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APA Format Examples, Tips, and Guidelines. Thornton Wilder! APA format is the of the, official style used by the American Psychological Association and is commonly used in thornton bio, psychology, education, and other social sciences. Check out the wizard free, this gallery of wilder bio, examples, tips, and guidelines for ethanol intermolecular forces, writing papers in thornton wilder, APA format. Your title page should include a running head, page number, article title, author name, and author affiliation. The sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual contained a few changes to the format of an biography APA style title page. Your title page should contain a running head that is flush left at the top of the page and a page number that is flush right at the top of the wilder bio, page. Intermolecular! The title should be at the top half of the bio, page and the wizard of oz movie free should be centered between margins.

Use both upper-case and lower-case letters. This page should include the thornton bio, title of your paper, your name, and your school affiliation. The APA suggests that your title is no more than 12 words in hard, length. Bio! Avoid using titles or degree info (such as Dr. or Ph.D.) before and on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable after your name. Your title should be a very concise statement of what the wilder, reader will find in on Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman, the paper. Thornton Wilder Bio! In many cases, your title will identify the on Bruce as Batman, major variables and the relationships between them.

For example, #34;Effect of thornton wilder, Sleep Deprivation on Math Performance#34; is an enslaved african americans 1800s, example of a succinct title that clearly describes what the thornton wilder bio, paper is about. Enslaved African In The 1800s,! The APA style guide also advises writers to avoid phrases such as #34;An Experimental Investigation on. #34; or #34;A Study of. #34;. You should also avoid any extraneous words that do not add meaning to your title. All sources cited in your psychology paper should be included in the reference page. The reference page should appear at the end of your APA paper. The purpose of bio, this page is to provide a list of sources used in your paper so that the reader can easily look up all of the materials you cited. Essay On Bruce Wayne Is Irreplaceable! One of the thornton wilder, first rules you should observe on your reference page: If you cited the Essay on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, article in your paper, it must appear in thornton bio, the reference list.

Conversely, if a source appears on your reference page, it must be cited somewhere in and fall romanov dynasty, your paper. Your references should begin on thornton bio a new page with the title References centered at the very top. Do not underline, italicize or place quotation marks around the References title. Some More Basic Reference Page Rules. Intermolecular Forces! Your references should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each source. Thornton Wilder! All references should be double-spaced. Each reference should use a hanging indentation: the first line of the reference should be flush left, but each additional line of the reference needs to learning styles, be indented. Bio! In article titles, only the the decline and fall of the romanov, first letter should be capitalized. If a colon appears in the title, the first letter after the colon should also be capitalized. Bio! The title should not be placed in styles, quotations, underlined or italicized. All major words in thornton bio, the title of a journal should be capitalized; i.e.

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Longer works such as books and journals should appear in personal, italics. Thornton Bio! In the case where the same author is on Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman, cited multiple times for different works, start by listing these references in thornton wilder bio, chronological order with the oldest reference appearing first and of florence working your way up to bio, the most recent one. Learn more about APA references: Tables are a great way to display a great deal of Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay, information in thornton bio, a concise, clear and easy to biography of florence, read format. Bio! In APA format papers, tables are generally used to describe the the decline and fall of the dynasty, results of statistical analysis and other pertinent quantitative data.

However, it is important to note that tables are not simply used to wilder bio, replicate data that has already been presented in and fall of the dynasty, the text of the thornton bio, paper and not all data should be presented in a table. If you have little numeric information to present, it should be described in the text of your paper. And Fall Dynasty! The official APA publication manual recommends designing your table with the reader in mind. Strive to communicate data in a way that is clear and wilder easy to understand. The Wizard Full Movie! Basic Rules for Tables in thornton wilder, APA Format. All tables should be numbered (e.g. Table 1, Table 2, Table 3). Each table should have an individual title, italicized and full presented with each word capitalized (except and thornton wilder , in , of , with , etc.). For example, Correlations Between Age and Test Scores.

Try to ensure that your title is neither too general nor too specific. Devices! Each table should begin on bio a separate page. Horizontal lines can be used to separate information and enslaved african in the make it clearer. Do not use vertical lines in an APA format table. Thornton Bio! According to and fall of the, the new sixth edition of the wilder, APA manual, a table can be either single-spaced or double-spaced. The key is to ethanol intermolecular, keep the table readable and bio the spacing consistent. On Bruce Wayne Is Irreplaceable! All tables should be referenced in the text of the paper. Wilder! Tables should be last, after your reference list and appendixes. You should use a font that is personal learning styles, large enough to read without magnification Focus on keeping your table concise. Too much extraneous information can overwhelm and confuse the reader.

Stick to reporting the most important data. Remember that your table is thornton bio, there to supplement rather than replicate the text of your paper. Do not feel the need to Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, discuss every element of your table in your text. Instead, mention key highlights and thornton bio tell the reader what to a good hard, look for in your table. Table headings should be located flush right. Each column should be identified using a descriptive heading. Thornton Wilder Bio! The first letter of learning, each heading should be capitalized. Abbreviations for standard terms (e.g.

M, SD, etc.) can be used without explanation. Wilder Bio! Uncommon definitions should be explained in a note below the table. Additional Notes to an APA Format Table. Biography! If additional explanation is needed, a note can be added below the wilder bio, table. Bruce Wayne! There are three kinds of notes: General notes, specific notes, and wilder probability notes. Ethanol Intermolecular Forces! General notes refer to thornton, some aspect of the entire table; specific notes refer to a particular column or row; probability notes specify the probability level. Is the intermolecular forces, table needed to wilder, present data or could the Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies, data simply be presented in bio, the text? Does the title of your table clearly but briefly explain what it is about? Is the spacing consistent throughout the the wizard of oz movie free, table?

Does the body of the paper refer to thornton, the table? Is each column of the table clearly labeled? If your paper contains more than one table, are they similar in of florence nightingale, format and thornton wilder bio presentation? Are any special or uncommon abbreviations explained in notes? American Psychological Association. Essay Wayne As Batman! (2010). Publication Manual of the bio, American Psychological Association. Author: Washington, DC. Journal articles should appear in alphabetical order in your APA format reference list. Consult the ethanol forces, image below for examples of journal articles in bio, APA format. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns.

Italicize the personal learning, name of the publication and thornton bio the volume number. The basic format of hard to find literary devices, a journal article reference involves listing authors by their last names followed by their initials. Next, the thornton, publication year is enclosed in learning styles, parentheses and followed by a period. Wilder! The title of the article should then follow, with only the Essay, first word and thornton bio any proper nouns capitalized. Essay Wayne! The title of the journal should then follow along with the volume number, both of which should be italicized, and wilder bio the page numbers of the biography of florence, article should also be included.

Finally, a DOI number should be included if one is thornton, available. Referencing electronic sources in APA format requires special style concerns. Electronic References Are Similar to ethanol intermolecular forces, Other References. The basic format of an electronic reference is bio, very similar to that of any other reference. However, you do need to include the forces, date the thornton bio, reference was retrieved from the Internet as well as the online location of the document. Naguib Mahfouz’s! As you perform research and accumulate sources, always be sure to bio, note the for most enslaved african americans, date you found a particular source as well as its exact location on the Web. Use a Digital Object Identifier When Possible. Because online URLs can change, the APA recommends utilizing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) in your references whenever possible.

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that begins with a 10 as well as a prefix (a four digit number assigned to wilder bio, organizations) and a suffix (a number assigned by the decline and fall romanov the publisher). Many publishers will include the DOI on the first page of an electronic document. Thornton Wilder! If a DOI is ethanol, available, simply include it at wilder, the end of the reference as follows - doi:10.0000/00000000000.

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oedipus theme essay We exist/experience in thornton wilder a holographic universe replete with creation myths about the wizard of oz full movie gods/aliens who came from the sky to create the human experience/experiment for any number of thornton wilder, reasons - saying they would return return at the end of the illusion of time. On Bruce Wayne Is Irreplaceable As Batman! Creation myths following the same algorithm in each civilization - good vs. evil. Mythology can refer to the collected myths of a group of peopletheir collection of stories they tell to bio, explain nature, history, and customs - or to the study of such myths. Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay! As a collection of explanatory stories, mythology is a vital feature of every culture. Thornton Wilder! Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of Naguib Religious, natural phenomena, to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing rituals.

Although the thornton, term is complicated by Religious Essay its implicit condescension, mythologizing is not just an ancient or primitive practice, as shown by contemporary mythopoeia such as urban legends and wilder bio, the expansive fictional mythoi created by fantasy novels and comics. Biography! A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging, shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons. The study of myth dates back to ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus, Plato, and wilder bio, Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and later revived by Renaissance mythographers. The nineteenth-century comparative mythology reinterpreted myth as a primitive and failed counterpart of science (E. B. Tylor), a disease of language (Max Muller), or a misinterpretation of magical ritual (James Frazer). Recent approaches have rejected conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths as expressions to understand general psychological, cultural, or societal truths, rather than as inaccurate historical accounts.

Read more. Relation of Myths to Other Narrative Forms. In Western culture there are a number of personal, literary or narrative genres that scholars have related in different ways to myths. Examples are fables, fairy tales, folktales, sagas, epics, legends, and etiologic tales (which refer to causes or explain why a thing is the way it is). Another form of tale, the parable, differs from myth in its purpose and character. Even in the West, however, there is no agreed definition of any of these genres, and thornton wilder bio, some scholars question whether multiplying categories of narrative is helpful at all, as opposed to working with a very general concept such as the traditional tale. Non-Western cultures apply classifications that are different both from the Western categories and from one another.

Most, however, make a basic distinction between true and fictitious narratives, with true ones corresponding to what in the West would be called myths. If it is accepted that the category of man is hard to find literary devices, traditional tale should be subdivided, one way of doing so is to regard the various subdivisions as comparable to bands of color in a spectrum. Within this figurative spectrum, there will be similarities and analogies between myth and folktale or between myth and thornton wilder, legend or between fairy tale and folktale. In the section that follows, it is assumed that useful distinctions can be drawn between different categories. It should, however, be remembered throughout that these classifications are far from rigid and that, in many cases, a given tale might be plausibly assigned to more than one category. As a literary device, an allegory in its most general sense is an extended metaphor. The Wizard Movie Free! Allegory has been used widely throughout history in all forms of art, largely because it can readily illustrate complex ideas and concepts in thornton wilder bio ways that are comprehensible or striking to its viewers, readers, or listeners. Writers or speakers typically use allegories as literary devices or as rhetorical devices that convey hidden meanings through symbolic figures, actions, imagery, and/or events, which together create the moral, spiritual, or political meaning the of oz full movie, author wishes to convey.[1] One of the thornton, best-known examples of allegory, Plato's Allegory of the Cave, forms a part of his larger work The Republic. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay a cave all of their lives, facing a blank wall (514ab). The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to thornton bio, ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world (514c515a). According to the allegory, the shadows are as close as the biography, prisoners get to viewing reality, until one of them finds his way into the outside world where he sees the actual objects that produced the wilder, shadows.

He tries to the decline of the romanov dynasty, tell the people in the cave of his discovery, but they do not believe him and vehemently resist his efforts to free them so they can see for themselves (516e518a). This allegory is, on a basic level, about a philosopher who upon finding greater knowledge outside the cave of human understanding, seeks to bio, share it as is his duty, and the foolishness of those who would ignore him because they think themselves educated enough.[2] The word fable derives from the the wizard of oz full movie, Latin word fabula , which originally meant about the same as the Greek mythos; like mythos, it came to mean a fictitious or untrue story. Thornton Bio! Myths, in contrast, are not presented as fictitious or untrue. Fables, like some myths, feature personified animals or natural objects as characters. Unlike myths, however, fables almost always end with an explicit moral message, and this highlights the characteristic feature of fables--namely, that they are instructive tales that teach morals about human social behavior. Personal Styles! Myths, by contrast, tend to bio, lack this directly didactic aspect, and the sacred narratives that they embody are often hard to translate into direct prescriptions for action in everyday human terms. Another difference between fables and Ideologies Essay, myths relates to a feature of the narratives that they present.

The context of a typical fable will be unspecific as to time and space; e.g., A fox and a goose met at a pool. A typical myth, on the other hand, will be likely to identify by name the wilder bio, god or hero concerned in a given exploit and to the wizard movie free, specify details of geography and thornton wilder bio, genealogy; e.g., Oedipus was the son of Laius, the king of Thebes. The term fairy tale, if taken literally, should refer only to stories about the decline and fall romanov dynasty fairies, a class of supernatural and sometimes malevolent beings--often believed to be of diminutive size -- who were thought by people in medieval and wilder, post medieval Europe to inhabit a kingdom of their own; a literary expression of this belief can be found in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. The term fairy tale, however, is normally used to refer to man is hard to find literary, a much wider class of narrative, namely stories (directed above all at an audience of children) about an individual, almost always young, who confronts strange or magical events: examples are Jack and thornton wilder, the Beanstalk, Cinderella, and free, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The modern concept of the fairy tale seems not to be found earlier than the 18th century in Europe, but the narratives themselves have earlier analogues much farther afield, notably in the Indian Katha-saritsagara (The Ocean of Story) and in The Thousand and One Nights. Like myths, fairy tales present extraordinary beings and events. Unlike myths - but like fables - fairy tales tend to be placed in a setting that is geographically and temporally vague and might begin with the words Once upon a time there was a handsome prince . A myth about a prince, by thornton wilder bio contrast, would be likely to name him and to specify his lineage, since such details might be of personal learning, collective importance (for example, with reference to thornton wilder, issues of property inheritance or the relative status of different families) to the social group among which the myth was told.

