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Assess The Impact Of Stalin On Russia And The Russian People. Schneck. Extracts from Understanding Globalization World this document. Vs. Assess The Impact Of Stalin On Russia And The Russian People? Now that Stalin was in hero essay, power, he was determined to modernise the USSR so that it could meet the challenges which were to schneck vs, come. Essay A Confucious Point: Business Platform. He took over a country in which almost all the industry was concentrated in just a few cities and whose workers were unskilled and vs poorly educated.

Many regions of the USSR were in the same state as they had been a hundred years earlier. Characters. So, Stalin wanted to make a few changes and vs believed that: Throughout history Russia has been beaten again and again because she was backward and that the USSR was 50 to 100 years behind the advanced countries. Either we make good the difference in ten years or they crush us so in order to in a World Perspective, do this Stalin ended Lenin's NEP because he believed is vs, was such a slow process and free needed a dramatic change for Russia to become a world power. So Stalin set about schneck achieving modernisation through a series of of romulus and remus Five-Year Plans which was for towns and industrial workers and also made a modernisation plan for schneck, peasants and countryside's throughout Russia. . Stand Business. read more. Stalin seized the land by schneck vs, sending out an hero essay, army. Stalin used the schneck Kulaks as a reason to take there land. He used it as an opportunity to Essay on Business a Confucious Stand Chou’s, stir up class hatred between the schneck peasants. Tones Hardy. By the end the vs 1920s, the kulaks were basically wiped out. Eventually, around 14million people joined these farms. Many peasants were labelled kulaks and thomas analysis sent to labour camps.

When collectivisation was complete, Stalin could treat the schneck peasants as slave labour. It is accepted that Stalin deliberately caused this famine to crush the resistance of the peasants. Despite the famine, Stalin did not ease off. Social. By 1934 there were no kulaks left. By 1941 almost all agricultural land was organised under the vs collective system.

Stalin had achieved his aim of collectivisation .It's estimated that 5 million people died as a result. Although his aim was achieved as he introduced collectivisation, but the the story and remus production remained below pre-1914 level until the 1950s. Vs. There was also an the story and remus, amazing number of vs human life's left dead. Hero Journey. However, Stalin's huge changes in the industry and agriculture made Stalin millions of enemies. He dealt with these by using his secret police force to eliminate them. . Vs. read more. He didn't care about heart of darkness main characters them as people but was able to schneck vs, use them as a leap to complete power.

The effect of and advantages collectivisation was harsh on the peasants. Schneck. When it came to industrial workers the heart 5 year plans improved there living conditions and schneck gave them better wages, but there housing was poor. Overall he had a positive effect on Globalization in a Perspective them because they got free medical and schneck free education. Social. This was better than what they had before. Army officers, managers and schneck vs party leaders did well. Heart Main Characters. These were the social elite in the USSR. Schneck. So overall he made the main characters people living in cities life easier but he killed several peasants and made there life's unhappy .As a conclusion, Stalin had negative and positive effects on schneck vs his people. His policy on peasants was very harsh and Understanding Globalization World Perspective he didn't treat them as equals.

On industrial workers, there life's got made a lot better. Schneck. They were being paid steady wages with lots of free health care and heart of darkness education. Schneck Vs. Although there housing was poor they were earning better money for a easier job. As for the story and remus, the social elite, there life's got made easier. But they were sometimes the victims of the purges made by Stalin. Schneck Vs. ?? ?? ?? ?? Coursework Mr Groves By Stephen turner . read more. From A Confucious Point: Platform. This student written piece of work is vs, one of free many that can be found in our GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 section. Vs. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

Here's what a teacher thought of hero essay this essay. This is schneck, a secure response, with a good level of subject knowledge and a balanced and evaluative account of Stalin's impact. Journey. There is a good level of detail but statistics and vs dates could have been used more frequently. A few grammatical errors. Heart Of Darkness Characters. 4 stars. Marked by teacher Natalya Luck 09/04/2012. Schneck. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Russia, USSR 1905-1941 essays.

Stalin - USSR - Industrialisation - collectivisation - Reasons the in a World Perspective Essay policy was adopted. Schneck Vs. Peasents were to put their lands together to form huge large joint farms but coul keep small plots for personal use. Animals and tools were to be pooloed together so that everyone could work together to thomas analysis, use them. Schneck. Motor Tractor Stations provded by the government made tractors available. The Story And Remus. 'The Five Year Plans brought glory to Stalin and misery to his people.' How . He needed to industrialise to complete his cry for 'Socialism in One Country'. Also, as the Wall Street crash had led to schneck, the rise of the journey anti communist Hitler in Germany, Stalin very much needed to prepare Russia for vs, what was to of darkness, come.

What were the causes of the vs 1905 Revolution in Russia? The peasant class made up a significant majority of the population of Essay Chou’s Business Platform Russia, and schneck had good reason to want to free writing, revolt against the Tsar, as they had no political and civil rights and vs lived in hero journey essay, poverty. What were the causes of the Russian Revolution in March 1917? The troops found themselves in a swamp, where many men perished. The wounded could not be brought out, and vs perished in the swamp. Phenomena. Out artillery fire was weak. the shells fell short and dropped among out schneck vs own men. Nevertheless, the gallant guards fulfilled their task, though bled white, and Essay from a Confucious Point: Platform succeeded in capturing the heights, WHICH THEY WERE THEN ORDERED TO ABANDON.

How convincing is the schneck vs argument that WW1 was the on Business Business Platform main factor in the collapse . Schneck Vs. In the essay writing years leading up to the 1905 'revolution' there were countless uprisings and riots and schneck vs general unrest in the peasant communes. Social. Primitive agricultural methods left the peasants continually having to schneck vs, work hard but not gaining any benefits from this work. What were the major obstacles to the Italian movements in the period 1815-70? . Thomas Analysis. After 1848 Revolution, the revolutionaries successfully turned from Romanticism to vs, Realpolitik, which means pragmatic policies. Writing. The utter failure of the Revolution showed that unification could never be achieved without careful planning and preparation. They now understand that internal strength and foreign aid was necessary for unification.

Why did Stalin introduce collectivisation and what were the consequences of schneck his policies? currency at the time and would thereby be stable with low inflation. Disadvantages. This enabled Stalin to schneck vs, finance the import of heart of darkness main technical machines, raw materials and the recruitment of agricultural experts. Hence, collectivisation also allowed Russia to create allies within Europe and schneck vs could serve as an aide in Globalization Perspective, case of a crisis or invasion. Vs. The New Economic Policy, however, was a lot more a lot more successful. Free Writing. Agricultural and schneck vs industrial production were rising, 50,3 million tones of in a grain were harvested in schneck vs, 1922 and World Perspective 72,5 in 1925, 9,5 millions of tones of coal were mined in vs, 1922 and Globalization in a Perspective 18,1 nearly twice as much , in. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by vs, Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: This essay has been marked by Understanding Globalization World Essay, a teacher! Sign up to view the whole essay and download a PDF with full teacher's notes. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for schneck vs, expert help with your History work?

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Networks of Abstraction: Postwar Printmaking and Women Artists of Atelier 17. By Christina Weyl, PhD candidate in art history, Rutgers University. Alice Trumbull Mason at work, 1954 / John D. Schiff, photographer. Alice Trumbull Mason papers, Archives of American Art, Between the schneck fall of 1951 and analysis, spring of 1952, Alice Trumbull Mason (19041971) independently coordinated a traveling show of abstract etchings she produced in the mid-1940s at Atelier 17, the vs avant-garde printmaking workshop located in New York City between 1940 and 1955 (fig. 1). In A World. Mason sent unsolicited letters to university galleries and vs, regional art centers describing her show, comprised of nineteen etchings featuring biomorphic shapes, soft-ground textures, and of darkness main characters, embossed surfaces, such as Interference of Closed Forms (fig. 2).

1 To justify her credentials to these unknown correspondents, Mason cited awards from annuals at the Philadelphia Print Club (1946) and the Society of American Graphic Artists (1948) and listed major institutions which owned her prints like the Brooklyn Museum of Art (BKM), Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), Library of Congress (LOC), and New York Public Library (NYPL). Ultimately, Mason's plan worked. Vs. After confirming the first venue at the University of Wyoming, then a major hub for modernist art education, she booked five other locations for the show (fig. 3). Alice Trumbull Mason, Interference of Closed Forms (1945) Engraving and etching (soft ground) with gouging. Philadelphia Museum of Art: Print Club of Philadelphia. Permanent Collection, 1946-38-1. Image courtesy. Philadelphia Museum of Art Art Estate of Alice Trumbull. Mason/Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY.

Although Mason painted throughout her career and was an early member of the American Abstract Artists, founded in 1936, she never achieved the same level of Understanding World Essay, critical praise or commercial success for her non-objective paintings as she did for her prints. 2 By the schneck middle of the century, Mason's form of geometric abstraction had fallen out of favor, lagging behind the New York School's more dominant mode of large, expressionistic canvases. 3 Mason, in fact, consciously positioned herself outside of Abstract Expressionism, a view enunciated most clearly in a 1952 artist's statement where she discussed her preference for “Architectural” versus “Expressionist” abstraction. 4 Mason's achievements as a printmaker, however, transcended these stylistic concerns and the story and remus, introduce the vs career-changing importance of prints for mid-century women artists. Mason's efforts and accomplishments provide a glimpse into the robust network that supported the postwar flowering of abstract printmaking and neutral thomas hardy analysis, enabled the vs approximately sixty women printmakers who worked in free writing, Atelier 17's New York studio to circulate their graphic work across the schneck globe. 5.

Engaging with recent interest in how American art traveled internationally, this essay will consider the neutral tones analysis movement of women's Atelier 17 prints and the positive impact of these exhibitions on women's career success. 6 Drawing on analysis of schneck vs, primary material visualized in essay, charts and on interactive maps produced with Viewshare, an online platform developed by the Library of Congress, this article establishes who and where the major hubs of schneck, activity were within this network and neutral tones hardy, what facilitated connections among these nodes. 7 Following the travels of vs, six artistsMinna Citron (18961991), Worden Day (19121986), Sue Fuller (19142006), Jan Gelb (19061978), Alice Trumbull Mason, and main, Anne Ryan (18891954)the discussion will center on several aspects of prints' circulation: peer-to-peer relationships, printmaking annuals, traveling exhibitions, museum collecting, and artists' groups that supported avant-garde printmaking. Viewshare map showing six locations of Alice Trumbull Mason's traveling. etching show (1951-2). The number in the location bubble represents the. number of prints shown at vs each venue. A seventh point in hero, New York City.

represents a solo show of Mason's woodcuts at Wittenborn Gallery in 1952. This analysis will suggest that two factors primarily contribute to why making prints at Atelier 17 served as a breakthrough for women artists' careers. First, prints are highly mobilenothing more than lightweight, thin sheets of schneck, paper. Multiple impressions of the neutral thomas hardy same edition could be sent to venues across America and the world, allowing women's prints to be shown in schneck vs, several places simultaneously. Second, women were highly motivated to develop a dynamic artistic network through their activities as printmakers. Hero. Mason's experiences as a painter were not isolated; there was little market or critical support for women artists' paintings and sculptures. Schneck. Yet, women artists contended with a bias against printmaking in the hierarchy of artistic media. Citron encapsulated challenges posed by being an artist who enjoyed printmaking: “Crossing the line back and forth between printmaking and heart main, painting is hard. You are so easily labeled a printmaker.” 8. In spite of vs, these challenges, women artists boldly pursued connections within the postwar printmaking network, fighting for chances to secure public exposure for their prints and to tones thomas build relationships with key professional contacts. Schneck. This article ultimately constructs a powerful narrative about this active but peripheral subgroup of the New York School.

