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argument essay gmat We all know that the Therapy Is Still, essays on on Computing Concept the GMAT are scored separately and that the schools dont care as much about the Shock Therapy Is Still Used Today, essay scores. Health Topics! We also know we have to Therapy Is Still Essay, write the definition, essays first, before we get to the more important quant and Shock Therapy, verbal sections, so we dont want to what, use up too much brain-power on Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today Essay the essays. Essay On Use Of An Outsider’s! Still, we cant just bomb the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today Essay, essay section; the schools do care about the potensi tanah, essays somewhat. So how do we do a good enough job on the essays without expending so much energy that were negatively affected during the Electroconvulsive Used Today, multiple-choice portion of the Essay on Use Outsider’s in Brave, test? We need to Shock, develop a template, an organizational framework on which to hang our writing. Philosophy Essay! The template will not, of Electroconvulsive Therapy Today Essay course, tell us exactly what to write. What Is Mephistopheles! For that, we need the actual essay prompt, which we wont see until we take the Electroconvulsive Shock Today Essay, test. We can, however, determine how to organize the information ahead of time, as well as the potensi, general kinds of Shock Is Still Today messages we need to potensi pamah, convey at various points throughout.

The template should tell us: how many paragraphs to Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay, use the Violence, primary purpose of each of Electroconvulsive Used Essay those paragraphs the kinds of information that need to potensi pamah, be conveyed in Shock Therapy Essay, each paragraph. The template will vary a little bit from person to topics, person; the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today, important thing is to tanah, have a consistent template for yourself that youve worked out in advance of the official test . In addition, we will need slightly different templates for the two different kinds of Electroconvulsive Shock Used essays, so take note of the on Film, differences below. Electroconvulsive Used Essay! As a general rule, essays should have either four or five paragraphs total. The first paragraph is always the of an New World, introduction, the Electroconvulsive Is Still Today Essay, last paragraph is Essay Concept always the Electroconvulsive Is Still Used, conclusion, and the body (middle) paragraphs are for the examples we choose to Essay on Use in Brave, use. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Essay! Each paragraph should contain certain things; these are listed in definition, the below sections. The information does not need to be presented in Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today, the given order below, though; just make sure that each paragraph does contain the on Use of an Perspective New World, necessary information in some sort of Electroconvulsive Therapy clear and logical order. On Computing! In addition, the information listed below is the Shock Therapy Used Today, minimum necessary info; you can certainly add more where appropriate. summarize the Essay The Grid, issue state a thesis acknowledge that the Essay, other side does have some merit introduce your examples. The first paragraph should contain a brief summary of the what, issue at hand in your own words (don't just repeat what the essay prompt said). Is Still Used! For an of discontinuity, Argument essay, briefly summarize the conclusion of the Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used, given argument. For the potensi tanah pamah, Issue essay, briefly summarize the issue upon Electroconvulsive Today Essay, which the what, prompt has asked you to Is Still Today, convey your opinion. For either, you dont need more than a one to two sentence summary.

The first paragraph should also contain a thesis statement. The thesis is typically one sentence and conveys to the reader your overall message or point for the essay that you wrote. For the The Grid Computing Concept, Argument essay, you can write most of your thesis sentence before you get to Is Still Essay, the test! You already know that the Argument will contain flaws, and that you will be discussing how those flaws hurt the on Computing, authors conclusion. Guess what? Thats your thesis! While the argument does have some merit, there are several serious flaws which serve to undermine the validity of the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, authors conclusion that XYZ. DONT USE THAT EXACT SENTENCE. Essay On The Grid! Theyre going to Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Essay, get suspicious if hundreds of people use the same sentence. (Besides, thats my sentence. Come up with your own!) Note the Essay on Use of an New World, opening clause: While the argument does have some merit. This is whats called acknowledging the Shock Used Today Essay, other side. We dont say, Hey, your argument is completely terrible! Theres nothing good about it at all! We acknowledge that some parts may be okay, or some people may feel differently, but our position is Essay on Use of an Perspective in Brave New World that the flaws are the Used Essay, most important issue (that is, our thesis is the potensi pamah, most important thing).

On the Electroconvulsive Essay, Issue essay, you wont be able to what, write your thesis statement ahead of Shock Used Today Essay time, but you do know youll have to do two things: (1) establish one clear position for yourself and (2) acknowledge the Essay, other side. Electroconvulsive Is Still Used! (While its certainly true that some people like Pepsi, more people prefer Coke.) Notice one other thing that I dont say: I dont say I think [blah blah thesis blah]. I state my thesis as though it is fact and definition, reasonable people surely agree with me. Thats a hallmark of Electroconvulsive Therapy Used a persuasive essay. Finally, the first paragraph needs to kawasan tanah pamah, introduce whatever examples were going to Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used, use in the body paragraphs below. Essay On Use Of An Outsider’s In Brave New World! Dont launch into the examples fully; that will come later. You can choose to use either 2 or 3 body paragraphs. Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today! (I use 2 body paragraphs, personally.

Remember, we just need to Essay on Concept, be good enough!) introduce one flaw explain why it is Used Essay a flaw suggest ways to fix the Essay on Use in Brave New World, flaw. Electroconvulsive Therapy Today! introduce one real-world example give enough detail for reader to understand relevance of example show how example supports your thesis. The body of an essay is where we support our thesis statement. My Religion Essay! For the Shock Therapy Essay, argument essay, your support will come from the definition of discontinuity, prompt itself: brainstorm several flaws from the argument (try to find the Electroconvulsive Shock Used, biggest, most glaring flaws). Each flaw gets its own paragraph, so youll need either two or three, depending upon Violence on Film Essay, how many body paragraphs you want to write. Explicitly explain why this flaw makes the conclusion less valid in Therapy Today Essay, some way, and then discuss how the definition of discontinuity, author might fix that flaw. For example, lets say that an argument claims that firing half of a companys employees will help the company to Is Still Used Today Essay, reduce costs and therefore become more profitable. Essay! While its certainly true that chopping half of Electroconvulsive Is Still Used your payroll will reduce costs, it doesnt necessarily follow that the health essay, company will become more profitable!

That loss of personnel may reduce productivity, hurt morale of the remaining employees, and Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, so on. Violence Essay! The author of such an Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today, argument could bolster the claim by, for is mephistopheles example, showing evidence that half of the Therapy Essay, employees are fully redundant and Essay on Use of an Outsider’s Perspective New World, firing them wouldnt affect the company adversely (if such evidence actually exists, of course!). For the issue essay, your support will come from Used, your brain: youll have to brainstorm some real-life example ( something that actually happened in Violence, the past ) in order to Therapy Used, support your thesis. That example could be something from your own life (work history, school, friend of philosophy examples a friend) or from the broader world (business, history, and so on). Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today! Stating that Cokes market share is higher than Pepsis, for example, would bolster your claim that more people prefer Coke. There is Violence on Film Essay no inherent advantage to a personal example versus a broader world example, but if you use a personal example, be sure to Shock, provide enough detail that the philosophy examples, reader can understand the relevance. When you use real-world examples that the Electroconvulsive Shock, readers are likely to on Use, know, you dont have to worry about, for example, explaining what Coke and Electroconvulsive Is Still Today, Pepsi are. Finally, make sure to philosophy, tie your example specifically back to your original thesis.

Dont make the Therapy Is Still Today Essay, reader connect the potensi kawasan pamah, dots: tell him or her exactly how this example supports your thesis. Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Essay! re-state your thesis (using new words) re-acknowledge the other side (using new words) briefly summarize how your examples supported your thesis (using new words) minimum 3 sentences; ideally 4 to philosophy essay examples, 5. Are you noticing a theme within the above bullet points? Basically, the Shock Used, conclusion paragraph isnt going to contain much new information. Its a conclusion; the kawasan pamah, major points should already have been made earlier in the essay. Electroconvulsive Therapy! What youre doing now is tying everything together in one neat package: yes, the Essay, other side has some merit, but heres my point-of-view and, by the way, I proved my case using these examples. Before you go into Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today Essay the real test, you should have a fully developed template, so that all you have to health essay topics, do is Therapy Today Essay come up with your two examples and your thesis statement, and then hang your words on on Use of an Outsider’s Perspective in Brave New World your framework.

Practice with the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Used Today, above as a starting point until you develop something with which youre comfortable. Dont forget to leave some time to philosophy essay examples, proof your essay; its okay to Therapy Today Essay, have a few typos, but systematic errors will lower your score.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Theodor Adorno was one of the foremost continental philosophers of the Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Essay, twentieth century. Philosophy Examples. Although he wrote on a wide range of subjects, his fundamental concern was human sufferingespecially modern societies effects upon the human condition. He was influenced most notably by Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. He was associated with The Institute for Social Research, in the Frankfurt School, which was a social science and cultural intellectual hub for promoting socialism and overthrowing capitalism. It was responsible for the creation of the philosophical form called critical theory, which takes the stand that oppression is created through politics, economics, culture, and materialism, but is maintained most significantly through consciousness. Therefore the focus of action must come from consciousness. The Institute of Social Research deviated from orthodox Marxism in its argument that social and cultural factors played as important a role as economics in oppression. Adorno made many contributions to Shock Therapy Is Still Today Essay, critical theory, notably his view that reason had become entangled with domination and suffering.

Adorno coined the definition, tern identity thinking to describe the process of categorical thought in modern society, by which everything becomes an example of an abstract, and thus nothing individual in its actual specific uniqueness is allowed to exist. He lamented that the human race had gone from understanding the world through myth to understanding it through scientific reasoning, but that this latter enlightenment was the same as understanding the world through myth. Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still. Both modes create a viewpoint that the subjective must conform to an outside world to which it has no control. Within this argument, Adorno saw morality as being stuck within this powerless subjective: in a world that values only recognizable facts, morality becomes nihilistic, a mere prejudice of individual subjectivity. Adorno is also known for his critique of the philosophy essay, the culture industry. He felt that the entertainment industry of Shock Therapy Used Today Essay modern society is just as mechanical, formulaic, and dominating as the workplace. Philosophy Examples. He argued that humans in modern society are programmed at work and in their leisure, and Shock Therapy Is Still Essay, though they seek to escape the monotony of their workplace, they are merely changing to definition, another piece of the machine from producer to consumer. There is no chance of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay becoming free individuals who can take part in the creation of Essay on The Grid Concept society, whether at work or play. Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was born in 1903 to relatively affluent parents in central Germany. His mother was a gifted singer, of Italian descent, and Shock Therapy Today Essay, his father was a Jewish wine merchant. Kawasan Tanah Pamah. Adorno's partial Jewish status was to have an immeasurable effect upon his life and philosophical works.

He was an academically and musically gifted child. Initially, it appeared that Adorno was destined for a musical career. Therapy Is Still Essay. During the early to mid 1920s Adorno studied music composition under Alban Berg in Vienna and philosophy, his talent was recognized by the likes of Berg and Schoenberg. Therapy Used Today. However, in the late 1920s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the greatest part of his considerable talent and energy to on Film, the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno's Jewish heritage forced him to eventually seek exile from Nazi Germany, initially registering as a doctoral student at Merton College, Oxford and then, as a member of the Shock Therapy Today Essay, University of Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, in New York concluding his exile in Southern California. Adorno did not complete his Oxford doctorate and is mephistopheles, appeared to be persistently unhappy in his exilic condition. Along with other members of the Institute for Social Research, Adorno returned to the University of Frankfurt immediately after the completion of the war, taking up a professorial chair in philosophy and sociology. Adorno remained a professor at the University of Frankfurt until his death in 1969. He was married to Gretel and they had no children. 2. Philosophical Influences and Motivation.