There is Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious, much disagreement among scholars as to how to define the folktale; consequently, there is disagreement about the relation between folktale and myth. One view of the problem is that of the American folklorist Stith Thompson, who regarded myths as one type of folktale; according to this approach, the particular characteristic of myth is that its narratives deal with sacred events that happened in the beginning. Other scholars either consider folktale a subdivision of thornton wilder, myth or regard the two categories as distinct but overlapping. The latter view is taken by free the British classicist Geoffrey S. Wilder Bio! Kirk, who in Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures (1970) uses the term myth to denote stories with an nightingale underlying purpose beyond that of simple story-telling and the term folktale to denote stories that reflect simple social situations and wilder, play on ordinary fears and desires. Examples of folktale motifs are encounters between ordinary, often humble, human beings and supernatural adversaries such as witches, giants, or ogres; contests to win a bride; and attempts to overcome a wicked stepmother or jealous sisters. But these typical folktale themes occur also in Essay Wayne is Irreplaceable stories normally classified as myths, and there must always be a strong element of arbitrariness in assigning a motif to a particular category.

A different and important aspect of the problem of defining a folktale relates to the historical origin of the concept. Wilder Bio! As with the notion of folklore, the notion of folktale has its roots in to find literary the late 18th century. From that period until the middle of the 19th century, many European thinkers of a nationalist persuasion argued that stories told by ordinary people constituted a continuous tradition reaching back into the nation's past. Thus, stories such as the Marchen (Tales) collected by the Grimm brothers in Germany are folktales because they were told by the people rather than by an aristocratic elite. This definition of bio, folktale introduces a new criterion for personal learning distinguishing between myth and folktale--namely, what class of person tells the story--but it by no means removes all the thornton, problems of classification. Just as the distinction between folk and aristocracy cannot be transferred from medieval Europe to tribal Africa or classical Greece without risk of distortion, so the importing of a distinction between myth and folktale on the later European model is extremely problematic. Sagas and romanov dynasty, Epics. The word saga is often used in a generalized and loose way to refer to any extended narrative re-creation of historical events.

A distinction is thornton, thus sometimes drawn between myths (set in a semi divine world) and sagas (more realistic and more firmly grounded in of florence nightingale a specific historical setting). Thornton Wilder Bio! This rather vague use of saga is best avoided, however, since the word can more usefully retain the precise connotation of its original context. The word saga is Naguib Essay, Old Norse and means what is said. The sagas are a group of medieval Icelandic prose narratives; the principal sagas date from the 13th century and thornton wilder, relate the deeds of personal, Icelandic heroes who lived during the 10th and 11th centuries. If the word saga is restricted to this Icelandic context, at least one of the possible terminological confusions over words for traditional tales is avoided. While saga in its original sense is a narrative type confined to a particular time and place, epics are found worldwide. Examples can be found in the ancient world (the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer), in medieval Europe (the Nibelungenlied), and in modern times (the Serbo-Croatian epic poetry recorded in the 1930s). Among the many non-European examples are the Indian Mahabharata and the Tibetan Gesar epic. Epic is similar to saga in that both narrative forms look back to an age of heroic endeavor, but it differs from saga in that epics are almost always composed in thornton wilder poetry (with a few exceptions such as Kazak epic and the Turkish Book of Dede Korkut). The relation between epic and myth is not easy to Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Essay, pin down, but it is in general true that epics characteristically incorporate mythical events and persons. Wilder! An example is the ancient Mesopotamian epic of biography of florence, Gilgamesh, which includes, among many mythical episodes, an bio account of the meeting between the hero Gilgamesh and Utnapishtim, the only man to have attained immortality and sole survivor (with his wife) of the flood sent by the gods.

Myth is thus a prime source of the material on which epic draws. In common usage the word legend usually characterizes a traditional tale thought to Essay on Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman, have a historical basis, as in the legends of King Arthur or Robin Hood. In this view, a distinction may be drawn between myth (which refers to thornton, the supernatural and the sacred) and legend (which is grounded in historical fact). Naguib Religious! Thus, some writers on the Iliad would distinguish between the legendary aspects (e.g., heroes performing actions possible for ordinary humans) and the mythical aspects (e.g., episodes involving the gods). But the distinction between myth and legend must be used with care. In particular, because of the assumed link between legend and historical fact, there may be a tendency to refer to narratives that correspond to thornton wilder, one's own beliefs as legends, while exactly comparable stories from other traditions may be classified as myths; hence a Christian might refer to stories about the miraculous deeds of a saint as legends, while similar stories about a pagan healer might be called myths. As in other cases, it must be remembered that the boundaries between terms for traditional narratives are fluid, and that different writers employ them in quite different ways. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and and fall of the, A.R. Thornton Wilder! Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to biography of florence, maintaining the bio, system of which it is a part. In this view, in all types of society, every aspect of Naguib, life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society.

Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and thornton wilder bio, the United States, especially as an interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships. The term myth is not normally applied to narratives that have as their explicit purpose the illustration of a doctrine or standard of conduct. Instead, the term parable, or illustrative tale, is used. Familiar examples of such narratives are the parables of the New Testament. Full Free! Parables have a considerable role also in Sufism (Islamic mysticism), rabbinic (Jewish biblical interpretive) literature, Hasidism (Jewish pietism), and Zen Buddhism. That parables are essentially non-mythological is clear because the point made by the parable is known or supposed to be known from wilder another source. Parables have a more subservient function than myths. Naguib Ideologies! They may clarify something to an individual or a group but do not take on the revelatory character of wilder, myth.

Etiologic tales are very close to myth, and some scholars regard them as a particular type of myth rather than as a separate category. In modern usage the term etiology is used to refer to the description or assignment of causes (Greek aitia). Accordingly, an etiologic tale explains the origin of a custom, state of affairs, or natural feature in the human or divine world. Many tales explain the origin of Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, a particular rock or mountain. Others explain iconographic features, such as the Hindu narrative ascribing the blue neck of the god Siva to a poison he drank in primordial times.

The etiologic theme often seems to be added to thornton bio, a mythical narrative as an afterthought. In other words, the etiology is not the distinctive characteristic of myth. Approaches to the Study of Myth and Mythology. The importance of studying myth to provide a key to a human society is a matter of historical record. In the hard devices, middle of the 19th century, for bio instance, a newly appointed British governor of New Zealand, Sir George Grey, was confronted by the wizard movie the problem of how to thornton wilder, come to terms with the Maori, who were hostile to the British. He learned their language, but that proved insufficient for an understanding of the way in which they reasoned and argued. Personal Styles! In order to be able to conduct negotiations satisfactorily, he found it necessary to study the Maori's mythology, to which they made frequent reference.

Other government officials and Christian missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries made similar efforts to understand the mythologies of nations or tribes so as to facilitate communication. Wilder! Such studies were more than a means to an end, whether efficient administration or conversion; they amounted to the discovery that myths present a model or charter for man's behavior and that the world of myth provides guidance for crucial elements in human existence--war and Naguib Mahfouz’s, peace, life and death, truth and falsehood, good and evil. In addition to such practically motivated attempts to understand myth, theorists and bio, scholars from many disciplines have interested themselves in the study of the subject. A close study of myth has developed in the West, especially since the the decline of the dynasty, 18th century. Much of its material has come from the study of the Greek and Roman classics, from which it has also derived some of its methods of interpretation. The growth of thornton wilder, philosophy in ancient Greece furthered allegorical interpretations of the decline and fall of the romanov dynasty, myth--i.e., finding other or supposedly deeper meanings hidden below the surface of mythical texts. Such meanings were usually seen as involving natural phenomena or human values. Related to this was a tendency toward rationalism, especially when those who studied myths employed false etymologies. Rationalism in this context connotes the scrutiny of bio, myths in Essay on Bruce is Irreplaceable such a way as to make sense of the statements contained in them without taking literally their references to gods, monsters, or the supernatural.

Thus, the ancient writer Palaiphatos interpreted the story of Europa (carried off to Crete on the back of a handsome bull, which was actually Zeus in disguise) as that of a woman abducted by a Cretan called Tauros, the Greek word for thornton wilder bull; and Skylla, the bestial and cannibalistic creature who attacked Odysseus' ship according to Homer's Odyssey, was by the same process of rationalizing interpreted as simply the name of a pirate ship. Of special and long-lasting influence in the history of the interpretation of myth was Euhemerism (named after Euhemerus, a Greek writer who flourished about 300 BC), according to which certain gods were originally great people venerated because of their benefactions to mankind. The early Church Fathers adopted an attitude of modified Euhemerism, according to which classical mythology was to be explained in terms of mere men who had been raised to superhuman, demonic status because of their deeds. By this means, Christians were able to incorporate myths from the culturally authoritative pagan past into a Christian framework while defusing their religious significance--the gods became ordinary humans. The Middle Ages did not develop new theoretical perspectives on myth, nor, despite some elaborate works of historical and etymological erudition, did the Renaissance. In both periods, interpretations in the wizard of oz movie terms of allegory and Euhemerism tended to thornton bio, predominate. In early 18th-century Italy, Giambattista Vico, a thinker now considered the nightingale, forerunner of wilder, all writers on ethnology, or the study of culture in human societies, built on traditional scholarship--especially in law and philosophy--to make the first clear case for the role of man's creative imagination in the formation of distinct myths at successive cultural stages. His work, which was most notably expressed in Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman his Scienza Nuova (1725; The New Science of thornton wilder bio, Giambattista Vico ), had no influence in and fall romanov his own century. Instead, the notion that pagan myths were distortions of the biblical revelation (first expressed in the Renaissance) continued to find favor.

Nevertheless, Enlightenment philosophy, reports from voyages of thornton, discovery, and missionary reports (especially the Jesuits' accounts of North American Indians) contributed to scholarship and fostered greater objectivity. Bernhard Le Bovier de Fontenelle, a French scholar, compared Greek and American Indian myths and suggested that there was a universal human predisposition toward mythology. In De l'origine des fables (1724; On the Origin of Fables) he attributed the absurdities (as he saw them) of myths to the fact that the stories grew up among an earlier, more primitive human society. About 1800 the Romantics' growing fascination with language, the postulation of an Indo-European language family, the study of Essay on Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, Sanskrit, and the growth of comparative studies, especially in history and philology, were all part of a trend that included the study of myth. The relevance of Indo-European studies to thornton wilder, an understanding of Greek and Roman mythology was carried to an extreme in the work of Friedrich Max Muller, a German Orientalist who moved to Britain and undertook important research on comparative linguistics. In his view, expressed in such works as Comparative Mythology (1856), the mythology of the original Indo-European peoples had consisted of allegorical stories about the workings of nature, in particular such features as the sky, the Sun, and the dawn. In the personal learning styles, course of time, though, these original meanings had been lost (through, in Muller's notorious phrasing, a disease of language), so that the myths no longer told in a rationally intelligible way of phenomena in the natural world but instead appeared to describe the irrational activities of gods, heroes, nymphs, and others.

For instance, one Greek myth related the pursuit of the nymph Daphne by the god Phoebus Apollo. Since--in Muller's interpretation of the wilder bio, evidence of the decline of the, comparative linguistics--Daphne originally meant dawn, and Phoibos meant morning sun, the original story was rationally intelligible as the wilder bio, dawn is put to flight by the morning sun. One of the problems with this view is, of of florence, course, that it fails to wilder bio, account for the fact that the Greeks continued to tell this and similar stories long after their supposed meanings had been forgotten; and they did so, moreover, in the manifest belief that the stories referred, not to nature, but precisely to gods, heroes, and Naguib Religious Essay, other mythical beings. Interest in myth was greatly stimulated in thornton bio Germany by Friedrich von Schelling's philosophy of mythology, which argued that myth was a form of expression, characteristic of a particular stage in human development, through which men imagine the Absolute (for Schelling an all-embracing unity in which all differences are reconciled). Scholarly interest in myth has continued into the 20th century. Many scholars have adopted a psychological approach because of interest aroused by the theories of Sigmund Freud. Subsequently, new approaches in sociology and anthropology have continued to encourage the study of myth.

In the late 18th century artists and intellectuals came increasingly to emphasize the role of the emotions in human life and, correspondingly, to play down the importance of reason (which had been regarded as supremely important by on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman thinkers of the Enlightenment). Those involved in the new movement were known as Romantics. The Romantic movement had profound implications for the study of myth. Myths--both the thornton wilder, stories from Greek and Roman antiquity and contemporary folktales--were regarded by the Romantics as repositories of experience far more vital and powerful than those obtainable from what was felt to be the learning styles, artificial art and poetry of the aristocratic civilization of contemporary Europe. This new attitude is illustrated in a work of the German critic and philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder entitled Auszug aus einem Briefwechsel uber Ossian und die Lieder alter Volker (1773; Extract from a Correspondence on Ossian and the Songs of Ancient Peoples). Ossian is the thornton bio, name of an Irish warrior-poet whose Gaelic songs were supposedly translated and presented to the world by James Macpherson in the 1760s. Although largely the work of Macpherson himself, these songs made a colossal impact when they were published.

Herder believed that the more savage, that is, the more alive and freedom-loving a people (ein Volk) was, the more alive and free its songs would be. In opposition to literary devices, the culture of the wilder bio, educated, Herder exalted the Religious Ideologies, Kultur des Volkes (culture of the people). In 1769 Herder abandoned his job as a schoolteacher and took a boat from thornton wilder bio Riga, on styles, the Baltic, to Nantes, on the Atlantic coast of France. In Journal meiner Reise im Jahre 1769 (1769; Journal of thornton, My Travels in the Year 1769), a description of the experience, he wrote: In everything [on board ship] there is a good to find literary devices, experience to illuminate the original era of the myths. Then [i.e., in antiquity] every man, ignorant of nature, listened for bio signs and had to biography of florence nightingale, listen for them. Then, Jupiter's lightning was terrifying--as indeed it is [i.e., now] on the Ocean. There are a thousand new and thornton wilder, more natural explanations of mythology if one reads, say, Orpheus, Homer, Pindar on board ship. In other words, for Herder ancient myths were the natural expressions of the concerns that would have confronted the ancients; and Naguib Mahfouz’s, those concerns were the very ones that, according to Herder, still confronted the Volk--e.g., ordinary sailors--in Herder's own day.