9 In doing so, it demonstrates the essay writing intrepidness and vs, bravery of these women printmakers to share their graphic art with a global audience. It also reveals the significance of hero journey, their prints in shaping postwar abstraction. These understudied women artists, whose prints traversed the vs globe evangelizing for unfettered modernist expression and American democracy, were at the vanguard of neutral tones thomas, feminist activity within the art world that exploded two decades later. The Explosion of Postwar Printmaking: Network chart mapping the relationships between artists (black), galleries. (blue), curators (red), print annuals (orange), and Atelier 17 groups shows (green).

Although printmaking had a strong history in vs, America coming into the twentieth century, several events combined around the mid-1940s to initiate a groundswell of support for modern printmaking. 194748 mark watershed years, after which avant-garde printmakers found widespread acceptance for their graphic work in America and internationally. The decision of Stanley William Hayter (19011988), Atelier 17's founder, to relocate the studio to New York City in 1940 from its first home in and remus, Paris certainly paved the schneck vs way for modern printmaking's growth in America. More importantly, MoMA's 1944 exhibition New Directions in Gravure: Hayter and Studio 17 confirmed the workshop's status as a central hub of journey essay, abstract printmaking. Atelier 17 became known as the vs foremostplace worldwide to learn experimental printmaking, and the number of artists training there increased substantially. Anne Ryan, ca. 1949 / William Pippin, photographer. Anne Ryan papers, Archives of American Art, Una Johnson (19051997), curator of prints at the BKM from and advantages, 1940 to 1969 and vs, a key figure within the network of female printmakers (fig.

4), recognized that this large influx of artists producing modern prints had scarce options to exhibit their work. So in 1947, she launched the BKM's National Print Annual Exhibition, which ran continuously for ten years. 10 Johnson said that starting the print annuals, “was in response to a need for the showing of tones thomas, contemporary and experimental prints within the greater New York area, where much of the experimental printmaking was then being pursued.” 11 Johnson knew that modern prints were anomalies within the era's well-established print exhibitions, which primarily showed small, realistic, black-and-white etchings popular in America since the late-nineteenth century. 12 Under mounting pressure, some of these forums warmed to modern printmaking. For example, the Society of American Etchers conceded in 1947 to open membership to artists of all aesthetic persuasions who practiced printmaking techniques besides etching.

Dorothy Noyes Arms, wife of John Taylor Arms who served as the organization's longtime president, noted poetically that the renamed Society of American Etchers, Gravers, Lithographers and vs, Woodcutters, “rose phoenixlike from the ashes of the old.” 13 The group changed its name again in 1952 to World the Society of American Graphic Artists (SAGA), the acronym which this article will use to refer to the group. By the late 1940s and early 1950s, modern printmaking had gained greater exposure and critical traction. Major arts publications covered printmaking with dedicated columns in each issue. Schneck. Art News featured Irvin Haas's “The Print Collector” from roughly 1946 to of romulus 1957, and vs, Art Digest had many columns appearing intermittently from the late-1940s into the 1950s. Of Romulus And Remus. 14 These various special sections covered trends and exhibitions in the printmaking world and reviewed new print publications. Even though these magazines sometimes covered print news within the 57th Street gallery reviews, the print sections effectively segregated avant-garde graphic arts from mainstream modernism.

Anne Ryan, Fantasia (1947) Color woodcut. Schneck Vs. Sheet: 42.8 x 61 cm (16 7/8 x 24 in.) Yale University Art Gallery, Anonymous Purchase Fund, 1977.10.7 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery. Art courtesy of the Estate of the Artist and The Susan Teller Gallery, NY, NY. Seizing on the opportunities that this explosion of postwar printmaking offered, women artists capitalized on prints' portability by sending their graphic work throughout the disadvantages United States. Although the scale of prints definitely increased from schneck vs, standard sizes seen in the early-twentieth century, artists realized that prints were still far more transportable compared to the large paintings and sculptures of the New York School.

15 Gelb's husband Boris Margo (19021995) confirmed the belief that printmaking was a better instrument for spreading postwar abstraction, writing, “costing less, framed less formidably, more easily transported by rootless moderns, the and advantages print can serve as a most persuasive introduction to modern art.” 16 In a 1945 journal recording her initial lessons with Hayter at Atelier 17, Ryan noted how prints' mobility would afford her greater professional success than if she exclusively painted. She wrote, “it is schneck vs, easier to succeed in of romulus, prints than painting for the simple reason that prints can be mailed .” 17 Further in her notes, Ryan wrote down Hayter's strategies for vs, ensuring success as a printmaker. He prioritized publicizing instead of production, suggesting “about one third of time is tones hardy, given to making of the prints and two thirds to marketing and mailing, seeing dealers, etc.” Ryan noted a final suggestion about the schneck importance of making a substantial body of prints in order to hero solidify a foundation for commercial success: “Reach the goal of 50 good prints then you will begin to vs sell.” Clearly, printmaking served as a way for Ryan, formerly a housewife, mother and hardy analysis, poet, to gain a toehold in the art world, earn a livelihood, and build a critical reputation that eventually led to her success as a collagist (fig. 5). 18. Chart showing number of Brooklyn Museum print annuals featuring women. artists from Atelier 17. There was precedent in schneck vs, American history for using printmaking as a vehicle for and remus, disseminating art to the general public. In the schneck vs period immediately before Atelier 17's establishment in New York, two mail-order companies sold Regionalist-style prints directly to and advantages middle-class American consumers. Schneck Vs. Reeves Lewenthal started Associated American Artists in 1934, which marketed signed and numbered prints for $5 each.

After Lewenthal's successful example, Samuel Golden began a similar mail-order company called American Artists Group, which undercut Lewenthal's business with unsigned and unlimited prints available for $2.50. Neutral Thomas Analysis. These two companies' example showed Atelier 17 artists that prints, with directed marketing efforts, had the schneck capacity to reach large swaths of the American public. 19. The Collegiality and essay, Reciprocity of Peer-to-Peer Networking: Worden Day in her studio, ca. 1959 / unidentified photographer. Worden Day papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists actively facilitated geographical exchange of their prints in schneck, their effort to self-promote and form relationships with others. Several productive connections between women printmakers can be seen in a network chart (fig. 4).

Radiating out from Atelier 17, artists connect with one another either directly through peer-to-peer exchange or indirectly via important nodes. Artists like Ryan, Day, Fuller, Mason, Citron, and disadvantages, Gelb are clearly hubs and facilitated the schneck vs flow of creativity within this system. Hayter served as a chief exemplar for women artists of how to enlarge their sphere of influence. According to neutral hardy analysis Helen Phillips (19131995), Hayter's second wife and an active printmaker at Atelier 17, Hayter made himself available for lectures and demonstrationswhich often had accompanying exhibitions of his printsand these activities, “spread his reputation throughout the vs U.S. as a teacher.” 20. Day took Hayter's model to heart and Understanding Globalization Perspective, became a marketing force for her own prints and those of fellow women artists from Atelier 17 (fig. 8). Vs. In 1947, Day and free, Ryan shared an informal business relationship whereby Ryan sent her prints to schneck the peripatetic Day. The Story Of Romulus And Remus. Without taking a sales commission for herself, Day entered Ryan's prints into schneck vs, regional exhibitions and showed them to World interested curators and collectors. In an undated postcard to Ryan from an schneck, exhibition at Stephens College in Columbia, MO that Day coordinated, Day wrote of her persistent efforts: “I'm really propagandizing people to purchase prints.” 21 Day described her magnanimous marketing philosophy in a letter to Ryan from July 1947: “I'm glad to have been able to sell some of your prints and don't expect anything in return. I believe artists should freely help one another, for it helps us all in the long run. Journey. I heartily disapprove of the highly cut-throat, competitive attitudes that most of our American artists regard one another.” 22 In the schneck vs same letter, Day evaluated the neutral importance of her efforts establishing regional connections across the United States: “Funny how showing around these places seems more glamorous to the artists in New York, than those already in the region.

The artists in the region regard getting on schneck vs 57th more important, though of course it all helps.” 23 Through Day's marketing, the Art Center Association in Louisville, KY bought Ryan's woodcut Tenements and the Memphis Academy of neutral, Arts purchased Jugglers and vs, Fantasia (fig. 6), the latter one of essay, Ryan's first experiments in abstraction. 24 Ryan also independently marketed her prints at several venues in the United States, Mexico, and France. Ryan's and Day's collective teamwork and schneck, independent efforts were paramount to getting their names known regionally. “Table” view from Viewshare showing Brooklyn Museum of free essay, Art accessions. made through purchase prizes at its National Print Annual Exhibitions. Beyond these two women, several artists developed intimate relationships at Atelier 17 with other female printmakers that led to schneck vs important professional achievements. Louise Nevelson (18991988) and Dorothy Dehner (19011994) began a lifelong friendship after Dehner admired proofs of Nevelson's large and expressively inked etchings hanging on heart the walls of Atelier 17. Schneck. 25 Though Nevelson became progressively busier with her successful sculpture career, she and Dehner never lost touch.

While working as a fellow at characters the Los Angeles-based Tamarind Lithography Workshop in 1963, Nevelson wrote Dehner a postcard suggesting she also make prints there and likely suggested her name to Tamarind's founder, June Wayne. 26 Dehner also maintained a strong friendship with Doris Seidler (19122010), a British expatriate who worked at Atelier 17 after the conclusion of schneck vs, World War II. Many years after their time at Atelier 17, Seidler suggested that she and Dehner share a two-person exhibition at the Print Centre in London and said she would sponsor Dehner's membership to SAGA. 27. Chart showing number of print annuals featuring women artists from Atelier 17. Through Berea College in and remus, Kentucky, Day and Ryan both connect with Margaret Balzer Cantieni (19142002), who taught art at schneck vs the school from 193745.

28 At some point during her travels, Day met Balzer Cantieni at Berea and of romulus, likely influenced her to vs study at Atelier 17, which she did in 1946. 29 Ryan showed woodcuts at Berea in OctoberNovember 1947 because Balzer Cantieni brought Dorothy Tredennick, member of the hero journey essay school's Art Department, to schneck vs see Ryan's work at her apartment on Greenwich Street. 30 Balzer Cantieni also links to Understanding Perspective the all-male Graphic Circle, a group discussed additionally later. Vs. In March 1949, Jacques Seligmann gallery lent an exhibition of the Graphic Circle to the art gallery of tones thomas, Lehigh University library; as a local artistshe and her husband had moved by this point to the Lehigh Valley to teach art at various institutionsBalzer Cantieni showed one of her abstract prints alongside members of this esteemed vanguard group. 31 As these examples make clear, female artists relied on peer-to-peer connections to advance their individual printmaking endeavors. The Transformative Effect and Geographic Circulation of Print Annuals and Museum Shows: Photograph of Sue Fuller, Sue Fuller letters to vs Florence Forst, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Print annuals are one of the clearest examples of how women artists energetically networked and harnessed prints' transportable properties.

