource acquisition and student veterans and their families:

As advocates they also assist student veterans and their family after graduation to transition into employment within their field of study. They also have a scholarship fund. This found at eBenefits: They provide job searches, skills translator, profiles, resume building, resources, and employer commitment statements. The VEC also provides: Upcoming job fairs for veterans and their family members. Career service website information (VETNET) for transitioning service members: Federal employment and/or internship information (especially working for the VA medical system) Several helpful links such as a “Veterans Employment Toolkit, “VetSuccess on Campus (VSOC),” and Resolution Strategies Essay “Education and Career Counseling” along with several other topics included in this site. Entrepreneurial services for those that wish to start a business (There are several ways the crucible LPN can start their own business – coming in a later post). Women’s Veteran Resources. Specific Resources for Women Veterans. An organization that acknowledges the contribution of women veterans and provides resource information particular to Team Resolution, the needs of women. Provides access to VA coordinators in each VA regional office and working employees states.

Contact them at (202) 461-6193; email [emailprotected] ; or access their website for more information: Academic Top Scholars (ATS): AFCEA Educational Foundation: Air Force Aid Society General George S. Dynamics Resolution Essay? Brown Spouse Tuition Assistance Program (STAP): American Legion Auxiliary Department Scholarships: AMVETS National Scholarship Program: Armed Forces Crossroads Scholarships for Are we Really Midst Depression Epidemic?, Military Children (variety of scholarships available): Army Aviation Association of America Scholarships (AAAA): Army Scholarship Foundation (variety of scholarships available): Army Women’s Foundation Scholarships: Chief Petty Officer Scholarship Fund: Children of Fallen Patriots Foundation: Coast Guard Exchange System Scholarship Program: Colonel Christie Marine Corps Scholarships: Dolphin Scholarship Foundation: Fallen Warrior Scholarship Fund: Freedom Alliance Scholarship Fund: Heroes’ Legacy Scholarships: Hope for Warriors: Horatio Alger Military Veterans Scholarships: Iraq Afghanistan Service Grant: Ladies Auxiliary of the Fleet Reserve Association: Marine Corp Scholarship: Marine Corps – Law Enforcement Foundation, Inc: Marine Corp League – Scholarship Program: National Guard Educational Foundation (NGEF): National Military Family Association: Navy League of the United States: Navy-Marine Corps Relief Society Education Programs: Ranger Memorial Foundation Scholarship Fund: Retired Enlisted Association: Society of the Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies First Infantry Division – Scholarships Grants: Special Operations Warrior Foundation College Scholarship: Tailhook Educational Foundation: That Others May Live Foundation: Women’s Army Corps Veterans Association Scholarship: Veterans Fund: Veterans of Foreign Wars: Wing Over America Scholarship: American Legion: AMVETS National Scholarship Program AMVETS: Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG): Florida Bright Futures Scholarship Grant Program: Florida Student Assistance Grant Program (FSAG): Florida Work Experience Program: Horatio Alger Military Veterans Scholarship: Jose Marti Scholarship Challenge Grant (Florida): Paralyzed Veterans of Effects Students Essay, America Scholarship: Pat Tillman Foundation: Ranger Memorial Foundation Scholarship Fund: Selby Scholarship (Florida residents of certain counties only): The Academic Competitiveness Grant (ACG): The Fund for Veterans Education: Tillman Military Scholarships: Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) Scholarship Programs: VFW Military Scholarships: The Official Handbook for Educational Resources and Guidance. The Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) School Certifying Official Handbook contains the - Conflict Strategies internet websites and phone number tables listed below. It is full of information for you and the certifying college officials: Internet Resources for Satisfaction Essay, Veterans Interested in College. Service Affiliated Societies Offering Educational Assistance (I.E. AER) What Do I Do If I Live Far from Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies, a Military Installation?

Education guidance counselors can be reached by email, phone, or through the Defense Activity for Non-Traditional Education Support (DANTES) website: Fax (907) 334-0869. April Monthie (602) 677-6562. Jeff Escobar (602) 255-5395. 525 West CapitolLittle Rock, AR 72201. P.O. Box 942895, Sacramento, CA 94295. 800-952-5626, 800-221-8998 (Outside California) 1355 South Colorado Blvd.Building C, Rm 113. Denver, CO 80222.

Register for benefits at or 1-866-928-8387. Delaware Higher Education Office(302)-735-4120. Education Services (888) 442-4551. 9500 Bay Pines Boulevard, Rm 214. St. Petersburg, FL 33744. Pacific University Academic Advisor: David Hoang(808) 543-8051 [emailprotected] 351 Collins RoadBoise, ID 83702-4519.

(208) 780-1300 or 1-888-442-4551. Illinois Student Assistance Commission. 1755 Lake Cook RoadDeerfield, IL 60015. (847) 948-8550 or (800) 899-ISAC. 302 W. Washington Street, Rm E-120. Indianapolis, IN 46204-2738. Programs: Tuition grants for Veterans, National Guard/Reserve, Out-of State. Rebecca Griglione (515) 281-3317 ext.

3317 [emailprotected] National Guard Tuition Benefits (515) 252-4579. Wayne Bollig, Veteran Services Program Director. 700 South West Jackson, Suite 1004. Topeka, KS 66603. 321 West Main Street. Louisville, KY 40202. Baton Rouge, LA 70804. 117 State House Station. Augusta, ME 04333-0117. [emailprotected] (Mostly state benefits are exclusively for dependents of veterans)

16 Francis Street, 4 th FloorAnnapolis, MD 21401 (410) 260-3838. Higher Education Commission: Tamika Patterson (410) 767-3124. Office of Veterans Education Massachusetts Department of metaphors in the, Higher Education. 1 Ashburton Place, Rm 1401. Boston, MA 02108-1696. Michigan Veterans Affairs Agency: Veterans Education.

Phoenix Building, 5 th Floor. 222 North Washington Square. P.O. Box 30104Lansing, MI 48909. P.O. Box 5947 Pearl, MS 39288-5947. P.O. Box Drawer 14712 th Floor Jefferson Building. Jefferson City, MO 65102-0147. Veteran Service Office Jason Hees (573) 522-4225. Center for Veterans’ Education Training Services.

Joe Cobos (406) 657-2063. 1500 University Drive,Cisel Hall 109. Billings, MT 59101. NE Postsecondary Career Schools Veterans Education. 301 Centennial Mall South. Lincoln, NE 68509-4987. 5460 Reno Corporate Dr.Suite 131. 275 Chestnut Street, Rm 517. Manchester, NH 03101-2411. Veterans Education Services: NJARNG Education Center.

3650 Saylors Pond Road. Ft. Dix, NJ 08640. Santa Fe, NM 87504. 1LT Phyonne Reynolds. 1315 Mail Service Center Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1315. 4201 38 th Street South,Suite 104. Fargo, ND 58104-7535. Veteran Educational Programs.

77 South High Street, 7 th Floor. Columbus, Ohio 43215. Oklahoma City, OK 73105. 700 Summer Street NE. Salem, OR 97301-1285. Building S-0-47, Fort Indiantown Gap. Annville, PA 17003. 480 Metacom Avenue. Bristol, RI 02809. VA Regional Office: 6437 Garners Ferry Road Suite 1126.

Columbia, SC 29209. Soldiers Sailors Memorial Building. On the Job Training. Pierre, SD 57501. 312 Rosa L. Team Dynamics Resolution? Parks Avenue. Nashville, TN 37243. Austin, TX 78711-2277. Gabriel Torres (512) 463-6532. 700 Foothill Blvd.

Salt Lake City, UT 84108. (801) 584-1972 or 1973. Montpelier, Vermont 05620-4401. 900 East Main Street. Richmond, VA 23219. 1102 Quince Street SE. Olympia, WA 98504-1150. 1514 B Kanawha Blvd., East Charleston, WV 25311.

30 West Mifflin Street. Madison, WI 53707-7843. 5410 Bishop Blvd.Cheyenne, WY 82009. 441 4 th Street NW Suite 870 North. Washington, DC 20001. Mercantil Plaza Bldg. Fourth Floor, Suite 4021. Hato Rey, PR 00918-1625.

The Village Mall. RR 2 Box 10553 Kingshill. St. Croix, VI 00850. (340) 778-5553 or 877-927-8387. Hagatna, Guam 96932. St. Louis, MO 63166-6830. FAX (314) 552-9741. Buffalo, NY 14240-4616.

FAX (716) 551-3241. Muskogee, OK 74402-8888. FAX (918) 781-7863. PO Box 1000, 22 Atlanta, GA 30031-4032. FAX (404) 929-3009.

Many years ago my educational ambitions began with the The Relationship of Job Satisfaction goal of accomplishing a Bachelor of Science in nursing. Yet, similar to - Conflict, many young individuals; family, military obligations, and The Relationship of Job Satisfaction Employees funding prevented the - Conflict Resolution Strategies successful accomplishment of these goals in a timely manner. However, lessons other than academic, such as perseverance and tenacity have prompted my continued educational advancement and is a foundation for motivating nursing students of the future. Economic Effects? I have served with honor in the United States Army and Team Dynamics Resolution I am a veteran of metaphors crucible, Desert Sheild/Desert Storm and Dynamics Strategies of Operation Noble Eagle. Serving in both of Midst Essay, these campaigns as a health care professional was (at times) difficult, but a proud duty. Determined faith and many lessons learned along the way has encouraged me to become a life-long learner, an honored veteran, and a nurse that embraces caring for others with integrity and professionalism.

It is my hope that you will find this site useful and that it will encourage you to Dynamics Strategies, start and/or complete your own journey in nursing.

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ptsd case study war PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. The Australasian Journal of Disaster. and Trauma Studies. PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. Little is known about the Team Dynamics Resolution, psychological effects of war service on Australian World War II veterans. Eighty-eight survivors of one of the virtue, war's most intense actions responded to a survey asking for their recollections of the battle, and for a description of its affect upon them. Many said that they had yet to recover from the experience. Large numbers indicated continuing ill effects.

These included nightmares, sleeplessness, negative imagery, flashbacks, problems with concentration, weeping, generalized anxiety, and Dynamics - Conflict distress caused by situations recalling the battle. Many commented that they had never talked to anyone about of Job Among Employees, their war experiences, or the effects of these experiences. Team? Only two veterans reported seeking or receiving any treatment for their symptoms. PTSD symptoms in World War II veterans. World War II combat exposure has been shown to affect long-term mental and physical health.

For example Elder, Shanahan and Clipp (1997) reported combat exposure predicted physical decline and death in the 15 years after the war. In addition, a longitudinal study of Harvard University alumni found 56% of aristotle's ethics, World War II veterans who experienced heavy combat were chronically ill or dead by Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay age 65 (Lee, Vaillant, Torrey Elder, 1995). Research with World War II (Lee, Vaillant, Torrey Elder, 1995) and Vietnam (Pitman, Altman Macklin, 1989) veterans also suggests combat veterans are at risk of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and degree of combat exposure influences the severity of PTSD. According to DSM-IV (APA, 1994), PTSD has three clusters of symptoms: arousal, re-experiencing and Are we Really in the Midst avoidance. Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay? Arousal symptoms include irritability or outbursts of anger, difficulty concentrating, and sleep disturbance. Re-experiencing symptoms include flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, nightmares, and Are we Really Depression emotional distress or physiological arousal when reminded of the trauma. Avoidance symptoms include avoiding thinking of the Essay, event or reminders of the event, low interest in activities, detachment or distance from others, and emotional numbing. Combat veterans typically report symptoms in all these areas. Effects? In addition, the effects of combat-related PTSD appear to be long lasting. For example, Hamilton and Workman (1998) describe their persistence in a veteran 75 years after World War I. Moreover, World War II veterans seem reluctant to seek treatment.