Since the Romantic movement, all study of myth has been comparative, although comparative attempts were made earlier. The prevalence of the comparative approach has meant that since the thornton, 19th century even the most specialized studies have made generalizations about more than one tradition or at the very least have had to take comparative works by others into account. Indeed, for there to be any philosophical inquiry into the nature and of florence nightingale, function of myth at all, there must exist a body of data about myths across a range of societies. Such data would not exist without a comparative approach. The classic folklore approach is that of Wilhelm Mannhardt, a German scholar, who attempted to collect data on the lower mythology, which he considered to be more or less homogeneous in ancient and popular peasant traditions and basic to wilder, all formation of myth. Mannhardt saw sufficient analogies and similarities between the personal learning styles, ancient and modern data to permit use of the latter in interpreting the former. Like Herder, he saw the source of mythology in the traditions passed on among the Volk. He collected information not only about popular stories but also about popular customs. He interpreted ancient Greek rituals by relating them to customs of the agricultural peoples of northern Europe, proposing this link in his book Antike Wald- und Feldkulte (1877; Ancient Wood and Field Cults). Other people who examined myth from the folklore standpoint included Sir James Frazer, the thornton wilder bio, British anthropologist, the brothers Grimm (Jacob, who influenced Mannhardt, and Wilhelm), who are well-known for their collections of folklore, and Stith Thompson, who is and fall romanov, notable for his classification of folk literature, particularly his massive Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1955). Bio! The Grimms shared Herder's passion for the poetry and stories of the Volk.

Their importance stems in part from the academic diligence and meticulousness that they brought to the recording and study of popular tradition. In addition to their collection of Marchen (Tales), they published volumes of Deutsche Sagen (German Legends). These were tales that purported to the decline and fall of the, record actual events and that were ostensibly set in a specific place and period, as opposed to the once-upon-a-time-in-the-forest setting characteristic of the Marchen. Collecting and wilder bio, classifying mythological themes have remained the principal activities of the folklore approach. One of the leading exponents of the functionalist approach to myth was the and fall of the, French sociologist Marcel Mauss, who used the phrase total social facts in reference to thornton wilder, religious symbols and myths and their irreducibility in terms of other functions. In his Essai sur le don (1925; The Gift), Mauss referred to a system of gift giving to be found in traditional, preindustrial societies. Observing that there was a mass of on Bruce is Irreplaceable, complex data on the subject, Mauss continued: in these early societies, social phenomena are not discrete; each phenomenon contains all the thornton wilder, threads of a good literary devices, which the social fabric is composed. In these total social phenomena, as we propose to call them, all kinds of institutions find simultaneous expression: religious, legal, moral, and economic. In his introduction to the English edition Edward Evans-Pritchard commented on that passage: Total is the key word of the Essay. The exchanges of thornton bio, archaic societies which he examines are total social movements or activities.

They are at the same time economic, juridical, moral, aesthetic, religious, mythological phenomena. Their meaning can therefore only be grasped if they are viewed as a complex concrete reality. Functionalism is primarily associated with the anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, however. Both ask not what the origin of biography of florence, any given social behavior may be but how it contributes to maintaining the system of which it is a part. Wilder! In this view, in on is Irreplaceable as Batman all types of society, every aspect of life--every custom, belief, or idea--makes its own special contribution to the continued effective working of the whole society. Functionalism has had a wide appeal to anthropologists in Britain and the United States, especially as an thornton wilder bio interpretation of myth as integrated with other aspects of society and as supporting existing social relationships.

Structuralist approaches to myth are based on the analogy of full movie free, myth to thornton wilder bio, language. Just as a language is composed of significant oppositions (e.g., between phonemes, the constituent sounds of the personal learning, language), so myths are formed out of significant oppositions between certain terms and categories. Structuralist analysis aims at uncovering what it sees as the logic of myth. It is thornton wilder, argued that supposedly primitive thought is Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, logically consistent but that the terms of this logic are not those with which modern Western culture is familiar. Instead they are terms related to bio, items of the everyday world in which the primitive culture exists. Naguib Religious Ideologies! This logic is usually based on empirical categories (e.g., raw/cooked, upstream/downstream, bush/village) or empirical objects (e.g., buffalo, river, gold, eagle). Some structuralists, such as the French anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, have emphasized the presence of the same logical patterns in myths throughout the world. In earlier anthropology, primitive mentality was characterized by the inability to make distinctions, by a sense of mystic participation or identity between man, his cosmos, and all other beings. Beginning with complex kinship systems and later exploring other taxonomies, structuralists argue to the opposite conclusion: the supposedly primitive man is, if anything, obsessed with the making of distinctions; his taxonomies reveal a complexity and sophistication that rival those of bio, modern man. In contrast to the structuralists' search for the underlying structure of a good man is devices, myths, the 20th-century Russian folklorist Vladimir Propp investigated folktales by dividing the surface of wilder bio, their narratives into a number of basic elements. These elements correspond to different types of action that, in Propp's analysis, always occur in the same sequence.

Examples of the types of action isolated by on Bruce Wayne as Batman Propp are An interdiction is to the hero; The interdiction is violated; The false hero or villain is exposed; and The hero is married and ascends the throne. An important development of Propp's approach was made in the late 20th century by thornton the German historian of religion Walter Burkert. Burkert detected certain recurrent patterns in the actions described in of florence Greek myths, and wilder bio, he related these patterns (and their counterparts in Greek ritual) to basic biologic or cultural programs of action. An example of this relation is given in Burkert's Structure and History in Greek Mythology and Ritual (1979). Burkert shows how certain Greek myths have a recurring pattern that he calls the girl's tragedy. The Decline And Fall! According to this pattern, a girl first leaves home; after a period of thornton bio, seclusion, she is raped by a god; there follows a time of tribulation, during which she is threatened by parents or relatives; eventually, having given birth to a baby boy, the girl is rescued, and a good man is hard literary, the boy's glorious future is assured. The reason for the frequency and persistence of this pattern is, in Burkert's view, the fact that it reflects a basic biologic sequence or program of action; puberty, defloration, pregnancy, delivery. Another pattern Burkert explains in a similar way is bio, found in myths about the driving out of the scapegoat. This pattern, Burkert argues, stems from a real situation that must often have occurred in early human or primate history; a group of men, or a group of the decline romanov, apes, when pursued by carnivores, were able to save themselves through the thornton wilder bio, sacrifice of one member of the group.

The persistence of these patterns through time is explained, according to Burkert, by the fact that they are grounded in basic human needs--above all, the need to survive. The most obvious function of myths is the explanation of facts, whether natural or cultural. One North American Indian (Abnaki [Wabanaki]) myth, for example, explains the origin of corn (maize): a lonely man meets a beautiful woman with long, fair hair; she promises to remain with him if he follows her instructions; she tells him in detail how to of florence nightingale, make a fire and, after he has done so, she orders him to drag her over the burned ground; as a result of these actions, he will see her silken hair (viz., the cornstalk) reappear, and thereafter he will have corn seeds for thornton bio his use. Henceforth, whenever Abnaki Indians see corn (the woman's hair), they know that she remembers them. Obviously, a myth such as this one functions as an explanation, but the narrative form distinguishes it from a straightforward answer to an intellectual question about causes. The function of explanation and the narrative form go together, since the imaginative power of the myth lends credibility to the explanation and crystallizes it into a memorable and enduring form.

Hence myths play an important part in many traditional systems of education. Many myths explain ritual and cultic customs. According to myths from the island of Ceram (in Indonesia), in the beginning life was not complete, or not yet human: vegetation and animals did not exist, and there was neither death nor sexuality. In a mysterious manner Hainuwele, a girl with extraordinary gift-bestowing powers, appeared. Essay On Bruce! The people killed her at the end of their great annual celebration, and her dismembered body was planted in the earth. Among the species that sprang up after this act of planting were tubers--the staple diet of the wilder bio, people telling the myth.

With a certain circularity frequent in mythology, the myth validates the very cultic celebration mentioned in the wizard of oz movie free the myth. The cult can be understood as a commemoration of those first events. Hence, the myth can be said to validate life itself together with the cultic celebration. Comparable myths are told in a number of societies where the main means of food production is the cultivation of root crops; the thornton wilder bio, myths reflect the fact that tubers must be cut up and buried in Naguib Mahfouz’s the earth for propagation to take place. Ritual sacrifices are typical of traditional peasant cultures. Wilder! In most cases such customs are related to mythical events. Among important themes are the necessity of death (e.g., the grain dies and is buried, only to yield a subsequent harvest), a society's cyclic renewal of itself (e.g., New Year's celebrations), and Religious Ideologies, the significance of women and sexuality. New Year's celebrations, often accompanied by a temporary abandonment of all rules, may be related to or justified by mythical themes concerning a return to chaos and thornton wilder bio, a return of the of oz full free, dead. In every mythological tradition one myth or cluster of myths tends to be central.

The subject of the bio, central mythology is often cosmogony (origin of the cosmos). In many of those ceremonies that each society has developed as a symbol of the decline of the romanov, what is necessary to its well-being, references are made to the beginning of the world. Examples include the enthronements of thornton wilder, kings, which in the wizard of oz free some traditions (as in Fiji or ancient India) are associated with a creation or re-creation of the world. Analogously, in ancient Mesopotamia the creation epic Enuma elish, which was read each New Year at Babylon, celebrated the progress of the cosmos from initial anarchy to government by the kingship of wilder, Marduk; hence the authority of earthly rulers, and of earthly monarchy in general, was implicitly supported and justified. Ruling families in ancient civilizations frequently justified their position by invoking myths--for example, that they had divine origins. Examples are known from Imperial China, pharaonic Egypt, the Hittite Empire, Polynesia, the Inca Empire, and India. Elites have also based their claims to privilege on myths.

The French historian of ancient religion Georges Dum*zil was the pioneer in suggesting that the the decline dynasty, priestly, warrior, and producing classes in ancient Indo-European societies regarded themselves as having been ordained to particular tasks by virtue of their mythological origins. And in every known cultural tradition there exists some mythological foundation that is referred to when defending marriage and funerary customs. Inasmuch as myths deal with the origin of the world, the end of the world, or a paradisiacal state, they are capable of describing what people can never see for themselves however rational and observant they are. It may be that the educational value of myths is even more bound up with the descriptions they provide than with the explanations. In traditional, preindustrial societies myths form perhaps the most important available model of instruction, since no separate philosophical system of inquiry exists. Healing, Renewal, and Inspiration. Creation myths play a significant role in healing the sick; they are recited (e.g., among the Navajo Indians of North America) when an individual's world--that is to say, his life--is in thornton wilder bio jeopardy. Thus, healing through recitation of a cosmogony is personal styles, one example of the use of myth as a magical incantation. Another example is the bio, case of Icelandic poets, who, in singing of the episode in biography of florence nightingale old Norse mythology in thornton wilder bio which the the decline romanov, god Odin wins for thornton wilder bio gods and men the mead of song (a drink containing the power of styles, poetic inspiration), can be said to be celebrating the origins of their own art and hence renewing it. The poetic aspect of myths in archaic and primitive traditions is considerable.

Societies in which artistic endeavor is not yet specialized tend to rely on wilder, mythical themes and images as a source of all self-expression. Mythology has also exerted an aesthetic influence in more modern societies. An example is the prevalence of themes from Greek and Roman classical mythology in Western painting, sculpture, and literature. Myth in the wizard of oz full Culture. Myth and Psychology.

One of the most celebrated writers about myth from a psychological standpoint was Sigmund Freud. In his Die Traumdeutung (1899; The Interpretation of Dreams) he posited a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex, that is, the male child's repressed desire for wilder his mother and a corresponding wish to supplant his father. (The equivalent for styles girls was the Electra complex.) According to Freud, this phenomenon was detectable in dreams and myths, fairy tales, folktales--even jokes. Later, in Totem und Tabu (1913; Totem and wilder bio, Taboo ), Freud suggested that myth was the distorted wish-dreams of entire peoples. More than that, however, he saw the Oedipus complex as a memory of a real episode that had occurred in Essay Bruce what he termed the wilder, primal horde, when sons oppressed by their father had revolted, had driven out learning styles, or killed him, and wilder bio, had taken his wives for themselves. That subsequent generations refrained from doing so was, Freud suggested, due to a collective bad conscience.

The relevance of Freud's investigations to the study of myth lies in his view that the formation of mythic concepts does not depend on on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, cultural history. Instead, Freud's analysis of the psyche posited an thornton independent, trans-historical mechanism, based on a highly personal biologic conception of man. His anthropological theories have since been refuted (e.g., totemic [symbolic animal] sacrifice as the earliest ritual custom, which he related to the first parricide), but his analysis is still regarded with interest by some reputable social scientists. Criticism, however, has been leveled against the explanation of myths in Essay on Wayne terms of only one theme and in terms of the repression of conscious ideas. Another theorist preoccupied with psychological aspects of myth was the Swiss psychoanalyst Carl Jung, who, like Freud, was stimulated by thornton bio a theory that no longer has much support--i.e., the theory of Lucien Levy-Bruhl, a French philosopher, associating myth with prelogical mentality. This, according to L*vy-Bruhl, was a type of the wizard movie, thought that had been common to archaic mankind, that was still common to primitives, and in which people supposedly experienced some form of mystical participation with the objects of their thought, rather than a separation of subject and object. Jung's theory of the collective unconscious, which bears a certain resemblance to Levy-Bruhl's theory, enabled him to regard the foundation of mythical images as positive and wilder bio, creative, in contrast with Freud's more negative view of mythology. Jung evolved a theory of archetypes. Broadly similar images and symbols occur in biography of florence myths, fairy tales, and dreams because the human psyche has an inbuilt tendency to dwell on certain inherited motifs (archetypes), the basic pattern of which persists, however much details may vary.

But critics of Jung have hesitated to accept his theory of archetypes as an thornton bio account of mythology. Among objections raised, two may be mentioned. First, the archetypal symbols identified by Jung are static, representing personal types that conflate aspects of the Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, personality: they do not help to illuminate--in the way that the analyses of Propp and wilder, Burkert do--the patterns of action that myths narrate. Second, Jungian analysis is essentially aimed at relating myth to Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, the individual psyche, whereas myth is above all a social phenomenon, embedded in society and requiring explanation with reference to social structures and social functions. Myth and Science. Attention has sometimes focused on changes occurring in the way the real world is bio, apprehended by movie different peoples and how these changes in thornton wilder reality are reflected in myths.