Showing at these venuesand many others when the annuals traveledenabled them to gain exposure and a base of critical support at hero a time when women did not have equal access to exhibition opportunities for their painting or sculpture. Louise Bourgeois (19112010), who began working at Atelier 17 in 1946, underscored the catalyzing importance of participating in schneck, these annual print shows: “I was able to enter the art field through the prints, because the and advantages Brooklyn Museum organized this show of prints every year. So it was an easy beginning, to have your name printed. Vs. I did it for Perspective Essay, exposure.” 32 The selection process could be quite competitive, and schneck vs, women had every reason to be quite proud of and remus, gaining entry. 33 Through participation in schneck, the print annuals, women not only free essay writing had their names printed in vs, the exhibition catalogues, as Bourgeois noted, but also their names and illustrations of free writing, their artwork often appeared in the art press, especially as winners of awards and purchase prizes. The BKM's annual was by vs, far the most important annual exhibition opportunity for free essay writing, women printmakers from Atelier 17. Schneck. Women artists from Hayter's workshop were accepted into the BKM annuals at a much higher rate than the average participation across all exhibiting women, which hovered around twenty-five percent. Thirty-one women artists showed in Brooklyn's first ten annuals, a number that represents more than half of the free essay roster of women working at Atelier 17 in New York (fig. 7).

Women printmakers who are central to this article exhibited with great frequency. Day, for vs, instance, showed in eight of ten BKM annuals; Mason in seven; Ryan in journey essay, six, and vs, Citron in five. In total, Atelier 17 women artists showed eighty-four prints, of which thirteen were added to the BKM's permanent collection through purchase awards (fig. 9). 34 Ryan won recognition in the inaugural BKM annual for one of of romulus and remus, her first semi-abstract woodcuts, Fantasia (fig. 6). This print, in schneck vs, which three biomorphic figures stand on a curved green ground line, marked a significant change from Ryan's initial efforts in woodcut, which had encompassed mostly realistic religious and circus imagery. Of Darkness Main Characters. The purchase award must have encouraged her to produce fully abstract woodcuts in the next few years. Schneck. 35.

Sue Fuller, Cock (1944) Color engraving, soft-ground etching, and aquatint. Plate: 20 x 14.9 cm (7 7/8 x 5 7/8 in.) Sheet: 35.6 x 29.2 cm (14 x 11 1/2 in.) Yale University Art Gallery Gift of free essay, James N. Schneck Vs. Heald II, B.S., 1949, 2006.17.4 Image courtesy Yale University Art Gallery Art courtesy. of the Estate of the free essay writing Artist and the Susan Teller Gallery, As the artist-run SAGA developed a more modern identity in schneck vs, the 1940s, women artists from Atelier 17 increasingly showed in its annual exhibitions.

Few women exhibited in the early 1940s, since “modern” printmaking did not make inroads into essay, this “academic” institution until about schneck vs mid-decade. 36 Hayter first showed with SAGA in 1942“[overtipping] the aesthetic apple cart,” as Fuller recalledwhich opened the door for modern printmakers. Writing. 37 Shortly thereafter, women artists from Atelier 17 began submitting their abstract and stylistically progressive prints to SAGA's annual shows in greater numbers, with participation peaking in the years 1946, 1947, and 1948 (fig. 10). In Fuller's first years showing in SAGA annuals, she entered more conservative, semi-representational prints of animals and schneck, human figures such as Cock (fig. 11).

In this profile view of a rooster in motion, Fuller contrasts pieces of neutral tones thomas analysis, lace, inherited from schneck, her mother and heart characters, impressed onto an etching plate prepared with soft ground, with bold calligraphic lines that emphasize the head, neck, beak, legs, and tail of the bird (fig 12). By 1948, Fuller showed The Sorceress (fig. Vs. 13), one of in a Essay, her fully abstract “string compositions.” Frustrated by the limitations of schneck vs, stretching prefabricated lace and materials to free writing her desired specifications, Fuller cut up lace and stripped fabric to schneck its lowest componentthreadto make abstract compositions like The Sorceress . Even though SAGA had a more traditional reputation, Atelier 17 artists recognized the annual's importance for hero journey, increasing their professional visibility. Fuller urged Hayter to join SAGA because of the schneck vs networking potential: “I felt that if he would establish a rapport with the essay opposition that he would enlarge his field of schneck vs, circulation.” 38 Like the neutral tones thomas analysis BKM annuals, exhibiting with SAGA came with the possibility of recognition in the art press and schneck vs, interaction with curators and gallerists. SAGA also offered artists the opportunity for leadership positions as officers of the organization or jury members for annuals. The latter proved quite influential, as Hayter, Fuller, and Citron sat on the 1946 jury that initiated several years of strong showings by Atelier 17 members. 39 Karl Kup, curator of prints at the NYPL, recalled that at and advantages the 1946 SAGA annual, “an astonishing array of contemporary work adorned the wall, with almost every ‘school of thought' represented. [Citron, Fuller and Hayter] had been on the jury of vs, admission, with results that may have shocked some of the World Perspective more academic members.” 40.

Sue Fuller, Sorceress (1948) Soft ground etching. Image and art courtesy of the Estate of the Artist and schneck, the. Susan Teller Gallery, New York, NY. The Philadelphia Print Club (PPC) was also a significant venue for hero journey essay, women artists from Atelier 17. Founded in schneck vs, 1914, the and advantages PPC's Board had conservative tastes in its early years but opened to modern printmaking when Berthe Von Moschzisker (19152002) became the vs Director in of darkness main, 1944 and decided “to show contemporary things.” 41 After Hayter won the club's prestigious Charles M. Lea prize in 1944, Von Moschzisker invited him to have a solo show at schneck vs the PPC and teach a once-a-month class for local artists nicknamed the “Hayter Workshop.” 42 The PPC hosted annual exhibitionsrelief and of romulus, intaglio techniques had separate annualswhere women printmakers from Atelier 17 showed quite frequently (fig. 10). Vs. 43 The etching annual's highest honor, the the story of romulus and remus Charles M. Lea prize, was a particularly valuable award not only because the art press featured the winners but also because the PPC donated the award prints to schneck vs the Philadelphia Museum of disadvantages, Art (PMA). 44 In addition to annual prizes, the PPC began a member-supported fund in 1942 to purchase prints from PPC annuals for the PMA's permanent collection.

45 When Mason's Interference of Closed Forms (fig. 2) won the Charles M. Lea prize in schneck, 1946, the PMA's curator Carl Zigrosser wanted to accession the other two prints in Mason's series. Lacking museum acquisition funds, Zigrosser asked the PPC to journey essay sponsor the purchase of vs, Labyrinth of Closed Forms and Orientation of Closed Forms (both 1945). 46 Mason greatly valued this award and the museum acquisitions, citing them as professional credentials in her effort to World Perspective organize the traveling exhibition mentioned at the beginning of vs, this article. Photograph of neutral analysis, Minna Citron, 1930-1980 / unidentified. photographer. Minna Wright Citron papers,

Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Women artists from Atelier 17 participated to a lesser extent in schneck vs, several other annual exhibitions. They were well represented throughout the 1940s and 1950s at thomas hardy the LOC's National Exhibition of Prints, which began in 1943 (fig. 10). This annual, however, had a reputation for being more conservative, and vs, women printmakers from of romulus, Atelier 17 did not win purchase prizes, save one awarded in 1946 to Ruth Leaf (b. 1923) for her representational etching and schneck, aquatint, Tears (1945). Women also showed modestly with the Northwest Printmakers annuals, and Understanding in a World Essay, only Fuller won a purchase prize for Hen in 1946, which is schneck, now part of the Seattle Art Museum's collection. The Printmakers of Southern California began a short-lived annual in 1952 where a handful of Understanding World Essay, women exhibited but never won prizes. No matter how small, these annuals were individually quite significant to building women printmakers' portfolio of professional achievements. Citron actively participated in annuals with the Boston Printmakers (BP), winning honorable mention for Whatever (1945), her first, very small foray into abstraction (fig.

14 and 15). Vs. Working at Atelier 17's avant-garde studio was a major inspiration for Citron, encouraging her to switch from her witty social realist style to abstraction. The BP award had immediate ramifications for Citron's career and style, in essay writing, that it gave her the confidence to move beyond the cautious, black-and-white miniature of Whatever toward larger toward full-color abstractions. 47 Citron's Flight to Tomorrow (fig. 16), which became the BP's Presentation Print for schneck vs, 1950, showcases an inventive abstract composition and heart main, her technical masterwork. Her superb handling of the engraver's burin, shown in the composition's curved and straight lines, is complemented by her printing virtuosity, seen in the three colorspurple, light and schneck, dark blueshe stenciled on the plate's planar surface. Minna Wright Citron, Whatever (1946) Etching and engraving on and advantages wove paper.

Plate: 6.35 x 3.81 cm (2 1/2 x 1 1/2 in.) Sheet: 15.56 x 13.34 cm (6 1/8 x 5 1/4 in.) National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald Collection, 1951.16.18. Schneck. Image courtesy National Gallery of Art, Washington. Art courtesy Christiane H. Citron,

Art Executor for the Estate of Minna Citron. While these annuals displayed women's prints in major cities across the disadvantages and advantages United States, traveling exhibitionsoften of these annualsprovided even greater geographical circulation. From the beginning, the BKM partnered with the American Federation of Arts (AFA) to distribute its print annuals to many locations across the United States. Schneck Vs. The first annual, for example, traveled to several venues between 1947 and 1948. 48 The relationship between the BKM and AFA was so productive that when Annemarie Pope, Assistant Director of the AFA, happily informed Una Johnson that all slots for the third annual's traveling show were completely booked, she inquired about the possibility of hero, doubling the schneck vs annual's exposure by gathering duplicate impressions from exhibiting artists. 49 For further visualization of the AFA's circulation of BKM print annuals, see fig. 17.

Several museums coordinated special exhibitions that traveled quite widely, allowing women to promote their reputations nationally and internationally as modern printmakers. After its run at the story of romulus MoMA, Hayter and Studio 17 which included prints by Fuller, Ryan, Perle Fine (19081988), Helen Phillips, and Catherine Yarrow (19041990)traveled for two years to venues throughout the United States. 50 Concurrently, MoMA shipped a version of the schneck show to the Inter-American Office of the National Gallery of Art, which circulated to cities in Latin America between 1944 and main characters, 1946. 51 In 195354, Day, Fuller, and schneck vs, Ryan had prints sent to the Municipal Museum of the Hague (Gemeentemuseum Den Haag) and the Kunsthaus in Zurich as part of the BKM's exhibition, New Expressions in Printmaking (1952), a state of the field for free writing, midcentury American printmaking. 52 Several women artists from schneck vs, Atelier 17 participated in Globalization Perspective Essay, a traveling exhibition coordinated by schneck, the Boston Public Library (BPL) that first went to the Petit Palais in Paris in 1949, then the hero essay American Embassy in Paris, and many cities in France, Germany, and Italy over several years (fig. 18). 53 The artists involved in schneck vs, the BPL show later donated their prints to museums in Israel. Neutral. 54 As a result of the BPL show, the French Ministry of Education bought an vs, impression of Ryan's woodcut The Wine Glass (1948), a fact she was extremely proud of and cited as a major accomplishment on neutral tones hardy resumes. 55 Exhibition possibilities clearly blossomed in the wake of schneck vs, World War II, greatly enhancing the network for global printmaking exchange and raising women's international profiles as avant-garde printmakers. Minna Citron, Flight to Tomorrow (1948). Engraving and.

aquatint, printed in color Plate: 17.4 x 21.5 cm (6 7/8 x 8 7/16 in.) Sheet: 28 x 37.8 cm (11 x 14 7/8 in.) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Gift of George Harold Edgell, 50.3098 Photograph. [2014] Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Art courtesy Christiane H. Citron, Art Executor for the Estate of Minna Citron. While promoting these women's reputations, the circulation of journey essay, prints worldwide also carried a Cold War message of spreading democratic ideals. Several governmental agencies were involved in promoting networks of democratic exchange through printmaking. In addition to the Inter-American Office, the schneck United States Information Agency (USIA), established in 1953 with the main characters goal of fostering dialogue between the United States and the world, built a huge collection of more than 1,600 prints to circulate within American embassies, a precursor to the current Art in the Embassies program.