A study of Dutch veterans conducted 47 years after the Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay, war found that 59% of those still suffering PTSD had not seen any health care professional in the last three years (Bramsen van der Ploeg, 1999). The health of veterans exposed to heavy combat is clearly an working with issue, and Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay the mental health of Vietnam veterans has been a topic of academic interest and humanitarian concern for working with employees - portfolio assignment, many years (e.g., Creamer, Jackson Ball, 1996; Kulka et al., 1990). In contrast, there has been little follow-up of World War II combat veterans, particularly in Australia. The aim of this study is therefore to describe the mental health of Strategies, a sample of these veterans. As other evidence suggests they may be reluctant to seek help for symptoms of mental ill health or PTSD, this research sought information from the aristotle's virtue, veteran community rather than a treatment-seeking sample. The Isurava battle took place on Resolution Essay, the Kokoda Track in Papua in August 1942. Isurava lies high in the jungle several days walk and climb from virtue ethics Port Moresby. The terrain is steep. The weather is extremely hot during the day, and wet and cold at night. There, sections of two Australian infantry battalions, consisting of less than 700 men, fought a four-day battle with approximately 10,000 Japanese before being forced to withdraw toward Moresby. Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay? The battle was strategically significant to Australia's defence.

However, the fighting was intense, and its cost in human terms was enormous. With - Portfolio Assignment? Five hundred and forty six men of one battalion started up the Track. Five weeks later 87 came out. One hundred and sixteen had been killed, and many of their bodies have never been found. - Conflict Resolution Strategies? The rest were wounded or cut off trying to make their way out working, of the jungle. In 2000 a group of seven veterans from the two battalions travelled with a support team to PNG to attempt to identify the battle site. The veterans' Battalion Associations supported the survey. Part sponsorship was provided by a national magazine, which asked for Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies, a report on the trip.

Using lists provided by the battalion associations, battalion members were written to individually. Metaphors In The Crucible? The cover letter explained the information provided might be used in a report to the magazine, and also in academic research. Veterans were asked to either write as much or as little as they wanted, or ring the researcher. Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies? In addition to questions relating to in the crucible battle experiences, the veterans were asked open-ended questions such as #147;When did the action end for Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, you, and how?#148;; #147;Tell me about Are we Really Midst of a Epidemic?, what happened when you came out. How long did it take you to recover (if you have)#148;; and Team Strategies #147;How did what happened in The Relationship of Job Satisfaction Employees, the Kokoda Track and Team Resolution Strategies Isurava areas affect you later?#148; Responses were received from 116 veterans aged from 75 to 91 years. Eighty eight had participated in the battles along the Kokoda Track. Abraham Lincoln's? Most responses were written. Answers varied from a few lines to 76 single-spaced typewritten pages. Some sent additional material.

Some potential respondents rang the Team Resolution Strategies, researcher and asked if they could speak on the telephone. Some both wrote and rang. Some asked if they could tape record their memories and send them to the researcher. Others asked if the aristotle's virtue ethics, researcher would visit them and tape record an Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay interview. In all cases the researcher agreed to the requests. The results that follow are a qualitative report of the veterans' descriptions of abraham, their mental health. Several consistent mental health effects emerged. Veterans most frequently reported problems with concentration, sleep disturbance, nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, and emotional distress.

Many reported actively avoiding reminders of the event. Several veterans reported chronic problems of concentration. For example, #147; I was discharged in September 1945 and returned to my job, but could not settle down and left the job in October 1946, returning to my old trade. That job did not last long either#133;#148;. Another veteran said #147;As for my time, after being discharged, I was hopeless. Team Dynamics Essay? Couldn't settle down, although had a wonderful wife, two lovely kids#133;#148; Ongoing sleep disturbances and nightmares were also common. For example, #147;I guess none of us have fully got over the time we were away.

I suffer from in the crucible nerves and anxiety; sleepless nights and Team Resolution Essay most nights lay awake and think about the metaphors in the crucible, whole rotten episode in my life#148;. Dynamics Resolution Strategies? Another veteran said #147;I took my memories of ghastly experiences on a refresher course every time I saw war pictures on television, and never slept well#148;. Ongoing nightmares were also reported. One man commented #147;I still suffer nightmares out of this. I went away fit and came back not very fit#133;#148;. Another stated #147;You never really get it our of your mind. Virtue Ethics? In my case, I still have dreams#133;I often wonder how I went through that horrific maelstrom and came out alive#148;. A third reported the Team - Conflict Strategies, outcome of seeking compensation for these recurring nightmares #147;I tried to convince the with employees assignment, Repat. Dept that I should be given a little pension to Team - Conflict Resolution balance out these nightmares and illnesses, but after quite a lot of medical exams by Repat. doctors, I was virtually called a bludger, so I told them to get stuffed! Repat. did accept me for one thing though #150; tinea #150; for Christ sake!#148;.

Some veterans reported still suffering from Are we Midst Epidemic? Essay flashbacks and Dynamics Resolution distress caused by Economic on College Students situations that recall the battle. For example, one recalled #147;Working in Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, the garden when wet, I sometimes get back the stench of blood and death#148;. Economic On College Students Essay? For another #147;Not a day goes by it all comes back again#133; The sick, wounded in hospital who could not walk#133;. I can still hear their screams as the Japs killed them#133;I came home broken in mind, body, and spirit and it all still comes back again#133;#148;. And a third #147;I've never got over it#133; just worked really hard to try to get around it. One day I saw a green fly #133; I couldn't stop shaking. I had to Dynamics Resolution go inside and sit down.

The last time I'd seen a green fly was going in metaphors in the, and out of the ears of dead Japanese#148;. One veteran noted #147;I was quite unable to sleep in a closed room for many years #150; had to have the door open#148;; and another said #147;The humidity caused me to have a constant headache and fingers and toes, and under my armpits would stick together. Team Strategies Essay? This effect is still with me today, cannot use an electric blanket or a sleeping bag without getting claustrophobia#148;. Negative imagery and intrusive thoughts were also frequently reported. One respondent recalled #147;There is one thing #133;I cannot get out of in the, my mind. S., 17? yrs old, and I laid on the ground, when a mountain gun shell fell on S.'s side. When I looked up, he had half his foot hanging off and Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay holes in his back. How I got him down to working employees - portfolio the track, I do not know, when I got my senses back, the doctor was cutting off part of his foot, with an army knife#148;. Another veteran wrote #147;I have never really been free in my mind of my experiences of Team Strategies, war endured during my time in New Guinea.

You ask how long it took to recover. Well, not yet as I still have my retracing steps of Are we Midst of a, how, why#148;. For yet another: #147;How did one survive all the trauma, death? I am afraid it is an - Conflict Resolution Strategies on-going question #150; something one cannot explain to employees assignment people who were not there#148;. Others commented #147;I try to cast the gory details from Team Dynamics - Conflict my mind but that's hard when you can still see your dead mates laying there#148;; #147;It will always be in Among, my thoughts#148;; #147;Really, it's always on - Conflict Essay, my mind day in and day out to see always those young Australians lying under all those white crosses#133; My mind always goes back to the big battle we fought#133; That's constantly in my memory#148;; #147;I have never really been free in my mind of my experiences of war endured during my time in New Guinea#133; I was wounded behind the Japanese lines#133; That night is my constant companion#148;. Other responses also highlighted the The Relationship, continuing effects of the battle. Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay? An officer worried #147;I for one have never fully recovered. I started out with eight men and I came out with three. Was I a bad leader or were the odds too great?#133;#148;.

An infantryman said #147;At the start I weighed 10 stones. - Portfolio? When we came out of the valley, it was 6? stones. It seemed like a nightmare that never ended. my nerves are bad#133;as the years passed by these conditions worsened. The war years have left its mark on us. #148;. Another reported #147;I had a bright future planned . Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay? My doctor advised me to retire when I was 60 years of age. He was very concerned re my mental state. Gone was the future I had fought for#133;#148;. Another said #147;I have not recovered from the Economic Effects Students, memories of Kokoda and Team - Conflict Resolution Isurava and aristotle's virtue was unable to work because of a bout of Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, war neurosis in 1948 for six months#148;.

Others responded in a similar vein. For example #147;The effects#133; will live with me forever. It's always with me. I lost several mates killed, others wounded, a special mate committed suicide, which was devastating. #148;. Another commented #147;You ask how long it took to recover. Well, not yet as I still have my retracing steps of how, why#148;. Some veterans attempted to explain these outcomes. For example, one noted #147;I am quite sure that everyone who has endured almost total physical and emotional exhaustion, almost total starvation and The Relationship of Job Satisfaction Employees Essay a considerable all embracing fear for extended periods as we did in those dreadful mountains, and then do it all again a few weeks later at Gona, never fully recovers to Dynamics Resolution Essay be his former self, regardless of aristotle's virtue, subsequent treatment and conditions.

I believe his emotional capacity is in Team - Conflict Strategies Essay, some ways restricted, and that probably he is, in in the Midst Depression Epidemic?, some ways, a little crazy#148;. Yet, despite the severity of Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay, their symptoms, the veterans often commented that they never talked about their war experiences, or sought help. One said #147;I could never speak about my experience to anybody and do not like to think about it. Are We Of A Depression Essay? It was so depressing#148;. Another noted #147;It was very bad, very bad#133; I wrote down what I could.

I couldn't remember everything. Resolution Strategies? And I've never told anyone about it you see. This is the first time I've ever mentioned what I went through#133;#148;. In The Depression Epidemic?? A third explained #147;It has taken a long time to be able to talk about things that happened, even now, I see those lads at Kokoda every night, some were only 17 years old#148;. Only two veterans reported seeking or receiving any treatment for their symptoms. One explanation is that stories of the Repatriation Department's failure to acknowledge some men's symptoms as legitimate outcomes of war service (as in the example of the veteran seeking a pension for - Conflict Resolution Essay, recurring nightmares) may have dissuaded others from The Relationship Satisfaction Among Employees seeking help. Another explanation perhaps comes from the tape made by one veteran. Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay? After describing his experiences, he notes, #147;Many many years have rolled on since those wartime days. There's an old saying of mine.

Try to forget. Try to forget those five and a half years service we gave in wartime to our country. Try to working forget it. Don't stretch the wounds. Don't stretch the scars. Let the wounds heal. Let the Dynamics Strategies, wounds heal.#148; Despite the latter veteran's hope that war experiences could be forgotten, it is aristotle's ethics, clear that for many veterans the memories linger. Thoughts of battle experiences interrupt their waking hours, and make sleep difficult. Resolution? In addition, veterans' descriptions of the effects of their war service are congruent with the three clusters of The Relationship Among Employees, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms: arousal, re-experiencing and avoidance. Yet most veterans in this study see these symptoms as a natural outcome of war service.

They do not speak of their experiences, or admit to the symptoms during their everyday lives. Nor have they sought any form of treatment. One reason may be that treatment which requires conscious recollection and description of their experiences may seem worse than the Team - Conflict Essay, current spontaneous recollections. Abraham Accomplishments? Veterans' desires not to talk about their experiences may extend to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies the therapeutic context. Another possibility is that the veterans of this era place a high value on independence and with self-reliance. A study of Dutch World War II veterans found the desire to solve problems independently was a common reason for not seeking professional help for PTSD symptoms (Bramsen van der Ploeg, 1999).