Adorno is generally recognized within the Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay, Continental tradition of philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. His collected works comprise some twenty-three volumes. He wrote on subjects ranging from musicology to metaphysics and his writings span to include such things as philosophical analyses of Hegelian metaphysics, a critical study of the astrology column of the The Grid Computing, Los Angeles Times, and jazz. In terms of both style and content, Adorno's writings defy convention. In seeking to attain a clear understanding of the Shock Therapy Is Still, works of any philosopher, one should begin by asking oneself what motivated his or her philosophical labors.

What was Adorno attempting to Outsider’s Perspective in Brave, achieve through his philosophical writings? Adorno's philosophy is fundamentally concerned with human suffering. Therapy Is Still Used Today. It is founded upon a central moral conviction: that the development of human civilization has been achieved through the systematic repression of definition nature and the consolidation of insidiously oppressive social and political systems, to which we are all exposed. Shock Therapy Used Today Essay. The shadow of human suffering falls across practically all of Adorno's writings. Adorno considered his principal task to be that of Essay on Use of an in Brave New World testifying to the persistence of such conditions and thereby, at best, retaining the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today Essay, possibility that such conditions might be changed for the better. The central tension in Adorno's diagnosis of what he termed 'damaged life' consists in the unrelentingly critical character of philosophy essay examples his evaluation of the effects of modern societies upon their inhabitants, coupled with a tentative, but absolutely essential, commitment to a belief in the possibility of the elimination of unnecessary suffering.

As in the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno's otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is Shock Used Today Essay, necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world. Adorno's philosophy is typically considered to have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. In addition, his association with the Essay, Institute of Social Research profoundly affected the development of Shock Is Still Used Today Adorno's thought. I shall begin by discussing this last, before briefly summarizing the influence of the first three. The Institute for Social Research was established at the University of Frankfurt in 1923.

The Institute, or the 'Frankfurt School', as it was later to become known, was an inter-disciplinary body comprising specialists in such fields as philosophy, economics, political science, legal theory, psychoanalysis, and the study of cultural phenomena such as music, film, and mass entertainment. The establishment of The Frankfurt School was financed by the son of a wealthy grain merchant who wished to create a western European equivalent to the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow. The Intellectual labor of the Institute in Frankfurt thus explicitly aimed at contributing to the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of socialism. However, from 1930 onwards, under the Directorship of Max Horkheimer, the work of the Frankfurt School began to show subtle but highly significant deviations from orthodox Marxism. Principally, the School began to question, and ultimately reject, the strict economic determinism to which orthodox Marxism was enthralled at the time. This coincided with a firm belief amongst the members of the School that social phenomena, such as culture, mass entertainment, education, and the family played a direct role in maintaining oppression.

Marxists had typically dismissed the importance of such phenomena on the grounds that they were mere reflections of the underlying economic basis of the capitalist mode of production. An undue concern for such phenomena was thus generally thought of what is mephistopheles as, at best, a distraction from the real task of overthrowing capitalism, at worst a veritable hindrance. In contrast, the Frankfurt School argued that such phenomena were fundamentally important, in their own right. The Frankfurt School thus challenged the economically-centric character of Marxism. The Frankfurt School's rejection of economic determinism and interest in the social and cultural planes of human oppression culminated in a far more circumspect appraisal of the Shock Is Still Today Essay, likelihood of capitalism's demise.

The Frankfurt School rejected the Marx's belief in the economic inevitability of capitalism experiencing cataclysmic economic crises. The Frankfurt School continued to argue that capitalism remained an oppressive system, but increasingly viewed the essay examples, system as far more adaptable and robust than Marxists had given it credit for. The Frankfurt School came to portray capitalism as potentially capable of averting its own demise indefinitely. The final break with orthodox Marxism occurred with the Frankfurt School's coming to condemn the Soviet Union as a politically oppressive system. Politically the Shock Today Essay, Frankfurt School sought to position itself equidistant from both Soviet socialism and liberal capitalism. The greater cause of human emancipation appeared to call for the relentless criticism of both systems. The Frankfurt School's contribution to the cause of human emancipation consisted in the production of primarily theoretical studies of social and cultural phenomena. This brand of theoretical study is generally referred to on Use Outsider’s in Brave New World, as 'critical theory'. Although originating with the Frankfurt School, critical theory has now achieved the Shock Therapy Is Still Used Essay, status of a distinct and separate form of philosophical study, taught and practiced in university departments throughout the world.

What, then, are the central philosophical characteristics of potensi kawasan critical theory and to what extent does Adorno's philosophy share these characteristics? Critical theory is founded upon an unequivocal normative basis. Taking a cold, hard look at the sheer scale of human misery and suffering experienced during the 20th century in particular, critical theory aims to testify to the extent and ultimate causes of the calamitous state of human affairs. The ultimate causes of such suffering are, of course, to Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today, be located in the material, political, economic, and social conditions which human beings simultaneously both produce and are exposed to. However, critical theory refrains from engaging in any direct, political action. Rather, critical theorists argue that suffering and domination are maintained, to a significant degree, at the level of of discontinuity consciousness and the various cultural institutions and Shock Therapy Essay, phenomena that sustain that consciousness.

Critical theory restricts itself to engaging with such phenomena and aims to potensi kawasan pamah, show the extent to which 'uncritical theory' contributes to the perpetuation of human suffering. Critical theory has thus been defined as 'a tradition of social thought that, in part at Therapy Used Today, least, takes its cue from tanah, its opposition to Therapy Is Still Today Essay, the wrongs and on The Grid Computing, ills of modern societies on Shock Therapy Today Essay the one hand, and the forms of theorizing that simply go along with or seek to legitimate those societies on the other hand.' (J.M.Bernstein, 1995:11) Max Horkheimer, the Director of the Frankfurt School, contrasted critical theory with what he referred to as 'traditional theory'. For Horkheimer the of discontinuity, paradigm of traditional theory consisted in those forms of social science that modeled themselves upon the methodologies of Shock Is Still Essay natural science. Such 'positivistic' forms of social science attempted to address and account for human and social phenomena in terms analogous to of discontinuity, the natural scientist's study of material nature. Thus, legitimate knowledge of Therapy Today Essay social reality was considered to be attainable through the on Film, application of objective forms of data gathering, yielding, ultimately, quantifiable data. A strict adherence to such a positivist methodology entailed the Electroconvulsive Used Today Essay, exclusion or rejection of any phenomena not amenable to such procedures.

Ironically, a strict concern for acquiring purely objective knowledge of human social action ran the very real risk of of discontinuity excluding from view certain aspects or features of the object under study. Horkheimer criticized positivism on Therapy Is Still Today Essay two grounds. First, that it falsely represented human social action. Second, that the representation of social reality produced by positivism was politically conservative, helping to philosophy essay, support the status quo, rather than challenging it. The first criticism consisted of the argument that positivism systematically failed to appreciate the extent to which the so-called social facts it yielded did not exist 'out there', so to speak, but were themselves mediated by socially and historically mediated human consciousness. Positivism ignored the Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today, role of the 'observer' in the constitution of social reality and thereby failed to consider the historical and social conditions affecting the representation of social facts.

Positivism falsely represented the what is mephistopheles, object of study by reifying social reality as existing objectively and independently of those whose action and Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today, labor actually produced those conditions. Tanah. Horkheimer argued, in contrast, that critical theory possessed a reflexive element lacking in the positivistic traditional theory. Critical theory attempted to penetrate the veil of reification so as to accurately determine the extent to which the social reality represented by traditional theory was partial and, in important respects, false. False precisely because of traditional theory's failure to discern the inherently social and historical character of social reality. Electroconvulsive Today Essay. Horkheimer expressed this point thus: the facts which our senses present to us are socially preformed in two ways: through the historical character of the object perceived and through the historical character of the perceiving organ. Both are not simply natural; they are shaped by human activity, and yet the individual perceives himself as receptive and passive in the act of perception. Horkheimer's emphasis upon the detrimental consequences of the representational fallacies of positivism for the individual is at the heart of his second fundamental criticism of traditional theory. Horkheimer argues that traditional theory is politically conservative in two respects. First, traditional theory falsely 'naturalizes' contingent social reality, thereby obscuring the extent to philosophy essay, which social reality emanates not from nature, but from the relationship between human action and nature.

This has the effect of circumscribing a general awareness of the possibility of change. Individuals come to see themselves as generally confronted by an immutable and intransigent social world, to which they must adapt and conform if they wish to survive. Second, and following on from this, conceiving of reality in Shock Is Still Today these terms serves to unduly pacify individuals. Individuals come to conceive of themselves as relatively passive recipients of the social reality, falsely imbued with naturalistic characteristics, that confronts them. We come to conceive of the potential exercise of our individual and collective will as decisively limited by existing conditions, as we find them, so to speak. The status quo is what, falsely perceived as a reflection of some natural, inevitable order.

Adorno was a leading member of the Frankfurt School. Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still. His writings are widely considered as having made a highly significant contribution to the development of critical theory. Adorno unequivocally shared the moral commitment of critical theory. He also remained deeply suspicious of positivistic social science and directed a large part of his intellectual interests to kawasan pamah, a critical analysis of the Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still, philosophical basis of this approach. He shared the Frankfurt School's general stance in Essay on Use Perspective respect of orthodox Marxism and economic determinism, in particular. Adorno persistently criticized any and all philosophical perspectives which posited the existence of some ahistorical and immutable basis to social reality. He thus shared Horkheimer's criticisms of any and all attempts at 'naturalizing' social reality. However, Adorno ultimately proceeded to explicate an account of the entwinement of reason and domination that was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. In stark contrast to the philosophical convention which counter-posed reason and domination, whereby the latter is to be confronted with and dissolved by the application of reason so as to achieve enlightenment, Adorno was to argue that reason itself had become entangled with domination. Reason had become a tool and device for domination and suffering.

This led Adorno to reassess the prospects for overcoming domination and suffering. Put simply, Adorno was far more sanguine in Electroconvulsive Is Still Today respect of the prospects for realizing critical theory's aims than other members of the Frankfurt School. Adorno was perhaps the most despairing of the Frankfurt School intellectuals. The Frankfurt School provided Adorno with an intellectual 'home' in which to work. The development of Adorno's thought was to have a profound effect upon the future development of critical theory. What. Adorno's philosophy itself owed much to the works of Hegel, Marx, and Is Still Used Essay, Nietzsche. The greater part of Adorno's thought, his account of reason, his understanding of the role of definition of discontinuity consciousness in the constitution of reality, and his vision of domination and human suffering are all imbued with the thought of these earlier philosophers. Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today. Adorno's philosophy consists, in large part, of a dialogue with these philosophers and their particular, and very different, visions of the definition, formation and deformation of social reality. Electroconvulsive Is Still Used. I shall briefly consider each in turn. Hegel's philosophy is notoriously abstruse and difficult to fully understand. There are aspects of Hegel's thought which Adorno consistently criticized and rejected.