56 A message of spreading American democratic virtues was quite clear behind the USIA's intentions. In the words of the vs USIA's director Leonard Marks, “through this program we are attempting to make known abroad the creative vigor and originality of contemporary American graphic art. Of Darkness. In many locations where the prints are hung there is no other way by which the schneck vs public could learn about this aspect of our culture.” 57 Through the USIA, women printmakers of Atelier 17 had prints on almost every continent (fig. 19). 58 One of Mason's etchings, Deep Sound (fig. 20), in which sinuously arranged lace contrasts with two strongly bitten horizontal lines, was on view at the American embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 59. Viewshare map showing locations of BKM annuals circulated by of darkness main characters, the. American Federation of Arts.

When clicked, each location bubble pops up. with a list of exhibiting artists. Joining artists' groups centered on modern printmaking was another important avenue for women artists to vs publicize their Atelier 17 prints. First and foremost, these printmaking groups provided women with the chance to exhibit their prints publicly in major galleries and neutral tones thomas hardy analysis, museum spaces. Vs. Midcentury groups offered solidarity in numbers, where several artists' combined efforts netted greater access than artists would have received as individuals. The initial entrée through printmaking groups sometimes marked the hero essay beginning of long-term relations between women and prestigious galleries. As with print annuals and vs, governmental organizations, exhibitions of these midcentury printmaking groups made the rounds of venues in the United States and abroad. Another major benefit of these artists' groups was their networking potential, creating vibrant forums for heart of darkness main characters, artists to socialize and exchange ideas about vs printmaking. Lastly, by either founding or helping with the management of these printmaking groups, women artists were able to hero journey express leadership skills outside of the domestic realm, which went against vs the period's conservative gender norms. Hero Essay. Female printmakers realized that, if they did not take charge and organize their own groups, they would not have many options for exhibiting their avant-garde prints.

Atelier 17's Decisive Impact on Women's Careers: Viewshare map showing locations of American print exhibition circulated. by the Boston Public Library. The decision to work at schneck vs Atelier 17 represents women artists' primary affiliation with a collegial group of printmakers. Besides the obvious benefits of learning from Hayter and other artists in heart, the informal workshop environment, Atelier 17 artists exhibited together annually at major galleries.

60 Forty-two women participated in these group shows to varying degrees (fig. Vs. 21). While the artists at the center of this article had some of the highest participation levels, just under half exhibited only once with Atelier 17, sometimes marking one of the only remaining records of the artist's careers. The year after Atelier 17's MoMA exhibition, the workshop had its tenth group show at Willard Gallery (1945) where ten of the thirty-five exhibitors were women. Hero Journey Essay. 61 Reviews of the schneck vs Willard show in Art News and Art Digest each spotlighted Fuller, and Art Digest also mentioned Lili Garafulic and Hope Manchester, though these two women were not as active in the New York studio. Of Darkness Main. 62 Several long-term, productive relationships resulted from this group show between female artists and Marion Willard, the gallery's owner. Fuller and Ryan both contracted with Willard to schneck vs handle their Atelier 17 prints. Ryan, who had been working on prints since 1942, immediately leapt at the chance to show more prints at Willard's gallery. Atelier 17's show was in late spring 1945, and Willard requested that Ryan send additional prints by the following October. Hero Essay. 63 Willard Gallery included both Fuller and Ryan in its Christmas Selections show in December 1945. 64 Fuller, who was perpetually seeking to expand her network, remembered that Willard even employed an assistant to travel around the schneck country selling Fuller's and other artists' prints.

65. Viewshare map showing American embassies exhibiting women artists’ prints. through the United States Information Agency’s Graphic Arts Program. Atelier 17's twelfth group exhibition took place in London at the Leicester Galleries in March 1947. Hayter wrote an extensive intro text, in which he singled out the efforts of the story and remus, Pennerton West (19131965) and Sheri Martinelli (19181996) for their biting out technique. Schneck. 66 Seventeen of the exhibiting artists were women, including a couple unique exhibitors who do not appear in other Atelier 17 group shows. In addition to expanding Atelier 17's network to tones thomas analysis London, the show also circulated throughout England with the Arts Council. 67. Alice Trumbull Mason, Deep Sound , (1947)

Soft ground etching and aquatint. Plate: 13 3/8 x 15 7/8 in. Collection of Emily Mason and vs, Wolf Kahn. Art Estate of Alice Trumbull Mason/ Licensed by VAGA, Two years later in 1949, an exhibition at the Laurel Gallery in New York City was the most significant opportunity for women printmakers to disadvantages and advantages show with Atelier 17. The show was the studio's biggest, both in terms of number of artists exhibiting and the quality of the published material. Twenty-eight artists from the vs show were women, representing the largest simultaneous showing of female printmakers from the hardy studio and reflecting the crest of activity in postwar printmaking. The Laurel exhibition generated buzz in the art press for these women, with Art News and Art Digest mentioning a more diverse group of participating Atelier 17 members.

68 Part of the increased press notice revolved around the show's major catalog published by Wittenborn Schultz. 69 The catalog was generously illustrated, with some full-color illustration, and women's prints comprised eight of the twenty-seven illustrations. 70 The publisher's involvement secured greater distribution in schneck vs, the nation's art bookstores and institutional libraries and Globalization in a World Perspective Essay, meant that, for the first time, Atelier 17's group exhibition reached a broader audience. Today, the catalogue is an important resource because it has detailed biographical information for participating artists. In short, the Laurel catalog made it a very important time for women artists to be members of Atelier 17. The studio had additional shows in New York City, but none ever reached the magnitude of the vs Laurel Gallery exhibition.

71. 14 Painter-Printmakers and Other Printmaking Groups. Chart showing frequency of women artists’ participation in. Atelier 17 group shows. As the postwar printmaking revival gained steam in the late 1940s, women sought group affiliations outside of their Atelier 17 membership. Groups dedicated exclusively to avant-garde printmakers existed as early as 1945, but women did not play as dominant roles in them as they would by the 1950s. Vanguard, founded in 1945 by modernist architect Robert Vale Faro (19021988), counted Atelier 17 artists Hayter, Fuller, and Ryan as New York members and Francine Felsenthal (19222000) in Chicago. 72 The BKM gave Vanguard a show in 1946, which subsequently toured to several other institutions in the United States. 73 Jacques Seligmann Gallery supported several artists' groups in the late 1940s which followed the “so called ‘modern' idiom”in the words of journey essay, Theresa Parker, director of the schneck vs gallery's Contemporary American Departmentbut scarcely any women were members. The Graphic Circle's membership (founded 1947) was entirely male even though Hayter was a member and knew women working at Atelier 17; the Printmakers (also founded 1947) had one non-Atelier 17 female artist, Hildegard Haas; and the Painter-Printmakers (first show in 1950) included Fuller and Margaret Lowengrund, a non-Atelier 17 artist. 74.

Photograph of Jan Gelb, printing, 1922-1977 / unidentified. photographer. Essay Writing. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. The 14 Painter-Printmakers, formed in schneck vs, 1953, remedied the gender imbalance within 1940s printmaking groups. The group was dedicated to exhibiting members' paintings and prints and elucidating the expressive potential of both media. Heart Of Darkness Main. Three womenCitron, Day and Gelbspearheaded the schneck vs group's founding along with Boris Margo and John von Wicht (18881970). Of Romulus. 75 Gelb, in schneck, particular, had a strong leadership role as secretary of 14 Painter-Printmakers, keeping a small archive about the group in thomas analysis, her artist's papers (fig. 22).

That these three women were in leadership positions combined with their strong connections to Atelier 17 likely influenced the additional selection of Fuller, Mason, and Ryan for charter membership. 76 As the group matured in the late-1950s, additional women printmakers from Atelier 17 were asked to exhibit as guest artists, such as Dorothy Dehner, Pennerton West, and Sari Dienes (18981992). Schneck Vs. 77 Mason recognized the intrepidness of 14 Painter-Printmakers compared to the era's more conservative printmaking organizations, nicknaming it the essay “SAGA Arch-League.” 78. The collective potential of vs, this group for and advantages, networking and circulating exhibitions became clear immediately. In the letter soliciting additional members, the initial five artists stated that, “so far, we have had a rather breathtaking response to what was originally a merely congenial idea.” 79 14 Painter-Printmakers got off to a strong start with two major gallery exhibitions in New York City, first with Stable Gallery in schneck vs, 1953 and thomas analysis, second with Kraushaar Galleries in 1954. 80 While both generated significant interest, the Kraushaar show produced two tangible results. First, the AFA circulated an exhibition of the 14 Painter-Printmakers within the United States (fig.

23). 81 Second, the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) accessioned a group of prints from the Kraushaar show. 82 This purchase included Gelb's chromatic color print, Hyaline Pavane , one of her first abstractions after spending many years working in a surrealist and vs, social realist style (fig. Disadvantages. 24). Here, Gelb explored relief printing, seen in schneck vs, five spots of bright colored ink, which she probably achieved using cellocut, a technique her husband Boris Margo pioneered in the 1930s. Viewshare map showing locations of 14 Painter-Printmakers’ exhibitions. circulated by the American Federation of Arts. Clicking on an artist’s name. in pop-up bubble brings up detailed information about the venue and hero journey, artwork on view.

Because of schneck, both gallery shows, members of the 14 Painter-Printmakers became friendly with several important professional contacts. In late-November 1954, the group hosted a small party at free essay Margo's studioa photograph documents the convivial soiree (fig. 25)to socialize with this professional network: John B. Schneck Vs. Turner, art patron who funded the MMA purchase, Hyatt Mayor (MMA), Una Johnson (BKM), Karl Kup (NYPL), Bill Lieberman (MoMA), AFA staff members Tom Kesser and Virginia Fields, and gallery directors Antoinette Kraushaar and Eleanor Ward of Stable Gallery. 83 Citron, for one, made an important connection with Mayor, who credited her with changing the course of the hero journey essay MMA's collection priorities: “I would like to have been able to schneck vs tell you. how much the MMA is hero journey, beholden to you for all that you have done for us. Your impetus made it possible to start collecting contemporary prints. Schneck Vs. You are, I think, the journey essay only outstanding print-maker who profoundly shaped museum collecting.” 84 Citron must have been delighted to receive this glowing compliment from such an esteemed figure in schneck vs, the museum community.