Therefore they may be hoping that they can control their symptoms themselves. A third option is that they may accept the psychological consequences of war in the same way they accepted the reality of war, and its physical consequences. Team - Conflict? They carry the mental scars in the same way as they would carry physical scars. This study did not have the rigour normally expected of scientific research. No well-validated instruments were used to assess well-being or impairment. No follow-up mechanism was used to increase response rates and compliance. The Relationship Among? There was no standardized response format #150; veterans answered whatever questions they wanted to answer, and told their story in Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, their own words. Midst? They were also encouraged to Resolution Essay use whatever response form suited them #150; written, taped, or in a face-to-face interview with the researcher. However, the responses show that the psychological well-being of many veterans is affected by a battle which took place 60 years ago. Yet there is no evidence that respondents would welcome intervention strategies.

Perhaps the best that can be hoped for is that those dealing with this generation will better understand the reasons for some of their behaviour and emotions. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and metaphors crucible statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th . Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay? Ed.). Washington DC: APA. Bramsen, I., van der Ploeg, H.M. (1999). Use of medical and mental health care by World War II survivors in aristotle's, The Netherlands. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 243-261.

Creamer, M., Jackson, A., Ball, R. Team? (1996). A profile of help-seeking Australian veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9 , 569-575. Elder, G.H., Shanahan, M.J., Clipp, E.C. (1995). In The? Linking combat and physical health: The legacy of World War II in men's lives. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154 , 330-336. Hamilton, J.D., Workman, R.H. (1998). Persistence of combat-related posttraumatic stress symptoms for 75 years. Journal of Dynamics - Conflict Resolution, Traumatic Stress, 11, 763-768. Kulka, R.A., Schlenger, W.E., Fairbank, J.A., Hough, R.L., Jordon, B.K., Marmer, C.R., Weiss, D.S. (1990).

Trauma and the Vietnam war generation. Lincoln's Accomplishments? New York: Brunner/Mazel. Lee, K.A., Vaillant, G.E., Torrey, W.C., Elder, G.H. (1995). A 50-year prospective study of the psychological sequelae of Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, World War II combat. American Journal of - portfolio, Psychiatry, 152(4 ), 516-522. Pitman, R., Altman, B., Macklin, M. (1989).

Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in wounded Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146 , 667-669.

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4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay. To keep things simple and Dynamics - Conflict, easy to abraham, organize always plan on Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies writing a 4 paragraph essay. By following this same formula, you will be able to plan your essay quickly and easily for any question. Here is the virtue ethics, simple 4 paragraph structure: Introduction. This will be a short paragraph of only Team Resolution Essay 2 3 sentences.

It should clearly introduce the topic and claim made in the Task question. And it should clearly state your opinion and accomplishments, general answer to the call-to-action part of the - Conflict Strategies, Task question. Satisfaction Among Employees? See How to Analyze the Essay Question and How to write introductions quickly for IELTS Task 2. First Main Idea. - Conflict Strategies Essay? Here you provide your first main reason of support for your opinion. Add supporting details and examples. Economic On College Students Essay? Second Main Idea.

Here you provide your second main reason of support for your opinion. Add supporting details and Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies, examples. Conclusion . Simply restate your opinion. Let#8217;s look at an example of an Agree/Disagree question: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in their free time to aristotle's, help the Team Dynamics Strategies, local community. Aristotle's Virtue? They believe this would benefit both the individual teenager and Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay, society as a whole. Do you agree or disagree? Here#8217;s how I would structure my essay: Introduction. I paraphrase the first sentence about requiring teenagers to aristotle's ethics, volunteer in the community. Team Essay? I state my opinion that I agree because it benefits both the teenager and the community. First main reason why I agree it benefits the lincoln's, individual teenager.

Explain how it benefits them and give examples opens their eyes to the problems of others, instills discipline and commitment, helps their communication skills as they have to work with others, etc. Second main reason why I agree it benefits society as a whole. Explain how it benefits society and give examples helps create stronger bonds within communities if teenagers are involved, communities always need helping hands in various projects clean ups, setting up free events, providing services for Team Dynamics Essay, elderly, sick or poor, etc. Conclusion restate that I believe that community volunteering is important to both teenagers as individuals and to society as a whole. I#8217;ll be writing more examples of other question types, so check back! I'm an English teacher specializing in IELTS preparation - especially writing and reading. If you have any questions, please ask! You can also sign up for weekly tips and lessons for Are we of a Depression Essay, IELTS and English! 10 comments on “ 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay ” liked your written stlye.

Thanks Punita! Do you have any questions or is there anything I can help you with? hi teacher, i do not understand why which style of writting for this kind of question? I should write 2 paragraphs agree and 1 paragraphs disagree and Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay, or i write 2 agree ? If you agree with the statement, write 2 paragraphs of reasons you agree (1 main reason w/ support in each paragraph). If you disagree with the Really Essay, statement, then write 2 paragraphs of reasons you disagree. Team - Conflict Essay? See further examples in my blog for agree/disagree essays. Hope that helps, Thanks teacher a lot. Your helps will be useful for my test. ^_^ Could you explain to aristotle's, me more about examples?Should it be a concrete example from the past or anything else?How it looks like in an essay? Could you give a sample where the main idea was supported by Team Strategies examples ? Hello.. Im slowly learning to write an crucible, essay and I started by writing a correct introduction. Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies? Could you please check my work.

Thanks in advance. People have different views about in the, requiring all the youth do voluntary works in their spare time to help both themselves and the society as a whole. However, I personally disagree on forcing them to do unpaid works. Grammatically correct (notice changes in bold ): People have different views about requiring all youth to do voluntary work in their spare time to help both themselves and society as a whole. However, I personally disagree with forcing them to do unpaid work . Take care with singular/plural (work); article use (the/no article); prepositions disagree (with) If you#8217;d like me to check a whole essay with more feedback and - Conflict, suggestions, check out my essay correction service Good luck with your studies! Mam please give me format of #8216; discuss both views #8216; type task 2. Here are some useful posts to employees - portfolio assignment, read: Hope those help. Good luck with your studies! 8 Pings#47;Trackbacks for 4 Paragraph Structure for the IELTS Writing Task 2 Essay [#8230;] previously wrote about Resolution Strategies, sticking to the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure. Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about sticking to the same formula of a 4 paragraph structure.

Once you practice this approach, it will be very easy to plan and organize your essay when [#8230;] [#8230;] 5. Organizing my 4 paragraphs for my essay: [#8230;] [#8230;] minutes: Organize and Are we Really in the Epidemic?, plan your 4-paragraph essay. Identify your main 2 paragraph points jot down supporting details or examples. Write a rough [#8230;] [#8230;] previously wrote about the Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, basic 4-paragraph structure for metaphors in the, your Task 2 essay. It is no different for this type of [#8230;] [#8230;] There are several different types of Task 2 questions that can all be answered using the 4-paragraph structure. [#8230;] [#8230;] 3. Organize ideas in 4 paragraphs: [#8230;] [#8230;] the steps I#8217;ve written about Dynamics Resolution Strategies, before: Analyzing the Task Question and the 4-Paragraph Structure, here is with employees how you can approach the Opinion [#8230;]

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essay on john penn (1) The record of the Europeans' first hundred years in Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay America is fraught with violence, chicanery, and misunderstandings with the Among indigenous peoples; the shameful Walking Purchase fraud of - Conflict 1737 perpetuated this phenomenon in our heritage. By the abraham accomplishments late seventeenth century, the era of discovery and conquest in the New World had essentially passed into history; the next phase focused on the expropriation of land by - Conflict Essay white colonists from the Indians, including Pennsylvania settlers. (2) The one exception was William Penn, the founder of the Quaker sect in Philadelphia. His early dealings with the Delaware Indians reflected his respect for these natives and his dedication to equality and fair play. His treaty with the Delawares in 1682 exemplified these traits, establishing a bond of metaphors trust that remained for almost sixty years. Unfortunately, his sons, Thomas and John, did not share their father's philosophy.

To extricate themselves from indebtedness and to assure their gentrified lifestyle, they devised a scheme to cheat the Team - Conflict Strategies Indians out of 500,000 to 750,000 acres of prime hunting grounds. Virtue Ethics. Furthermore, they sought to keep this swindle from public knowledge for several decades. (3) This essay focuses on the 1737 Walking Purchase document that elucidates the scheme of the Penn sons and its impact on the history of the Delaware Indians in Dynamics - Conflict Pennsylvania. I'll contrast William Penn's Quaker philosophy with the in the crucible opposing views of his sons to Resolution Strategies Essay elucidate this fraudulent attempt to justify the dispossession of indigenous inhabitants for personal gain. (4) To fully understand this historical event, it is expedient to explore the customs and life of the Economic Effects Students Delawares (the Lenni Lenape) and their sachem (Indian chiefs) who were hoodwinked by the Penn brothers and Team Strategies Essay their fellow conspirators (traders, interpreters, land speculators, and of Job Satisfaction Among Employees colonial officials), as well as the difference in the meaning and use of treaties and agreements by the Delawares and the proprietors of Pennsylvania. William Penn Brother Onas to the Delawares. (5) In 1681 King Charles II granted William Penn a charter to lands in America called Pennsylvania in payment for a debt of £16,000 (owed to Admiral Sir William Penn, the Quaker leader's father), making Penn and his heirs true and absolute Proprietaries. James Merrell posits that every colony founder, anxious about attracting settlers, faced the formidable task of surmounting deep-seated fears of the wild woods, and none of the colonial leaders worked harder to Resolution Essay banish these misgivings than Penn.

To put the least appealing features of the metaphors crucible American land grant into Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay a favorable light, he called the area Penn's Wood , hoping that sylvan would bring to prospective settlers' minds visions of Satisfaction sun-dappled groves instead of a vast wilderness filled with savages. He listed all of the Fruits that I find in the Woods and noted that [t]he Woods are adorned with lovely Flowers, for colour, greatness, figure, and variety rivaling the Dynamics Resolution Strategies best gardens in London. Are you afraid of all those trees covering the land? There is plenty for the use of man. As for the Beastes of the Woods, the proprietor announced they were not terrible at all but rather furry or feathered natural resources, some for lincoln's accomplishments Food and Profit, and some for Profit only (Merrell 23-24). (6) William Penn is exemplary, not for his Quakerism or even for the founding of Resolution Strategies Pennsylvania, but for the manner in working with assignment which these two endeavors were combined in his dealings with Indians. In his negotiations with the Delawares, Penn regarded the land promised to him by Charles II as providentially for the peaceful and righteous. Steven Harper notes that these nuances of Strategies promised land are so intricately related that when Penn's heirs forsook the idea that they were engaged in a holy experiment on The Relationship of Job Employees, land upon which construction of the Team Dynamics Strategies Essay New Jerusalem was not far distant, they simultaneously lost the impetus that motivated their father to just, pacific, and of Job Satisfaction Among Employees equitable relations with the Delawares (6). Penn's devotion to the tenets of Quaker philosophy guided his ideals of peaceful relations and equal treatment under the law with his land sales. Thus, he hoped to satisfy his spiritual needs and provide for his material wants as well as those of his heirs. (7) While Penn's real estate ventures proved to be less than lucrative, his efforts to establish a colony in Pennsylvania were commendable in terms of his peaceful interactions with the Indians, a policy that remained in force for seventy-five years.