However, what Adorno did take from Hegel, amongst other things, was a recognition that philosophy was located within particular socio-historical conditions. The objects of philosophical study and, indeed, the Essay New World, very exercise of Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today philosophy itself, were social and historical phenomena. The object of on Use Outsider’s Perspective New World philosophy was not the discovery of Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today timeless, immutable truths, but rather to provide interpretations of a socially constituted reality. Philosophy. Hegel was also to insist that understanding human behavior was only possible through engaging with the distinct socio-historical conditions, of which human beings were themselves a part. In stark contrast to Immanuel Kant's conception of the self-constituting character of human consciousness, Hegel argued that human consciousness was mediated by the socio-historical conditions of specific individuals. Further, Hegel argued that the development of each individual's self-consciousness could only proceed through relations with other individuals: attaining a consciousness of oneself entailed the existence of others. No one single human being was capable of achieving self-consciousness and exercising reason by Therapy Is Still Essay herself. Finally, Hegel also argued that the constitution of social reality proceeded through subjects' relationship with the Essay, 'objective', material realm. Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today. In stark contrast to positivism, an Hegelian inspired understanding of on Use of an Outsider’s Perspective in Brave social reality accorded a necessary and thoroughly active role to the subject. Hegel draws our attention to our own role in producing the objective reality with which positivists confront us.

Adorno was in basic agreement with all of the above aspects of Hegel's philosophy. A recognition of philosophy as a socio-historical phenomenon and an acceptance of the socio-historical conditions of human consciousness remained central to Adorno's thought. However, Adorno differed from Hegel most unequivocally on one particularly fundamental point. Hegel notoriously posited the existence of Shock Is Still Essay some ultimately constitutive ground of is mephistopheles human reality, in the metaphysical form 'Geist', or 'Spirit'. Hegel ultimately viewed reality as a manifestation of some a priori form of consciousness, analogous to a god. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today Essay. In conceiving of definition material reality as emanating from consciousness, Hegel was expounding a form of philosophical Idealism. Adorno would never accept this aspect of Shock Hegel's thought. Adorno consistently argued that any such recourse to some a priori, ultimately ahistorical basis to reality was itself best seen as conditioned by material forces and conditions. For Adorno, the abstractness of such philosophical arguments actually revealed the unduly abstract character of specific social conditions.

Adorno could thereby criticize Hegel for not according enough importance to the constitutive character of distinct social and historical conditions. Such criticisms reveal the influence of Karl Marx's thought upon the development of Adorno's thought. New World. Marx has famously been described as standing Hegel on his head. Shock Is Still Essay. Where Hegel ultimately viewed consciousness as determining the form and content of material conditions, Marx argued that material conditions ultimately determined, or fundamentally conditioned, human consciousness. For Marx, the Violence, ultimate grounds of social reality and the forms of human consciousness required for the maintenance of this reality were economic conditions.

Marx argued that, within capitalist societies, human suffering and domination originated in the economic relations characteristic of capitalism. Put simply, Marx argued that those who produced economic wealth, the proletariat, were alienated from the fruits of their labor as a result of having to Electroconvulsive Therapy Essay, sell their labor to those who controlled the forces of production: those who owned the factories and the like, the bourgeoisie. The disproportionate wealth and power of the bourgeoisie resulted from the extraction of an economic surplus from the philosophy examples, product of the proletariat's labor, in the form of profit. Those who owned the most, thus did the least to attain that wealth, whereas those who had the least, did the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today, most. Capitalism was thus considered to definition, be fundamentally based upon structural inequality and entailed one class of people treating another class as mere instruments of their own will. Under capitalism, Marx argued, human beings could never achieve their full, creative potential as a result of being bound to fundamentally alienating, dehumanizing forms of economic production. Capitalism ultimately reduces everyone, bourgeoisie and Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today, proletariat alike, to mere appendages of the machine. Adorno shared Marx's view of capitalism as a fundamentally dehumanizing system. Adorno's commitment to Marxism caused him, for example, to retain a lifelong suspicion of those accounts of liberalism founded upon Essay, abstract notions of formal equality and the prioritization of economic and Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today Essay, property rights.

Adorno's account of domination was thus deeply indebted to Marx's account of domination. In addition, in numerous articles and larger works, Adorno was to lay great stress on Marx's specific understanding of capitalism and The Grid Concept, the predominance of exchange value as the key determinant of worth in Shock capitalist societies. As will be shown later, the concept of exchange value was central to Adorno's analysis of culture and entertainment in capitalist societies. Marx's account of capitalism enabled critical theory and Adorno to go beyond a mere assertion of the social grounds of reality and the constitutive role of the philosophy examples, subject in the production of that reality. Shock Used. Adorno was not simply arguing that all human phenomena were socially determined. Rather, he was arguing that an awareness of the extent of definition of discontinuity domination required both an appreciation of the social basis of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today human life coupled with the potensi kawasan tanah, ability to qualitatively distinguish between various social formations in respect of the degree of human suffering prerequisite for their maintenance. To a significant degree, Marx's account of capitalism provided Adorno with the means for achieving this. However, as I argued above, Adorno shared the Frankfurt School's suspicions of the more economically determinist aspects of Marx's thought. Beyond even this, Adorno's account of reason and domination ultimately drew upon philosophical sources that were distinctly non-Marxian in character.

Foremost amongst these were the writings of Friedrich Nietzsche. Of all the critical theorists, the writings of Nietzsche have exerted the Shock Is Still Today, most influence upon Adorno in philosophy two principal respects. First, Adorno basically shared the importance which Nietzsche attributed to the autonomous individual. However, Nietzsche's account of the autonomous individual differs in several highly important respects from that typically associated with the rationalist tradition, within which the concept of the autonomous individual occupied a central place. In contrast to those philosophers, such as Kant, who tended to characterize autonomy in terms of the individual gaining a systematic control over her desires and acting in accordance with formal, potentially universalizable rules and Is Still Used Today, procedures, Nietzsche placed far greater importance upon spontaneous, creative human action as constituting the pinnacle of human possibility. Nietzsche considered the 'rule-bound' account of autonomy to be little more than a form of self-imposed heteronomy.

For Nietzsche, reason exercised in this fashion amounted to a form of self-domination. One might say that Nietzsche espoused an account of individual autonomy as aesthetic self-creation. Being autonomous entailed treating one's life as a potential work of definition of discontinuity art. This account of autonomy exercised an important and consistent influence upon Adorno's own understanding of autonomy. Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today Essay. Furthermore, Adorno's concern for the autonomous individual was absolutely central to his moral and political philosophy. Adorno argued that a large part of what was so morally wrong with complex, capitalist societies consisted in the extent to which, despite their professed individualist ideology, these societies actually frustrated and thwarted individuals' exercise of autonomy.

Adorno argued, along with other intellectuals of that period, that capitalist society was a mass, consumer society, within which individuals were categorized, subsumed, and governed by highly restrictive social, economic and, political structures that had little interest in specific individuals. For Adorno, the majority of peoples' lives were lead within mass, collective entities and structures, from school to the workplace and beyond. Being a true individual, in the broadly Nietzschean sense of that term, was considered to be nigh on impossible under these conditions. In addition to this aspect of Nietzsche's influence upon Adorno, the specific understanding which Adorno developed in respect of the definition of discontinuity, relationship between reason and domination owed much to Nietzsche. Nietzsche refused to endorse any account of reason as a thoroughly benign, or even disinterested force. Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Today Essay. Nietzsche argued that the development and deployment of reason was driven by power. Above all else, Nietzsche conceived of reason as a principal means of domination; a tool for dominating nature and others.

Nietzsche vehemently criticized any and all non-adversarial accounts of reason. Violence On Film Essay. On this reading, reason is a symptom of, and tool for, domination and hence not a means for overcoming or remedying domination. Adorno came to share some essential features of this basically instrumentalist account of Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy reason. Of An Outsider’s In Brave. The book he wrote with Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment , which is a foremost text of critical theory, grapples with precisely this account of reason. Electroconvulsive Therapy. However, Adorno refrained from simply taking over Nietzsche's account in its entirety. Most importantly, Adorno basically shared Nietzsche's account of the instrumentalization of is mephistopheles reason. However Adorno insisted against Nietzsche that the transformation of reason was less an Shock Used Essay, expression of human nature and more a consequence of Violence on Film Essay contingent social conditions which might, conceivably, be changed. Where Nietzsche saw domination as an essential feature of human society, Adorno argued that domination was contingent and potentially capable of being overcome. Obviously, letting go of this particular aspiration would be intellectually cataclysmic to the emancipatory aims of critical theory. Adorno uses Nietzsche in an attempt to bolster, not undermine, critical theory.

Adorno considered philosophy to be a social and historical exercise, bound by both the Shock Therapy Is Still Used, past and existing traditions and conditions. Hence, it would be fair to say that many philosophical streams run into the river of Adorno's own writings. Kawasan Tanah. However, the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche exercised a profound and lasting influence upon Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used, the form and content of Adorno's work. It is now time to move on and engage with certain key aspects of Adorno's philosophical writings. I shall focus upon three aspects of Adorno's writings so as to provide a clear summary of the scope and substance of Adorno's philosophy: his understanding of reason and what he termed 'identity thinking'; his moral philosophy and discussion of nihilism; and finally, his analysis of culture and its effects upon capitalist societies. 3. Identity Thinking and Instrumental Reason. Adorno unequivocally rejected the view that philosophy and the exercise of reason afforded access to a realm of pristine thoughts and reality. In stark contrast to those rationalists such as Plato, who posited the existence of an ultimate realm of reality and truth underlying the manifest world, Adorno argued that philosophical concepts actually expressed the social structures within which they were found. Adorno consistently argued that there is no such thing as pure thought: thinking is a socio-historical form of activity. Hence, Adorno argued that there did not exist a single standpoint from which 'truth' could be universally discerned. To many this may sound like mere philosophical relativism: the doctrine which claims that all criteria of truth are socially and historically relative and contingent.

However, the charge of relativism has rarely been leveled at Adorno's work. Relativists are typically accused of espousing a largely uncritical form of potensi pamah theorizing. A belief in Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used the social contingency of truth criteria appears to exclude the possibility of criticizing social practices and what, beliefs by recourse to practices and beliefs alien to that society. Further, their commitment to the notion of contingency has frequently resulted in philosophical relativists being accused of unduly affirming the Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today, legitimacy claims of any given social practice or belief without subjecting them to a sufficiently critical scrutiny. No such criticisms have been made of Adorno's work. Adorno's analysis of philosophical concepts aims to uncover the extent to Essay of an in Brave New World, which such concepts are predicated upon, and manifestations of, relations of power and domination. Adorno coined the term 'identity thinking' to refer to that form of thinking which is the most expressive philosophical manifestation of power and Electroconvulsive Today Essay, domination. Drawing a contrast between his own form of dialectical thinking and identity thinking, Adorno wrote that dialectics seek to say what something is, while 'identarian' thinking says what something comes under, what it exemplifies or represents, and what, accordingly, it is not itself. (1990:149). A perfect example of potensi kawasan pamah identity thinking would be those forms of reasoning found within bureaucracies where individual human beings are assembled within different classes or categories.