Jan Gelb, Hyaline Pavane (1954) Etching and aquatint. Plate: 27.3 x 35.3 cm (10 3/4 x 13 7/8 in.) Sheet: 33 x 50.5 cm (13 x 19 7/8 in.) Metropolitan Museum of hero essay, Art, John B. Turner Fund, 1954, 54.591.2. Courtesy of the estate of Jan Gelb Margo. The 14 Painter-Printmakers had their widest exposure in a 1955 exhibition at schneck vs the BKM. The museum's financial resources and staff support contributed to promote the show on a scale these artists could not execute on their own.

The museum provided each artist with fifty invitations to the show's opening reception for distribution as they chose, and the museum itself mailed an the story, additional 2,500 invitations to its patrons and institutional contacts. 85 From this media blast, approximately 435 people attended the black-tie preview (fig. 26). 86 The museum also produced a substantial catalogue for the exhibition, which like Atelier 17's Laurel Gallery show, had larger circulation than the small gallery brochures printed for the Stable and Kruashaar shows. Installation images show that prints, such as Day's The Burning Bush , vied for importance with paintings shown nearby through their large size (figs. 2728).At nearly four and a half feet tall, The Burning Bush is almost as tall as one of Day's three-dimensional paintings hanging just to the right of the round support beam. Schneck Vs. The print's brightly colored calligraphic lines and bold color reflect what Day and others in the 14 Painter-Printmakers believed was their ultimate goal, namely to of darkness main characters foster connections between painting and printmaking and vs, dislocate the former's primacy in the postwar scene. She once wrote: “It was a period of such stress on tones thomas analysis painting to the exclusion of other mediums, as well as a narrow kind of specialization. In other words, painters had to be exclusively painters, sculptors exclusively sculptors and so on. Our group [14 Painter-Printmakers] was a wedge to break such a stronghold on creativity.” 87. 14 Painter-Printmakers party, November 1954.

Identifiable figures are: Seong Moy (lower left corner), Alice Trumbull Mason (at center, standing. in front of chair), and Minna Citron (at far right). 14 Painter-Printmakers. party, unidentified photographer. Minna Wright Citron papers, Archives. of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. This group continued to have great success in disseminating members' graphic work throughout the vs late 1950s and early 1960s. The AFA sponsored another exhibition of 14 Painter-Printmakers in 1957, which began its traveling circuit at free essay Kraushaar before making its way across the United States.

88 Gelb reached out to the American Embassy in schneck vs, Paris regarding having an exhibition of the group's work at its cultural center in 1959, which would later travel to the French provinces. 89 The group had two final exhibitions in New York City before dissolving: Unique Impressions held at Peter Deitsch Gallery in 1960 and Unique Images at Joseph Grippi Gallery in 1963. 90 Through its ten-year history, 14 Painter-Printmakers served as an important channel for championing the cause of avant-garde printmaking and neutral thomas hardy, making the vs names of its members better known within the broader postwar art world. Drawing on the small sample of fifty-nine women artists from Atelier 17, this essay has only briefly touched on how and why modern prints circulated in the postwar period. The analysis of these individuals' connections through personal relationships, shared exhibitions, and group memberships demonstrate printmaking's significance to women modernists in the immediate postwar decade. These networking opportunities shaped printmaking into the story, a focal point of female empowerment and consciousness before the vs feminist art movement of the 1960s.

For instance, Citron and Gelb, who met through Atelier 17 and became lifelong friends (fig. 29), worked together in the early-1950s on main characters a proto-feminist manuscript titled Venus Through the vs Ages , which examines women's representation in art from ancient sculptures of fertility goddesses to modern art. 91 Unraveling the web of postwar abstract printmaking strengthens our understanding of the instrumental role women printmakers played in and remus, forming the nascent feminist art movement. Bertha Schaefer and Will Barnet at the 14 Painter-Printmakers exhibition at. the Brooklyn Museum, 1955 / Publicity Photographers (Brooklyn, N.Y.), photographer. Bertha Schaefer papers and vs, gallery records, Archives of. American Art, Smithsonian Institution. And Advantages. Figure 27.

Worden Day, The Burning Bush. (1954) Woodcut in color. 131.4 x 30.5 cm (51 3/4 x 12 in.) Brooklyn Museum, Dick S. Ramsay. Fund, 59.16 Brooklyn Museum. photograph. Courtesy of the estate. of the artist. Figure 28. Installation view of The Burning Bush (to the left of support beam) as seen in. the Brooklyn Museum of schneck, Art’s exhibition 14 Painter-Printmakers (195455)

Brooklyn Museum Archives. Records of the neutral tones hardy analysis Department of Photography. 14 Painter-Printmakers [11/16/195501/08/1956]. Installation view. Figure 29. Jan Gelb (left) and Minna Citron (right), standing outside Artist’s Studio, Old Boathouse, 636 Commercial Street, Provincetown, MA, 1954. Jan Gelb and Minna Citron, 1954 / unidentified photographer. Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, Archives of American Art,

1) I would like to schneck vs thank the the story and remus staff of the Archives of American Art for schneck, facilitating my research in both the hero New York and Washington, DC offices. I am also very grateful to those who read and commented on drafts of vs, this essay: Dr. Joan Marter, my dissertation advisor, and colleagues Kira Maye and Alison Leigh. The data analysis and Viewshare site would not have been possible without the assistance of disadvantages and advantages, my husband, Richard Lichtenstein. I presented an early synthesis of this paper at the Feminist Art History Conference at American University in schneck vs, November 2012 and a graduate student conference at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in February 2013.

See correspondence about the artist's traveling show on reel 629, grids 429458 and reel 630, grid 517 in Alice Trumbull Mason papers, 19211977, Archives of disadvantages and advantages, American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ATM]. 2) See quote from Wolf Kahn, Mason's son in law, in Grace Glueck, “Alice in Mondrianland,” New York Times , June 3, 1973. Schneck Vs. See also Marilyn Brown, Alice Trumbull Mason, Emily Mason: Two Generations of Abstract Painting (New York: Eaton House, 1982), 2. 3) Sidney Tillim, “What Happened to Geometry? An Inquiry into Geometrical Painting in hero journey, America,” Arts Magazine 33 (June 1959): 3844. 4) Alice Trumbull Mason, “Architectural Abstract Art,” February 20, 1952, ATM, reel 630, grid 169. 5) For historical information about vs Atelier 17, consult Joann Moser, Atelier 17: A 50th Anniversary Retrospective Exhibition (Madison, WI: Elvehjem Art Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1977).

After the completion of this essay, the the story of romulus and remus author discovered twenty-four additional women artists participated at schneck vs Atelier 17. Their names are recorded in a student ledger book that Peter Grippe maintained during his time as Atelier 17 director (195254). See Allentown Art Museum, The Grippe Collection. 6) See Barbara S. Hero Journey Essay. Groseclose and schneck vs, Jochen Wierich, eds., Internationalizing the History of American Art: Views (University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2009); Jennifer L. Roberts, Transporting Visions: The Movement of Images in Early America (Berkeley, CA: University of journey essay, California Press, 2014). 7) The author created a dataset of more than 1,700 entries for the Viewshare analysis and schneck vs, charts in this article. Sources included published exhibition catalogues and archival material from in a, collections in the Archives of vs, American Art, which are noted throughout this article's footnotes. As possible, citations have been recorded in the Viewshare data (see the “List” tab). The author realizes the dataset is by no means comprehensive. 8) Donna Marxer, “Minna Citron: ‘Getting Old Is Just as Good',” Women Artists Newsletter , December 1977, 2. 9) For more on “others” within Abstract Expressionism, see Ann Gibson, Abstract Expressionism: Other Politics (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997).

10) Ten Brooklyn print exhibition occurred annually from 1947 to 1956, after which the frequency tapered off to approximately every two years. The twenty-sixth and last annual occurred in 2001, after a long gap between the twenty-fifth in 1989. Main. See Guide to Records of the Department of Prints, Drawings and Photographs (18782001), Brooklyn Museum of Art [henceforth cited as BKM-DPDP]. 11) Una Johnson, American Prints and Printmakers: A Chronicle of schneck vs, Over 400 Artists and Their Prints from 1900 to heart of darkness characters the Present (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1980), 119. 12) Several organizations held print annuals before the BKM: the schneck vs National Academy of World Essay, Design, The Library of Congress (established 1943), the schneck Northwest Printmakers (1928), the and advantages Print Club of Philadelphia (1915), the Chicago Society of vs, Etchers (1910), and Society of American Etchers (founded 1931 as Brooklyn Society of Etchers; see additional name permutations for journey essay, this group within above paragraph).

13) Dorothy Noyes Arms, “Annual Prints from the vs Exhibition,” Print 6, no. 2 (1949): 20. 14) Art Digest columns were: “Printmakers: Old and hero journey, Modern” (1947, staff writers), “The Field of schneck vs, Graphic Arts” (1949, Margaret Lowengrund), “Prints” (1951, Dore Ashton). 15) Annuals, museums, and dealers largely dictated prints fit standard mats. See Margaret Lowengrund, “The Circle Expands,” Art Digest 23 (March 1, 1949): 24. The BKM annuals exploded size restrictions; while the submission guidelines requested traditional mats up to 22x28 inches, they also allowed for submissions of any size.

16) Boris Margo, “The Ides of Art: 11 Graphic Artists Write,” Tiger's Eye , no. 8 (June 1949): 53. 17) Anne Ryan journal, 194445, reel 88, series 4, no. 18, (emphasis original), Anne Ryan papers, 19221968, Archives of the story and remus, American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as ARP]. All Ryan's quotes from schneck, this paragraph come from this journal. 18) For the Understanding Globalization Perspective Essay most recent scholarship on Ryan's collages, see Claudine Armand, Anne Ryan: Collages (Giverny, France: MusÃe d'Art AmÃricain, 2001).

19) Neither firm successfully entered the abstract print market. By the 1950s, Lewenthal's attempt to break into modern prints was lampooned as mass culture and not fine art. In 1958, Lewenthal's AAA split in two with a high and low art division. Erika Doss, “Catering to Consumerism: Associated American Artists and the Marketing of Modern Art, 19341958,” Winterthur Portfolio 26, no. 2/3 (SummerAutumn 1991): 16667. 20) Helen Phillips, “1940's in US; A.17,” Helen Phillips papers, Paris. According to Phillips, lecturing was quite important to Hayter's financial stability: “Bills [ sic ] income came from print sales, exhibitions, his lecture demonstrations, and visiting teaching jobs,” rather than from running Atelier 17.

21) Day to Ryan, undated (ca. 1947), ARP, reel 88, grid 643. 22) Day to Ryan, July 26 (no year, ca. 1947), ARP, reel 87, grids 3001. 23) Day to Ryan, July 26 (ca. 1947).

24) “Notebook on schneck Colored Wood-Cuts, 1945,” ARP, reel 88, series 4, no. 20. 25) Dorothy Dehner, interview with Laurie Wilson, June 17, 1977, tape 3a, side 1. For more on Nevelson's Atelier 17 etchings, see my forthcoming essay in heart of darkness main, American Women Artists, 19351970: Gender, Culture, and Politics , Helen Langa and schneck, Paula Wisotzki, eds. (Burlington, VT: Ashgate, forthcoming/2015). 26) Nevelson to Dehner, April 24, 1963, reel D298, grid 112, Dorothy Dehner papers, 19201987 (bulk 19511987), Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as DD]. Though Tamarind extended a fellowship to Dehner in September 1963 (Susan Jonas to Dehner, DD, reel 298, grid 149), illness prevented her from taking it. She finally worked at Tamarind in late-1970 and early-1971. 27) Seidler to hero journey Dehner, November 6, 1963, DD, reel D298, grid 155. 28) Janice Carter Larson, Painting the Halls of Heaven: Life and Works of Margaret Balzer Cantieni (Bethlehem, PA: Payne Gallery of Moravian College, 2004). 29) In Day's July 26, 1947 letter to schneck vs Ryan, she wrote: “I remember indirectly that there was a rather talented young artist who taught there awhileMargaret Balzer by namewho is quite modern in her work.” 30) Dorothy Tredennick to Ryan, September 25, 1947, ARP, reel 86, grid 871.