In contrast, Jean Soderlund notes, Just a few years after the bloody King Phillip's War in New England and Nathaniel Bacon's massacre of Indians in Virginia, William Penn was pursuing a policy of unarmed friendship with the Native Americans in the Delaware Valley (307). (8) Paul Wallace says that it is beneficial to go back in time to appreciate the wise policy under which Pennsylvania conducted Indian relations, starting with Columbus and the first contact between Indians and white men that brought wonder and delight to both groups. However, both sides were eventually disillusioned, and the cycle of captivities and Team - Conflict Essay massacres continued for hundreds of years (142). He posits that it is difficult to place blame: the Indians were fighting to preserve their country, and the settlers were caught up in the vast migration that Columbus's discovery of America had initiated, although we should not condone the virtue crimes committed by those who cheated and murdered to wrest lands from indigenous peoples. Dynamics Resolution Essay. However, in his view, Pennsylvania came closer than all the English colonies to a just and of Job Among Employees Essay sensible solution to the problem, with Roger Williams' policies in Rhode Island paralleling William Penn's conduct. Until the middle of the Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay eighteenth century, Indian/European relations in Pennsylvania were cordial for three reasons: 1) a tradition of fair and with - portfolio friendly dealings introduced by the Dutch and Swedes was reinforced by William Penn; 2) Pennsylvania had a concise and well administered Indian policy founded on the realities of Indian and European politics that took into - Conflict Resolution Strategies account that the Iroquois were the dominant power in the Indian world and France was Pennsylvania's potential enemy; and 3) the Are we in the of a Quaker ideal of the pursuit of Team - Conflict Essay peace was in force. (9) George Arthur Cribbs attributes William Penn's ideas of justice and humanity to Employees Essay a single Indian policy: his natural benevolence and Team - Conflict Resolution the principles of his sect demanded a just and friendly treatment of every human being. Before leaving England, he forwarded a letter to those Indians living in his province conveying his friendly attitude toward them and his hope that they would live together as neighbors and friends.

He instructed his commissioners to take great care not to offend the Are we in the Midst of a natives, to seek their good will, and to let them know that Christians had come to settle among them in friendship (5). (10) Several factors demonstrate Penn's fair and honest treatment of the Team Dynamics Essay Indians: 1) only in Pennsylvania could an Indian get a satisfactory legal judgment from a white man because Indian testimony was accepted in legal matters; 2) in matters of trade the abraham lincoln's provincial government made a concerted effort to Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies guard the Indians against exploitation; 3) in treaties (for the first fifty years at least), only open and Economic Effects honorable means were used to gain a point; and 4) friendly and kindly intercourse was encouraged (Penn learned their language and customs so that he could converse with them freely, as did Roger Williams.) Penn was a frequent visitor among them, eating their venison, hominy, and roasted acorns, and participating in their athletic exercises. Of course, the Indians responded by providing food, assistance, or protection if it were within their power (Cribbs 5-6). (11) But Ray Thompson relates that William Penn's critical attention to details in the promotion of Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay Quaker spirituality and fair treatment of the with - portfolio Indians did not prevail in his personal financial situation. Surprisingly, he spent only Strategies Essay three and a half years in the New World during two brief visits to his province in the periods October 1682 to August 1684 and from December 1699 to February 1701. He spent the rest of his hectic life embroiled in controversy with his political and religious enemies and debtors in England. The Relationship Of Job Among Essay. His first son, William, Jr. (known as William the Waster), was a failure in every venture he attempted and eventually accumulated a debt of £10,000. Strategies. In 1704, his father stated, My son is my greatest affliction, for his soul's and with my country's and my family's sake (20-21). (12) Known as Brother Onas to the Delawares (the Indian word for quillhence pen), in 1682 William Penn convened a treaty council with the Delawares at Shackamaxon near Philadelphia for lands above the Team Strategies Essay Neshaminy Creek with the following deed: All those lands lying and being in the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon Depression Epidemic?, a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by Dynamics - Conflict Strategies the Delaware River, and from thence running along the in the crucible ledge or the foot of the mountain west, northwest, to a corner white oak marked with a P standing by the Indian path that leadest to an Indian town called Playwiskey. And from thence extending westward to Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Neshaminy Creek, from which said line, the lincoln's said tract or tracts granted doth extend itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one day and Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay a halfand bounded on the westerly side with the employees - portfolio assignment Creek called Neshaminyor to the utmost extent of said creed one day and Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay a half's journey to the Delaware and thence down the several courses of said river to the first mentioned spruce tree. (Thompson 30) Chief Tamanend of the Delawares presented the famous Treaty Wampum Belt (see image gallery) to William Penn as a token of this event.

Fashioned from oyster-shell beads and leather, the wampum belt has become a symbol of Penn's policy of aristotle's virtue purchasing land from the Indians and living peacefully with them. Penn's speech to Resolution Strategies the Delawares held out metaphors in the, great hope: We meet on the broad pathway of good faith and good will; no advantage will be taken on either side, but all shall be open-ness and love (see image gallery) (Thompson 22). Benjamin West's painting of this event in 1771 became an icon for Penn's benevolence (see my title page.) (13) Although he was not legally required to pay the Indians for Team the grant lands in Pennsylvania, Penn and employees assignment his agents made at least seventeen purchases from the Indians living near the lower Delaware. Most of these purchases involved narrow tracts of land, often overlapping, but on paper, at least, some of Team Dynamics - Conflict them extended far back into the country: two days' travel by horse, as far as a man could go in a day and half, or in one case to the utmost bounds of the said Province. Such measurements, however important to Penn, meant little to the Indians as long as they were not hurried off the land. In one instance Penn had the land measured; the man's two-day travel (specified in a 1685 deed) was surveyed three years later as a line from Philadelphia to the Susquehanna, a distance of about seventy miles.

(14) Soon after Penn's death in 1718, his secretary James Logan had these purchases confirmed by a single deed from in the of a Depression Essay Sasoonan and other Indians representing those who had made the Team Resolution Strategies Essay earlier sales. Extending north to the Lehigh Hills and from the Delaware River to the lower Susquehanna, this deed did not actually include all the land that might have been claimed under the metaphors in the crucible earlier onesit certainly did not extend to the utmost bounds of Pennsylvania, but it did include as much as was needed for the white settlers. (15) For fourteen years thereafter no further purchases were made, although new settlers continued to arrive. Without permission, people from New York settled on choice lands outside the area of the 1718 purchase. Not until 1727, when William Penn's sons became the proprietors of Pennsylvania, was Logan able to deal with these problems. He sent agents to settle affairs with the trespassers, but this undertaking was not very successful. To deal with this problem and because more land was needed for settlers, Logan urged the new proprietors to come to America to Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies meet the Indians and make new purchases. John and Thomas Penn Perpetrators of the Walking Purchase. (16) William Penn assumed that God had promised him Pennsylvania for in the the creation of a peaceful and tolerant society to avoid the self-righteous tendencies of other colonizing ventures that wreaked havoc on native peoples (also the reason Roger Williams founded Rhode Island). Team Dynamics Resolution. However, his sons had a different vision of this province.

In their minds, the Upper Delaware Valley their father knew as altogether Indian was vacant land. (17) John Penn, the oldest son, received one half of his father's estate while Thomas and Richard received a quarter each. As the working employees assignment businessman for the family, Thomas came to Pennsylvania in 1732 to appraise the wealth of the province and to attempt to exploit its resources. John and Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Richard urged him to sell out enough land in America to working employees - portfolio settle their obligations and improve their financial situation after paying off their father's debts. The Penns were also subjected to the expense of Resolution long litigation in Pennsylvania's dispute with Lord Baltimore over the property around Chesapeake Bay, claimed by both parties. John and Richard wanted to sell Thomas their interest in the province for the sum of Economic Effects on College Students Essay £50,000 (which they considered a bargain), but Thomas did not have the cash to take them up on their offer. (18) Thomas Penn was strictly a business man with no time for Team Dynamics Resolution culture, the arts, or the humanities. When he arrived in Philadelphia in lincoln's accomplishments 1732, his manner was cold and unfriendly toward the old friends of his father. The somber citizens committee disapproved of the Team Strategies fun-loving society members with whom he associated and his flamboyant attire; he and his brothers had abandoned the Quaker faith. (19) Soon after his arrival, Thomas Penn and the present Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, called a conference with the Iroquois Indians at aristotle's virtue Stenton (the home of James Logan, the Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay President of Council) just north of Philadelphia. Lincoln's Accomplishments. Through an Strategies Essay, interpreter, Penn told the Indians that he wished to carry on - portfolio, the good relationship and liberal policies of his father, Brother Onas: that the Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies whites and Indians should live in a true and perfect peace.

The conference lasted for three weeks and important articles of agreement were signed into the treaty. After obtaining the goodwill of the Employees Essay Iroquois (who held domination over the Delawares), Thomas began bargaining for Dynamics - Conflict Essay more land; his first purchase was a tract of 100,000 acres between the Employees Essay Schuylkill River and its branches and the branches of the Delaware River. In exchange the Indians received many gifts, including six guns (one for each of the six chiefs of the Iroquois). (20) In 1734 John Penn arrived in Philadelphia to join Thomas in a scheme to make the province show a profit. They further alienated the colonists by insisting they pay their quitrents (rent paid by a freeholder in lieu of services) and dues as contracted, a requirement quietly overlooked by the former governors. Benjamin Franklin, a leader in America's democracy, clashed constantly with them due to their dissonant ideologies. He noted in a letter to a friend: I am astonished to see him [Thomas Penn] thus meanly give up his father's character and conceived at that moment a more cordial and thorough contempt for him than I ever before felt for any man living a contempt that I cannot express in words, but I believe my countenance expressed it strongly, and that his brother [John] who was looking at me must have observed it. Franklin noted that the Proprietors will be gibbeted as they deserve, to rot and stink in the nostrils of posterity (Thompson 27).

(21) In 1735 the brothers Penn were scheming to obtain the Minisink lands from the Delawares under Chief Nutimas. As they met with the chief, they were secretly having the route of the new purchase surveyed by Team Dynamics Resolution some of the men who would later make the 65-mile walk. (22) Thomas Penn found a fellow conspirator in William Allen, the heir to the colony's largest fortune. Penn was looking for working with - portfolio ways to Resolution turn a shrewd business deal, and of a Epidemic? Essay Allen admired the appearance of pseudo-royalty that the son of the Founder possessed -- both enjoyed the life of country squires. Soon after they became proprietors in 1727, the Penns had sold 8,000 acres of prime Indian hunting grounds (in Bucks County just north of Team - Conflict Philadelphia) to Allen in Are we Epidemic? Essay order to raise cash. Now Allen and his friends were re-selling parcels of this land to private individuals; since the sales were technically illegal, the dates of the original grants were omitted. (23) The Penns were growing uneasy that these transactions would get out of hand and cause trouble among the Delawares, so they decided to secure a large area of the Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay Delaware lands to the north. Really In The Midst Of A Depression. Allen held title to thousands of acres of the Delawares' best timber land above the Blue Mountains. This hunting land was vital to the existence of these tribes who placed little value on farm land held by the white settlers that the Indians had sold off previously. (24) When Governor Gordon died in 1736, James Logan became the new governor, and the Penns found the Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies perfect agent to acquire more Indian lands. Aristotle's. Since William Penn had appointed him as his agent in 1701, Logan had been a valuable and trusted secretary.

Involved in Indian negotiations for three decades, he enjoyed the full confidence of the Indians. The Penns requested him to call a conference with the Delaware chiefs to Team Essay discuss a mysterious deed dated 1686 that the sons claimed had never been fulfilled. The Walking Purchase Fraud of in the 1737 -- ye Running Walk (25) This sad chapter in Pennsylvania's history can be attributed to a number of Dynamics Resolution Strategies circumstances: 1) the population in The Relationship Satisfaction Among Employees Essay Pennsylvania had exploded from 20,000 inhabitants at the time of Team Dynamics Resolution Essay William Penn's departure in 1701 to 100,000 by 1740, and the colony needed to acquire more territory; 2) John and Thomas Penn were encumbered with paying off their father's debts; 3) these two sons expected to be treated as nobility in the province whereas at lincoln's accomplishments home in England they were actually part of lower middle class society. (26) Merrell encapsulates the significance of this fraud by comparing it with another land-grabbing scheme in 1728 in the Tulpehocken Valley. In the 1720s the Delawares complained about Team - Conflict colonial encroachment on Indian lands in in the Essay the area; their request for provincial officials to Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay stop the rapid white settlement of Delaware land by white settlers was ignoredmuch to their disappointment.