The bureaucracy can thus only be said to 'know' any specific individual as an exemplar of the wider category to which that individual has been assigned. The sheer, unique specificity of the Therapy Used, individual in question is thereby lost to view. One is liable to being treated as a number, and Violence, not as a unique person. Thus, Adorno condemns identity thinking as systematically and necessarily misrepresenting reality by means of the Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still, subsumption of specific phenomena under general, more abstract classificatory headings within which the phenomenal world is cognitively assembled. While this mode of representing reality may have the advantage of facilitating the manipulation of the material environment, it does so at definition of discontinuity, the cost of failing to attend to the specificity of any given phenomenal entity; everything becomes a mere exemplar. Shock Therapy Is Still. One consequence of apprehending reality in what is mephistopheles this way is the elimination of qualities or properties that may inhere within any given object but which are conceptually excluded from Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today, view, so to speak, as a result of the imposition of a classificatory framework. In this way, identity thinking misrepresents its object. Definition Of Discontinuity. Adorno's understanding and use of the concept of identity thinking provides a veritable foundation for his philosophy and ultimately underlies much of his writing. One of the principal examples of Adorno's analysis of identity thinking is to be found in his and Horkheimer's critical study of enlightenment, presented within their Dialectic of Enlightenment . The centerpiece of Adorno and Horkheimer's highly unusual text is an essay on the concept of enlightenment. The essay presents both a critical analysis of enlightenment and an account of the Electroconvulsive Shock Today Essay, instrumentalization of reason. The Enlightenment is on Film, characteristically thought of as an historical period, spanning the 17th and Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today Essay, 18th Centuries, embodying the Essay on Use of an Outsider’s Perspective, emancipatory ideals of modernity.

Enlightenment intellectuals were united by a common vision in which a genuinely human social and political order was to be achieved through the dissolution of previously oppressive, unenlightened, institutions. The establishment of enlightenment ideals was to be achieved by creating the conditions in which individuals could be free to exercise their own reason, free from the dictates of rationally indefensible doctrine and dogma. The means for establishing this new order was the Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today, exercise of reason. Freeing reason from the societal bonds which had constrained it was identified as the means for achieving human sovereignty over a world which was typically conceived of as the manifestation of some higher, divine authority. Enlightenment embodies the promise of potensi tanah pamah human beings finally taking individual and collective control over the destiny of the species. Adorno and Shock Therapy Is Still, Horkheimer refused to endorse such a wholly optimistic reading of the effects of the rationalization of society. They stated, in the most general sense of progressive thought, the Enlightenment has always aimed at liberating men from fear and establishing their sovereignty. Yet the fully enlightened earth radiates disaster triumphant. (1979:3) How do Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of the fully enlightened earth and what is the nature of the 'disaster that ensues from this? Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs in several highly significant respects from the conventional understanding of the concept. They do not conceive of enlightenment as confined to a distinct historical period.

As a recent commentator on Adorno has written, Adorno and Horkheimer do not use the term enlightenment primarily to designate a historical period ranging from Descartes to Kant. Instead they use it to refer to a series of of discontinuity related intellectual and practical operations which are presented as demythologizing, secularizing or disenchanting some mythical, religious or magical representation of the Shock Therapy Is Still Essay, world. (Jarvis, 1998:24). Adorno and Horkheimer extend their understanding of enlightenment to refer to a mode of apprehending reality found in the writings of classical Greek philosophers, such as Parmenides, to of discontinuity, 20th century positivists such as Bertrand Russell. At the Today, core of Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of philosophy examples enlightenment are two related theses: myth is already enlightenment, and enlightenment reverts to mythology. (1979: xvi). An analysis of the second of these two theses will suffice to Shock Is Still, explicate the concept of enlightenment Adorno and Horkheimer present. Adorno and Horkheimer's understanding of enlightenment differs fundamentally from those accounts of the development of human thought and civilization that posit a developmental schema according to which human history is considered as progressively proceeding through separate stages of cognitively classifying and apprehending reality.

These accounts typically describe the cognitive ascent of on Film Essay humanity as originating in myth, proceeding to religion, and Shock Is Still Used Essay, culminating in is mephistopheles secular, scientific reasoning. On this view, the scientific worldview ushered in by the enlightenment is Is Still Used Today, seen as effecting a radical intellectual break and transition from that which went before. Adorno and Horkheimer fundamentally challenge this assumption. On Use Of An Outsider’s Perspective New World. Their thesis that 'myth is already enlightenment' is based on the claim that the development of human thought possesses a basic continuity. Electroconvulsive Therapy Used. Both myth and what, enlightenment are modes of Therapy Is Still Essay representing reality, both attempt to explain and account for philosophy, reality. Adorno and Horkheimer's second thesis, that enlightenment reverts to mythology requires a far more detailed explanation since it entails engaging with their entire understanding of reason and its relationship with heteronomy. They aim to Therapy Is Still Essay, demonstrate that and how enlightenment's rationalization of essay examples society comes to revert to the character of a mythical order. Adorno and Horkheimer argue that enlightenment's reversion to mythology amounts to the betrayal of the emancipatory ideals of enlightenment.

However, they view the betrayal of enlightenment as being inherently entwined with enlightenment itself. For them, the Electroconvulsive Therapy Today Essay, reversion to mythology primarily means reverting to an unreflexive, uncritical mode of configuring and understanding reality. Reverting to mythology means the institution of social conditions, over which individuals come to have little perceived control. Reverting to mythology means a reversion to a heteronomous condition. Adorno and Horkheimer conceive of enlightenment as principally a demythologizing mode of apprehending reality. For them, the The Grid, fundamental aim of enlightenment is the establishment of human sovereignty over material reality, over nature: enlightenment is Electroconvulsive Shock, founded upon the drive to what, master and control nature. The realization of this aim requires the ability to cognitively and practically manipulate the material environment in accordance with our will. In order to be said to dominate nature, nature must become an object of our will.

Within highly technologically developed societies, the constraints upon our ability to manipulate nature are typically thought of in terms of the development of technological, scientific knowledge: the limits of possibility are determined not by a mythical belief in god, say, but in the development of the technological forces available to us. This way of Is Still Used Today conceiving of the tangible limits to human action and cognition had first to overcome a belief that the natural order contained, and was the product of, mythical beings and entities whose presumed existence constituted the ultimate form of authority for those societies enthralled by them. The realization of definition of discontinuity human sovereignty required the dissolution of such beliefs and Used, the disenchantment of nature. Adorno and definition of discontinuity, Horkheimer write, the program of the Electroconvulsive Is Still Today Essay, Enlightenment was the disenchantment of the world; the dissolution of myths and the substitution of knowledge for fancy. From now on, matter would at last be mastered without any illusion of ruling or inherent powers, of hidden qualities. (1979:3-6) Overcoming myth was effected by conceiving of myth as a form of anthropomorphism, as already a manifestation of human cognition so that a realm which had served to constrain the development of what is mephistopheles technological forces was itself a creation of mankind, falsely projected onto the material realm. On this reading, enlightenment is conceived of as superseding and replacing mythical and religious belief systems, the Shock, falsity of on The Grid Concept which consist, in large part, of their inability to discern the subjective character and origins of these beliefs. Few would dispute a view of enlightenment as antithetical to myth. However, Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment reverts to mythology is considerably more contentious. Therapy Is Still Essay. While many anthropologists and on Use of an Perspective in Brave New World, social theorists, for example have come to accept Adorno and Horkheimer's claim that myth and enlightenment have the same functional purpose of representing and understanding reality, most political theorists would take great issue with the Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Essay, claim that enlightenment has regressed, or relapsed into some mythical state since this latter claim clearly implies that the general state of social and political freedom assumed to exist in 'enlightened' societies is is mephistopheles, largely bogus. This is, however, precisely what Adorno and Is Still Today Essay, Horkheimer argue. They argue that human beings' attempt to gain sovereignty over nature has been pursued through, in large part, the accumulation of objective, verifiable knowledge of the material realm and its constitutive processes: we take control over nature by understanding how it can be made to work for us.

Viewed in this way, the value of nature is necessarily conceived of in is mephistopheles primarily instrumental terms: nature is thought of as an object for, and instrument of, human will. Shock Therapy Is Still Used. This conception of nature necessitates drawing a distinction between this realm and those beings for whom it is an what is mephistopheles, object. Thus, the instrumentalist conception of nature entails a conception of human beings as categorically distinct entities, capable of becoming subjects through the exercise of reason upon nature. The very category of subject thus has inscribed within it a particular conception of nature as that which is to be subordinated to one's will: subject and object are hierarchically juxtaposed, just as they are in the works of, for Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still, example, Descartes and Kant. For nature to be considered amenable to such subordination requires that it be conceived of as synonymous with the objectified models through which human subjects represent nature to themselves. Of An Perspective In Brave New World. To be wholly conceivable in Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay these terms requires the exclusion of any properties that cannot be subsumed within this representational understanding of nature, this particular form of identity thinking. Adorno and Horkheimer state, the concordance between the mind of man and the nature of things that he had in mind is patriarchal: the human mind, which overcomes superstition, is to hold sway over a disenchanted nature. (1979:4) Nature is thereby configured as the object of on Use Perspective human will and representation.

In this way, our criteria governing the Shock Therapy Is Still Today, identification and pursuit of valid knowledge are grounded within a hierarchical relationship between human beings and nature: reason is Violence, instrumentalized. For Adorno and Horkheimer then, myth turns into enlightenment, and Therapy, nature into what, mere objectivity. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today. Men pay for the increase of their power with alienation from that over philosophy essay, which they exercise their power. Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay. Enlightenment behaves towards things as a dictator toward men. Is Mephistopheles. He knows them in so far as he can manipulate them. The man of science knows things in so far as he can make them. In this way, their potentiality is turned to his own ends. (1979:9) Adorno and Shock Therapy Used Essay, Horkheimer insist that this process results in Essay of an Perspective in Brave the establishment of a generally heteronomous social order; a condition over which human beings have little control. Shock Therapy Used Today. Ultimately, the drive to dominate nature results in the establishment of a form of Violence on Film Essay reasoning and a general world-view which appears to Electroconvulsive Is Still Today Essay, exist independently of Essay Computing Concept human beings and, more to the point, is principally characterized by a systematic indifference to Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Essay, human beings and their sufferings: we ultimately become mere objects of the form of reason that we have created. Adorno and Horkheimer insist that individual self-preservation in 'enlightened' societies requires that each of us conform to the dictates of instrumental reason. How do Adorno and Horkheimer attempt to defend such a fundamentally controversial claim? Throughout his philosophical lifetime Adorno argued that authoritative forms of knowledge have become largely conceived of as synonymous with instrumental reasoning; that the world has come to be conceived of as identical with its representation within instrumental reasoning.

Reality is thus deemed discernible only in philosophy examples the form of objectively verifiable facts and alternative modes of representing reality are thereby fundamentally undermined. A successful appeal to the 'facts' of a cause has become the principal means for resolving disputes and settling disputes in Shock Therapy societies such as ours. However, Adorno argued that human beings are increasingly incapable of legitimately excluding themselves from those determinative processes thought to prevail within the disenchanted material realm: human beings become objects of the form of reasoning through which their status as subjects is first formulated. Thus, Adorno discerns a particular irony in the totalizing representation of reality which enlightenment prioritizes. Human sovereignty over philosophy essay, nature is pursued by the accumulation of hard, objective data which purport to accurately describe and catalogue this reality.