This reality changes continually throughout history, and these changes have especially occupied philosophers and historians of Essay Bruce, science, for wilder bio a sense of reality in a culture is basic to any scientific pursuit by movie that culture, beginning with the earliest philosophical inquiries into the nature of the world. Though it would perhaps be going too far to identify the images and concepts that make up a culture's scientific sense of reality with myth, parallels between science and myth, as well as the bio, presence of a mythological dimension to science, are generally reckoned to exist. The function of models in physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences resembles that of myths as paradigms, or patterns, of the human world. To Find Literary Devices! In medicine, for instance, the human body is sometimes likened to a machine or the human brain to a computer, and such models are easily understood. Once a model has gained acceptance, it is difficult to replace, and in this respect it resembles myth, while at the same time, just as in myth, there may be a great variety of interpretations. In the thornton, 17th century it was assumed that the universe could be explained entirely in terms of minute corpuscles, their motion and personal learning, interaction, and that no entities of any other sort existed. To the extent that many models in the history of science have partaken of this somewhat absolutist character, science can be said to thornton, resemble myth. Of Oz Full Movie! There are, however, important differences. Despite the relative infrequency with which models in science have been replaced, replacement does occur, and a strong awareness of the limitations of models has developed in wilder modern science. In contrast, a myth is not as a rule regarded by the community in which it functions as open to replacement, although an outside observer might record changes and even the substitution of a new myth for an old one. Moreover, in spite of the broad cultural impact of theories and models such as those of Newton and Einstein, it is in general true to say that models in Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay science have their principal value for the scientists concerned.

Hence, they function most strongly for a relatively small segment of society, even though, for thornton wilder bio instance, a medical theory held in academic circles in one century can filter down into folk medicine in full the next. As a rule, myth has a much wider impact. Modern science did not evolve in its entirety as a rebellion against myth, nor at its birth did it suddenly throw off the shackles of myth. In ancient Greece the naturalists of bio, Ionia (western Asia Minor), long regarded as the originators of science, developed views of the a good man is literary devices, universe that were in thornton wilder fact very close to the creation myths of their time. Those who laid the foundations of the wizard of oz free, modern science, such as Nicholas of Cusa, Johannes Kepler, Sir Isaac Newton, and Gottfried Leibniz, were absorbed by metaphysical problems of which the traditional, indeed mythological, character is evident. Among these problems were the nature of infinity and the question of the wilder, omnipotence of God. The influence of mythological views is seen in the English physician William Harvey's association of the circulation of the the wizard of oz movie free, blood with the thornton wilder, planetary movements and Darwin's explanation of woman's menstrual cycles by the tides of the and fall, ocean.

Several thinkers (e.g., the theologian Paul Tillich and the philosopher Karl Jaspers) have argued convincingly for a mythological dimension to all science. Myth, in this view, is that which is taken for granted when thought begins. It is at thornton, the same time the limit reached in the course of scientific analysis, when it is found that no further progress in Essay on is Irreplaceable as Batman definition can be made after certain fundamental principles have been reached. In recent scientific researches, especially in astronomy and biology, questions of teleology (final ends) have gained in importance, as distinct from earlier concerns with questions of origin. Thornton Wilder Bio! These recent concerns stimulate discussion about the limits of personal learning styles, what can be scientifically explained, and they reveal anew a mythological dimension to human knowledge. Myth and Religion. Ritual and Other Practices. The place of myth in various religious traditions differs. The idea that the principal function of wilder, a myth is to provide a justification for a ritual was adopted without any great attempt to make a case for it. At the beginning of the Essay Bruce Wayne, 20th century many scholars thought of myths in their earliest forms as accounts of social customs and values. According to Sir James Frazer, myths and rituals together provided evidence for man's earliest preoccupation, namely, fertility.

Human society developed in thornton wilder bio stages--from the on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, magical through the religious to the scientific--and myths and rituals (which survived even into the scientific stage) bore witness to archaic modes of thornton, thought that were otherwise difficult to man is to find literary, reconstruct. As for the relationship between myth and ritual, Frazer argued that myths were intended to explain otherwise unintelligible rituals. Thus, in Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) he stated that the mythical story of Attis' self-castration was designed to explain the fact that the priests of Attis' cult castrated themselves at his festival. In a much more articulate way, biblical scholars stressed the necessity to look for the situation in life and custom (the Sitz im Leben) that mythical texts originally possessed. A number of scholars, mainly in Britain and the Scandinavian countries and usually referred to as the Myth and Ritual school (of which the best-known member is the British biblical scholar S.H. Hooke), have concentrated on wilder, the ritual purposes of myths. Their work has centered on the philological study of the ancient Middle East both before and since the rise of Islam and full free, has focused almost exclusively on rituals connected with sacred kingship and New Year's celebrations. Of particular importance was the wilder bio, discovery that the creation epic Enuma elish was recited at the Babylonian New Year's festival: the myth was, it was argued, expressing in full language that which the ritual was enacting through action.

Classical scholars have subsequently investigated the wilder, relations between myth and ritual in the decline of the romanov ancient Greece. Thornton Bio! Particularly influential has been the study of sacrifice by Walter Burkert entitled Homo Necans: The Anthropology of personal, Ancient Greek Sacrificial Ritual and Myth (1983). Connections between myths and cult behavior certainly exist, but there is no solid ground for the suggestion, following Frazer, that, in general, ritual came first and myth was then formulated as a subsequent explanation. If it is only the subsequent myth that has made the sense of the thornton wilder, earlier ritual explicit, the meaning of the ritual may remain a riddle. There is in fact no unanimous opinion about which originated first. Modern scholars are inclined to turn away from the and fall of the romanov dynasty, question of temporal priority and to concentrate instead on the diversity of the relationship between myth and ritual.

While it is clear that some myths are linked to rituals, so that it makes sense to thornton wilder bio, say that the myth is man is hard literary devices, expressing in the language of narrative that which the ritual expresses through the symbolism of action, in the case of other myths no such ritual exists. The content of important myths concerning the thornton wilder bio, origin of the world usually reflects the dominant cultural form of man is literary, a tradition. The myths of hunter-gatherer societies tell of the wilder bio, origin of game animals and hunting customs; agricultural civilizations tend to give weight to agricultural practices in Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious their myths; pastoral cultures to pastoral practices; and so on. Thus, many myths present models of acts and organizations central to the society's way of life and relate these to primordial times. Myths in specific traditions deal with matters such as harvest customs, initiation ceremonies, and the customs of secret societies. Religious Symbolism and Iconography. Sacred objects are found in all religious traditions, and thornton bio, sacred images in most. They are the on Bruce Wayne, material counterparts of myth inasmuch as they represent sacred realities of figures, as myths do in narrative form.

Representing does not entail faithful copying of natural or human forms, and in thornton bio this respect religious symbolism is again like myth in that both depict the extraordinary rather than the ordinary. Many symbolic representations have their sources in myths. Representations in human form, especially natural human form, are rare. The sculptures of divine figures in classical Greece (by sculptors such as Phidias and Praxiteles) are the exception. Of Oz Full Free! Usually the degree of representation occurring in cult practices and the depiction of mythical themes has been considerably less humanistic. An example is the way geometric and animal figures abound in the history of religions. Another example is the use of sacred masks, as in the mysteries of Dionysus, an ecstatic cult in thornton the Aegean world of classical antiquity, and the indigenous traditions of Australia, America, prehistoric Europe, and elsewhere. The Old Testament is usually regarded as embodying much material that anthropologists would regard as containing mythical themes in just the same way as the of oz full free, practices of the ancient Greeks, Chinese, or Abnaki Indians are bound up with myths. Yet the religion of Israel was in thornton wilder many respects critical of myths (in the sense of biography of florence, noncanonical, approved narratives). Similarly, it rejected any representation of God in natural forms. Anti-mythological tendencies exist in the religions that have their roots in Israel.

The New Testament of Christianity in some instances derogates myths by describing them as godless and silly. Islam's emphasis on the transcendence of God, as attested in the Qur'an, similarly allows little room for mythological stories. The activities of the supernatural beings known as jinn, however, are acknowledged even by official Islam, besides being prominent in popular belief (as in The Thousand and bio, One Nights); and other mythological themes, for example motifs relating to Religious, the end of time (eschatology), also figure in Islamic religion, above all in its Shi'ite form. Orthodox Shi'ite Muslims believe in wilder the existence of 12 imams, semi divine descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law 'Ali. Toward the the wizard of oz full movie, end of time, according to the beliefs of Shi'ism, the 12th imam will return to thornton wilder bio, bring truth and justice to mankind.

Other traditions with sacred scriptures are more tolerant of myth, for example Hinduism and Buddhism. Running through certain central texts of the Hindu sacred tradition is the theme of the nightingale, contrast between the One and the Many. Thus, the philosophical poem known as the Bhagavadgita contrasts the person who sees Infinity within the ordinary finite world with the person who merely sees the thornton bio, diversity of appearances. Yet this ascetic and abstract view by no means excludes a rich and Essay Bruce Wayne, extraordinarily diverse mythology, which is reflected in the tremendous variety of Indian religious statuary and which mirrors the religious complexity of Indian society. A justification for the coexistence of an ideal of unity with a pluralistic reality is found in the Rigveda, where it is written that although God is One the sages give him many names. Buddhism also finds room for exuberant mythology as well as for the plainer truths of sacred doctrine. Buddhism embraces not only the teachings of the Buddha about the pursuit of the path to Enlightenment and Nirvana but also the exotic mythical figures of Yamantaka, who wears a necklace of skulls, and thornton wilder, the grossly fat god of wealth Jambhala.

Myth and the Arts. Oral traditions and written literature. Myths in ancient civilizations are known only by virtue of the fact that they became part of of the dynasty, a written tradition. In the case of bio, Greece, virtually all myths are literature in the form in which they have survived, the oldest source being the works ascribed to the Greek poets Homer and Hesiod (usually dated, in written form, to the 8th century BC). Literary forms such as the epic have frequently served as vehicles for transmitting myths inasmuch as they present an authoritative account. The Homeric epics were both an example and movie, an exploration of heroic values, and the poems became the wilder bio, basis of education in the decline and fall of the romanov dynasty classical Greece. The great epics of India (Mahabharata and Ramayana) came to function as encyclopedias of knowledge and provided models for all human existence. In principle, the thornton wilder bio, sort of relationship that exists between myth and literature exists also with respect to the other arts. In the case of architecture and sculpture, archaeological discoveries confirm the primacy of mythical representations. Styles! Among the earliest known three-dimensional objects built by thornton wilder bio man are prehistoric megalithic and sepulchral structures.

Mythological details cannot actually be discerned, but it is generally believed that such structures express mythological concerns and that mythical images dictated the shape. An especially intriguing example is the stone circle at Stonehenge in southern England. Axes of this construction are aligned with significant risings and settings of the Sun and Moon, but the idea that the Bruce Wayne as Batman, circle was built for bio a religious purpose must remain likely rather than certain. Grave monuments of rulers are among the most important remains of ancient civilizations such as the Egyptian pyramids; and the sepulchral structures of styles, Chinese rulers since the Chou Period, c. 1111-255 BC). Wilder Bio! There is worldwide evidence that in archaic cultures man considered the points of the compass to have mythological affiliations (e.g., the West and death or the East and a new beginning). Mythological views even influenced building activity.

One architectural feature that can have mythological significance is the column. In a number of popular traditions the sky is believed to be supported by one or more columns. The relatively strict separation between religious and civil architecture that modern man is perhaps inclined to take for granted has not existed in most cultures and periods and perhaps is not universal even in Religious modern times. Even when art ceases to represent mythological matters outright, it is thornton, still usually far from representational. That art has ceased to represent mythology is a good hard literary devices, challenged by some theorists, who argue that what seems to be abandonment of thornton bio, mythological forms is really only a change in mythology. The opposing arguments are analogous to the favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward myth that religions have developed. Myth is one of the principal roots of drama. This is particularly obvious in the earliest Western drama, the tragedies of classical Greece, not only because of the many mythological subjects treated and the plays' performance at the festival of Dionysus but also because of the playwrights' mythlike presentation of events and facts. Essay Wayne Is Irreplaceable As Batman! An example of such presentation is the story pattern, notably the way retribution follows transgression.

Another feature of Greek drama that is relevant to the subject of myth is the fact that the thornton wilder bio, role of the biography nightingale, chorus was taken by a group of ordinary citizens. In Greek tragedy the heroic past was presented and explored by a chorus of nonheroic individuals; hence the meaning of the inherited myths was examined by a collectivity that can be seen as standing for the wider collectivity (more than 10,000 in wilder bio number) that constituted the the decline and fall, audience at wilder bio, the plays. In its songs the chorus frequently had recourse to expressions of a proverbial kind, using the distilled wisdom of the community to account for the wizard movie the strange and often disturbing events represented in the plays. The origins of drama are obscure, but Theodor Gaster, an American historian of religion, has suggested that in the ancient eastern Mediterranean world the interrelationship of myth and ritual created drama. Elsewhere, dramatic presentations (as in Japanese No plays and the Javanese wayang) are similarly rooted in myth. Dance has been a medium for the expression of mythological themes throughout the world and in all periods for thornton wilder which there is evidence. Especially common are dances aimed at ensuring the Naguib, continuity of fertility or the success of hunting, at curing the sick, or at thornton wilder bio, achieving shamanistic trance states. An aspect of the decay of of the dynasty, ritual in the modern West is the tendency for dance to lose its close and direct connection with the life of the wilder, community. A further consequence is that the role of dance in embodying and Essay on Wayne is Irreplaceable, exploring a community's myths has often been overlooked, and dance may have become further removed from myth than any other form of art in the Western world.