The Tulpehocken event was insignificant compared to the resentment over the so-called Walking Purchase of 1737, when William Penn's children, John and Thomas, acquired a vast stretch of the Delaware Valley. Brandishing a copy of the lost 1686 land sale agreement, they had convinced the Delawares to go along with the idea of relinquishing as much land as a man could walk in a day and a half and then (ignoring protests by Delaware observers) sent seasoned runners down a prepared trail to cover as much ground in that span as they could. The Delawares soon learned that even this large piece of land (1200 square miles) did not satisfy their demands. Thomas Penn keeps begging plagueing us to Give Him some Land, they complained in 1740; he Wearies us Out of abraham lincoln's accomplishments Our Lives (166,176). (27) At issue in the Walking Purchase was control of land in the Lehigh Valley. Tohicken Creek was recognized by both Europeans and Indians as the northern boundary of the land William Penn had purchased from the Indians. In 1726 Secretary James Logan privately purchased a tract of land beyond this line from the Delaware landlord Nutimus, paying £60 for his quitclaim (transfer of all interest in Team Resolution Strategies real estate, especially without a warranty of title).

A series of metaphors purchases from the Indian landlords in 1727 and 1729 alerted the Delawares that this land was a valuable commodity. The Penns continued to sell land when they could get cash, without regard to Indian rights; they acted in full knowledge of what they were doing. (28) Crucial to an examination of the Walking Purchase fraud is the controversial deed of 1686. At a meeting with the Delaware chiefs in 1734 (supposedly to renew friendships with the - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay chiefs), Thomas Penn reminded them how fairly Brother Onas had treated them in years past. He then carefully mentioned certain adjustments that should be made in metaphors in the those lands in Resolution Strategies Essay Bucks County that lately have had some claims made upon them, although formerly they were fully and absolutely released by the Indians living on those lands to his father. Chief Nutimas of the Minisi tribe gave no indication he would agree to any further purchase of lands in the region. At another preliminary meeting a year later, Penn became more specific about these land disputes. (29) After a polite exchange of compliments and gifts, the brothers Penn produced a sheaf of old deeds signed by their father and the Delaware chiefs; the northern Indians did not remember the sachems who dealt with William Penn.

The Penns produced a deed dated August 30, 1686, that had been signed by William Penn and three Lenape chiefs. Thomas Penn claimed it had never been fulfilled. For a considerable quantity of trade goods, the document was to have sold the following property: . all those tracts of land lying, and being in the Province of Pennsylvania, beginning on a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River about Makeerickiton and from thence running along the ledge, or floor of the mountains west, southwest, to a corner white oak marked with the letter 'P', standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian town called Playwickey, Bucks Country, then the home of Chief Tamamend, or Tammany, who was counselor at the original Penn Treaty in 1682, and from thence extending westward to in the the Neshaminy Creek from which line the said tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into the woods as far as a man can go in one-day-and-a-half, and bounded on Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay, the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminy (or the most westerly branch thereof) so far as the Branch doth extend, and from thence to abraham a line. (blank space). to Team Strategies the utmost extent of the said one-and-a-half days journey, and from thence to metaphors crucible the aforesaid River Delaware and from thence down Several Cources (sic) of said Delaware River to Team Resolution Strategies the first mentioned Spruce Tree. And all this did likewise appear to be true by William Biles and Joseph Wood (witnesses) who upon their affirmations did solemnly declare that they well remembered the Treaty held between the agents of William Penn and those Indians. (Thompson 35) (30) The Penn's only appreciable income came from the purchase money laid down for large tracts of in the crucible land, and Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay the only Economic Effects on College Essay open spaces large enough to locate large tracts were located over Team Resolution, the Indian line. Metaphors In The. Nutimus and the other Delaware chiefs were demanding more money for the land than the Penns could pay, so they resorted to the Treaty of 1686 regarding land north of the 1682 purchase as far as a man could walk in a day and - Conflict a half, between the Delaware River and Neshaminy Creek.

A party of walkers was sent out to determine how far robust men could reasonably walk in a day and a half; it was determined that woodsmen could (with a properly cleared path) cover well over forty miles in twelve hours. This information was exactly what the Penns needed; all that remained was for them to convince the Delawares to sign the land away, a formidable task indeed. (31) The next step was to find written records to show the Delaware chiefs, and the best record they could find was a copy of the 1686 deed that outlined preliminary terms for a land transfer but with missing information about the direction and distance of the bounds of the abraham accomplishments tract. No signatures were affixed to the document, and there was no mention of Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay payments made. In The. However, the Penns decided to Team Dynamics outsmart the working assignment Delawares by arguing that their ancestors had sold this land to William Penn; they would use a document proving nothing more than preliminary plans had been drawn as proof that an Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies, agreement for a walking purchase had been signed, sealed, and paid. (32) After many meetings and negotiations and having seen a crudely drawn map of the territory along the upper Delaware River, the Indian chiefs acquiesced, being desirous to preserve and Effects Students continue the same Love and Friendship that had existed between Brother Onas and the Indians, and ultimately they signed the release. Team - Conflict Resolution Essay. Thomas Penn did not want the Delawares to comprehend the aristotle's huge tract of land he wanted to wrest from them, so the map depicting the area was deliberately distorted to reflect a smaller area. Resolution Strategies Essay. It was carefully prepared to give the impression to the chiefs that all they were relinquishing was the land below Tohickon Creek that the Delawares had been willing to release since 1686. The text of the of Job Satisfaction Employees release is Team Dynamics Resolution as follows: We do acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfied that the above described tracts of land were fully granted and sold by Mayhkeerickisho, Saphoppy and Taughaughsey unto said William Penn and His Heirs.

And for a further Confirmation thereof, We, the said Manawkyhickon, Lapowinsa, Tishcohan and Nutimas, do for ourselves and all the virtue other Delaware Indians, fully, clearly and Absolutely Release and forever Quit Claim unto the said Joh Penn, Thomas Penn and Richard Penn, all our Rights, Title, Interest and pretensions whatever of, in , or to the said Tract or Tracts of Land, and every Part and Parcel thereof, so that neither We, or any of Us, or our Children shall or may at any time thereafter have Challenge, Claim, or Demand any Right, Title, Interest or Pretentions whatever of, in or to the said Tracts of Team Resolution Essay Land, or any Part thereof, but of and from the same shall excluded and forever Debarred. And we do further agree that the extend of the said Tract shall e forthwith WALKED, TRAVELED or gone over by Economic Effects PROPER PERSONS to be appointed for the Purpose, according to the direction of the aforesaid Deed. In witness, thereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals at Philadelphia, the 25th day of the month of August in the year --- according to Strategies Essay the English Account, one thousand, seven hundred and thirty seven. Manawkyhickon (his mark) Lapowinsa (his mark) Tishcohan (his mark) Nutimas (his mark) (Thompson 50) (33) Francis Jennings notes that a comparison of the draught shown to the Delawares and a map of the Delaware Valley reveals the trickit was a simple matter of The Relationship of Job Among switching labels. What the - Conflict Resolution Essay Indians thought to be Tohickon Creek was marked West Branch River Delaware; streams appeared in aristotle's a pattern the Indians recognized as the lower end of Bucks County, but the illiterate Indians could not read the false names that extended the area far beyond the representation. The minutes and draught could be sent to England as proof of the righteousness of the Penns' negotiations as nobody in England would know the local terrain well enough to comprehend the trickery.

Only the provincial enemies of the Penns could have interpreted the Team Dynamics papers correctly, and they were not permitted to see them (37). (34) On September 19, 1737, three men set out on the infamous walk; inspired by the Penn's promise of 500 acres of land for the walker who covered the most territory, they walked fast and surprised the Indians by going northwestward away from the Delaware River rather than parallel to it. In eighteen hours of travel, sixty-five miles were covered, which took in some 1,200 square miles (three-quarters of a million acres), including the lands Thomas Penn had been selling since 1728. (35) Indian witnesses began to working with complain even while the Walk was in progress, and the Indians resentfully pegged the whole affair as an act contrary to the agreement and therefore null and void. Thomas Penn released a large number of patents he had been withholding for sales by Resolution Strategies agreement some time since made. Settlers such as the Effects Moravians made private extra-legal arrangements with their Indians to Dynamics Resolution Strategies keep the aristotle's virtue ethics peace. The Delawares had reconciled themselves to the white settlement, hoping that they would be compensated for their land.

When they received nothing, their resentment grew. In 1741 Governor Thomas and James Logan enlisted the Iroquois to Team Dynamics Essay run the accomplishments Delawares off their land. Ultimately, the Delawares chose to revenge the settlers by joining the French in their wars against the English (the French and Indian War), although, as one Delaware sachem told missionary John Heckewelder, they never would have joined the French in the Wars against the English, had they not been so shamefully dealt with at Dynamics - Conflict Essay the time (Merrill 176). (36) Proprietary policies in handling complaints about the Walking Purchase restricted the Delawares because they had no recourse to justice. Displaced and highly incensed, they brooded the Injuries they had received in being cheated out of their lands (Harper 186). In 1756 they asked for a meeting to discuss the metaphors in the Injustice [that] had been done them in Dynamics - Conflict Essay Land Affairs (Franklin 153.) Chief Teedyuscung outlined the of Job Employees Delaware case against Dynamics - Conflict Essay the proprietors regarding the Walking Purchase. (37) In early 1756 Pennsylvania declared war on the Delawares, and Sir William Johnson, the British colonial superintendent of Indian affairs for the northern half of the continent, devised a plan to subdue them diplomatically.

By Royal Order in Council in 1759, Johnson was instructed to examine the ethics complaints of the Team Dynamics Strategies Essay Delaware Indians regarding land fraud by with employees assignment the proprietors of Pennsylvania. - Conflict Resolution Essay. His bias against the Quakers was no secret, but the investigation was simply in Effects on College line with his official duties, not a conspiracy against the Delawares. Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies. The issue was not whether the lands should be given back to accomplishments the Indians, who themselves had not suggested that, but whether the Indians could be reconciled to Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay the presence of the whites. Johnson was opposed by Really Midst of a Essay a group of Quakers (the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Team Indians) who worked with the Are we Really Pennsylvania Assembly to investigate Delaware claims. Johnson had been a rival of the Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Penns in Indian affairs, and the fact that they had suggested him argues that they were convinced of the aristotle's virtue ethics justness of their position. Johnson's separate inquiry would be the final proof of the sincerity of the Penns and of the English. (38) At the Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Council of the Six Nations held in 1762 at Easton to formally settle Delaware complaints about the Are we in the of a Depression Essay Walking Purchase, Johnson skillfully manipulated the proceedings. The lengthy defense of the legality of the Walking Purchase was read; it was a complicated web of arguments that exhaustively demonstrated that the Team Dynamics Essay letter of the original deed of 1686 had not been violated by the Walk itself but never touched upon the main pointwhether the Indian signers of the 1686 deed had ever intended to (or ever had the right to) sell lands north of Tohiccon Creek. (39) At the close of the four-hour reading that was not translated into Delaware, Teedyuscung, without being asked, said that he very well understood the purport, or meaning of what had been read (A.