The designation of 'legitimate knowledge' is thereby restricted to that thought of as 'factual': legitimate knowledge of the world is that which purports to accurately reflect how the world is. As it stands, of course, the mere act of describing any particular aspect of the material realm does not, by itself, promote the cause of Essay human freedom. It may directly facilitate the exercise of freedom by philosophy essay providing sufficient knowledge upon which an agent may exercise discretionary judgment concerning, say, the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today Essay, viability of any particular desire, but, by itself, accurate descriptions of the world are not a sufficient condition for freedom. Adorno, however, argues that the very constituents of potensi kawasan tanah pamah this way of thinking are inextricably entwined with heteronomy. In commenting upon Adorno and Electroconvulsive Therapy Today, Horkheimer's claim that enlightenment restricts legitimate knowledge to the category of definition of discontinuity objectively verifiable facts, Simon Jarvis writes: thought is to confine itself to the facts, which are thus the point at which thought comes to a halt. Shock Therapy Is Still Today. The question as to whether these facts might change is ruled out by enlightened thought as a pseudo-problem. What Is Mephistopheles. Everything which is, is Electroconvulsive Therapy Used, thus represented as a kind of fate, no less unalterable and uninterogable than mythical fate itself. (1998:24). Conceived of in Essay this way, material reality appears as an Shock Therapy Essay, immutable and fixed order of things which necessarily pre-structures and pre-determines our consciousness of it. Is Mephistopheles. As Adorno and Shock Is Still Used Today Essay, Horkheimer themselves state, factuality wins the day; cognition is restricted to its repetition; and thought becomes mere tautology. The more the machinery of thought subjects existence to itself, the Essay on The Grid Concept, more blind its resignation in reproducing existence.

Hence enlightenment reverts to Therapy Is Still Today Essay, mythology, which it never really knew how to elude. For in its figures mythology had the essence of the status quo: cycle, fate, and domination of the world reflected as the truth and deprived of hope. (1979:27) Facts have come to take on the same functional properties of a belief in the existence of some mythical forces or beings: representing an external order to which we must conform. The ostensible difference between them is that the realm of facts appears to on Use of an Outsider’s Perspective in Brave, be utterly objective and Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Essay, devoid of any subjective, or anthropomorphic forces. Indeed, the identification of a truly objective order was explicitly pursued through the exclusion of any such subjective prejudices and fallacies. Subjective reasoning is fallacious reasoning, on this view. Adorno's attempt to account for kawasan pamah, this objective order as constituted through identity thinking poses a fundamental challenge to the epistemological conceit of Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today Essay such views. Adorno and Horkheimer argued that the instrumentalization of reason and the epistemological supremacy of 'facts' served to establish a single order, a single mode of representing and relating to reality. For them, enlightenment is totalitarian (1979:24). The pursuit of human sovereignty over nature is predicated upon a mode of reasoning whose functioning necessitates subsuming all of nature within a single, representational framework.

We possess knowledge of the kawasan, world as a result of the accumulation of facts, 'facts' that are themselves necessarily abstractions from that to which they refer. Assembled within a classificatory scheme these facts are not, cannot ever be, a direct expression of that to which they refer; no aspect of its thought, by its very nature, can ever legitimately be said to possess that quality. However, while facts constitute the principal constituents of Electroconvulsive Essay this classificatory scheme, the scheme itself, this mode of configuring reality, is founded upon a common, single cognitive currency, which necessarily holds that the essence of all that can be known is reducible to a single, inherently quantifiable property: matter. They insist that this mode of configuring reality originates within a desire to dominate nature and that this domination is effected by reducing the manifold diversity of nature to, ultimately, a single, manipulable form. For them the realization of the single totality that proceeds from the domination of nature necessitates that reason itself be shorn of any ostensibly partial or particularistic elements.

They conceive of enlightenment as aspiring towards the institution of a form of reasoning which is fundamentally universal and abstract in character: a form of potensi kawasan pamah reasoning which posits the existence of Shock Therapy Today a unified order, a priori. They argue, in advance, the on The Grid Computing, Enlightenment recognizes as being and occurrence only what can be apprehended in unity: its ideal is the system from which all and everything follows. Its rationalist and empiricist versions do not part company on this point. (1979:7) Thus, the Electroconvulsive Therapy Used, identarian character of enlightenment, on this reading, consists of the representation of material reality as ultimately reducible to a single scale of evaluation or measurement. Reality is henceforth to be known in so far as it is quantifiable. Material reality is presented as having become an object of calculation. On Film. The form of reasoning which is adequate to the task of representing reality in Electroconvulsive Shock Used Essay this way must be necessarily abstract and formal in character. Essay. Its evaluative procedures must, similarly, avoid the inclusion of any unduly restrictive and Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today, partial affiliations to any specific component property of the system as a whole if they are to be considered capable of being applicable to the system as a whole. Adorno and Horkheimer present the aspiration towards achieving human sovereignty over nature as culminating in definition the institution of Electroconvulsive Used Today a mode of reasoning which is bound to the identification and accumulation of facts; which restricts the perceived value of the exercise of reason to one which is instrumental for what, the domination of nature; and Shock Is Still Used Essay, which, finally, aims at what is mephistopheles, the assimilation of all of nature under a single, universalizing representational order. Adorno and Horkheimer present enlightenment as fundamentally driven by the desire to master nature, of Shock Is Still bringing all of material reality under a single representational system, within which reason is transformed into a tool for achieving this end.

For Adorno and on Computing Concept, Horkheimer then, nature has been fully mastered within the Used, 'fully enlightened earth' and human affairs are regulated and evaluated in accordance with the demands of instrumental reasoning: the means by on Use which nature has been mastered have rebounded upon us. The attempt to fully dominate nature culminates in the institution of a social and political order over which we have lost control. Shock Therapy Today Essay. If one wishes to survive, either as an individual or even as a nation, one must conform to, and learn to utilize, instrumental reason. Thought and philosophy aids and abets this order where it seeks merely to mirror or 'objectively' reflect that reality. Adorno aims to avoid providing any such support by, at root, providing a prototypical means of deconstructing that 'reality'. Definition. The radical character of Therapy Is Still Used his concept of 'identity thinking' consists in potensi kawasan pamah its insistence that such 'objective' forms of representing reality are not 'objective' enough, so to speak. Therapy Used Essay. The facts upon which instrumental reasoning goes to work are themselves conceptual abstractions and not direct manifestations of phenomena, as they claim to be. Adorno's philosophical writings fundamentally aim to demonstrate the two-fold falsity of what is mephistopheles 'identity thinking': first, in respect of debunking the claims of identity thinking to Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still, representing reality objectively; second, in respect of the of an Outsider’s Perspective New World, effects of Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today instrumental reasoning as a form of identity thinking upon the potential for the exercise of human freedom. Adorno posits identity thinking as fundamentally concerned not to understand phenomena but to on The Grid Concept, control and Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, manipulate it. A genuinely critical form of definition of discontinuity philosophy aims to both undercut the dominance of identity thinking and to create an awareness of the Shock Is Still Used Today, potential of apprehending and relating to phenomena in a non-coercive manner. Both how he aims to do this, and how Adorno's philosophical project can itself be criticized will be considered in the final section.

However, having summarized the substance of Adorno's understanding of philosophy and reason, what must now be considered is the next most important theme addressed in Adorno's philosophical writings: his vision of the status of morality and moral theory within this fully enlightened earth. Adorno's moral philosophy is similarly concerned with the effects of 'enlightenment' upon potensi, both the Therapy Used Today Essay, prospects of individuals leading a 'morally good life' and philosophers' ability to Essay on The Grid Computing, identify what such a life may consist of. Adorno argues that the instrumentalization of reason has fundamentally undermined both. He argues that social life in modern societies no longer coheres around a set of widely espoused moral truths and that modern societies lack a moral basis. What has replaced morality as the integrating 'cement' of social life are instrumental reasoning and the exposure of everyone to the capitalist market. According to Adorno, modern, capitalist societies are fundamentally nihilistic, in character; opportunities for leading a morally good life and even philosophically identifying and defending the requisite conditions of a morally good life have been abandoned to Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today Essay, instrumental reasoning and capitalism. Within a nihilistic world, moral beliefs and moral reasoning are held to of discontinuity, have no ultimately rational authority: moral claims are conceived of Shock Therapy Today Essay as, at best, inherently subjective statements, expressing not an objective property of the philosophy, world, but the individual's own prejudices.

Morality is presented as thereby lacking any objective, public basis. The espousal of specific moral beliefs is thus understood as an instrument for the assertion of one's own, partial interests: morality has been subsumed by instrumental reasoning. Adorno attempts to critically analyse this condition. He is not a nihilist, but a critic of nihilism. Adorno's account of Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today nihilism rests, in large part, on his understanding of reason and of how modern societies have come to conceive of legitimate knowledge. He argues that morality has fallen victim to the distinction drawn between objective and subjective knowledge. Objective knowledge consists of empirically verifiable 'facts' about of discontinuity material phenomena, whereas subjective knowledge consists of all that remains, including such things as evaluative and normative statements about the world.

On this view, a statement such as 'I am sitting at a desk as I write this essay' is of a different category to the statement 'abortion is morally wrong'. The first statement is amenable to empirical verification, whereas the latter is an expression of a personal, subjective belief. Adorno argues that moral beliefs and moral reasoning have been confined to the sphere of Therapy Is Still Used subjective knowledge. He argues that, under the force of the instrumentalization of reason and on Use Outsider’s in Brave, positivism, we have come to conceive of the only meaningfully existing entities as empirically verifiable facts: statements on the structure and Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today, content of reality. Moral values and beliefs, in contrast, are denied such a status. Morality is thereby conceived of as inherently prejudicial in Violence Essay character so that, for example, there appears to be no way in which one can objectively and rationally resolve disputes between conflicting substantive moral beliefs and values. Under the Electroconvulsive Shock Essay, condition of nihilism one cannot distinguish between more or less valid moral beliefs and values since the criteria allowing for such evaluative distinctions have been excluded from the Essay on The Grid Concept, domain of subjective knowledge. Adorno argues that, under nihilistic conditions, morality has become a function or tool of power. The measure of the influence of any particular moral vision is an expression of the material interests that underlie it.

Interestingly, Adorno identifies the effects of nihilism as extending to philosophical attempts to rationally defend morality and moral reasoning. Thus, in support of his argument he does not rely upon merely pointing to the extent of moral diversity and Therapy Is Still Today, conflict in modern societies. Nor does he rest his case upon those who, in the name of of an Perspective in Brave New World some radical account of individual freedom, positively espouse nihilism. Indeed, he identifies the effects of nihilism within moral philosophy itself, paying particular attention to the moral theory of Immanuel Kant. Adorno argues that Kant's account of the moral law demonstrates the extent to which morality has been reduced to the status of subjective knowledge. Is Still. Kant certainly attempts to establish a basis for morality by the exclusion of all substantive moral claims, claims concerning the moral goodness of this or that practice or way of life. Kant ultimately seeks to establish valid moral reasoning upon a series of utterly formal, procedural rules, or maxims which exclude even the pursuit of human happiness as a legitimate component of moral reasoning. Adorno criticizes Kant for definition, emptying the moral law of any and all reference to substantive conceptions of human well-being, or the 'good life'. Ultimately, Kant is condemned for espousing an account of moral reasoning that is every bit as formal and devoid of any substantively moral constituents as instrumental reasoning. The thrust of Adorno's criticism of Kant is not so much that Kant developed such an account of morality, since this was, according to Adorno, to a large extent prefigured by the material conditions of Kant's time and place, but that he both precisely failed to identify the effects of these conditions and, in so doing, thereby failed to discern the extent to which his moral philosophy provides an affirmation, rather than a criticism, of such conditions.

Kant, of all people, is condemned for not being sufficiently reflexive. Unlike some other thinkers and philosophers of the time, Adorno does not think that nihilism can be overcome by a mere act of will or by Electroconvulsive Is Still simply affirming some substantive moral vision of the good life. He does not seek to philosophically circumnavigate the extent to which moral questions concerning the possible nature of the what, 'good life' have become so profoundly problematic for us. Nor does he attempt to provide a philosophical validation of this condition. Recall that Adorno argues that reason has become entwined with domination and has developed as a manifestation of the attempt to control nature.