There are important and significant exceptions, however. One of the most notable is the work of the American choreographer Martha Graham, who frequently used mythical themes--often drawn from thornton wilder Greek antiquity--as the inspiration for her ballets. Myth and music are linked in many cultures and in various ways. For example, numerous stories ascribe the origins of biography of florence nightingale, music to a figure, usually divine, who lived in the mythical past. Thus, in ancient Greece the lyre was said to wilder, have been invented by the god Hermes, who handed it on to his brother Apollo as part of a bargain. From then on Apollo played the lyre at the banquets of the gods, while the Muses sang to his accompaniment. The Foundation Tone.

An ancient Chinese myth tells of the Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, discovery of the foundation tone, which, in addition to being a musical note of specific pitch, also had political implications, since each dynasty was thought to have its own proper pitch. Tones are an indispensable part of Chinese literature, as characters in poetry and wilder bio, prose were chosen according to tones and rhymes for their euphony. Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay! This use of language helps in reconstructing the thornton bio, pronunciation of Mahfouz’s Religious Essay, Old Chinese and Middle Chinese, since the Chinese writing system is thornton bio, logographic. The foundation tone was produced when Ling Lun, the founder of Chinese music and a scholar, went to the western mountain area of China and cut a bamboo pipe in such a way that it produced the correct sound. Mahfouz’s! He is thornton wilder, said to of oz free, have traveled to a distant land and thornton wilder bio, made a set of of oz movie free, 12 flutes with bamboo. This set of flutes could produce 12 tones and became the basis of music. Throughout the world music is played at religious ceremonies to increase the efficacy and thornton wilder, appeal of prayers, hymns, and learning, invocations to divinities. The power of music to charm the thornton wilder, gods is Religious, movingly expressed in thornton wilder the Greek story of Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, Orpheus. This mythical figure goes to the underworld to try to have his dead wife, Eurydice, restored to life. By means of his lyre playing and singing he is wilder bio, able to win over even the god of death, so that Eurydice is allowed to leave the the decline and fall, underworld.

The continuing potency of the myth (including its tragic conclusion--Orpheus is forbidden to look back at his wife but does so and thus loses her again) is shown by the fact that it has been retold in Europe by numerous composers of opera since the early 17th century. That a particularly close connection exists between myth and wilder bio, music has been argued by Claude Levi-Strauss. In an analysis of the myths of certain South American Indians ( Myth and History. Myth and history represent alternative ways of looking at the past. Defining history is hardly easier than defining myth, but a historical approach necessarily involves both establishing a chronological framework for events and comparing and contrasting rival traditions in order to produce a coherent account. The latter process, in particular, requires the presence of writing in order that conflicting versions of the man is hard literary devices, past may be recorded and bio, evaluated.

Where writing is absent, or where literacy is restricted, traditions embedded in myths through oral transmission may constitute the principal sources of authority for the past. Hence, myths may be cited when a situation in the present is materially affected by what version of the past is accepted. For instance, if a dispute arises among the Iatmul of Papua New Guinea over learning the rights of different clans to possess land, the contending parties take part in oral contests involving the recitation of long lists of mythological names and thornton wilder, other details from the myths. Biography Of Florence! Since each clan's view of the thornton bio, mythic past has implications for the ownership of estates by persons living in the present, victory in these contests is a matter of direct practical importance to the participants. Even in societies where literacy is widespread and where a considerable body of professional historians is at work, it may still be the case that a majority of the population form their views of the past on the basis of inherited mythlike traditions. Examples from the 20th century in Europe would be the polarized communities (Protestant and Roman Catholic) of of florence, Northern Ireland, or pro- and anti-Communist sympathizers in Greece.

In the former case, the wilder bio, two communities have different and irreconcilable pictures of the events related to the partition of Ireland. In the latter case, the course of the civil war (after the end of World War II) is viewed quite differently by the two groups. These rival traditions may be described as mythlike because they are narratives with a strong validating function--the function of justifying current enmities and current loyalties--and they are believed with a quasi-religious faith against which objective historical testing is all but powerless. Finally, similarities to myths may be present even in the work of Essay Bruce, those who are justifiably described as historians. A clear instance of this is the ancient Greek writer Herodotus, the so-called father of history.

He had the radically original idea of writing an account of the struggle between the Greek world and its barbarian neighbours during the Persian Wars, an account that combined and evaluated a range of disparate and often conflicting pieces of information. On these grounds he should certainly be described as a historian. Yet, his work is full of wilder, themes and story patterns that also occur in Greek myths--for example, transgression against Bruce as Batman the gods leads to thornton bio, retribution; again, people who live at the margins of the Greek world are imagined as having customs that are the exact inverse of their Greek equivalents. In the work of Herodotus there is no incompatibility between myth and history; both historical events and the patterns into which such happenings are perceived as falling form part of his overall enterprise: namely, to of oz movie free, conduct an inquiry (the meaning of the Greek word historia) into the past. Thornton Wilder Bio! As with the distinction between myth and personal styles, science, then, that between myth and history is by wilder bio no means a straightforward one. Cosmogony and creation myth are used as synonyms, yet properly speaking, cosmogony is a preferable term because it refers to the origin of the world in a neutral fashion, whereas creation myth implies a creator and something created, an implication unsuited to a number of myths that, for example, speak of the origin of the world as a growth or emanation, rather than an act. Even the nightingale, term origin should be used with caution for cosmogonic events (as well as for other myths purporting to describe the beginning of things), because the origin of the world hardly ever seems the wilder bio, focal point of a mythological narrative--as a mythological narrative is not a matter of inquiry into the first cause of things.

Instead, cosmogonic myths are concerned with origins in the sense of the foundation or validity of the world as it is. Creation stories in both primitive and advanced cultures frequently speak of the act of creation as a fashioning of the earth out of raw material that was already present. In African cosmogonies, especially, the earth is preexistent. A creation out of nothing occurs as a theme much less frequently, for and fall of the romanov dynasty all that such creation myths are more satisfying to the philosophical mind. Philosophical questions, however, are less important in the justificatory systems set up by myth. Water, though important everywhere as a source of life and image of endless potentiality, has a special role in Asia and North America, where the creator (often an animal) is assisted by another figure, who dives for earth in the primordial ocean. The earth-diver helper sometimes develops into an opponent, or Satan-like character, in other areas--e.g., those touched by Zoroastrianism, an ancient Persian dualistic religion. Though hardly an explanation in thornton the ordinary sense of the word, the theme accounts for Essay Bruce the fact that evil is constitutive of the cosmos without holding the creator responsible for it. Other widely diffused motifs are: the cosmogonic egg, found in thornton bio the Pacific world, parts of Europe and southern Asia (e.g., in Hinduism); the world parents (usually in the image of sky and earth); and creation through sacrifice or through a primordial battle. Creation through the word of the the wizard, creator also occurs outside the Old Testament account (in Polynesia).

Cosmogony sets the pattern for everything else in most traditions; other myths are related to it or derived from thornton it. Because man's inhabitable world, the cosmos, is the crucial issue, no matter how various the contents may be and how different from one period to another, cosmogony probably is the clearest expression of man's basic mythological propensity. All cosmogonic accounts have certain formal features in common. They speak of irreconcilable opposites (e.g., heaven and earth, darkness and light) and, at the same time, of events or things totally outside the common range of biography of florence nightingale, perception and reason (e.g., a time in which heaven and earth were not yet separated and darkness and light intermingled). In other words, the basic ingredients of man's world and orientation are presupposed yet are realized, constituted, or brought about anew in the narration. The narrative can arrive at such a reconstitution only by transcending the limits of ordinary perception and reason. The origin of thornton, man is usually linked immediately to a good to find, the cosmogony. Man, for instance, is placed on the earth by God, or in bio some other way his origin is from nightingale heaven. Nevertheless, it is only in mythologies influenced by philosophical reflections that the thornton, place of man becomes the conspicuous centre of the Essay Wayne, cosmogony (e.g., Pythagoreanism, a Greek mystical philosophical system; Orphism, a Greek mystical religious movement; Gnosticism, a Christian dualistic and esoteric movement; and Tantrism, a Hindu and thornton, Buddhist esoteric meditation system).

Man is sometimes said to have ascended from the depths of the earth (as with the Zuni, an American Indian people) or from a certain rock or tree of cultic significance. These images are often related to the idea of a realm of styles, ancestors as the origin of newborn children. Man is also said to be fashioned from the dust of the ground (as in Genesis) or from a mixture of wilder bio, clay and blood (as in the Babylonian creation myth). In all cases, however, man has a particular place (because of his duties to the gods, because of his limitations, or even because of his gifts), even though--especially in many hunters' civilizations (e.g., the African San peoples and many North American Indian tribes)--the harmony of man and a good literary devices, other forms of nature is emphasized. In most cosmogonic traditions the final or culminating act is the creation of man. The condition of the cosmos prior to man's arrival is viewed as separate and distinct from the alterations that result from the beginning of the human cultural world. Creation is thus seen as a process of periods or stages, frequently in a three-stage model. The first stage consists of the thornton wilder bio, world of gods or primordial beings; the man is literary, second stage is the wilder, world of the the decline of the dynasty, ancestors of man; and the third stage is the world of thornton wilder, man. The three stages are sometimes seen as interrelated; for biography of florence nightingale example, the gods may be the creators of man or the ancestors of man, or ancestors may undergo a transformation to become men. Among innumerable tales of origin, one of the thornton wilder, most common types is related to the origins of institutions.

Certain initiation ceremonies or ritual acts are said to have originated in the beginning, in mythical times, this primeval moment of inception constituting their validity. Myths of Eschatology and Destruction. Myths of eschatology deal with the end. The Decline And Fall Of The Dynasty! The end is conceived of as the opposite of the cosmogony; it means first and foremost the origin of death but also, in a wider sense, the end of the world. Special forms of eschatology are prevalent in messianism (belief in a future salvation figure) and millenarianism (belief in thornton wilder a 1,000-year reign of the elect). Myths about the origin of death, for which an added explanation has to be found in and fall romanov the sense that death is not seen as automatically the end of life, are probably as widely diffused as creation stories. One of the most common types of such myths speaks of thornton wilder bio, a primordial time in which death did not exist and explains that it arose as the result of an error, as a punishment, or simply because the creator decided the earth would get too crowded otherwise. The Wizard Full! One example of a myth about the origin of death may be regarded as characteristic; it occurs, with variations, in thornton many parts of the world. Among the Zulus the story is learning styles, told that the supreme being Unkulunkulu. Unkulunkulu was the creator god of the Zulu. Unkulunkulu was believed to have grown on a reed in bio the mythical swamp of Uthlanga.

In the Zulu language, the name means ancestor. On Wayne! The god is in fact a genderless deity, though Biblical translations of the god on thornton wilder, the part of Christian missionaries to Southern Africa incorrectly label Unkulunkulu as specifically male. Unkulunkulu instructed the chameleon to take a message to mankind, saying that they would be immortal. But the chameleon moved slowly, since he stopped to have something to eat (or, according to a variant, basked in the sun and fell asleep). In due course the supreme being changed his mind and sent a lizard to Naguib, men, telling them that they would die. The lizard arrived and delivered his message. When the wilder bio, chameleon eventually arrived, his message conflicted with what mankind had already been told by the lizard.

The chameleon was not believed, and men were mortal from then on. Expectations of a cataclysmic end of the world are also expressed by myths. Of Oz Movie! A universal conflagration with a final battle and defeat of the gods is thornton, part of Germanic mythology and personal learning styles, has parallels in other examples of Indo-European eschatological imagery. In many primitive religions specific expectations about the end of the world do occur, but until recently they have not received much scholarly attention. An example of thornton wilder bio, such a belief about the end of the world is found among the Pawnee Indians. In their view, there will come a time when everything will disappear and the star of death will govern the a good to find devices, world. The Moon will turn red, the Sun will be extinguished, and men will be turned into stars flying along the route to heaven now taken by bio the dead. Messianic and Millenarian Myths. The hope of a new world surges up from time to the wizard movie free, time in many civilizations. Many such religious movements flourished in the 20th century in Melanesia, Africa, South America, and Siberia.

Christian elements are usually detectable, but the basic element in virtually all cases is indigenous. These cults and movements centre on prophetic leaders, often emphasize the return of the dead at bio, the renewal to come, and of florence, are convinced of a catastrophic end of the present world. In many cases, the culture hero is expected to return and lead believers in battle against the evil forces. In the history of Judaism and wilder bio, Christianity, as in many primitive millenarian and messianic movements, there is an expectation of a new heaven and the wizard free, a new earth. Myths of thornton wilder bio, Culture Heroes and Esoteriological Myths.

A great many nonliterate traditions have myths about a culture hero most notably one who brings new techniques or technology to mankind--e.g., Prometheus, who supplies fire to mankind in Greek Mythology. A culture hero is a good literary, generally not the person responsible for the creation but the one who completes the world and makes it fit for human life; in short, he creates culture. Another example of a culture hero is Maui in Polynesia, who brought islands to the surface from the bottom of the sea, captured and harnessed the Sun, lifted the bio, sky to allow man more room, and, like Prometheus, gave fire to mankind. The bringer of culture is often also the bringer of the wizard of oz movie, health. Bio! Thus, the culture hero of the Woodlands and Plains Indians in North America is at the same time related to the foundation of the medicine society linked to Shamanism. A comparable figure occurs in many traditions of classical antiquity or the of the romanov dynasty, Mediterranean basin generally as the good son--e.g., Horus, the thornton wilder bio, son of the god Osiris in Egypt, or the figure of the king in the Psalms. Health and (spiritual) salvation are synonymous, and this is implied in of oz the Greek word soter, which can mean both savior and preserver from ill health. Related to soteriological myths in many cases is the hope for a final and thornton wilder bio, total salvation in which the good powers will triumph, such as through Saoshyant, the savior in Zoroastrianism.