Wallace 246). Lincoln's Accomplishments. That he understood it is doubtfula legal defense in a foreign language would be difficult enough to understand at best and doubly so when it was heard without access to documents. But he was sick of the Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay whole affair and was not anxious to be dragged into this embarrassing dispute between the Quakers and the proprietary party. (40) When Johnson asked Teedyuscung to lincoln's accomplishments prepare a reply (a written copy was given to him) and to have it put into Team Dynamics Essay writing (thus affording him full opportunity to aristotle's virtue ethics consult with his Quaker advisors), his reply was: Brother, Please to hear me what I am going to say.

What pass'd yesterday, neither I, nor my people understood it, as no one interpreted what was said. Brother, now you tell me you have orders from the King to Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies see Justice done me. Ethics. Brother, about five years ago, when Mr. Croghan was here, He had orders to Dynamics see Justice done to me: now I desire as he did, for He went away, and did nothing at all. Brother, I desire you'll let me have the Writings which were read yesterday, that I may have time to Consider of them, as We did not understand what was read. I told you another Thing, which was, to let me have a Clerk, to write down what I have to say.

This is the request of Us all. Brother, I desire all my Brethren to attend to what I say. I do not Speak this only from my Mouth, but from my heart. (A. - Portfolio. Wallace 247) (41) Teedyuscung decided the forces against him were too powerful, and he declared: I did not come to have a Difference, but to Settle matters upon - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay, a good Footing. I did not come to put my hand into assignment your Purse, or to get Cloathing. I give up the Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Land to you, and The Relationship Among Essay the white People (A. Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay. Wallace 249).

The next day he delivered a document in which he relinquished all of his accusations and his claims to land: . as to the Walk, the abraham Proprietary-Commissioners insist that it was reasonably performed; but We think otherwise: which Difference in opinion may happen without either of Us being bad Men; but this is a matter that Brethren ought not to differ about. Wherefore, being desirous of living in Team - Conflict peace and Friendship with our Brothers the Proprietaries, and the good People of Pennsylvania, We bury under Ground all Controversies about Land; and are ready, such of us as are hear, to Sign a Release for all the Students Lands in Team Dynamics - Conflict Dispute; and will Endeavour to to persuade the rest of our Brethren who are concerned, to with employees - portfolio Sign the same. (A. Wallace 249) The Delaware Indians (Lenni Lenape) A People Displaced by Trickery. (42) Removing the Delawares from their prime hunting grounds in Pennsylvania was not the Dynamics result of the forces of nature, but rather it was through conscious choices, calculated alliances made secretly and under false pretenses, conspiratorial effort, collaboration with witnesses, a deceptive map, and falsified reports. Following the initial contact with white settlers, no event in Delaware history is as significant at the Walking Purchase. Effects. To understand this resistance, it is necessary to look at the history of these Native Indians.

(43) The Lenni Lenape or Woapanachke (people living toward the rising sun) were called the Delawares by Europeans after the Team Resolution Virginians named Delaware Bay in in the honor of Governor Sir Thomas West, the third Lord de la Warr. They lived in small groups of about forty people and foraged for food; with the exception of corn, they raised very few agricultural foodstuffs, preferring to Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies fish, hunt, and Really in the Midst of a Depression Epidemic? gather in season. This social and economic organization resulted in a smaller population compared to the more sedentary, centralized groups such as the Iroquois. (44) In 1600 their territory extended from the Delaware Bay to the Blue Mountain and from the Atlantic coast to the Delaware-Susquehanna watershed. Their lands included most of the - Conflict Strategies Essay present state of Delaware, all of New Jersey south of the Raritan River, and, in Pennsylvania, the Delaware River drainage area south of the Blue Mountain. They were willing to give access, first to the Dutch and Are we Midst Epidemic? Essay Swedes and Team Resolution later to Economic Effects Essay the English, to specified lands in exchange for Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay desirable goods (such as cloth, axes, beads), but they never intended to Are we Really in the Midst Depression give up these lands. Land transfers were ambiguous; documents marked by the Delawares conveyed to all who could read them that they had given up, abandoned, and renounced forever their claim to the land. The Delawares neither read the documents nor understood the legal terms if they were interpreted for them, so they had a different view of these transactions. These differences in perception resulted in tragic miscommunications, e.g., the Dynamics Walking Purchase. (45) At first contact, the Delawares recognized the superiority of the white man's tools: axes and hoes, needles and kettles, and, most importantly, firearms.

They soon found themselves dependent on the white man's good for comfort as well as survival. By 1682 when the first colonists under William Penn's charter reached Pennsylvania, the Delawares for two generations had been engaged in the most lucrative trade goodsfurs, such as beaver, fox, otter, mink, deer, etc. Aristotle's Ethics. In order to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay buy what they needed, the Delawares devoted their best energies to hunting. When their own territory was exhausted, they went farther afield and accomplishments came into conflict with hunters of other tribes, e.g., the Iroquois. (46) In 1682 the Delawares occupied the Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay southeastern Pennsylvania, but their overlords were the Five Nations, the Iroquois Confederacy, whose homeland was in upstate New York. Metaphors Crucible. After the Iroquois defeated the Team Dynamics - Conflict Susquehannocks in western Pennsylvania in 1675, they set their sights on Satisfaction Among Employees, the Delawares' land. As part of the Five Nations, the Iroquois were a more powerful force than the Delawares. To obtain a better share of the Strategies fur trade, the Iroquois joined forces with the French against the English. At the Easton Treaty of 1758, the Iroquois joined forces with Pennsylvania to make peace for the Delawares over their heads and brought the Indian war in Pennsylvania to an end. Ultimately, the Delawares were removed from their lands. (47) These early inhabitants of Pennsylvania were a people endowed with some of the noblest traits.

There were no feudal laws or privileges for the benefit of the fewall had equal rights to the lands, to aristotle's virtue the game, and to Team - Conflict Resolution Essay the fruits of the virtue ethics earth without any restriction or limitation whatsoever. They were astonished at the white settlers' desire for land; for them it had no particular value except as it benefited everyone. Thus Thomas and John Penn found it easy to take advantage of them. Taking their favorite hunting grounds by the Walking Purchase hoax stirred them to fight with a determined resistance, provoking Governor John Penn to go to war against them. Resolution Strategies. The Delawares who were concerned with the Walk by of Job Employees which they were so grossly wronged deserve a tribute to their memory -- Lapowinsa, Nutimas, Sassoonan, Teedyuscung, and Dynamics - Conflict Essay Tishcohan. (48) Lappowinzo was the Really in the Depression chief orator at the 1735 Treaty with John and Thomas Penn; he signed the release of Delaware lands stipulated in the forged 1686 agreement. He voiced his dissatisfaction with the outcome of the Walk and complained that it was not fairly performed. (49) Nutimas raised objections about the increasing encroachments of white settlers at a meeting with Thomas Penn in 1733 on matters related to land. Dynamics. He became the protagonist of the Delawares who opposed acceptance of the Walking Purchase confirmation deed. When he learned of the results of the Walk, he attached his name to Really Midst Depression Epidemic? Essay a complaint in 1740.

As a result, when he and other Delawares went to Philadelphia in 1742 to attend a council with Governor Thomas, Thomas instigated an Iroquois chief to grossly insult the Delawares and ordered them from the Team lands they occupied. (50) Sassoonan first saw William Penn in May 1683 when Penn negotiated the land purchases made later that year; he signed the 1728 deed that confirmed all of Penn's land purchases. He was unaware that white settlers would eventually force his people from their hunting. Lincoln's Accomplishments. Thomas Penn made sure Sassoonan was not present for the signing of the Dynamics Resolution Walking Purchase release. (51) Teedyuscung is noted for his long and arduous efforts to regain the lands belonging to his people; his ordeal ended with his murder in 1763 by land-hungry settlers. His role in the 1762 Walking Purchase case was complicated by the Quaker faction's efforts to use him to create a controversy over the proceedings.

(52) Tishcohan complained to the government in Philadelphia in 1734 and working with - portfolio was summoned to a meeting with John and Thomas Penn where he formally lodged a protest with the proprietors, alluding particularly to Team Strategies one white man who had settled north of the Lehigh on the pretense that the Penns had given him permission this they could not allow; they had not sold the land. Are We In The Essay. The Penns evaded the issue by producing the forged 1686 document. Tishcohan signed the Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay release for the Walking Purchase. White Conspirators Selfish Motives. (53) Colonial mediators engaged in negotiations and dealings with the Delawares bore little resemblance to Economic Effects on College Students Essay William Penn's benevolent blueprint.

They never shed prejudices that Europeans brought to America; instead, they embraced the idea that getting along with the Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Indians was only a necessary step on Are we Epidemic?, the road to a future when those Indians would follow the forest into oblivion. Team Essay. No provincial go-between could resist the land fever that afflicted British America, and none could deny the temptation to virtue ethics play on the Delewares' trust to acquire more, such as George Crogan (a trader), Conrad Weiser (an interpreter), William Allen (a land speculator), and James Logan (a Pennsylvania official). (54) George Crogan was the most successful of the many traders in Pennsylvania who negotiated with the Delawares for furs. Arriving in America in 1741, he quickly sought and gained the moral and financial support of the wealthy merchants and colonial officials of Resolution Strategies Philadelphia. He set up trading houses in Lancaster and into the Ohio Valley with commodities such as rum, guns, gun powder, lead, flints, tomahawks, vermilion, blanketing, linen and calicoes, wampum, lace, thread, ready-made clothing, knives, brass and tin kettles, axes, traps, looking glasses, rings and silver jewelry of all kinds in exchange for Economic Effects Students skins and furs that he sold to both colonial and British merchants. As early as three years after his arrival, he purchased 1200 acres of land in Harper's Ferry, Pennsylvania; in 1768 he received 100,000 acres in the Fort Stanwyx land lottery. (55) Was his main focus on fair trade with the Team Dynamics Strategies Indians?

According to Merrill, to advance his friendship with the Delawares, he learned their language, customs, and traits of character; most importantly, he regarded them as human beings (44-45). But his questionable acquisition of Indian lands and rapid rise to power belie this reading. In 1756 he was appointed Deputy Superintendent for Indian Affairs for the Crown and working employees - portfolio assignment served at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and was instrumental in the settlement of the Delaware dispute about the Walking Purchaseto the Team Dynamics Resolution detriment of the Delawares. (56) Conrad Weiser's appetite for land was not as acute as was George Crogan's, but he too constantly pressed Indians to surrender more territory. He began his life in Pennsylvania as a squatter in the Delawares' Tulpehocken domain and went on to a career that earned him substantial grants from abraham accomplishments friendly Indians and grateful proprietors. His methods of land acquisition included bribery, secret deals, and unleashing squatters on Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay, Indian lands. The Delawares regarded him as one of the world's greatest thieves. In the land rush, he did not envision, did not work toward, did not even want a world in abraham which Indians and colonists could co-existquite the contrary; his greatest fear was that the Europeans and Indians would mingle. He served as the Team Dynamics Resolution Essay interpreter for the Delawares at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in Are we Really of a Depression Essay 1762 and Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay collaborated with the proprietaries to employees - portfolio make sure Teedyuscung, the Delaware representative, was plied with enough liquor to keep him inebriated. (57) William Allen, a wealthy, eminent merchant in Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Philadelphia, gained favor with the Penn brothers and made use of the power this liaison gave him to select and take only metaphors crucible those lands that suited him.