Adorno thus considers nihilism to be a consequence of domination and Electroconvulsive Shock Today, a testament, albeit in a negative sense, to the extent to which human societies are no longer enthralled by, for example, moral visions grounded in some naturalistic conception of human well-being. For Adorno, this process has been so thorough and complete that we can no longer authoritatively identify the necessary constituents of the good life since the philosophical means for doing so have been vitiated by the domination of of an Perspective in Brave nature and the instrumentalization of reason. The role of the critical theorist is, therefore, not to positively promote some alternative, purportedly more just, vision of a morally grounded social and political order. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today. This would too far exceed the potensi tanah, current bounds of the potential of reason. Rather, the critical theorist must fundamentally aim to retain and promote an awareness of the contingency of such conditions and the extent to which such conditions are capable of being changed. Adorno's, somewhat dystopian, account of morality in modern societies follows from his argument that such societies are enthralled by instrumental reasoning and the prioritization of 'objective facts'. Nihilism serves to fundamentally frustrate the ability of morality to impose authoritative limits upon the application of instrumental reason. I stated at the beginning of this piece that Adorno was a highly unconventional philosopher. While he wrote volumes on such stock philosophical themes as reason and morality, he also extended his writings and Electroconvulsive Therapy Essay, critical focus to include mass entertainment.

Adorno analyzed social phenomena as manifestations of domination. For him both the what, most abstract philosophical text and Shock Therapy, the most easily consumable film, record, or television show shared this basic similarity. Adorno was a philosopher who took mass entertainment seriously. He was among the first philosophers and intellectuals to recognize the Essay of an Outsider’s Perspective New World, potential social, political, and economic power of the entertainment industry. Adorno saw what he referred to as 'the culture industry' as constituting a principal source of domination within complex, capitalist societies.

He aims to show that the very areas of life within which many people believe they are genuinely free free from the demands of work for example actually perpetuates domination by Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy denying freedom and Essay Outsider’s New World, obstructing the development of a critical consciousness. Adorno's discussion of the culture industry is Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Used, unequivocal in its depiction of mass consumer societies as being based upon the systematic denial of genuine freedom. What is the culture industry, and how does Adorno defend his vision of it? Adorno described the culture industry as a key integrative mechanism for binding individuals, as both consumers and producers, to modern, capitalist societies. Where many sociologists have argued that complex, capitalist societies are fragmented and of an in Brave, heterogeneous in Electroconvulsive Therapy Today character, Adorno insists that the culture industry, despite the manifest diversity of cultural commodities, functions to maintain a uniform system, to which all must conform. Examples. David Held, a commentator on critical theory, describes the culture industry thus: the culture industry produces for mass consumption and significantly contributes to the determination of that consumption. For people are now being treated as objects, machines, outside as well as inside the workshop. The consumer, as the producer, has no sovereignty. The culture industry, integrated into capitalism, in turn integrates consumers from above.

Its goal is the production of goods that are profitable and consumable. It operates to ensure its own reproduction. (1981:91) Few can deny the Electroconvulsive Is Still, accuracy of the description of the dominant sectors of cultural production as capitalist, commercial enterprises. The culture industry is a global, multibillion dollar enterprise, driven, primarily, by the pursuit of profit. What the culture industry produces is a means to the generation of profit, like any commercial enterprise. To this point, few could dispute Adorno's description of the mass entertainment industry. However, Adorno's specific notion of the 'culture industry' goes much further. Adorno argues that individuals' integration within the culture industry has the fundamental effect of restricting the in Brave New World, development of a critical awareness of the Is Still Today Essay, social conditions that confront us all.

The culture industry promotes domination by on Computing Concept subverting the psychological development of the mass of people in complex, capitalist societies. This is the truly controversial aspect of Adorno's view of the culture industry. How does he defend it? Adorno argues that cultural commodities are subject to the same instrumentally rationalized mechanical forces which serve to dominate individuals' working lives. Through our domination of nature and the development of technologically sophisticated forms of productive machinery, we have becomes objects of a system of our own making.

Any one who has worked on a production line or in Shock Is Still Used Today a telephone call centre should have some appreciation of the claim being made. Through the potensi kawasan tanah, veritably exponential increase in volume and scope of the commodities produced under the auspices of the culture industry, individuals are increasingly subjected to the same underlying conditions through which the complex capitalist is maintained and reproduced. The qualitative distinction between work and leisure, production and consumption is thereby obliterated. As Adorno and Is Still Today, Horkheimer assert, amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of work. It is sought after as an escape from the mechanized work process, and to recruit strength in order to be able to cope with it again. But at the same time mechanization has such a power over man's leisure and happiness, and so profoundly determines the manufacture of amusement goods, that his experiences are inevitably after-images of the philosophy examples, work process itself. (1979:137).

According to Adorno, systematic exposure to Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Essay, the culture industry (and who can escape from it for long in potensi tanah this media age?) has the fundamental effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy Today Essay pacifying its consumers. Consumers are presented as being denied any genuine opportunities to actively contribute to the production of the goods to which they are exposed. Similarly, Adorno insists that the form and content of the specific commodities themselves, be it a record, film, or TV show, require no active interpretative role on the part of the consumer: all that is is mephistopheles, being asked of consumers is that they buy the goods. Adorno locates the origins of the pacifying effects of cultural commodities in Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Essay what he views as the underlying uniformity of such goods, a uniformity that belies their ostensible differences. Adorno conceives of the culture industry as a manifestation of identity-thinking and as being effected through the implementation of instrumentally rationalized productive techniques. He presents the culture industry as comprising an endless repetition of the same commodified form. He argues that the definition of discontinuity, ostensibly diverse range of commodities produced and consumed under the auspices of the Electroconvulsive Shock Today, culture industry actually derive from a limited, fundamentally standardized 'menu' of interchangeable features and constructs. Thus, he presents the structural properties of the commodities produced and definition, exchanged within the culture industry as being increasingly standardized, formulaic, and repetitive in character. He argues that the standardized character of cultural commodities results from the increasingly mechanized nature of the production, distribution, and consumption of these goods.

It is, for example, more economically rational to produce as many products as possible from the Shock, same identical 'mould'. Similarly, the increasing control of distribution centers by large, multinational entertainment conglomerates tends towards a high degree of uniformity. Adorno's analyses of specific sectors of the culture industry is extensive in Violence on Film scope. Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today Essay. However, his principal area of expertise and interest was music. Adorno analyzed the production and consumption of music as a medium within which one could discern the pamah, principal features and effects of the culture industry and the commodification of culture. The central claim underlying Adorno's analysis of music is that the extension of Shock Therapy Used Today Essay industrialized production techniques has changed both the structure of musical commodities and the manner in which they are received. Adorno argued that the production of industrialized music is characterized by a highly standardized and uniform menu of musical styles and The Grid Computing Concept, themes, in accordance with which the commodities are produced. Consistently confronted by familiar and compositionally simplistic musical phenomena requires that the audience need make little interpretative effort in its reception of the product.

Adorno presents such musical commodities as consisting of set pieces which elicit set, largely unreflected upon, responses. Is Still Used Today Essay. He states, 'the counterpart to the fetishism of music is a regression of listening. It is contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at Essay Computing Concept, the infantile stage. Not only do the listening subjects lose, along with freedom of choice and responsibility, the Shock Therapy Used, capacity for conscious perception of music, but they stubbornly reject the possibility of such perception. They are not childlike, as might be expected on essay the basis of an interpretation of the new type of listener in terms of the Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today Essay, introduction to musical life of groups previously unacquainted with music. But they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded.' (1978:286). Here Adorno drew upon a distinction previously made by Essay on Use Outsider’s Perspective in Brave Kant in his formulation of personal autonomy. Electroconvulsive Shock Used Essay. Distinguishing between maturity and immaturity, Adorno repeats the Kantian claim that to be autonomous is to Essay of an New World, be mature, capable of exercising one's own discretionary judgment, of making up one's own mind for Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Essay, oneself. Adorno argued that the principal effect of the standardization of music is the promotion of a general condition of immaturity, frustrating and prohibiting the exercise of any critical or reflexive faculties in Violence on Film one's interpretation of the phenomena in question.

Adorno viewed the production and Electroconvulsive Therapy Used, consumption of musical commodities as exemplary of the culture industry in general. However, he also extended his analysis to include other areas of the Violence, culture industry, such as television and, even, astrology columns. A brief discussion of this latter will suffice to complete the general contours of Adorno's account of the culture industry. Electroconvulsive. Adorno conducted a critical textual analysis of the astrology column of the on, Los Angeles Times . His aim was to identify the 'rational' function of the cultural institution itself. He thus took astrology seriously. He considered astrology to be a symptom of complex, capitalist societies and discerned in Shock Used Today Essay the widespread appeal of astrology an albeit uncritical and unreflexive awareness of the potensi, extent to Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Essay, which individuals' lives remain fundamentally conditioned by impersonal, external forces, over which individuals have little control.

Society is projected, unwittingly, on to the stars. He stated that, astrology is truly in harmony with a ubiquitous trend. In as much as the social system is the fate of most individuals independent of their will and interest, it is projected onto the stars in order thus to obtain a higher degree of dignity and justification in which individuals hope to participate themselves. (1994:42). What. According to Adorno, astrology contributes to, and simultaneously reflects, a pervasive fetishistic attitude towards the conditions that actually confront individuals' lives through the Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still, promotion of a vision of human life as being determined by forces beyond our ultimate control. Rather than describing astrology as being irrational in character, Adorno argued that the instrumentally rational character of complex, capitalist societies actually served to lend astrology a degree of rationality in Violence on Film respect of providing individuals with a means for learning to live with conditions beyond their apparent control. He describes astrology as an ideology for dependence, as an attempt to Electroconvulsive Used Essay, strengthen and somehow justify painful conditions which seem to be more tolerable if an affirmative attitude is taken towards them. (1994:115) For Adorno no single domain of the culture industry is sufficient to ensure the effects he identified as generally exerting upon individuals' consciousness and essay examples, lives. However, when taken altogether, the assorted media of the culture industry constitute a veritable web within which the conditions, for example, of leading an autonomous life, for developing the capacity for Shock Therapy Essay, critical reflection upon Essay on The Grid, oneself and one's social conditions, are systematically obstructed. According to Adorno, the culture industry fundamentally prohibits the Electroconvulsive Shock Used Today, development of autonomy by means of the mediatory role its various sectors play in the formation of individuals' consciousness of social reality.

The form and content of the culture industry is increasingly misidentified as a veritable expression of reality: individuals come to perceive and conceive of reality through the Essay on The Grid, pre-determining form of the Shock Therapy Is Still Used, culture industry. The culture industry is understood by Adorno to be an essential component of a reified form of second nature, which individuals come to accept as a pre-structured social order, with which they must conform and adapt. The commodities produced by the culture industry may be 'rubbish', but their effects upon individuals is deadly serious. 6. Essay Examples. Conclusion and Electroconvulsive Is Still Today, General Criticisms. Adorno is widely recognized as one of the leading, but also one of the philosophy examples, most controversial continental philosophers of the 20th century. Though largely unappreciated within the analytical tradition of philosophy, Adorno's philosophical writings have had a significant and lasting effect upon the development of subsequent generations of critical theorists and Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Essay, other philosophers concerned with the general issue of nihilism and Essay on Use of an Outsider’s in Brave New World, domination.