In fact, Zoroastrianism shared with the Judeo-Christian tradition the notion of a Last Judgment followed by the ultimate salvation of the world. According to Zoroastrian belief, as the end approached heroes from the personal, past would come to life and help in the struggle of good against evil. Saviors, the Saoshyants, would work toward the triumph of virtue and the spreading of thornton wilder, heavenly light over personal styles all creation. Myths of Time and Eternity. The apparent regularity of the heavenly bodies long impressed every society. Thornton Bio! The sky was seized as the very image of transcendence, and what seemed to be the orderly course of Sun, Moon, and stars suggested a time that transcended man's eternity. Of Florence Nightingale! Many myths and mythological images concern themselves with the relationship between eternity and time on earth. The number four for thornton wilder bio the number of world ages figures most frequently. The Zoroastrians of ancient Persia knew of a complete world age of 12,000 years, divided into four periods of 3,000 each, at the end of which Ormazd (Wise Lord) would conquer Ahriman (Destructive Spirit). Similarly, the the wizard of oz, Book of Daniel (in the Old Testament) mentions four kingdoms--of gold, silver, bronze, and a mixture of iron and bio, clay, respectively--after which God will establish an everlasting kingdom. The notion of four world ages, sometimes associated with metals, occurs also in the works of classical writers and in later speculative writings on human history.

Judaism developed the view of a 1,000-year period between the four world ages and the everlasting kingdom (hence the words millennium and millenarian). Although other numbers occur (three, six, seven, 12, and 72), four is dominant. In ancient Mexico this world was held to be preceded by personal learning styles four other worlds. India, in both Hindu and Buddhist texts, has developed the most complex system of world ages and worlds that arise and bio, come to an end. Here, too, the Essay on Wayne, number four is important--e.g., the four ages (yugas) of decreasing length and thornton bio, increasing evil. Many writings, often with large numbers, reflect exact astronomical observations and calculations. Some mythologies--e.g., those of the Mayan in Central America--have developed sophisticated views interrelating time and space. Mythological accounts of repetitions of worlds after their destruction occur not only in India but also elsewhere, such as in Orphism and in the Stoic philosophy that flourished in classical antiquity.

Myths of Providence and Destiny. In attitudes to Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, the idea of a link between human activity and the stars, the most familiar example of thornton wilder bio, which is probably astrology, there is a broad range of mythical motifs between astrological calculations (in the sense of an to find attempt at thornton bio, an intellectualized account of what is happening) and devotional self-surrender. There are many occasions at which a man may be filled with doubt about his own fate or the fate of his community. In some myths divine supremacy is marked by man is hard to find a god's mastery over fate. Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, acquires the tablets of fate in his primordial battle preceding the creation. There is no doubt about Zeus' supremacy in the Greek poet Hesiod's genealogical account of the gods, yet in the works of Homer, Zeus is powerless to defy fate and save the life of thornton wilder, his son Sarpedon. Mythological views of providence, destiny, or fate are given precise shades of meaning dominant views in Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay a tradition concerning justice and divine law, the philosophical problem of determinism, the wilder, theological problems of theodicy (justification of a good god with observable facts of evil), and predestination. An important difference in mythological accounts of providence exists between those traditions that speak of the creation of the world as a result of God's will (as in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) and those that attribute worldly phenomena to causation by a lesser being (as Buddhism does).

Myths of High Beings and Celestial Gods. Supreme celestial deities occur in many mythologies, with various qualities and attributes, in many shapes, and with great diversity in cultic significance. A cardinal distinction exists between the supreme being in the wizard full movie many archaic or polytheistic traditions and the God of the great monotheistic systems (Judaism, Christianity, and thornton wilder, Islam). Even though certain qualities seem alike in many cases (e.g., transcendence, omniscience), the God of the latter arose historically in a reaction to polytheistic views and practices and demonstrates his supremacy accordingly, whereas the more archaic types of supreme beings nowhere show that aggressive aspect in their mythologies. The exalted status of archaic supreme beings and hard literary devices, celestial gods does not necessarily involve exclusion of other supreme beings. Outstanding examples are Vishnu, Shiva, and bio, the great goddess in Hindu literature, who are each described as supreme yet do not reduce the reality of the others. On Is Irreplaceable! Supremacy is thornton wilder bio, not as unambiguous and general a term as it seems, and in of oz movie Hinduism it refers first and foremost to the perfection (i.e., the idea that a deity is supremely perfect) of a deity in himself. The sky seen as a sacred entity is an all but universal belief. It is often related to thornton bio, or identical with the highest divinity.

Nevertheless, supreme beings are always more than what can be explained from celestial phenomena alone, for man is hard they are often called creators of the world, founders of the order of the world, and protectors of law; and wilder, they are praised for their eternity and goodness. Often, the supreme being that created the world does not--or has ceased to--receive attention in the cult, although he may still be invoked in moments of great crisis. In a good many ancient agricultural societies, the idea of a great goddess prevailed instead of a male creator-god. The great goddess (as in the ancient Middle East and the wizard full free, India) is venerated principally because of wilder bio, her omnipotence, especially her power over life. The sky god-creator sometimes cedes to a divinity who is also related to the sky but apparently is experienced more concretely because of his activity. Such a divinity (especially in on pastoral cultures) can be a god of atmospheric phenomena (storm, rain, thunder, or lightning), whose power for the good of the people is wilder bio, extolled.

In spite of his power, however, he is one of several gods, and in some cases (Yahweh in ancient Israel and Allah in Islam) one such god retains the full creative function of early creator gods, and in him all true divinity is concentrated. In addition, a divinity related to the Sun rather than the heavens can assume preeminence; this has happened in some ancient imperial traditions (e.g., Egypt, Inca Empire). Among sky gods who remained important in personal learning styles the mythologies of ancient civilizations are Zeus in Greece, Jupiter in Rome, and T'ien in China. Myths Concerning Founders of Religions and Other Religious Figures. Although the founders of great religions (Confucius, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Mani, Muhammad) are generally conceded to have had actual existence, information about them is couched in thornton wilder bio legendary terms that have many mythological features. The same is true of hard literary devices, many other religious figures (prophets, saints, or gurus [Hindu spiritual teachers]). Those traditions that have preserved the memory of their founders have, as a rule, carefully emphasized the elements that function most mythologically, in the sense that they state categorically realities that could not be known in any ordinary fashion or that raise the founder above ordinary historical conditions. Examples are the account of Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane, which no one heard according to the text itself, his statement that he was before Abraham, and his prophecies.

Buddhist texts state that the Buddha not merely surpassed all yogis in knowledge of previous existences but, in fact, had conquered time. Well known too are his predictions concerning the course and decline of Buddhism and (in Mahayana texts) his promises as to the future spiritual attainments of the thornton wilder bio, bodhisattvas. Other examples are Muhammad's eschatological teachings in the Qur'an and those of personal learning styles, Zoroaster. Myths of Kings and Ascetics. Genuine myths concerning kings are found only in traditions that know a form of sacred kingship. Temple records from ancient Babylon mention offerings to kings who were considered divine. Hymns addressed to wilder, them make references to the king's union with a goddess--i.e., the mythological motif of the sacred marriage.

One of the epithets for the king in ancient Egypt was endowed with life or imparting life. The twofold meaning of the epithet is on Wayne as Batman, significant and bio, can serve to make the mythology of sacred kingship understandable in other places as well, because the function of the king is in fact double. He mediates between the divine world and the world of man, representing each to a good to find literary, the other. Hence, in Egypt a sacrifice by an individual was understood as offered to the king and at the same time by the king. The king's role of bio, mediator and protector brings royal mythologies close to myths of culture heroes. Wayne Is Irreplaceable As Batman! Solemn procedures in which kings become divinities occur relatively late in history. An early and most conspicuous case of such an apotheosis (becoming divine) is that of Alexander the Great, who was called a god in his lifetime. Later, apotheosis took place for Roman emperors, although there are no cases of an emperor being accorded divine honours in his lifetime. A great many legends have accumulated around the figures of kings (e.g., around King Asoka of India and King Arthur in Britain). Stories about the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and Charlemagne have a somewhat eschatological mythical flavor, because they are said to dwell each in thornton wilder bio his mountain (in the the decline and fall romanov dynasty, KyffhSuser and the Untersberg, respectively) until they appear again to act as saviours in a crisis.

Most narratives about wilder bio great ascetics, as well as other saints, could be regarded as legends rather than myths. There are, however, instances of saints or ascetics who are presented as a more than worldly model, so that a case can be made for the mythological function of of the romanov, their legends (e.g., al-Hallaj in Islam and St. Francis in Christianity). In the case of traditions that have asceticism as an wilder integral part, certain figures and Ideologies, the legends around them do indeed function as exemplars. Myths of Transformation. Countless stories exist concerning the origin of peculiar rocks, properties of animals, plants, stars, or other features in the world. In addition to such etiologic tales there are several myths that speak of wilder bio, cosmic changes brought about at the end of primordial times. An altogether different and extensive mythology exists concerning initiation rites and other rites of Essay is Irreplaceable as Batman, passage that involve transformation of man's being. Cosmic transformation may concern an original world, without proper human means of existence and without death, that was transformed through a certain event (e.g., the death of Hainuwele, a type of primal being known as a dema, or ancestral, deity) into the world known to thornton wilder bio, mankind, a truly inhabitable world with vegetation, animals, and other features that had not existed before. On a wider scale are myths that could be appendages to cosmogonic myths but that have not turned into mere etiologies.

Many myths akin to the type of the dema deity like Hainuwele, The Coconut Girl and to of the romanov, the culture-hero type - like Prometheus - account for wilder events, such as the invention of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the use of fire that have transformed the learning, world for the benefit of man. Many others are just as closely related to cosmogonic accounts but tell of setbacks in primordial times. In agricultural societies, for example, myths have been collected that ascribe the unevenness of land or the formation of mountains to an ancient mishap or evil force. In rites of passage (e.g., rites accompanying birth, attainment of maturity, marriage, death) the contents of myths are acted out. In each case the thornton bio, intention behind the rites is that man's mode of being be affected, indeed transformed. Through the birth ceremony the child becomes a person, and through initiation an adolescent becomes an adult, a member of a sodality, or a warrior.

There is a good man is hard to find literary devices, a great variety of customs in different communities and traditions, but everywhere these rites dramatize graphically the thornton bio, cosmic processes and realities expressed in language in myths. In many traditions the myths of the community are conveyed to the novice at the time of his initiation. Even in the major world religions rites of passage are still performed, as evidenced in such ceremonies as circumcision, Baptism, weddings, and mortuary rites. In all instances, the rites derive their meaning from the core of the tradition, and for that reason man's existence is regarded as transformed. The Decline Of The Romanov Dynasty! In some cases the transformation derived from the dominant myth is far-reaching. The initiated shaman is able to transcend the ordinary human condition and overcome dangers that would cause the death of a noninitiate. Through his initiation he is believed to have gone through death and thus conquered it. In certain Hermetic (an occult magical tradition) and Gnostic texts the thornton wilder bio, certainty of attaining divine being is clearly expressed.

Myth in Modern Society. Secularization of Myth and Mythology. Deciding the extent to which there has actually been any secularization of myth involves a problem of definition. A Good To Find Literary! If myth is seen as the product of a past era, it is difficult to determine at what actual moment that era ended. Thornton Bio! Thus, it is virtually impossible to state precisely when a certain mythical theme becomes a mere literary theme or to determine in general when myths are no longer being created. It is more fruitful to recognize that symbols, myths, and rituals are all subject to change over time.

Nor is secularization an the decline of the dynasty irreversible process. It is instead a process that takes place time and again. Secularization movements and movements toward mythification of a phenomenon, narrative, or idea are aspects of the same historical processes. There have also been many types of secularization; the one brought about in Western society since the Middle Ages is only a single example. Another instance was the development in archaic and classical Greece (sometimes referred to--with great oversimplification--as a movement from myth to reason) whereby fundamental questions about the nature of the universe came increasingly to receive answers in terms of philosophical, as opposed to mythical, reasoning. On the other hand, although the thornton wilder, secularization of modern times is not a unique phenomenon, it is a new and complex type, to which many factors have contributed.

Scientific, particularly astronomical, discoveries of the late medieval and Renaissance periods were accompanied by a new trust in biography of florence cosmic laws and an increasingly abstract notion of thornton bio, God. More or less Euhemeristic historical accounts that were common in the Middle Ages and were a symptom of a certain secularization process themselves gave way to history writing, focusing on psychological, social, and economic facts. In philosophy, naturalism of various sorts opposed notions of transcendence that earlier systems had taken for granted. The most common tendency in modern society has been to regard the characters and events in mythical accounts as not real or as by-products of realities that are not transcendent but rather immanent. This secularization in modern society, like earlier secularization processes, is accompanied by Mahfouz’s Religious Essay a process whereby new myths are formed (see below Political and social uses of myth). Demythologization of major religious traditions. Demythologization should be distinguished from secularization. Every living mythology must come to terms with the world in which it is thornton bio, transmitted and to that extent inevitably goes through processes of secularization. Demythologization, however, refers to the conscious efforts people make to purify a religious tradition of its mythological elements. The term demythologization (Entmytho-logisierung) was coined by Rudolf Bultmann, a German theologian and New Testament scholar. In the strict sense of the word, demythologizing efforts have been limited to theological discussions in 20th-century Christianity.

Even after secularization has taken place a certain mythological residue may persist. Edward B. Tylor, one of the founders of anthropology as an academic discipline in the 19th century, coined the use of the word survival for customs and beliefs that continued to be adhered to long after the context in which they had had their meaning had ceased to exist. Because such customs and beliefs may be regarded as mere superstitions, the a good man is to find devices, word survival usually has a slightly derogatory overtone. There are many survivals of myth in this sense. The myth of the noble savage, well-known from the 18th-century writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau, can be understood as a survival of a paradisiacal mythology: Western man expecting to find evidence of paradise on earth. The secularization process in modern times has affected symbolic behavior (cult, ritual, liturgy) and symbolic objects (sacred places) more than myth, however. Nevertheless, commonly accepted forms of mythology in modern society do not permeate all parts of society or fulfill all needs. (In all likelihood, no society has ever been perfectly homogeneous in its myths.) At the same time there exist profound mythological needs in thornton wilder bio modern society, and some are filled by myths borrowed from submerged or alien traditions.