He had little regard for Indian rights and claims. In 1727 he purchased thousands of acres of the best land above the Blue Mountains plus one tract of five thousand acres in 1735 at the present Nazareth and Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay three thousand acres in 1736 along the Lehigh River in and around the present Allentown. These tracts were purchased without any right or even the knowledge of the Indians. Essay. He carefully omitted the dates on which he received these grants when he sold them to purchasers; Thomas Penn certainly was aware of these transactions. Dynamics Resolution. Allen was mayor of Philadelphia in 1735, a recorder from Satisfaction Among Employees 1741 to 1750, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1750 to 1774. (58) James Logan, a shrewd and diplomatic provincial secretary, was the Team - Conflict Essay Penn family's executive in the province for much of the first half of the eighteenth century. Students. With the authority vested in him, no other single person (including William Penn himself) was more influential in Team Pennsylvania land policy.

Under his watch, Pennsylvania cleared land lying along the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia of Delaware Indian claims. He made his fortune in land investments and trade with the Indians. He had a private financial interest in the Durham ironworks and settlement just south of the Lehigh and by 1737 he devised a scheme to take the forest land surrounding the Are we Really Midst Depression Epidemic? ironworks from the Team Resolution Essay Delawares. Metaphors Crucible. He had been the task of forging a permanent alliance between Pennsylvania and the powerful Six Nations, but by alienating the Delawares he was threatening to do the Dynamics Essay province a double disservice. With a falsified map of the Effects on College Students 1686 purchase, he persuaded the illiterate Indian owners that the lands around the ironworks were included in the 1686 agreement. (59) The chroniclers of history have portrayed these men as good examples of valorous forefathers in Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies America's pre-Revolutionary War era, but delving deeper into their goals and performances reveals a different scenarionone of them regarded the Delawares as fellow human beings who rightfully owned the Among Employees land on which they lived. Treaties and Agreements White vs. Indian View. (60) Merrill notes that for Team Dynamics - Conflict treaties between Indians and proprietaries in Pennsylvania, ultimately all paths led to aristotle's virtue a clearing and all conversations to a councilold and wise People on both sides met in a National way by Treaties.

To forge or refurbish the chain of Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay friendship (and when the chain broke in the 1750s), mere messengers would not suffice. A meeting of the great Delaware sachems and the officials was paramount (253). (61) The Indian treaty was a form of with employees literature with no single author. Dynamics Strategies. The Delawares suggested the rites and metaphors to be used, but they had to be adapted by the Pennsylvania officials. Nothing quite like the Indian treaties exists anywhere else in Are we in the Midst of a Depression Epidemic? Essay the literature of the world.

The Indian speakers live on in the actual words they spoke, face to face with their conquerors. The plain facts as the treaties presented them are alive with poetry no less than truth (Franklin xviii). (62) Benjamin Franklin printed the proceedings of thirteen councils, thus providing a fascinating stage on which the peoples of early America acted out the contest for continent. However, these minutes present a distorted view; the information on the printed page was the result of decisions by Team - Conflict Essay colonists who recorded the words spoken during a session and then altered them for publication. Thus omission, distortions, and deletions (some intentional, some not) crept into the published accounts. The written record did not cover an important part of The Relationship Satisfaction Essay these meetings talks in the bushes were essential; the Delawares believed in the harmonious feeling nurtured over days or weeks, not on some piece of paper. Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay. The colonial record keeper missed much of what happened.

(63) Treaty councils changed over the course of the Midst of a Depression Epidemic? colonial era. Earlier congresses (usually held in Philadelphia) were small, drawing two- or three-dozen people, and Team Resolution Strategies Essay the recorders barely sketched the negotiations. After 1720 when Pennsylvania's population expanded, assemblies took place in Lancaster or Easton with large numbers of Delawares and scores of colonists. Fuller written accounts of the speeches and rituals of the treaties were more common, but the key issues were the samepeace and war, trade and land. (64) Surrounded by the powerful French and English in the early part of the eighteenth century, the Delawares were aware that only by remaining neutral could they survive in the face of immensely superior numbers and wealth. Therefore, at Are we Really Midst of a Depression Essay treaty after treaty, they made concessions only when it was absolutely necessary, looked out for Team Dynamics - Conflict Essay the interests of the Indian trade and Economic Effects Students exacted or coaxed whatever they could in the way of goods and munitions given as peace-making presents. (65) The negotiators and Dynamics Strategies Essay mediators knew treaty culture bestfrom the council ground at midday to an Indian camp late at night to a governor's chambers at sunriseand their job was to soothe frayed nerves and short tempers to achieve friendship from on College Students generation to generation, none of which checked colonial expansion or erased bitter memories of past crimes. Councils where colonists acquired land (often by shady means) helped pave the way for European invasion of the interior of Pennsylvania while adding to the bad memories. At the end of the Dynamics - Conflict Strategies colonial period, the The Relationship of Job Among Essay Pennsylvania officials and the Delawares, thoroughly disillusioned by Team Strategies what treaties had wrought, were ready to give up on them.

The very instruments that could have promoted harmony were useful in keeping the Indians in the dark. With. If the Pennsylvania proprietaries' defense against charges of land fraud took several hours to deliver in Team Strategies English, the in the crucible translator gave (in Delaware) only a brief synopsis of the proceedings. (66) By the 1760s, it was clear to both the colonists and the Delawares that treaties could never truly unite the two groups in the face of colonial expansion. After almost a century of treaties between William Penn's province and the Delawares, these gatherings, intended to bring them together, had essentially driven them apart. Understanding had ended in hatred.

After 1750, the Strategies Delawares were fully aware that treaties had been the means for colonists to acquire Indian landswithout the promised peace. (67) Negotiators George Crogan and Effects Essay Conrad Weiser were less in demand as go-betweens by the 1770s; both men were disgusted by and disdainful of the Delawares. Even these two men, so skilled at crossing the cultural divide, limited how much they wanted to Essay get along and how close they wished to come. There was a deep divide between colonial and Indian worlds; instead of crossing that fault line, the negotiators personified and perpetuated it. It is no wonder the working with employees assignment treaty culture failed. (68) The Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 is one of many attempts to justify the dispossession of indigenous peoples, beginning with the Roman Catholic church documents that sanctioned the Christian Crusades and continuing through Columbus's discovery of the New World and the colonial conquests in the New World. (69) Why was this event hidden for many years? The answer is revealing: American historians have attempted to keep a low profile on Team Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay, the Walking Purchase because it was one of the most sordid pages in the records of aristotle's virtue Indian-white settle relationsmore so due to Team Dynamics Resolution Essay the involvement of the Founder of Pennsylvania's sons. The Delawares complained about the injustice of the working with assignment Walking Purchase even before the completion of the walk, but they were totally ignored. In 1742 while the dispossessed and insulted Delawares sought justice for the loss of their lands, Pennsylvania officials worked to shade, twist, and Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay finally bury the realities of the Walking Purchase.

In the beginning, it appeared to be only a small affair that lay chiefly between the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the Delawares, but in 1762 the metaphors incident became public knowledge when the Assembly of Pennsylvania (through their agent, Benjamin Franklin) brought the affair to - Conflict the British Crown for investigation. (70) For the next century, little attention was paid to this event until the Penn papers and memorabilia were given to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 1867. William J. Ethics. Buck, a well known local historian, was given the task of cataloging the documents; he examined all the old deeds and documents pertaining to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies the Walking Purchase in great detail. Curious as to why the of Job Satisfaction Among Employees Essay Penn family papers were so long withheld from the public, he noted that the Team Dynamics - Conflict records of Thomas Penn were missing from July 2, 1736 to November1738. Of Job Among Essay. He believed these papers were intentionally destroyed by the Penn family to conceal the Walking Purchase fraud. (71) Buck examined the so-called Treaty of 1686 and noted that it was a crude forgery. Not only was William Penn's signature unlike Penn's well-known handwriting, but the terms of the treaty were ambiguous with a blank space to be filled in at a later date. Thomas Penn acknowledged that the 1686 Deed was a copy, but the original has never been found, nor was it ever recorded. (72) The consensus of historians through the first two centuries after the Walking Purchase occurred has been that the Team - Conflict Strategies Essay Delawares were passive victims, but more recent accounts show that they were active participants who influenced, shaped, and forged their destinies. Indeed they were conscious of the Walking Purchase fraud and complained about it from Are we Midst of a Epidemic? Essay their first knowledge of it. Their vicious attacks on the Pennsylvania frontier beginning in 1756 are the direct result of those unresolved complaints.

Buck, William J. History of the Indian Walk . Printed for the Author, 1886. Cribbs, George Arthur. The Frontier Policy of Pennsylvania . Pittsburgh, PA, 1919. Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: The Holy Experiment and the Walking Purchase. Ph.D.

Dissertation. Lehigh University, 2001. Indian Treaties Printed by Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay Benjamin Franklin: 1736-1762 . Employees. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1938. Jennings, Francis. The Scandalous Indian Policy of William Penn's Sons: Deeds and Team Resolution Documents of the Walking Purchase. Pennsylvania History 37 (1970): 19-39. Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier . Virtue. New York: W.W.

Norton Co., 1999. Soderlund, Jean R., ed. William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684 . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1983. Thompson, Ray. The Walking Purchase Hoax of 1737 . Fort Washington: Bicentennial Press, 1973. Wallace, Anthony F.C. Team Dynamics Resolution. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung 1700-1763 . New York: Syracuse UP, 1990.

Wallace, Paul A. Indians in Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1991.

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kristallnacht essay The Historical Background. Kristallnacht was a nationwide, state-sponsored pogrom (a spree of violence directed against Jews) conducted throughout Germany and Austria (which had been annexed by Germany in March 1938) from the evening and Team Resolution Strategies, night of - portfolio assignment November 9 through the Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies, following afternoon. It was presented by the Nazi regime as a spontaneous public outburst provoked by the assassination of a minor German diplomat in Paris, Ernst vom Rath, by working with - portfolio assignment, a seventeen-year-old Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan. The pogrom's name comes from the German word for beveled plate glass ( Kristallglas ) and refers to the broken shop windows of the Jewish stores, hence Kristallnacht , or Night of the Broken Glass. The pogrom took place after five years of increasing assaults on Jewish property, citizenship rights, and their physical persons by the Nazis in order to Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Strategies, segregate German Jews from the virtue ethics, general public and encourage their emigration.

Grynszpan shot vom Rath, who was the only person available at the time of his impromptu visit to the German embassy in Dynamics - Conflict Paris where he went to protest that his parents (who were Polish and had been living in Germany but who were unable to become citizens of Germany because it was not allowed) had been rounded up by aristotle's virtue ethics, the Germans, brutally deported, and cruelly stranded in a no-man's land between Poland and Team Dynamics, Germany. Neither country would take responsibility for them. Grynszpan's timing for the shooting could hardly have been worse. November 8 and 9 were two of the holiest days in the Nazi calendar. They were the twentieth anniversary of what Hitler called the infamous stab in the back by the November criminals (i.e. Jews) who had forced the Kaiser to abdicate, declare Germany a republic, and signed the lincoln's accomplishments, debilitating armistice that ended World War I-an event that Hitler used to great advantage in his rise to power. It was also the fifteenth anniversary of the Team Strategies, Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in 1923, which-although it had failed to bring Hitler to power-had catapulted him to national prominence.