Publications on and by Adorno continue to proliferate. Adorno has not been forgotten. His own, uncompromising diagnosis of Therapy Is Still Used Today modern societies and the entwinement of reason and domination continue to resonate and even inspire many working within the continental tradition. However, he has attracted some considerable criticism. I shall briefly consider some of the most pertinent criticisms that have been levelled at Adorno within each of the three areas of on Use Outsider’s New World his writings I have considered above. I want to begin, though, with some brief comments on Adorno's writing style. Adorno can be very difficult to read.

He writes in a manner which does not lend itself to ready comprehension. This is intentional. Shock Used. Adorno views language itself as having become an philosophy essay, object of, and vehicle for, the perpetuation of domination. He is acutely aware of the extent to which this claim complicates his own work. In attempting to encourage a critical awareness of suffering and domination, Adorno is forced to Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today Essay, use the very means by which these conditions are, to a certain extent, sustained.

His answer to this problem, although not intended to be ultimately satisfying, is to write in a way that requires hard and concentrated efforts on the part of the reader, to write in Violence on Film Essay a way that explicitly defies convention and the familiar. Adorno aims to encourage his readers to Therapy, attempt to view the world and the concepts that represent the world in a way that defies identity thinking. He aims, through his writing, to express precisely the unacknowledged, non-identical aspects of any given phenomenon. He aims to show, in on a manner very similar to contemporary deconstructionists, the extent to which our linguistic conventions simultaneously both represent and misrepresent reality. In contrast to Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, many deconstructionists, however, Adorno does so in the name of an Essay in Brave, explicit moral aim and not as a mere literary method. For Adorno, reality is grounded in suffering and the domination of Is Still Essay nature. This is a profoundly important distinction. Adorno's complaint against what is mephistopheles identity-thinking is a moral and not a methodological one.

However, it must be admitted that understanding and evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of Adorno's philosophical vision is a difficult task. He does not wish to be easily understood in a world in which easy understanding, so he claims, is dependent upon identity-thinking's falsification of the world. Adorno's writing style follows, in large part, from his account of reason. Adorno's understanding of reason has been subject to consistent criticism. One of the most significant forms of criticism is associated with Jurgen Habermas, arguably the leading contemporary exponent of critical theory. In essence, Habermas (1987) argues that Adorno overestimates the extent to which reason has been instrumentalized within modern, complex societies. Shock Therapy Is Still. For Habermas, instrumental reasoning is only one of Essay on Computing a number of forms of reasoning identifiable within such societies. Instrumental reasoning, therefore, is nowhere near as extensive and all-encompassing as Adorno and Horkheimer presented it as being in the Dialectic of Enlightenment . For Habermas, the undue importance attributed to instrumental reasoning has profound moral and philosophical consequences for Adorno's general vision. Habermas insists that Adorno's understanding of reason amounts to a renunciation of the moral aims of the Enlightenment, from which critical theory itself appears to take its bearings. There is not doubt that the deployment of technology has had the most horrendous and catastrophic effects upon humanity. However, Habermas argues that these effects are less the consequence of the extension of reason grounded in Shock Is Still Essay the domination of nature, as Adorno argues, and more an aberration of enlightenment reason.

Adorno is accused of defending an account of instrumental reasoning that is so encompassing and extensive as to exclude the possibility of rationally overcoming these conditions and essay, thereby realizing the aims of critical theory. Adorno is accused of leading critical theory down a moral cul-de-sac. Used. Habermas proceeds to criticize Adorno's account of reason on philosophical grounds also. He argues, in effect, that Adorno's account of the instrumentalization of reason is so all encompassing as to kawasan pamah, exclude the possibility of someone like Adorno presenting a rational and critical analysis of these conditions. Adorno's critical account of Electroconvulsive Shock Today reason seems to logically exclude the Essay of an Perspective New World, possibility of its own existence. Habermas accuses Adorno of Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today having lapsed into a form of performative contradiction. For Habermas, the very fact that a given political or social system is the object of criticism reveals the extent to which the form of Violence on Film domination that Adorno posits has not been fully realized. The fact that Adorno and Horkheimer could proclaim that 'enlightenment is totalitarian' amounts to Is Still Used Today, a simultaneous self-refutation.

The performance of the claim contradicts its substance. Definition. Habermas takes issue with Adorno, finally, on Today Essay the grounds that Adorno's account of reason and Essay on Use in Brave, his advocacy of 'non-identity thinking' appear to prohibit critical theory from positively or constructively engaging with social and political injustice. Adorno is accused of adopting the stance of an Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Today, inveterate 'nay-sayer'. Being critical can appear as an end in itself, since the on Use of an Perspective in Brave New World, very radicalness of Adorno's diagnosis of reason and modernity appears to exclude the possibility of overcoming domination and heteronomy. Similar criticisms have been leveled at Adorno's account of morality and his claims in respect of the Electroconvulsive Therapy Used, extent of philosophy essay nihilism.

Adorno is Electroconvulsive Is Still, consistently accused of failing to appreciate the moral gains achieved as a direct consequence of the formalization of reason and the subsequent demise of the authority of tradition. On this view, attempting to categorize the Marquis de Sade, Kant, and Nietzsche as all similarly expressing and testifying to the ultimate demise of morality, as Adorno and Horkheimer do, is simply false and philosophy examples, an example of an apparent tendency to over-generalize in the application of particular concepts.

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Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek. Clearly displaying its difference, Shrek was the first film to win an Academy Award for Best Animated Feature in 2001. Shock Is Still Used Essay. Looking at all the three movies that have been produced so far, on can see that the of discontinuity, characters of Shrek, who is an ogre and his love Fiona, who is originally a beautiful princess but then becomes an ogre herself, as well as other characters of the movie, go against the expectations of society regarding gender and Shock Is Still Essay its representation on screen. We will write a custom essay sample. on Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek or any similar. topic specifically for you. In this essay, I would like to discuss some aspects of this alienation in describing gender dimensions, and by what is mephistopheles, showing that this alienation is not necessarily negative, I also would like to display how I believe Shrek really had a deep impact on society, as well as it encouraged reflection on Electroconvulsive Used Essay, what it really means to be a certain gender in todays world. Shrek is Essay on Computing a movie about this ogre called Shrek who lives by himself in a swamp and does everything that is basically not considered decent by Shock Is Still Today Essay, society when it comes to proper behavior, including being dirty and picking his earwax to on The Grid use it as a candle for the dinner table. One day, his swamp becomes invaded by fairly tale characters that have nowhere to go, so Shrek decides to look for Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today Essay, Lord Farquaad who can nullify his choice to exile the characters of Shrek finds Fiona, the beautiful princess and rescues her and brings her back to Lord Farquaad.

Of course, as fairytales go, Shrek rescues Fiona and falls in love with her but this love seems to be impossible until we find out Violence on Film that Fiona herself is an ogre who changes her appearance every night due to a curse. On their way back to the palace, they both behave rather differently from what one could get used to in other fairytales as far as the rescuer and the princess goes, which difference then brings them together and they end up getting married in forms of ogres. In the further parts of the movie, they continue to meet obstacles because of their. Page 2 Analysis of Gender Representations in the Movie Shrek Essay. Shock Therapy Is Still Essay. appearance, such as expectations of definition, Fionas parents and the whole kingdom, as well as they go through difficult times fighting against Therapy, the stereotyping of people and others around them. At the en, however, their ove and devotion and their way of is mephistopheles, being who they are, no matter whether that is an ogre or a human, they become the viewers favorites, gaining respect both from them and the rest of their fairytale world for simply who they are, and for how they look or behave. In fact, the gender representations in Shrek are what make the audience and Shock Is Still Today Essay the rest of the characters fall in love with the main characters, such as Shrek, Fiona and Donkey. The text itself is gendered around the what, stereotypes of Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used, what is viewed acceptable in our world, as far as gender goes. What is does, however, it turns around those stereotypes and applies them in ways that allows one to tanah reflect on their meaning, realizing that sometimes what is normal in society, what is masculine and Today feminine, might not always be true. Looking at Shrek, he is represented as a huge, very unattractive ogre who has a very dirty look, and inappropriate way of behaving. Though this is so, he has a great heart, and Essay of an Outsider’s Perspective in Brave New World some very masculine characteristics, such as pride, and competition when it comes to trying to Shock Therapy Used win back his swamp and Fiona at the end.

His non-verbal communication tells a lot about his character, mainly when it comes to his attire and his way of acting towards others. When he first meets Donkey, for instance, he takes more space, and has less physical contact with contact with him then he does with Fiona, which clearly displays that he as a man displays masculine gender characteristics. These, however, because of his attire and behavior, including his rescue of Fiona as an exact opposite of what one would call Prince Charming, go against some expectations of society of what masculinity should be like or should behave. Fiona, starting out as a beautiful princess and turning into of an Outsider’s Perspective in Brave, an ogre herself, gives the same example of gender representation as Shrek. Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today Essay. One very interesting thing about her character in addition to Essay on Use of an in Brave her perfect behavior as a princess and expecting Prince Charming to Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used rescue her, which represents her feminine character as typical, is her masculine characteristics that are much unexpected, such as burping and fighting like men when she gets attacked by Robin Hood and his men in the first movie. Also, the way in which she is scared that that Shrek would not like her as an Outsider’s New World, ogre, is something that is unusual, however, shows some feminine aspects of society, such as being afraid for not being accepted or liked based on appearance. Her support towards Shrek in the second movie when she rather walks away and cry by herself, also underlines her femininity, through the scene of her Feminine speech where she is trying to encourage the good relationship between Shrek and her family, inviting everyone into conversation. Therapy Today. Hence, her character displays the idea of a shift from masculine to feminine characteristics which clearly demonstrates that sometimes gender characteristics might shift according to personalities, and people should not really stereotype gender because it is relative to the individual. As far as the essay, characters of Shrek and Shock Used Today Essay Fiona, one can see this shift of masculine and feminine characteristics many times throughout the movie.

Sometimes one can see Shrek being the emotional one, for instance when he does not know how to tell Fiona he loves her, that is more like a feminine characteristic. Essay. On the other hand, one can also see Fiona being more masculine like when she becomes stubborn and says yes to Electroconvulsive Used Lord Farqaad from pride. Based on this, their characters seem to be a criticism of societys expectations towards masculine and feminine, showing that sometimes what is different might still be something positive, and worth loving. Furthermore, this criticism can very much be seen in the second movie where the producers actually twist the on Use of an in Brave, story by making Shrek take the potion that makes all of them human. This transformation clearly displays that their human form is what society would expect them to be, and when they are human they think they can be happy, however this happiness is not real. They do not feel themselves, thus they do not feel complete. When they realize this, through their way of realizing, also the audience realizes that who we are goes beyond just appearance and perfection. This goes back to ones perception of Standpoint theory and Queer Theory because it lets one see that where we are positioned can affect ones view of the world, and it also allows one to see that there is diversity of how we perceive ourselves. In fact, there are a lot of possibilities out there, and appearance or a difference in behavior or orientation should not be something that makes us prejudice on such difference.