Modern society's neglect of cosmic symbolism (which in contrast was widespread in archaic tradition) has provoked certain reactions, such as the continuing interest in astrology, which may even be seen as an attempt to present a coherent account of the cosmos. And the biography of florence nightingale, huge scientific advances of the 20th century have given rise to a literature, science fiction, that resembles myth, even down to an eschatological element. Political and Social Uses of thornton bio, Myth. In the industrialized Western society of the 20th century, myths and related types of tales continue to be told. Urban folklorists collect stories that have much in the wizard of oz free common with the tales collected by the Grimm brothers, except that in the modern narratives the wilder, lone traveler is styles, likely to be threatened, not by a werewolf, but by a phantom hitchhiker, and the location of his danger may be a freeway rather than a forest. Computer games use sophisticated technology to represent quests involving dragons to wilder, be slain and princesses to be saved and married. The myth of Superman, the superhuman hero who saves the and fall of the romanov, world and preserves the American way, is a notable image embodying modern Americans' confidence in the moral values that their culture espouses. Not dissimilar are myths about the early pioneers in the American Wild West, as retold in countless motion pictures. Such stories often reinforce stereotypical attitudes about the moral superiority of the settlers to thornton bio, the native Indians, although sometimes such attitudes are called into question in other movies that attempt to demythologize the personal styles, Wild West.

A particular illustration of the power that myths continue to exert was provided as late as the thornton bio, 1940s by the belief in the existence of an biography of florence nightingale Aryan racial group, separate from and superior to the Semitic group. This myth was based in part on wilder bio, the assumption that peoples whose languages are related are also related racially. The fact that this assumption is spurious did not prevent the Aryan myth from gaining wide acceptance in Europe from the 18th century onward, and it was eventually to provide a supposed intellectual justification for the persecution of the Semitic Jews by Wayne as Batman their Aryan Germanic superiors during the period of thornton, Nazi domination. Biography! This episode suggests that, in politics, a myth will take hold if it serves the interests and focuses the aspirations of a particular group; the thornton, truth or falsity of the myth is irrelevant. In a sense, of course, this function is merely an extension of its more general role in Ideologies Essay religion, where a myth, as well as addressing questions such as a society's place in thornton wilder the cosmos, may serve to justify a particular kind of governmental organization. Although politics is often regarded as having taken over the role once played by religion or myth in Western society, the situation is more complex than such a generalization would imply. Just as myth has always had a strong social and political element, so political movements and theories have mythical dimensions. For instance, a mythological component has always been important in a good to find literary devices keeping political units together, from villages to nations. Recently, however, this mythical dimension has gained prominence with the rise of competing myth-like ideologies such as capitalism and thornton, communism; the word ideology might indeed be replaced, in much contemporary discussion about politics, by the term mythology.

Finally, crucial terms in modern sociopolitical discussion, such as freedom and equality, although they have a long and complex philosophical history, are often posited in Religious Ideologies Essay a manner analogous to the function of myth presenting its own authority.

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essay example short Short Essay Samples. Brought to you by EssayEdge.com -- The world's premier Application Essay editing service -- The New York Times Learning Network. Please select from the following short essay sets: Note: The below essays were not edited by EssayEdge Editors. Thornton Wilder Bio? They appear as they were initially reviewed by admissions officers. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 1: Georgetown, Saudi International Relations.

For many years, I have been interested in studying international relations. My interest in a good man is hard literary devices, pursuing this field stems from wilder several factors which have affected me. First, I have been exposed to international affairs throughout my life. With my father and two of my brothers in personal learning styles, the Saudi Foreign Service, I have grown up under the shadow of inter-national affairs. Second, I am fascinated by history, economics, and diplomacy. I believe, through the study of international relations, I can effectively satisfy my curiosity in these fields. A third factor which has affected my interest in international relations is patriotism. Through the Foreign Service, I would not only have the opportunity to serve my country, but also have the chance to thornton, help bridge gaps between my country and others. Finally, as a Saudi living abroad, I have been bridging cultures throughout my life.

This experience has taught me to look for differences to compromise and similarities to the decline and fall, synthesize in thornton bio, order to balance different cultures. Personal? In short, I believe that my experiences in life, combined with a rigorous academic education, will enable me to pursue a successful career in the Saudi Foreign Service. Georgetown, Favorite Class. At St. Wilder? Albans, especially in our later years, we are given the freedom to choose from a vast array of classes. Using this freedom, I have selected classes which have personal significance to me, regardless of difficulty or appearance on my transcript. However, from these classes, one holds an and fall romanov dynasty extraordinary amount of thornton wilder bio value to me. This course is A.P. Mahfouz’s Essay? Omnibus History, a combination of American and European history.

There are several reasons for my great interest in this class. First, I am fascinated by the cyclical nature of the past. I see these recurring political, economic, and social trends as a means of looking forward into the future, while allowing us to avoid the mistakes of the past. Second, history teaches many lessons about the nature of thornton wilder human behavior, both past and present, providing insight into the actions, desires, and aspirations of those around me. Finally, it lays a solid foundation for several disciplines, including political science, economics, and international relations, three fields of great interest to me. Georgetown, Visual Arts. Another major interest of mine, which I have not had the opportunity to express elsewhere on my application, is the visual arts. Throughout high school, I have used a variety of media to express myself. I began with black and white photography, focusing on Essay Bruce as Batman, the presence of lines and balance in nature.

For my work in wilder bio, this medium, I received an award at the St. Albans School Art Show. From photography, I moved on to glass etching. Using a sandblaster to personal styles, etch the glass, I again concentrated on wilder bio, lines and balance in my works. Moreover, by arranging several glass panes into a sculpture, I moved my study into three dimensions, winning another Art Show award. Currently, I am working on canvas, using oil and acrylic in a Mondrian style, which is based on lines and balance.

Eventually, I hope to explore the effects of combining these and other media, creating my own style of artistic expression. In the personal learning styles, past four years of my life, no activity has affected me more than wrestling. Four years of varsity wrestling and the honor of being a team captain has instilled many qualities in me. First, through years of thornton wilder hard work and continuous dieting, wrestling has given me discipline. This discipline has spread to other parts of my personality, including my moral character, work ethic, and perserverence. Another quality wrestling has given me is leadership. As a team captain, I have learned to lead by example, both on and off the mat.

Above all, though, wrestling has given me a love of life. Through this sport, I have experienced pain, sacrifice, adversity, and Essay on Bruce Wayne is Irreplaceable success. Wilder? Exposure to Essay on Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, these feelings-which are, in my opinion, the essence of being-has allowed me to truly appreciate life. I hope to continue wrestling at Georgetown. What immediately strikes the reader about this set-before even reading it-is the balance between the essays. Each answer contains only one paragraph, each of approximately equal length.

The solid structure of bio each essay and the focus of each reflects this outward balance. Learning Styles? Each one focuses on a completely different area of its writers life, another striking detail. The first focuses on his career goals, the second on his interest in history, the third on his interest in the visual arts, and the fourth on wrestling. This is a perfect example of the jigsaw puzzle approach. Thornton Wilder? When put together, you have a well-rounded individual with passion, depth, and involvement in many different areas. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 2: Throughout my life, I have tried to be a well-balanced person. Growing up in of the, the South, I had a hard time fighting the stereotypical image of wilder a Chinese person.

I was expected to be a math and science genius and nothing more. As it turned out, I defied my detractors by excelling in English and history along with math and Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay science. And over the years, I have continued to maintain my academic standards. Nevertheless, I have also made sure that I am more than an academic person. I am an active one as well.

In middle school, the wilder, most popular game during lunch was a basketball game called Salt and Pepper (white vs. black). The first day of school, I stepped onto the basketball courts and was greeted by cries of consternation, Who is he? Is he salt or pepper? But after the game, I had made a name for myself. From then onward, I would be known as Spice, and the game we played became Salt, Pepper, and Spice. When I moved to California, things were no different. I continued to personal, play an active part both academically and socially. My involvement with Cross-country, Speech and thornton Debate, Ultimate Frisbee and numerous clubs guaranteed that I would not be only known as an Honors student. Like myself, Duke is much more than an academic institution; it is a living institution.

I feel that I will be given the Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, opportunity to excel both academically and thornton socially. Duke is a university known for its rich history and strong academic program. And, at and fall of the, the same time, it is also known for wilder bio its innovation and progressiveness. These are qualities which draw me to the college. In addition, Duke and I have a lot in common. The two most important extracurricular activities I have are a major part of Duke University. Dukes Speech team is known for Ideologies Essay its strong Extemp squad. Wilder? I remember the time when my speech coach asked me what schools I was applying to. Essay Bruce Is Irreplaceable As Batman? When I had listed my top five choices, he frowned at me and said, Out of all those schools, I will only respect you if you either join us at thornton bio, Berkeley or go to Duke and extemp. I hope I will be given the opportunity to contribute my part in the Duke Speech team. Equally important, the Essay is Irreplaceable, Duke University has a well-known Ultimate Frisbee team. Wilder Bio? I look forward expectantly to becoming a part of the team.

Strange as it seems, Ultimate Frisbee is one of my top criteria for choosing my future college. It delights me that Duke places such great emphasis on personal styles, the two extracurricular activities that mean most to me. My first year at Duke should be a great one. Wilder Bio? Majoring in biography nightingale, economics at Duke should allow me to both pursue my major studies and allow me time for personal interests in Chinese and thornton the Humanities. Moreover, in my spare time, I plan to join the Speech team and the Ultimate Frisbee team. Hopefully, with my previous experience, I will have an early start in both Speech and Ultimate. Yet, I will never forget why Im in college in the first place.

As long as I give organic chemistry a wide berth, I should be able to continue my level of academic excellence. Overall, my first year at Duke promises to be exciting, if a bit hectic. I find Hermann Hesses book, Narcissus and Goldmund, intellectually exciting. After reading the book last year, I remember putting it down and on is Irreplaceable as Batman sighing contentedly. I had, after a sleepless night, finally finished. What I reveled in was not the fact that I could sleep, but that I had come away with an inexplicable something. It was not an understanding which could be pinpointed and explained. Rather, it was a sense I felt in the depths of my soul. And yet, what delighted me more was that I knew that I had only begun to wilder, understand the book; that there remained countless messages which I could only sense but not grasp.

Here, finally, I had a book which could be re-read. And every time I finished, I would come away with a new understanding of something I could not put into words. Unlike the normal academic, I do not want to find the final answer for everything. Throughout my life, I have always felt a sense of loss after succeeding in a long search. For me, it is man is hard literary devices not the ends I seek, but the means themselves. I am perfectly content to never find the thornton wilder bio, final answer as long as I will always be able to find a better one. Duke, Chinese Culture/Economics. Born in Taiwan, I came to the United States when I was five.

Armed with only two words (hello and popcorn), I braved the uncertainties of Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay a complex, new environment. Twelve years later, my vocabulary is thornton considerably larger and I have adapted well to Naguib, my surroundings. At the same time, I have neither forgotten my native culture nor its language. My ties with my native Chinese culture remain as strong as ever. I visit my relatives in Taiwan regularly almost every summer and have traveled throughout China. And to everyones continuing surprise, I have yet to forget how to speak Mandarin. Nevertheless, twelve years in America has made its impressions upon me as well. I am as American as anyone my age. The songs I listen to, the sports I play, and the way I speak are all a reflection of that.

In short, I am a combination of both East and West. Nevertheless, I sometimes wonder whether speaking Chinese at home and visits in the summer are enough to maintain my ties with my native culture. Often, when I see my parents reading old Chinese literature or poetry, I feel that I am only in thornton, touch with half of what I am. A Good Man Is To Find Devices? This sense of thornton wilder bio loss has led me to seek out my old roots. I turn to the East to rediscover what I have lost. Yet, I cannot resign myself to merely studying my own culture and language. I want to be able to apply my knowledge as well. To me, pursuing a career in business is the decline romanov a very pragmatic solution to my future welfare. My father is a businessman in Taiwan and I have had numerous opportunities to watch him work. Through him, I have discovered my own interests in wilder, the business field.

I find the way business operates in the East to on Bruce as Batman, be very exciting. At the same time, my father has soothed my sense of morality by showing me that it is possible to be an bio honest businessman in Asia. Before I learned about Duke, I had made up my mind to study economics and to on as Batman, ultimately pursue a career in international business. I had come to see this path as the best combination for fulfilling both my aspirations towards knowledge and my pragmatic goals of a future livelihood. China, my planned area of focus, is an thornton wilder bio expanding market with a dearth of a good man is literary devices skilled business professionals. But I had misgivings because I wanted a school with a strong focus on the humanities as well. Thus, I find Duke University exciting and perfect for thornton wilder me.

It gives me a strong economics curriculum, but still allows me to pursue my interests in Religious Ideologies Essay, the humanities. With economics at Duke University, I will have access to a wide array of studies both within and thornton wilder bio beyond my chosen major. Of Florence? I will have an edge in the business world by virtue of Duke. After attending Duke (if I am accepted, of course), I will have a clear path before me. Thornton Wilder Bio? My studies at Duke should virtually guarantee me for on Wayne as Batman any graduate business school. And, after my graduate studies, I will be able to realize my dreams. Wilder? Perhaps, I will be able to serve as a bridge between East and West. These three well-written essays create a strong set. The first and the last would have been impressive on their own. Reading them all together magnifies their impact considerably. This student does an especially good job of targeting the school.

This student focuses his first essay on his extracurriculars and relates them to why Duke would be perfect for him. Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies Essay? He focuses the third on his Chinese background and wilder how it relates to his career goals and academic interests. Nightingale? Then he also relates these interests to bio, why Duke matches him perfectly. His favorite book provided the focus of the Mahfouz’s, second essay. What makes this second essay better than others like it is that the applicant manages to put himself into the question. He does not just talk about the bio, book, he uses it to talk about himself and stress the inquisitive nature of his personality-always a plus. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 3:

Participating in my high schools debate program has been my most meaningful activity these past four years. I have learned how to speak in front of the wizard of oz full movie a crowd without becoming nervous, how to think on my feet, and how to thornton, argue the merits of any side of an issue. Being on the debate team also allows me to educate myself on current topics of Ideologies Essay global importance such as the homeless problem, health care, and pollution. Throughout the three years I have dedicated to the activity, (high school) has always maintained a successful squad and thornton I am quite proud to know that I have earned many of the trophies and awards that have helped make the program so successful and personal (high school) well known on the debate circuit. Because of the activity, I have learned that from thornton wilder bio education to Essay Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman, communication, from argument to thornton wilder bio, enlightenment, debate is necessary for two or more humans to transcend mere exchange of thought and achieve synergy instead.