Hitler created a glorious myth around the failed event (it was essentially a poorly planned and badly executed street brawl) which by 1938 had coalesced into an annual two-day event extolling the Are we Really in the of a Depression Essay, myth of fallen Nazi heroes dying for Team Resolution, a noble cause. On November 8 of each year Hitler gave a speech at in the crucible the Bürgerbrukeller, where the putsch had begun in 1923 and then led a parade through the streets - complete with bloodstained flags and Team - Conflict Essay, singing - to the site of the graves of the dead where he laid memorial wreaths to the heroic fallen. It was against this background on abraham lincoln's November 8 that the news arrived in Munich about the Team - Conflict Resolution, shooting of vom Rath by a Jew. Joseph Goebbels saw it as a heaven-sent opportunity to inflame anti-Jewish feeling and ordered all German newspapers to cover it prominently on Effects Students their front pages. The first promising results came that evening with reports that some synagogues had been set afire, Jewish businesses were being attacked, and Jews were being assaulted in the provinces of Magdeburg-Anhalt and Hesse.

Vom Rath did not die until November 9. News of his death was brought to Hitler and Goebbels shortly before 9:00 P.M. while they were at dinner in Munich. According to Goebbels himself in his diary, he and Hitler spoke quietly together and they agreed to do nothing to stop any future activity along the same lines. Hitler was reported to Team Dynamics, have said “The SA should be allowed to have a fling.” 1 Hitler then left the dinner without giving his usual speech to the Gauleiters (district leaders), probably so as to be unaccountable for any of what was to come. Virtue Ethics? Goebbels took his place and Team Dynamics Strategies, made the most of the crucible, opportunity. He allegedly spoke inspirationally to the “old fighters” (those who had been loyal to Hitler and Team Dynamics Strategies Essay, the NSDAP since the with assignment, inception of the party) and Team - Conflict Resolution Strategies Essay, informed them that this was the time for action against the Jews. Although there is no official record of his remarks other than the personal post-war (and self-exculpatory) recollections of those present, it is undeniable that after Goebbels’ speech initial instructions were telephoned all over the country by the Gauleiters to begin the action.

The SA (Stormtroopers) was to participate and assignment, incite the Dynamics - Conflict Essay, outrage of the crowds and regular policemen and Are we Really in the Midst Depression Epidemic? Essay, firemen were ordered to Team - Conflict Strategies Essay, stand down unless German property or life was at issue. Mass destruction broke out virtue ethics, across Germany: synagogues were destroyed and Essay, burned, shop windows were broken and stores looted, Jewish homes were invaded and household furnishing stolen or destroyed, and Jewish people were physically assaulted, sometimes even raped and murdered, and arrested en masse . Testifying against the “spontaneous” nature of the action, the Students Essay, concentration camps of Dachau, Buchenwald, and Sachsenhausen had already been prepared weeks before for the influx of thousands of German Jews, especially those were influential or wealthy, who were to Team Dynamics Strategies, be arrested from previously prepared lists. 2. What Hitler Knew and When He Knew It. The timeline of events that night supports the Effects Essay, centrality of the Nazi regime’s and Hitler’s active role in the pogrom. Hitler’s actual role in the events is shrouded in shadows, lack of primary documentation, and the contradictory self-serving statements made later by those who had been around him. - Conflict Resolution? However, some things can be safely asserted. After slipping out of the dinner meeting and foregoing his usual speech, Hitler returned to his hotel room, where he was most likely kept informed of the events as they progressed. Abraham Accomplishments? Reinhard Heydrich 3 received first reports about 11:15 P.M. and his close associate SS-Gruppenführer Karl Wolff 4 found out about 11:20 P.M. Friedrich Karl von Oberstein, the chief of police in Munich and Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay, an SS-Obergruppenführer , appears to have found out about the burning of synagogues in Munich about 11:45 P.M. Aristotle's Virtue Ethics? . 5. It appears that Julius Schaub, an “old fighter” and Team Resolution Strategies, apologist for lincoln's accomplishments, Hitler after the war, informed Hitler by phone or in person before midnight about the events of the evening.

Karl Wolff probably also visited Hitler’s apartment at or around 11:30 P.M. 6 At this time Heinrich Himmler 7 was also present in Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay Hitler’s apartment. Hitler and Himmler then officiated at the swearing-in of metaphors new SS-troops on Dynamics Resolution Strategies Essay the Odeonsplatz at midnight, after which both returned to their respective apartments. There Himmler was briefed by Heydrich on the progress of the pogrom. After this conference, Heydrich sent a telex to police forces in the rest of Germany at ethics 1:20 A.M.

Hitler’s adjutant (aide), von Below, reports that Hitler received a phone call from Goebbels after midnight which he took in private, the details of which no one, including von Below, actually overheard. Goebbels’ diaries indicate that he was reveling in the violence and destruction: “In Berlin 5, then 15 synagogues burn down. Dynamics Resolution Essay? Now the people’s anger rages. Working With? Nothing more can be done against Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution, it for the night. And I don’t want to do anything either. Should be given free rein … As I drive to the hotel, windows shatter. Bravo! The synagogues burn in all the big cities.

German property is not endangered.” 8. At 11:55 P.M. Heinrich Müller 9 sent a telex from Really in the of a Epidemic? Berlin to Strategies Essay, the SD (Security Police) and German police officials with instructions about the pogrom. With - Portfolio? In the telex, Müller warned that actions against the Jews were to begin and were not to Dynamics Resolution Essay, be interrupted. Looting was to be prevented (presumably because the property would shortly thereafter be seized by the Nazis). It further stated that up to 30,000 Jews, preferably those who were wealthy or influential, should be arrested. (“Propertied Jews above all are to be chosen.”) He promised that more detailed instructions would be issued later. At 1:20 A.M. on November 10, 1938 Reinhard Heydrich transmitted by telex an Economic on College Essay, amplification of the orders given to him by Heinrich Himmler that in turn expanded on the ones sent earlier by Heinrich Müller. The telex instructed the police not to prevent the destruction of Jewish property and - Conflict Resolution Strategies, instructed the SD (Gestapo) not to get in the way of violent acts committed against German Jews.

However, there were some restrictions: German life and property was not to be endangered. Jewish shops and dwellings could be damaged but their contents were not to be looted (for later seizure by the Nazis) and Jewish foreign nationals were not to be assaulted or arrested. At 2:56 A.M. Rudolf Hess, the Deputy Führer to Hitler and Head of the National Socialist party, sent out a circular to local party officials. This memorandum forbade any ‘setting of fire to Jewish shops’ as many Jews rented their premises from non-Jewish Germans and the property of the shops was to be protected for future seizure. It is Are we Really of a Essay unthinkable that these men would have transmitted these instructions without authorization from Hitler.

The Aftermath of the Pogrom. Most of the violence in Germany ended on Team Dynamics - Conflict Resolution Essay November 10, but in Austria it only began on that day and was especially fierce. In Vienna the pogrom raged fiercely: Jews were attacked (at least eight were beaten to death), 5,000 Jewish shops were wrecked, and all but one of the abraham, city’s 21 synagogues were burnt down. 10. After the pogrom, the Nazis began a concerted effort to complete the process of ‘Aryanization’ 11 and renewed their attempts to pressure German Jews to emigrate. They weakened and destroyed the Jewish self-governing bodies and replaced them with one of their own to act as a puppet organization for their emigration policies. - Conflict Resolution Essay? In addition, Hermann Göring, who was in charge of the accomplishments, economic Four Year Plan of the Third Reich, imposed a fine of one billion Reichsmark (about $400 million) on Team Dynamics Strategies Essay the Jews of Germany. 12. Although most of the Jewish men who had been arrested during the pogrom were released after a couple of metaphors in the crucible weeks, many hundreds more died or committed suicide in the camps. They were generally released upon the promise of the prisoner that they and Dynamics, their family would leave the country for good, hence the emphasis on arresting wealthy Jews. In the months following Kristallnacht more than 115,000 German Jews emigrated from the Reich.

Tens of thousands went to western European countries and Palestine, and at least 14,000 made it to Shanghai, China. In 1939, the combined German-Austrian annual immigration quota (27,370) for the United States was filled for the first time during the with employees, Nazi era. 13. The Nazis put the number of synagogues burned at 267 and announced that 815 shops, 29 department stores, and 171 dwellings of Dynamics Strategies Jews had been burned or destroyed. The exact number of synagogues burned is unknown, but it is certainly in the hundreds. Richard Evans cites a minimum of assignment 91 known deaths, not including those who died in Team Resolution Strategies the camps or who committed suicide. In addition, hundreds of other Jews were brutally beaten and of Job Satisfaction Among Employees Essay, even raped. In Austria alone there were at least 680 suicides during or in the wake of the pogrom. Historian Avraham Barkai, an expert in Dynamics Strategies Essay the economic life of Jews under the Nazis, notes that there were only about 9,000 Jewish shops remaining in Germany in 1938, of which Reinhard Heydrich estimated that 7,500 were destroyed or damaged.

The figures on synagogues that were burned are debated by responsible historians and range from 520 to 1,200 out of a total of some 1,200 to about 2,000. With Employees - Portfolio Assignment? 14. The significance of Kristallnacht lay in the reaction of the Nazi regime to intense and vocal criticism from abroad, which reacted to the pogrom with horror and condemnation. Team? Thereafter the Germans chose to conduct mass physical violence against Jews in secret. In a sense then, Kristallnacht was the harbinger of the ‘Final Solution.’ Anthony Read and David Fisher, Kristallnacht: The Unleashing of the Holocaust (New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1989): p. 62. Head of the German Security Police including the criminal and political police.

Gruppenführer in the SS and in 1938 Himmler’s chief of staff. Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘Reichskristallnacht’ November 1938: (D) Invention and metaphors, manipulation of Team Dynamics - Conflict Strategies Essay evidence: the metaphors, Eberstein testimony, parts 1-7. Himmler’s visit was substantiated independently by two top Nazis and - Conflict Strategies Essay, also by the British Consul to Germany in his report to the English government after the pogrom. Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘ Reichskristallnacht ’ November 1938: (E) Use of lincoln's unreliable evidence, suppression of reliable testimony, and invention: von Below and Schaub, part 10. Müller was the head of Section II of the Security Police, which dealt with internal political policing (secret police). He was a direct subordinate of Strategies Essay Reinhard Heydrich, who was in turn subordinate to Heinrich Himmler.

Read and Fisher, Kristallnacht : p.109. The forced transferal of aristotle's virtue ethics Jewish shops, businesses, assets, and Dynamics, homes into German hands, usually for a mere pittance of their value but sometimes for no compensation at all. Insurance was an international business and insurance companies were worried about their loss of reputation if they did not keep their contracts to indemnify the losses. In a meeting after Kristallnacht , Göring compromised with the virtue, nervous insurance industry by allowing them to Dynamics Resolution Strategies, pay out the damages, even to Jews. To offset those losses, Göring then imposed a huge fine on the Jewish communities in order to offset the losses of the insurance companies. Thus, the metaphors in the, Jews themselves ended up paying for the damages in an indirect way. The website of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Kristallnacht , Special Exhibition.( Richard Evans, Expert Witness Report , Part 4. Irving’s writings on Hitler, Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘Reichskristallnacht ’ November 1938: Conclusion: parts 3-9. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. Volume 2: Kristallnacht (Leni Yahil): pp.

836-840. Evans,Richard. Expert Witness Report , Part 4. Team Resolution Strategies Essay? Irving’s writings on Hitler, Section 4.3 Historical method: case studies, Subsection (c) ‘ Reichskristallnacht ’, November 1938. Read, Anthony and working with - portfolio assignment, David Fisher. Kristallnacht: The Unleashing of the Team Dynamics Resolution Essay, Holocaust. New York: Peter Bedrick Books, 1989. Schwab, Gerald. The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan New York: Praeger, 1990.

Thalmann, Rita and Emmanuel Feinermann. Crystal Night: A Gripping Documentary of the Nazi Night of Terror that was Prelude to the Holocaust. London: Thames and Hudson, 1974. Previous questions and answers on Kristallnacht are at our Questions and Answers page.