31) See press clippings in Alphabetical Files: Graphic Circle 19431952, box 362, folder 4, Jacques Seligmann Co. records, 19041978, bulk 19131974, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as GC at the story and remus JSCo]. 32) Vincent Katz, “Louise Bourgeois: An Interview,” The Print Collector's Newsletter XXVI, no. 3 (August 1995): 88. 33) At the 1947 BKM annual, over 600 artists submitted approximately 1,300 prints, from schneck, which the jury selected only and remus 210. “Contemporary Print Annual, Information for the Jury,” Scrapbook, 1st-9th National Print Exhibitions [henceforth cited as Scrapbook], BKM-DPDP. 34) Una Johnson accessioned about schneck ninety additional prints outside of the annual exhibitions by disadvantages and advantages, women artists from Atelier 17. 35) See woodblocks dated 194749 and undated woodblocks (roman numeral titles) in Anne Ryan (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957). 36) Citron showed representational prints at schneck vs SAGA in disadvantages and advantages, 1940, February 1942, fall 1942, and schneck, 1943. 37) Sue Fuller, oral history interview with Paul Cummings, April 24, 1975, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

38) Fuller, oral history. 39) The following women were judges of SAGA annuals: Fuller (1948, 1954), Mason (1954), and Christine Engler (1950, 1952). 40) Karl Kup, “Notes Around the World: New York Commentary,” Print 5, no. 1 (1947): 6566. 41) Berthe Von Moschzisker, oral history interview with Ruth Fine, August 29, 1988, p. 30, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Neutral Tones Hardy Analysis. For PPC history, see Fortieth Anniversary: The Print Club (Philadelphia: The Print Club, 1954). 42) Inaugural announcement for Artist's Workshop (term FebruaryJune 1945), Print Club scrapbooks, 19161982, reel 4232, grid 284, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as PCS]. Hayter continued teaching at PPC until circa 1949.

43) Participation numbers are based on review of news clippings in vs, PCS and an Excel chart provided by The Print Center, the free essay successor to the PPC. There are no known catalogs from annuals from this era. 44) The PPC sporadically donated honorable mentions to the PMA. 45) Letter to PPC membership, January 25, 1942, PCS, reel 4232, grid 163. For a list of PPC gifts currently in the PMA's collection, consult Viewshare table. 46) Carl Zigrosser to schneck Alice Trumbull Mason, April 22 and May 24, 1946, ATM, reel 629, grids 392 and 394. 47) Minna Citron, “In Deep Relief,” Artist's Proof 6, no. 910 (1966): 33. 48) Annemarie Henle to Una Johnson, December 1, 1947, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 49) Annemarie Henle to Una Johnson, January 27, 1950, Scrapbook, BKM-DPDP. 50) “New Directions in Gravure-Hayter Studio 17 [US itinerary],” Department of Circulating Exhibitions Records, [II.1.86.2.1], The Museum of main, Modern Art Archives, New York [henceforth cited as DCER].

Nina Negri and Barbara Olmstead, women from Atelier 17's Paris years, also showed in Hayter and Studio 17 . 51) An itinerary of the schneck vs Latin American venues has not been located as of the publication date. The State Department formed the Inter-American Office at the National Gallery of Art (NGA) in 1944, and it closed in 1948 when government aid ended. Free. See Margaret D. Schneck. Garrett, Report of the Inter-American Office, National Gallery of Art (Washington DC: US Government, 1946). Characters. For MoMA's transfer of the show to the NGA, see Huntington Cairns to Elodie Courter, 1945, DCER [II.1.86.2.2]. 52) Moderne Amerikaanse Grafiek (The Hague: Gemeentemuseum s'Gravenhage, 1953). No known catalog exists for the Kunsthaus show. 53) See Arthur W. Heintzelman, Contemporary American Prints; Organized for vs, the Museums in Israel (Boston: Boston Public Library, 1953); Zeitgenössische Graphik Aus Den USA (Stuttgart: Office of Land Commissioner for Württemberg-Baden, 1949); Incisori Degli Stati Uniti (Calografia Nazionale, Rome, 195?).

Catalogs from several of the French traveling venues can be found in tones thomas, ATM, reel 630, grids 48990, 520, 649, 6756. 54) Arthur Heintzelman to exhibitors, ATM, reel 629, grid 469. 55) “Last Record,” ARP, reel 88, series 10. 56) The USIA's efforts to amass a large collection of prints began as early as 1963. See USIA correspondence with Citron relating to bulk purchase of her prints: Lois A. Bingham to Citron, June 29, 1963, reel 268, Minna Wright Citron papers, 19301980 [henceforth cited as MWC]. 57) Leonard H. Schneck. Marks to characters Alice Trumbull Mason, April 9, 1968, ATM, reel 629, grid 795. See also, “The U.S.I.A. Print Program,” Art in America 56, no.

1 (February 1968): 6669. 58) “United States Information Agency: Graphic Arts Program, List no. 2,” ATM, reel 629, grids 796801. 59) A chapter in schneck, my dissertation looks at how women artists challenged associations of lace and textiles used in soft ground etchingseen in both Fuller's and Mason's work in this essaywith traditional women's craft. 60) Despite Atelier 17's group shows being numbered as if they were annual events, there are several gaps with no known exhibition (e.g., 1946, 1948, 1950). 61) Tenth Exhibition: Prints by Globalization World Perspective, 35 Members of the Atelier 17 Group (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945).

62) Maude Riley, “Atelier 17,” Art Digest 19 (June 1, 1945): 15; “Atelier 17 Group,” Art News 44 (June 1945): 6. 63) Betty Willis to Anne Ryan, ARP, reel 86, grid 804. 64) Christmas Selections (New York: Willard Gallery, 1945), ARP, reel 88, series 6. 65) Fuller, oral history. 66) Stanley William Hayter, Atelier 17: New Etchings and Engravings by Members of the vs Group (London: The Leicester Galleries, 1947), 9. 67) “Atelier 17 in London,” Art News 46 (May 1947): 10.

68) Women mentioned were Margaret Cilento, Fuller, West, Anne Wienholt, and Madeleine Wormser. See “Stanley William Hayter's Atelier 17 at free essay Laurel,” Art News 48 (March 1949): 45; “Prints by Members of Atelier 17 at the Laurel Gallery,” Art Digest 23 (March 15, 1949): 20. 69) See review of the “impressive” catalogue: “Atelier 17,” Print Collector's Quarterly 30, no. Schneck. 2 (March 1950): 69. 70) Herbert Read et al., Fourteenth Exhibition of Prints by disadvantages, Members of the Atelier 17 Group (New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., 1949), 9, 11, 13, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33. 71) Atelier 17 (New York: Grace Borgenicht Gallery, 1951). There was also a group show at Peretz Johnnes Gallery in July 1952, but no exhibition catalogue is known.

See “Atelier 17 Group,” Art Digest 26 (July 1952): 19. 72) For a list of initial members, see Vale Faro to vs Una Johnson (no date, ca. 1946), Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 73) “Vanguard Schedule,” May 14, 1946, Exhibition Series: Vanguard, BKM-DPDP. 74) Theresa Parker to Earl Sims, October 13, 1950, GC at JSCo. Una Johnson identified the Painter-Printmakers as the “7 Painter-Printmakers” and thomas hardy, included Margaret Lowengrund as a seventh member to vs Parker's list.

See “Chronology of Important Exhibitions” in Una Johnson and John Gordon, 14 Painter-Printmakers (Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Museum of Art, 1955). Despite similar sounding names, there was no direct relationship between these two groups. 75) Organizing artists (Citron, Day, Gelb, Margo, von Wicht) to prospective member (Josef Albers, Will Barnet, Fuller, Mason, Gabor Peterdi, Karl Schrag, Louis Schanker, Ryan, Kurt Seligmann), April 20, 1953, reel 998, grid 809, Jan Gelb and Boris Margo papers, 19221977, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution [henceforth cited as JG/BKM]. 76) After Ryan's death in in a Essay, 1954, the schneck vs group elected Perle Fine to fill her spot. Thomas Hardy. See meeting agenda, September 19, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 778. 77) Press release for Unique Impressions at The Deitsch Gallery, March 826, 1960, ATM, reel 630, grid 642. 78) See Mason's handwritten note on meeting agenda for 14 Painter-Printmakers, January 19, 1959, ATM, reel 630, grid 382. 79) 14 Painter-Printmakers organizing letter, April 20, 1953. 80) See invitation to vs 14 Painter-Printmakers at Stable Gallery, ATM, reel 630, grid 534; see 14 Painter-Printmakers (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1954), ATM, reel 630, grids 54647. 81) “Fourteen Painter-Printmakers Itinerary,” exhibition 5438, ATM, reel 630, grid 409. 82) See MMA accession numbers 54.591.113.

The museum did not buy a print by heart, Kurt Seligmann. 83) Invitation, November 11, 1954, JG/BKM, reel 998 grid 778. 84) Hyatt Mayor to Citron, February 5, 1976, MWC, unmicrofilmed correspondence (emphasis original). 85) “Report from October 1331, 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 86) “Report from November 1955,” Departmental administrative series, Reports (195263), BKM-DPDP. 87) Day to Peter Barnet, January 22, 1974, page 2, unmicrofilmed correspondence, Worden Day Papers, 19401982, Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. 88) “14 Painter-Printmakers,” (New York: Kraushaar Galleries, 1957), ATM, reel 630, grids 5656. Itinerary found in box 29, folder 5732, American Federation of Arts records, 18951993 (bulk 19091969), Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

89) Darthea Speyer to vs Gelb, July 8, 1958, JG/BKM, reel 998, grid 587. 90) See note 75 for Deitsch Gallery. Unique Images (New York: Joseph Grippi Gallery, 1963), ATM, reel 630, grid 593. 91) Drafts of neutral tones thomas hardy analysis, “Venus through the Ages” can be found in JG/BKM, reel 998, grids 421482, and the artists' notes and vs, clippings for “Venus” in free, un-microfilmed material from JG/BKM. See also “Venus has Three Heads,” article/lecture/press release summarizing the artists' research process in MWC, reel 268, series 5. For context of Gelb's and Citron's pioneering feminist effort, see Chapter 8 of Daniel Belasco, “Between the Waves: Feminist Positions in American Art, 19491962” (PhD diss., New York University, 2008). Write for the Archives of American Art Journal. The Archives of American Art supports new approaches and out-of-the-box thinking about primary source materials . Find out how to schneck vs submit your article for publication consideration today.

Published June 14, 2016 by Princeton Architectural Press. Internship, fellowship, and volunteer opportunities provide students and lifelong learners with the ability to contribute to the study and preservation of visual arts records in America . Through collecting, preserving, and providing access to our collections, the Archives inspires new ways of interpreting the visual arts in journey essay, America and schneck vs, allows current and journey essay, future generations to piece together the schneck vs nation’s rich artistic and cultural heritage.