No matter what people look like, or how they are perceived by society, important is that they are respected for being real and themselves, and this is Electroconvulsive Therapy Essay how they will be able live happily every after. Furthermore, Donkey, as well as Dragon and their love are also something unusual in the movie, representing gender from a dissimilar perspective. Essay The Grid Computing Concept. Although Dragon is very feminine in her way of longing for love and Electroconvulsive Shock Donkey almost is symbol of a man who is not ready for definition of discontinuity, a serious relationship like many men today, their characters are based on a different type of feminine and masculine than those of Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used, Shrek and Fiona. Donkey is the type of guy that does not like to be alone, and he follows Shrek everywhere, showing a kind of collaboration which is clearly a feminine characteristic in contrast to Shreks masculine way of trying to solve things fast and what is mephistopheles effectively. Also his way of not wanting to be committed first, and trying to rescue himself by complementing Dragons beauty, reflects typical masculine characteristics of a player. His way of talking frequently for longer times and less concrete, demonstrates Masculine speech characteristics of gender. Dragon, on the other hand in addition to her feminine personality also holds some masculine values by providing immediate solutions like men while flying into Therapy Essay, the party to kawasan rescue, and also by guarding the tower all by herself. Shock Is Still Used Today. As one can see, all the on Film, characters in Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Essay, Shrek shift when it comes to is mephistopheles their analysis of gender representations. Some, more than others, but they all represent typical masculine and feminine gender expectations, as well as they go against them in the same, through a sarcastic criticism achieved by drastic contrasts to societys picture of the Electroconvulsive Is Still Used Today, subject.

Looking at the character of definition, Lord Farquaad, for instance, one can observe the Electroconvulsive Is Still Essay, way how he displays masculine characteristic of competition, by being dominating and direct and authoritative, but his personality and Violence on Film Essay attire and way of acting is Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay contrast to what a good leader should be or should look like. His character is on Use of an New World probably the one that is Used mostly masculine in his verbal interactions, however when it comes to physical ideas about the strength and protectiveness of men, he is almost ridiculed by the creators of the movie in order to highlight again that what society believes as being the typical masculine leader, is not always the way they really are. Moreover, the personality of the Fairy Godmother, many feminine characteristics are underlined, including the Masculine Deficit Model, according to which females are the what is mephistopheles, relationship experts, and men like Shrek have no idea what to do to save their relationships. The fairy Godmother plays exactly this role through helping people by just dropping a tear away. She acts almost as a figure of feminine evil, who stereotypes women as being interested in gossip, and Therapy Is Still Today always trying to get into other peoples relationships, just as she is on Concept trying to end Shreks and Therapy Is Still Today Fionas marriage. She is kawasan tanah pamah represented as a nice looking, good, elderly woman, almost a nice grandmother figure, but then her acts bring her to other side, displaying her as the typical female that is great interpreting non-verbals, pretends to show empathy and Therapy Is Still comfort and potensi tanah support for Electroconvulsive Is Still Essay, others. The again, her character, just as the one of Lord Farquaad, shows that what we imagine people to be like based on potensi kawasan tanah pamah, gender, is Shock Therapy Is Still Used not always the way they are. The last character, I would like to touch on from the tanah, movie is Prince Charming whose name already tells many things about Is Still Used Essay, his character, and again is ridiculed and criticized in a way. He is The Grid Computing handsome however, is not the Prince Charming that women would want for Today Essay, themselves, and clearly representing that even in todays world the Prince Charming on a white horse is just an idealistic vision of many women. I would say that his persona might be taken as a representation of the GLBT community through his gay-like speech and language, and through his obsession with his looks. Also, his character leads to the idea of the transgender representation of society by the funny relationship he has with the Ugly Stepsister, who is clearly a man in woman clothes.

The movie through their characters explores and gives space to existence of other forms of gender, leading one back to the Queer Theory, according to which one can step out of the definition of discontinuity, heterosexual bobble and Electroconvulsive experience other views as well. The persona of the Ugly Stepsister is for essay examples, instance a loveable being, and the audience can almost cross fingers for her that she can achieve her love with Prince Charming. In addition to them, I also felt that the character of the King who transforms into a frog creates the idea of transformation, thus implying the idea of Shock Used Today Essay, transgender, and by allowing one see that although one may transform physically, that person still be the same inside and should be able to love and live the same as before. It is very interesting that although I have seen all three movies many times, now that I look at them through a gendered lens for analysis, I can realize things which I have not realized before. All the characters which I have examined, as well as the others, such as Pinocchio and Puss, they all somehow represent gender in many different ways, giving the definition of discontinuity, audience a clear picture of Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Essay, both how society perceives gender and how sometimes it should be perceived instead. In fact, the Essay on The Grid Computing, character of Puss also, just as Shrek and Fiona, consists of both masculine and feminine characteristics.

Starting from feminine emotions that he uses to Used Today manipulate his enemy, and the idea of same-sex friendships in which he, Shrek and Donkey support each other and do things together. Similarly, to all their characters, also we in society shift our gender characteristics, and therefore, we should not prejudice or stereotype. In conclusion, I would say that Shrek is a movie that incorporates many gender representations, and it does a very great job to criticize those sarcastically, creating a funny feeling in the viewers, in the same time making them reflect on the meanings of what, masculinity and femininity, as well as on concepts such as gay, lesbian, and Shock Therapy Used Today transgender. These images matter because what is displayed in the media shapes the way in which people view those issues and concepts. The only things that I would have recommended to do differently, is the way in which the philosophy, Ugly Stepsister and Prince Charming were portrayed because I felt that by portraying them in a funny way, it might have created a funny feeling in people, which reflects the Today, way people might view transgender people and gays in society. Essay On Use Of An Outsider’s. Prince Charming was also shown to be a mommys boy, which is not necessarily true for Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today Essay, gay people, creating a false perception of that segment of is mephistopheles, society, and showing that the media is Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Essay seen as gay keeper, deciding exactly what to let in and what to let out.

Lastly, it is kawasan tanah pamah my opinion that the Electroconvulsive Shock Essay, movie Shrek is a great one because it targets both adults and children in different ways, encouraging reflection on certain issues, such as gender dimensions and the way in which they are viewed by society. It is a movie that definitely challenges the gender representations to which we have been used to, raising awareness of our false perception of gender, and tanah the fact that we tend to stereotype and categorize people based on behavior, appearance and Used Today language. I believe, therefore, that Shrek breaks the ice of certain gender stereotypes, and by doing this in a funny way, it also teaches us to be open-minded to learn about ourselves and others around us because although we might not want to recognize but there is a diversity among people in our world that needs to be respected in order to make the world a better place for everyone to definition live in. Bibliography: Julia T. Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today. Wood, Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture, 8th Edition, Wadsworth, 2008.

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essay man popes Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Electroconvulsive Used. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is a bit odd, to say the least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for of discontinuity writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at Therapy Is Still Today Essay, first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards.

The second reason that Pope gave is on Film that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is Shock Therapy Essay much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain.

Such references in on Film, the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of Electroconvulsive Therapy Used Today Essay all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of definition church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the Shock Therapy Is Still Today first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. Examples. We have no choice: we come to Shock Is Still Today it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is is mephistopheles a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of Electroconvulsive Shock Essay existence is without a plan.

Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on of discontinuity, worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns,

Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the Shock Is Still Used whole? Is the great chain that draws all to Essay agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the Shock Therapy other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod,

Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and on Film a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in Electroconvulsive Today, saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and Essay on Computing Concept continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today Essay all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall,

Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to on Film the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home,

Rest and expatiates in Used Essay, a life to essay examples come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to Therapy Used his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n;

Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in Essay, the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Essay nature. Man depends on Outsider’s New World, nature for his very substance, and Shock Therapy Used Today Essay yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,

Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for philosophy essay examples what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Used Today whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for Violence on Film Essay mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still ruled from within, by on The Grid Concept his reason and by his passion. Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Today Essay wind;

That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the Violence whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Is Still Essay sole guide of animals. What Is Mephistopheles. Instinct is Is Still Used all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to examples his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of Electroconvulsive Therapy Essay bears. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in exact proportion to the state; Nothing to potensi pamah add, and nothing to Essay abate.

Each beast, each insect, happy in on Use Outsider’s, its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Shock Is Still Today Essay Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and Violence what denies has perfected itself and Used many of kawasan tanah pamah its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at Shock Is Still Today, each thread, and lives along the Essay on The Grid Computing line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew?

In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Today Essay, the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for Computing fear of destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee?

Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still us to Essay on be absurd, it is part of the Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy Used Essay general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is through all life and Computing extends throughout all of the Is Still universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the philosophy examples mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood,

All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the Today function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on earth the Great lord of Essay on The Grid Computing all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Today mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part.

Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Essay on The Grid Computing Concept Passion is undone. It is in the nature of Shock Used Today man to first serve himself; but, on account of reason, to do so with the potensi tanah pamah long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Shock Therapy Essay Reason, to restrain;

Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. Potensi Kawasan. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Shock Today Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair,

List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is on Film again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and Therapy Is Still Today Essay his passion.

However, passion is the of discontinuity king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the Shock Therapy Essay mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.

As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is Essay on The Grid too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on Electroconvulsive Is Still Today Essay, other for Violence Essay assistance call. Shock Therapy Today. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf,

Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to on Use explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views.

Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of Therapy Today Essay us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the kawasan pamah child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite:

Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to Shock his ever present theme, all is natural in of discontinuity, nature and man is Today Essay a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is Violence dependant on one and the other, is attracted to one and the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to Shock Therapy Is Still Used Essay whole:

Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to on Use of an Perspective in Brave New World instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit;

Sure by Used quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the definition of discontinuity spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day,

Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings. Used Today. The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at Essay on Use of an Perspective, any rate, not for long. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. Electroconvulsive Used Essay. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend:

The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the is mephistopheles interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn;

And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began:

Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and Essay on Use in Brave New World preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to his principle and Shock Essay the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the examples birds and the beasts.

It was the power of nature that built the Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Today Essay ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw;

Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong. Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the Violence on Film rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by Essay which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization.

Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the philosophy essay examples name of Electroconvulsive Therapy Today Essay king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms,

So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the potensi kawasan tanah development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and Therapy Is Still Used through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in all, becomes the kawasan tanah cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws:

For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain:

All join to Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today Essay guard what each desires to gain. Forced into potensi pamah virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today Essay benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to what restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new;

If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to kings; Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state.

Such is the Electroconvulsive Therapy Today Essay world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest,

And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for potensi kawasan oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of Shock Today Essay happiness. It may be any one of a number of what is mephistopheles things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of Electroconvulsive Therapy Today celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the definition way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today Essay, be found in nature.

Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in Essay Outsider’s Perspective in Brave, no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is Shock Is Still Used common sense, and common ease.

To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. On Film. To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the Shock Therapy Is Still Used pleasure pays not half the pain. To be rich, to Essay of an Outsider’s in Brave be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and Electroconvulsive Used Today Essay wisdom in varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Is Mephistopheles. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Today man to attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to is mephistopheles make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in Therapy Is Still Used Today, human terms. On Film Essay. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not.

A better shall we have? A kingdom of the Therapy Used Today just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is fed.

One might wish for examples man to be a God and for earth to Electroconvulsive Shock Used be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of potensi pamah man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of Electroconvulsive Shock our foes and definition of discontinuity friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Essay stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to on Use Outsider’s New World trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. Electroconvulsive Essay. In parts superior what advantage lies!

Tell, for kawasan you can, what is it to be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and feel our own: Condem'd in Electroconvulsive Shock Is Still Today Essay, business or in philosophy examples, arts to Is Still Today Essay drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand.

And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the essay same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Is Still Used Essay. Johnson's 65 page biography on potensi, Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Electroconvulsive Therapy Is Still Used Today Essay Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).

2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to is mephistopheles drive the Electroconvulsive Is Still Used vessel along.