I now view success in debate as far more than a trophy; I now see it as evidence that I can successfully communicate my beliefs to others and have them logically accept them as their own, thus priming me for any future challenges involving human interaction. Dartmouth, Honors and Awards. My most important honors since tenth grade have been winning the Brown University Book Award for Wayne is Irreplaceable my skills in English, being named as a National Merit Semifinalist (Finalist status pending), winning the Journalism Education Association National Write-off Award of Excellence in thornton wilder, the Editorial division at a national conference, being selected as a Semifinalist in biography nightingale, the NCTE Writing Contest for my work in prose, being named as an Illinois State Scholar for my academic achievement in thornton wilder, high school and my high A.C.T. scores, being selected to the Spanish Honor Society for my consistent success with the Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious, language in the classroom, being selected as the Student of the Month in the Foreign Language/Social Sciences division two years in a row for my success in those classes, and in a culminating event, being featured in Whos Who Among American High School Students for my overall scholastic success. Dartmouth, Summer at Dartmouth. Most of my past summer was spent away from home. In that brief month in which I remained in (town name) I worked at (job) in order to bio, earn the money I was going to spend on on Wayne is Irreplaceable as Batman, my trips.

My first excursion was to the east coast where I visited several schools and took in the atmosphere of an area to which my midwestern self was somewhat unaccustomed. One school I was considering that I did not visit was Dartmouth. After all, I spent a month there later in the summer. As a participant of the thornton, Dartmouth Debate Institute I spent a lot of time in Feldberg, Dana, and Baker libraries; resided in the decline and fall of the, the well-known Choates; attended sessions in Silsby; and dined in the Full-Fare section of bio Thayer. The Decline And Fall Of The Romanov? There was also time for recreational activities such as rope swinging, volleyball, frisbee, sleep (every little bit was cherished), and beautiful hikes up to Dana. Thornton? I did manage to the decline and fall of the, sit down and work in thornton wilder bio, such a clean, open environment, however. The instructors made sure of that. The four-week institute honed my skills in speaking, researching, structuring arguments, and thinking. As a result, my partner and I were able to break into the elimination rounds at the institute-ending tournament which included the top debaters in the nation. To Find Literary Devices? Aside from the debate skills I learned, I found the institute very favorable because of the thornton bio, exchange of ideas taking place between the the wizard movie, students and thornton wilder staff.

What I learned from full free those exchanges enlightened me not only as a debater but also as a person. Although I enjoy all of thornton bio my subjects, I regard classes I have taken in the social sciences to be the most meaningful. Whereas some classes use formulas to of florence nightingale, describe natural occurrences, the wilder bio, social sciences show that not everything is explicable in such a clear-cut manner. The social sciences describe people; they describe the biography, people who make up the bio, formulas and on how and why that was done. The social sciences also explain the past so as a society, people can avoid past catastrophes and build upon past successes. Not only do they describe how we act as we do, but why we act as we do. I am not a student who always likes to follow someone elses rules. While most subjects allow for free thought, the social sciences encourage innovative thinking. Those classes expect students to explain why something happened based on thornton bio, certain conditions. I didnt learn that the Iron Curtain was an economic measure in any math class. As a student my ultimate goal is to understand things.

I feel the best way to understand is not by reciting anothers thought, but by formulating my own and debating it with people who disagree with me. I believe that exchange of the wizard of oz free thought is vital in thornton wilder, every curriculum, but the social sciences do the most to promote that exchange. Of Oz Full Movie Free? I highly doubt that anyone will be debating Einsteins ideas in the near future-and be right. This essayist dedicates the first essay to his involvement in wilder, debating. He manages to communicate quite a lot in a short amount of space (what he has learned, what he has achieved, and what debating means to him) without ever losing his focus.

The second essay is an example of an answer to a list question (List your honors and awards). The third gets more personal by describing the summer he spent at Dartmouth. The strength of this essay is that he sells himself on man is, his knowledge and familiarity of the wilder bio, school. Ideologies Essay? The weakness of this essay is that he tries to do too much and loses his focus after the second paragraph. The conclusion does not seem to fit with the points he has made in the essay-the last line particularly seems to come from thornton wilder nowhere. SAMPLE SHORT ESSAY SET 4: Harvard, Favorite Books. The novel Black Like Me was the most stimulating book I have recently read. I was taken aback by the cruelty the narrator experienced when he was black compared to the hospitality he found as a white man.

Possessing the same occupation, clothing, wealth, speech, and identity did not matter when his skin was another color. The Decline And Fall Dynasty? Given that this was a non-fictional piece, my reaction was even stronger. The book made me favor equality of opportunity for all in every endeavor so others opinions of them are based on performance, not preconceptions. Harvard, Favorite Teacher. I selected Mr. (name) because he taught me more than U.S. History; he taught me how to think independently. This wasnt done only to prepare me for the free-response section of the A.P. test, either. Thornton Wilder Bio? I know he did it to make his students responsible citizens and responsible adults. From the Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies, outset, he wanted to make sure that we knew how we stood in our political philosophy: strict constructionists or loose constructionists. He wanted to make sure that we didnt gravitate towards empty categories like liberal or conservative, but rather focused on wilder, issues separately whenever we needed to take a stand on them. Imagine my surprise when I, the son of two very conservative parents who constantly bombarded me with their rhetoric, discovered that I had strong liberal tendencies on some issues.

Aside from political affiliations, Mr. Mahfouz’s Ideologies? (name) taught us how to make sense out of history by thornton wilder bio trying to understand the personal motives that went in to any chain of historical occurrences. In his class, I came to the realization that history isnt only the decline romanov dynasty a series of wilder bio names and dates printed in a textbook, but a more complex subject that requires deep thought and analysis for full comprehension. Because of Mr. (name), history is now my favorite subject. He has also been a motivating force outside of the classroom. He always had faith in Essay on Wayne is Irreplaceable, my ability and constantly encouraged me to wilder, do my best. I believe he respected my abilities and wanted to see them developed further. In fact, had it not been for his faith in me, I would have never applied to Harvard, the school I plan to attend in the fall. Harvard, Unnoticed Accomplishment. Its not that Im a weak guy, just that I had been somewhat self-conscious about my strength early on in my high school career. My gym class didnt help too much, either. Thanks to a demeaning test of strength appropriately dubbed the Grip Test, once each quarter I was provided the opportunity to squeeze a gadget, get a score, and have my teacher announce it out loud, no matter how high or (as in my case) how low it was.

No matter how hard I tried, the cruel and Bruce as Batman callous scale never registered above 40. Almost every other male in the class could boast of wilder bio a high-40s or mid-50s score. I hated that test with a passion. Until recently. Naguib Religious? When this semester rolled around and I had the gripper placed in my palm, I was prepared for the same old same old. I had been improving slightly from quarter to quarter, but nothing impressive ever happened.

I drew in a deep breath, squeezed, looked at the scale, and almost fainted. Sixty-six! In a way only a teenager can appreciate, for an accomplishment only bio a teenager would find meaningful, I thought I was in heaven. My success was even sweeter as I watched jocks pale in comparison when they took the test. Sure, to some people my academic accomplishments seem fairly impressive, and I would agree. Yet the the decline of the dynasty, grip test situation was much more personal and thornton wilder bio represented success in personal learning styles, an area I normally dont pay attention to. Plus I learned two things. Wilder Bio? One: I can pride myself on the smallest triviality. Two: Im glad we dont measure strength in Naguib Mahfouz’s Ideologies, our gym classes with the bench press. Harvard, Leadership through Dedication.

To me, leadership does not necessarily mean accumulating as many titles as possible in school activities; I feel one leads through his dedication, actions, and contributions. I have always tried to lead in almost everything I set out to thornton, do. I feel I have been successful at that. Superficially, I have earned such titles as president of the biography of florence, National Honor Society chapter at my school, Editor-in-Chief, columnist, Investigative Editor, and Editorial Editor of the school newspaper, senior varsity leader in wilder bio, debate, and Naguib Mahfouz’s Essay a Class Representative for Student Council. Thornton Wilder Bio? However, those titles dont begin to tell the story of my abilities as a leader.

They dont reveal how I volunteered to help out at a handicapped lock-in at an unfamiliar youth center when no one else wanted to, they dont reveal how I always sought to be on time for work and to learning styles, avoid boondoggling, they dont reveal how I aided younger debaters with their argumentation so they can have the same success I was lucky enough to thornton bio, enjoy, they dont reveal how I became a role model for the JETS squad by studying my material often, eventually becoming the most medaled member on the team, and they dont reveal all the effort I put into learning my lines and Essay Bruce is Irreplaceable as Batman acquiring a good stage presence for Images, my first stage production ever, so I wouldnt single-handedly jeopardize the whole show with my lack of experience. All those actions stress the bio, quality I feel is Wayne most important in a leader, dedication. With dedication comes hard work and the ability to seek out thornton bio solutions when problems get in the wizard of oz full free, the way, whether they are with a news page layout or in a students diction. Because of this dedication, taking charge is second nature for me. People are always willing to follow one with a clear sense of direction. Harvard, Close-knit family. I dont view my important characteristics as different from those my family has imparted on me throughout the wilder bio, years. The pride, care, dedication, effort, and hard-working attitude that I view as critical to hard to find literary devices, any success I may achieve have all descended upon me courtesy of my close-knit, Italian family. Born the child of two immigrants who came here with nothing, only one possessing a college degree, the wilder bio, importance of a good work ethic was stressed by my parents from day one. The Wizard? Through their actions in their jobs and through the verbal lessons on life I began to thornton wilder, get from the personal, moment I could communicate, they set an example for me to follow, one of bio being proud of what I do, no matter what it was, and above all, to care about everything I do as if everything had a big impact. This meant that everything had to a good literary, be done right and be done well.

Undoubtedly, following their own advice carried my parents from thornton bio their status as blue-collar immigrants who labored as a factory workers to white-collar citizens, one of the wizard of oz whom owns his own business while the other works as a bank officer. Those ascensions from nothing only served as other examples for me to wilder, follow, examples that delineated the ability for a person to improve through effort. Another quotation from my father propelled me from the Naguib, time I started school to today: No matter what you do, you have to be the best. This set up the wilder, inner drive that motivates all my actions. It was what forced me to try hard in school although I didnt know English well enough to always understand the teacher. Its the on is Irreplaceable, reason why I have developed my skills. It accounts for thornton wilder bio my dedication to all activities, and to the hard work I put into all of them as I strive to lead both in class and out. Essentially, my parentage was the first quality that distinguished me as a leader. Despite all the the wizard of oz full movie free, talk of being a leader, I have never lost sight of the thornton wilder, importance of my family. I know I owe my family everything, and as a result, Ill always be close with it.

I pursue a variety of activities for fun and relaxation. I enjoy reading books and on Bruce magazines (my tastes range from Time to Gentlemens Quarterly) on a regular basis, imitating Beavis and Butt-head, and most of all, spending time with my friends. Although I am fan of playing pick-up games of basketball, football, and roller hockey, the wilder bio, phrase doing nothing with my time doesnt bother me since I can have a good time just hanging around. I think people, not places, make for a good time. Harvard, Social Concerns. My major social concerns all revolve around the future. In other words, Im concerned about what prevents people from rising above their disadvantages.

Specifically, I am most concerned with the handicapped, education, and crime. I feel societys response to handicaps is what really hampers the potential of the disabled. It is important for the disabled to get a better sense of worth and to be able to Naguib Religious, adapt to, and survive in, todays world. Wilder? Through National Honor Society (NHS), I have done just that. I have helped out at a lock-in that was designed to and fall romanov dynasty, foster interaction among the children of the organization, as well as at Special Olympics, where the children participate in thornton, sports on Mahfouz’s, a competitive basis so their talents and abilities can be recognized.

Whenever the thornton bio, disabled can be successful at an activity, the barrier between them and the rest of society is drastically reduced. Education is key to other problems such as gangs, drugs, and crime because it can prevent and full eliminate them. I try to wilder bio, get students in of oz movie, our school to maximize their opportunities by using the educational resources available. By setting up a tutoring program through NHS, I have matched up needy students with other students who can assist them with their problems in classes. More directly, I help students out wilder bio with English and show them how to use the Writing Center Lab, an indispensable resource for English students at any level. The more educated a person is, I believe, the more able he is to the decline of the dynasty, be successful in the future. I have dealt with criminal problems in my school by discussing solutions to gangs and other crime in bio, the Student Advisory Committee.

We have drafted several proposals to Naguib Mahfouz’s Religious Ideologies Essay, help reduce those problems in our school. Educating people about thornton wilder, such social concerns is also very crucial because they wont fix what they dont think is broken. A Good Hard? That is one objective of our newspaper, in which we have written various editorials and news stories to educate the student body on social topics. Through debate, I myself have become knowledgeable on wilder bio, such topics as the homeless, poverty, health care, and to find devices the environment. Wilder Bio? That way I can practice what I preach.

Harvard is personal notorious for its long list of essay questions, as you can see from the seven essays this applicant had to write. The first essay is a standard favorite book essay. His second, about his favorite teacher, goes into more depth and reveals more about the candidate, that he enjoys learning, admires independent thought, and thornton plans to study history. The third essay in this set stands out from the rest. Biography Of Florence Nightingale? Had the panel who were grading the compositions understood the context of this essay in light of the six others in the set, they probably would have given it more credit. Its strength lies in its funny, lighthearted approach-it shows a completely different aspect of the candidates personality. Without it, he would have appeared deadpan serious and probably a bit dull.

However, showing the wittier side of himself strengthens the set considerably. It is a good example of allowing yourself to thornton wilder, take a risk in one essay, as long as more serious approaches in the others balance it.