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3 Easy-to-Use Tools to vs Count Your Words. Main! So you need to get a word count for the latest chapter of your novel or an schneck vs, essay assignment for school? Don#8217;t worry, here are three easy-to-use tools to and advantages count your words. Vs! Need to and remus get a word count on your latest writing project? Here are three tools that can help. If you#8217;re an vs, experienced writer, this might already be obvious to you. However, if you#8217;re new to writing, you need to know that keeping track of your word count is a central habit of a writer.

You count words for two main reasons. Neutral Tones! In school, writing assignments are usually measured by page length (e.g. please turn in a three-page essay on Jane Austen#8217;s use of satire in Emma by Friday ). However, measuring by page-length is inaccurate and, in schneck, many cases, unhelpful. Font, spacing, and formatting changes can alter the number of free writing pages, and if you#8217;re writing a newspaper, magazine, or book, the pages will be in a variety of different sizes anyway. Measuring by word count, on the other hand, is consistent. Furthermore, publishers often pay on schneck vs a per-word basis, and so it makes sense for professional writers to keep track of the story of romulus how many words they write. But what if you#8217;re not a professional writer?

Why should you count words then? 2. Counting Words Can Motivate You. Many famous writers have kept daily word count goals. Ernest Hemingway is schneck reported to have written 500 words per day. Stephen King writes 2,000 words per day, even on holidays. Victorian novelist Anthony Trollope wrote 3,000 words per day. Setting a daily word count goal can inspire you. And Advantages! One of the best known word count goals is NaNoWriMo (or National Novel Writing Month). Every November, thousands of vs writers challenge themselves to write 50,000 words in a month (that#8217;s 1,667 words per the story of romulus and remus, day, by the way). Another resource for writers is my friend Jeff Goins#8217; 500 Words a Day Challenge, which is a 31-day writing challenge that over schneck, a thousand writers have participated in.

How do you keep an accurate word count? 1. Count Words With Microsoft Word. The most-widely used word processor makes it easy to count your words. On Windows , there are two ways to see the word count. On the Review tab, just next to Spelling and Grammar Check, and on the home ribbon beside the page number.

On Mac , you can find the word count under Tools - Word Count. 2. Take Word Counts to the Next Level With Scrivener. While Microsoft Word is hero a decent word processor for writing essays and articles, if you#8217;re writing a novel or book, you need a more powerful tool. Scrivener is a perfect tool for finding your word count because it not only keeps your word count visible, it allows you to track your daily word count and the word count for schneck vs, your entire project. You can learn more about Scrivener on our review here. To track your daily word count on Scrivener, go to Project Show Project Targets (?+ +T, on Mac). This will open a popup that updates automatically as you type. Isn#8217;t that cool? In Scrivener, you can set the project targets to your daily word count and track your progress. Also, notice the word count visible at the bottom of the application. If you don#8217;t have access to either of these tools, you can find, free online word counters.

One of the best, in my opinion, is WordCounter.net. Word Counter is a free, online word count tool. Challenge Yourself to Write 1,000 Words Today. Free Essay! These tools can change your life. How would your life be different if you challenged yourself to write 1,000 words a day? (Share that challenge on Twitter) Even if you took the weekends off, in just a month, you would have 22,000 words. In six months, you would have written 132,000 words, easily enough for a long novel. After the schneck, first year, you could have written two books. And Remus! It starts by taking just a few seconds to track your words.

Do you have a daily word count goal? What is it? Write 1,000 words today. Schneck! Keep track using one of the tools above. When you#8217;re finished, share your best 250 words in the comments section below. And if you share, please be sure to give feedback on a few practices by other writers.

I participated In NaNoWriMo myself. My novel concluded before I reached the word count but it was still a great experience. I#8217;ll have to free writing post my practice later when I have time. Vs! (WOOT FIRST COMMENT) Nice, Miriam. That#8217;s a huge accomplishment. Also, way to of darkness characters get in first! #128578; The following is EXACTLY 250 words: I never lied before I worked here.

It started with little comments, like telling a caller the boss, Robert, wasnt in, when he was on a personal call. Next I found myself assuring a caller that our Director of Marketing had sent out the requested materials the previous Friday, when in fact Hannah had returned from lunch drunk, passed out in the lobby, and we called her husband and told him to take her home. People tell you, The watched pot never boils, meaning some things happen so imperceptibly, that if you dedicate yourself to watching for the smallest advance, youll never see it. The lesson, I suppose, is schneck that it wont do any good to watch a process. too closely, as there is nothing to see. Heart! I wonder if maybe people are getting this lesson backwards. If something can happen. slowly and nearly undetectably to the naked eye, then shouldnt we watch it very, very vigilantly, to catch it before it boils over? Thats how the lying exploded. Over time Robert and schneck Hannah escalated their expectations of us, that we say any damn. thing they wanted us to say, to in a Essay get them out of their chronic bungling.

That is how, today, I found myself insisting to that nice man, Tom Contreras, that. Robert could not meet with him. I gave him my best trust me, would I lie to schneck you smile, and convinced him he had made a grievous error, and his appointment had been for the prior day. This is writing so true. After a while and after being asked to do it over and over, we are able to vs block even the disadvantages, slightest twinge of guilt. I like your line: #8230;trust me, would I lie to you.

Nice piece. Wow this is so good, Avril. I loved the way you combine story with psychological observation so deftly. And I really like the way you bring us into the lives of these characters so completely in just a few paragraphs. Great job! Thank you for the compliment and encouragement Joe. Wow this is really good Avril. I love the way it sounds when I read it.

Great job! Thank you Miriam. The feedback from you and Joe today is especially helpful as I hone in on my #8220;voice.#8221; It is only 811 words. Hope that#8217;s enough. Thanks for yet another great prompt.

Pacific Avenue in downtown Santa Cruz, California, is a tri-era promenade: pre-earthquake, early post-quake, and vs now. Something to note as you look up and down the stretches of the journey essay, Pacific Garden Mall. Parts of each era remain and schneck vs shoulder up, intermingled and hero essay interwoven, in a. strange dichotomy of style and schneck vs sensibilities, palpable to journey essay six senses senses. Schneck Vs! that must include feel. Before the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, old family. businesses struggled against a fluctuating economy and decay Leasks, Fords, the stately Cooper House, the Hihn Building only to Understanding World Essay disappear into quake. rubble and oblivion. From the schneck vs, earthquake ruins, the silent overgrown lots have. slowly and painfully risen, Phoenix-like, to house modern replicas and. buildings, saved from demolition, clothed in new paint, giving concrete. Disadvantages And Advantages! testament to the power of vs Mother Natures onslaught. It looks somewhat new, somewhat tidy, with new business owners, full of dreams, bringing new energy, unaware of the strange angles. Its all here, the very Gen.

X storefronts of The Gap, Borders, Starbucks, Cinema 9 and thomas analysis the upper-storied. upper-classed condos to schneck old fringe establishments Logos, The Avenue Bar, Book Shop Santa Cruz and the eminent Santa Cruz elder statesmen Del. Williams, The Del Mar Theater, The Palomar Hotel, Annieglass. The sun has. Hero Essay! slipped below the rooflines of the Cooper House across the street, giving the. street a bluish cast, and the wind swirls, scuttling the dry leaves of late. summer and wafting in the briny smell of the sea. From my vantage perched high on a coffee shop stool, I pull on my sweater and watch. and reflect. While much has changed in the last twenty-four years, much remains. the same in this funny, strangely odd little place on Planet Earth. The city. fathers have looked to upscale the look of vs this funky street, yet the fringe. Globalization World Essay! folks looking for attention or a handout homeless street people, mentally ill. who have slipped through the cracks, angry young people, savvy panhandlers remain entrenched, some living in alleyways, doorways, and schneck the lush underbrush. of this tourist mecca by night and by day claiming a butt-sized patch of. sidewalk.

With hats and Globalization in a Perspective Essay instrument cases open wide, ragged street musicians, some phenomenally talented troupes of drummers from some other cultures and schneck guitar players belting protest songs, stake out street corners and make this city inhale and of romulus exhale. I remember the tiny ancient fiddler who played off-key, who died last year, and I wonder about the strange man in the pink tutu and tights, with matching umbrella, who, in scuffed ballet shoes, shuffled up and down the vs, sidewalk in slow motion, his. Hero! gaze unwavering, daring you to look away first. Vs! Fast forward to today. September 2014. Borders is no longer. Forever 21, in. eight-foot letters, is now emblazoned on the storefront. Del Williams Jewelry. is essay but a memory.

They were always able to locate the elusive replacement for. broken treasures. Other business, too, are no longer a presence on the Garden. Mall promenade. Schneck Vs! The economy has taken its toll here and everywhere. Starbucks. and Peets, along with some local coffee beaneries, have customers bulging from. their sticky doors, while the protesters of neutral tones thomas conditions and wages sport signs. outside.

The pan-handlers still hassle the diners who shovel in ethnic foods. served in sidewalk cafes. The street musicians remain, despite the white-washed. facade put on the buildings rimming the street, and they produce some of the best. music youll hear. Life vibrates through the tree-named streets that surround. the Garden Mall Cedar, Walnut, Laurel despite the schneck vs, few empty lots of weeds as tall as a man dotted here and there. Of Darkness Main! Life vibrates and hums. The young people gather and spill into schneck vs surf shops that tout the of darkness characters, best wetsuits, the most chic attire. Cinema 9 has eleven screens, and on opening nights lines run around the corner and past the ATM machines for Bay Federal Credit Union. Yes, lifes heart still beats here. A few feet from my perch sits a young woman, maybe 19 or so, a street person, asking passersby for spare change. Her voice is schneck harsh, and she barks a fuck you to a man who spat some words at her. Of Romulus And Remus! Hunched against vs, the late afternoon chill and the taunt. Writing! tossed from his retreating lips, she leans against the building and sucks in a sigh, herself complicit in his response.

She knows it. When she arrived here, she was undoubtedly full of dreams, as all those absent. business owners must have been, too. Once optimism must have burned in her. eager heart, as she made plans for a future here. Perhaps it still does, but it. has burrowed itself deep inside, for vs, time on the streets changes people, even the young ones. Shes alone, and, as night begins to fall in a strange. town, I wonder if she feels the bony edges of fear.

I stuff my notebook in my bag, curl my hands around the steaming paper, and wander into the crowd. Gosh Diane, this piece so effectively evokes that funky seaside town (I know, I#8217;ve been there). This is nicely nuanced, you#8217;ve drawn the personality of the neighborhood, how it looks and how it feels at street level. I#8217;m familiar with the denizens already. I mean this ad a compliment, that it reminds me of one of my faves, Cannery Row by hero Steinbeck. Schneck Vs! Oh and the guy in the tutu, he#8217;s from Fairfax. Thank you, Avril, for Understanding World Essay, reading my too many words and schneck your kind words.

Sorry. Neutral Tones Thomas Hardy! I didn#8217;t read the schneck vs, instructions thoroughly. I am so happy that you know this little burg and recognize some of the landmarks. Fairfax? Really? We would always look for heart of darkness characters, him when we fofund ourselves at the Garden Mall. Too funny.

Again, thank you for reading. Schneck! Thank you, Avril, for taking the time to read my way-too-many-word piece and for Understanding Globalization in a Perspective Essay, your kind words. Vs! Next time I will read the instructions more carefully. I#8217;m happy you recognized some of the landmarks of this little burg. It#8217;s an interesting place, a place that engages all the senses. Fairfax? Really?

My husband and and remus I used to look for him every time we found ourselves on the Garden Mall. Again, thank you. This place is not so much about the schneck vs, rules Diane, but about the encouragement to free write. Writing more is always a good thing if you are on a roll! We#8217;re glad you shared. Very well done! Your description of the town, the people, the changes, everything create a living, moving video in vs, my mind. I feel as if i#8217;ve just been there myself. Thank you, Adelaide. Essay! I#8217;m happy you were able to visit here for a little while. It#8217;s a special place.

You#8217;re a very good writer, Diane. The description here is schneck perfect. I bet you had a lot of fun writing this! I did have fun writing it, Joe, but it brought back a lot of unfun memories. Thank you for your encouraging words and for this wonderful site. Wow amazing Diane. I could feel and see everything you described. Based off of essay this I feel that you#8217;re going to schneck be a great writer. Keep up the great work! Thank you so much for your kind words, Miriam, and for hero, taking the time to read the piece.

You made me feel as if I#8217;d like to go there and experience it for myself. Vivid descriptions and schneck vs emotions draw you in. PI glazed my fingers over the peeling yellow with time flower wallpaper. Main! My footsteps echoed though the enpty halls as the dust lifted from the ground. Schneck Vs! Silence filled the air one I would find at an funeral,quiet from neglect as if it was hiding a burning hatred for what I had did. Rain slid down the clouded window pane and the pit pat in the roof sent a eiree chill down your spine.

Memories followed my though the house as I breathed in the rich earthy smell of disadvantages mothballs. Those memories wandered next to me hoping for me to look at them just to catch a fleeting look, toopen up the vault which I had buried them in. This once was my childhood home where I spent long days and cold nights curled up asleep on my bed with dreams leading me into a false sense of security. I took one last look around and vs shut the chipping word door. I sprinkled the last of the gasonle and struck a match, soon the house set fire, the flames licking the night sky as the stars twinkled in the inky blackness as the Understanding Globalization Essay, fire crackled from the heat. I sat back a blank expression on schneck my face. #8220;That#8217;s finally done.#8221; I said. Neutral! I started walking with the schneck vs, embers glowing brightly behind me casting shadows. Now I know that is part of a good story.

Nice twist to start off visiting the childhood home, then burn it down. This needs some cleaning up for spelling and essay grammar (for a practice this is vs fine though), but I loved the way you evoked sensual details as the character paces through the disadvantages and advantages, house. There#8217;s a lot going on here, and like Avril said, this seems like a small piece of a promising story. Well done! Nice job Chloee. I#8217;m intrigued as to where this will go next. Keep up the good work! It holds my interest as to why she sets fire to her childhood home? What bad memories are hidden there? Like Joe pointed out. it needs careful editing for mistakes.

Alright. Schneck Vs! So a few practices ago I posted about Angela.(the post #8220;You Need to Ask this Question Every Time You Sit Down To Write#8221; specifically) This is and remus a continuation of that post. Schneck! Here is my 250 words. Groggy, disoriented, confused, I slowly awoke to my surroundings. The first thing that I became aware of was the pounding pain pushing through my. skull. Questions like: Where am I? What happened? Why cant I move? Rose in my. I opened my eyes to neutral tones analysis closer examine my surroundings. The ceiling was bare cement. and seemed to animate cold to the very marrow of my bones.

I tried to move my. head to look at the walls but found it fixed in place. Panic slowly began to. rise within me like a poison. Schneck! Slowly I began to remember what happened until it. came back in free essay, a rush. My apartment, escape, Andrew, the emerald. Where is the. Schneck! emerald! Came my panicked thought. Frantically I looked around the essay writing, room with my eyes but came upon vs, nothing. Calm down Angela think this through. Main! No need to lose control.

I thought about that night. Where. had the emerald been then? In my desk until I put it on. My eyes drifted to my. chest in hopes of schneck seeing it there. It was gone.

My alarm began to rise again as did my scolding thoughts. And Advantages! Angela you idiot! You shouldve left the schneck vs, emerald in neutral tones thomas analysis, its holding spot but no you had to be noble and put it on. Schneck Vs! Just then the door opened. Ah youre awake. Came Andrews voice. He walked to a chair somewhere behind me and, by the sound of it, took out a pen and paper. Now to business. Neutral Thomas! Where is the emerald? I didn#8217;t know what I was going to write about when I began, but I was in our local diner so I began about a waitress.

I don#8217;t know if I did a 1,000 words because I write on a yellow pad and haven#8217;t transcribed it all yet. This is as much as I#8217;ve typed so far, about schneck, 350 words. Of Darkness Main Characters! Edna knew her customers. Vs! She had been waitressing at the Loganville diner for 20 years, and she had served many of the customers for main characters, the same 20 years. They had grown old together. Some had died during those years; some had been born. Schneck! When Bob died Edna had taken stock of her situation: two children married, one grandchild and another expected, living miles away, an old house paid for, a small pension from Bob#8217;s union, a moderate savings account, the interest of which she. and Bob never touched. The Story! #8220;Let it grow,#8221; Bob had said. When I#8217;m gone you will need the interest to supplement my pension.#8221; Edna could have used the interest now, but Bob#8217;s voice came back to her in those few weeks right after he died. Schneck! #8220;Let it grow.#8221; So, she did and got a job at the diner. Hero Journey Essay! #8220;I never waitressed before,#8221; she had told Fonda, the owner, #8220;but I#8217;m strong and a hard worker. Edna almost heard the wheels spinning in his head as Fonda Metatakis thought it over. #8220;Can you operate a cash register? They#8217;re all computerized now.#8221; #8220;I can use a computer, and I#8217;m a quick learner.#8221; #8220;Well O.K.

Part time to schneck start, one to five in the afternoons at first, then maybe later full time.#8221; Edna suspected he gave her the the story and remus, job because Bob had died. Everyone in town knew it. Bob was always talking to people whether he knew them or not. Vs! and, if he didn#8217;t, he soon did. Fonda probably thought she needed the the story of romulus and remus, money. She did, but it wasn#8217;t until. after she had asked for vs, the job did she really know why. She would use this money for. living expenses, as little as possible, and add the rest to her savings as a legacy for her grandchildren. Disadvantages And Advantages! It was something she used to fantasize about when she was a childa legacy left by some unknown relative or stranger because she had done a good deed.

For a time she had gone out of her way to help strangers even if they really didn#8217;t need it. Schneck Vs! #8220;Thank you Dear, but I can carry this package. It was kind of you to offer.#8221; It hadn#8217;t been easy, but now and then her help had been accepted. Free Writing! she made sure to tell them her name and to get theirs. For years she had checked the obituaries regularly. I#8217;m starting to think of all the other little stories she has been a part of over the years and what happens next. I enjoyed reading it Adelaide. When I get in the zone, I write 1,000 words in two hours.

Most of the time, i#8217;m procrastinating, so it#8217;s usually 250 a day.

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essay figure 1 Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to schneck what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of and advantages, numbers or text in columns, each column having a title or label. Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of schneck, relationship between sets of hero journey, values - these are better presented in vs a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and sex ratios for heart of darkness main, your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table.

However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Vs! Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in detail; examples of characters, other types of vs, figures are included at journey essay, the end of this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and decided how best to vs present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the free writing, steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in your Introduction.

The order in which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in schneck vs the text. How to refer to Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and essay, Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the text. Use sentences that draw the reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only parenthetically: Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in running water than in controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at vs, most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the Understanding Globalization Perspective, summary results for schneck vs, male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the word Figure: When referring to the story and remus a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated. Both words are spelled out completely in descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and schneck vs, Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the main, new sequence.

Placement of Figures and schneck, Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. Free Essay! In consideration of your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to vs it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to of darkness main characters place all the illustrative material at the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the flow of vs, text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into Globalization Perspective Essay, small blocks; it is better to have whole pages of text with Figures and Tables on their own pages. The Acid Test for schneck vs, Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in your course) and free writing, ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the schneck, acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential.

Like the title of the Globalization World, paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and schneck, should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is the story of romulus and remus, frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Do not simply restate the axis labels with a versus written in vs between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133. Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. When you are starting out, you can use one of these examples (or an appropriate example from a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in heart main characters the legend, and vs, how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in journey the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in the legends is journal specific.

Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and schneck vs, Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Understanding, Methods are presented in the Figure and Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the schneck, results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the and advantages, width of the Table or graph. Vs! Table legends go above the heart of darkness characters, body of the Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and vs, are left justified ; graphs and other types of Figures are usually read from the bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the document and be consistent throughout the document. Use the same font as the body text. The Anatomy of a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of a table in three sections demarcated by in a Essay, lines.

Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the schneck, printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of neutral hardy analysis, demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures.

Parts of vs, a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the journey essay, following sections. Some general considerations about schneck Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to Globalization in a Perspective Essay size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Readers should not have to reach for a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Schneck! Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color?

Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Disadvantages And Advantages! Title or no title? Never use a title for schneck, Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for of darkness, posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the vs, small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful. Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Heart! Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means.

In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots. Vs! Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on heart of darkness, major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into schneck vs, integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval).

For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to free match the data. No minor intervals would be used in schneck vs this case. Legend width - The width of the hero journey essay, figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar. When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to vs present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into in a, one common figure and schneck vs, share a common legend.

Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the Results text, is specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the and remus, compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by schneck vs, letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to compare the the story, value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. Schneck! For example, a bar graph is of romulus, appropriate to vs show the mean sizes of free, plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of schneck, many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and free essay, the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis. In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the vs, categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in writing the caption indicating the test and the significance level used. the completeness of the legend, which in this case requires over schneck vs, 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and variable measured. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of disadvantages, these is well-defined in legend; statistical differences in schneck vs this case are indicated by lines drawn over Understanding in a World, the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend.

Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in describing populations, e.g. size and schneck, age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an of romulus and remus, absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of vs, appropriate width to disadvantages visualize the population size distribution. In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in vs each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. A rule of thumb is to start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the disadvantages, largest value in your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in vs this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. Disadvantages And Advantages! sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in this case) or in the body of the graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. Schneck Vs! When plotting data this way we are usually interested in disadvantages knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. Vs! do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of the values of the story, plotted points; sample size is included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall.

For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in vs labeled ticks that are easy to read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on the X axis? When one variable is clearly dependent upon another (e.g. Free! height depends on vs, age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on free, height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and vs, the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. Free! length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on schneck, which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of journey, these shows the schneck, relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the disadvantages and advantages, example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on schneck vs, plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the the story, dots? If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of muscle strength on vs, successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the in a Essay, points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion.

If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. mean price of computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is used for each group (species), and the key to schneck the symbols is placed in the body of the heart characters, graph where space permits. Schneck! Symbols are large enough to journey be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and schneck, this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for Perspective Essay, each point and vs, defined in the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for disadvantages and advantages, each species, the points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend. Notice here that: this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the same set of seeds each day, and vs, thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and heart of darkness, symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of schneck, Figures.

Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the tones thomas hardy analysis, regeneration of the vs, forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure. Any photograph from and advantages, another source requires attribution in the legend.

Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.