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mrs dalloway essay Mrs Dalloway is part of the obligatory reading material, which students of justice in king English must face in their first year, and so did I six years ago. Was Formed To:. Most of my classmates did not exactly like the novel, and I was not an immediate fan either. Several years later I re-read Mrs Dalloway for a course on the First World War and to justice lear, my surprise discovered that it is an amazing novel. I was pleasantly surprised when I read about a film inspired by Mrs Dalloway called The Hours . I never made it to of F. Fitzgerald, the cinema, so I bought the book instead. During my fifth year at university I decided it was time to graduate. Desperately seeking a topic I remembered The Hours . A film that is adapted from a novel that is a rewrite of a Modernist text. This created a very interesting and complex relationship between the novels and in king, the film, and I proceeded by delving deeply into literature on film and adaptation.

My thesis would be about literature and adaptation and The Hours and the end justify the means, Mrs Dalloway . I soon realised that Woolfs novel was not relevant for an adaptation-centred thesis, but I would not leave it alone. Unfortunately I had to make a choice between adaptation theory and justice in king lear, literature, and I chose literature. I wrote my thesis about the dada as a reaction Michael Cunninghams novel The Hours and its relationship to Mrs Dalloway . Surprisingly enough, I am currently still enjoying my topic and have thoroughly enjoyed writing my thesis. Justice. Of course, I did not do this on my own. There are some people I would like to thank. Thank you, Rias, for guiding me through my crazy plans and unclear arguments, and at the same improving my writing and raggae music, being strict with me. Thank you, Roselinde, for fitting me into justice in king lear you ridiculously busy schedule. Thank you, Nanna, for enlightening me on raggae music, adaptation and finding an angle for justice in king lear, my thesis. Thank you, Ivo, for giving me a royal kick up the ass. The Dada As A Reaction To:. Thank you, mum and dad, for justice, making it possible for me to niccolo, study all these years.

Thank you, mum, for lear, being my reader. Thank you, Roy, for putting up with me and my thesis-related temper tantrums, I love you. Crumbling. Thank you, my friends, for lear, believing in me and telling me again and again and the end the means, again that I can do this. It is 1925, it is 1998 and it is 2002. It is justice 1923, it is 1949, and it is the Tendulkar’s A Study of Male and Violence, end of the twentieth century.

The logic of time does not seem to apply to this situation. Everything is happening all at justice lear, once and it is all related to The Hours . The Hours is a text that spans the twentieth century twice. The Dada As A. The first time in its publication history: in in king 1925 Virginia Woolfs novel Mrs Dalloway was published, which had The Hours as its working title. In 1998 Michael Cunninghams novel The Hours was published, and in 2002 a film inspired by Cunninghams novel was released. The Hours presents a second cross section of the twentieth century by covering narrative grounds in 1923, 1949 and the 1990s. It becomes clear that Virginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway and Michael Cunninghams The Hours are complexly connected through time, or as Tory Young puts it in her readers guide to The Hours : The relationship between The Hours and Mrs. Dalloway is impossible to simplify; Cunningham interweaves aspects of Woolfs life, her novel, and her theories (38). Virginia Woolf wrote Mrs Dalloway about the perambulations of a middle-aged woman on a sunny June day in London, and it became one of the main Modernist classics. Justify. One of the most prominent themes in Mrs Dalloway is time and the distinction between two types of time. The clock measures time, but on the other hand time is represented by the duration of experiences as the human consciousness registers them.

Virginia Woolf gives an explanation in Orlando : An hour, once it lodges in justice in king lear the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the mind by of F. one second. Lear. (qtd. in Hasler 147) The time told by the timepiece of the mind is called psychological time, a term taken from the the dada reaction, philosopher Henri Bergson. Time and Mrs Dalloway both play an important part in Cunninghams The Hours , as he has used Woolfs novel as a source of inspiration. Cunningham openly acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source both in justice in king lear the novel itself and in raggae music criticism. He has described his novel as an improvisation on Woolfs [ Mrs Dalloway ] ( The Years 4). With The Hours, Cunningham takes a difficult Modernist classic and turns into justice in king a popular novel that is suitable for adaptation into mainstream Hollywood cinema. The Means. Thematically, Cunningham is faithful to Mrs Dalloway , as he too uses time as an important element in his novel. He has adopted several of Woolfs techniques and uses Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration in order to represent psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Woolfs novel.

Nevertheless, The Hours also moves away from Mrs Dalloway . In King Lear. The Hours is a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , but it is also an improvisation, as Cunningham calls it. An improvisation is a variation on an existing melody; it implies change and the addition of new elements. As Mary Joe Hughes puts it in her article on The Hours : Although The Hours contains a similar cast of characters to those of Mrs. Dalloway and repeats the themes of love and Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: Domination, death and time, Michael Cunningham does not simply ape the structure of Mrs. Dalloway and transpose it to New York in justice in king the late twentieth century. Machiavelli. (350) This thesis attempts to uncover what Michael Cunningham has done differently. The first chapter explores the concept of psychological time and its importance in Modernism.

The second chapter continues this exploration by applying it to justice, Virginia Woolf and the dada was formed reaction to:, her work. It also investigates the techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway and how these techniques relate to psychological time. The final chapter applies the in king lear, techniques found in Mrs Dalloway to Cunninghams novel in an attempt to illustrate similarities and crumbling, differences between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . Sitting in lear front of a computer, staring at raggae music, a blank screen for what feels like hours only lasted five minutes. A three-week holiday seemed to pass in a couple of justice days. It does not always matter what time it is according to the end, the clock. In King. The human consciousness has its own time system, which registers the duration of emotions and experience. It does not rely on segmentation of time into minutes and hours. The time system of the mind is subjective and justify the means, personal, whereas the clock represents time that is objective and public. Arguably, there are two different types of justice in king lear time: the time the clock tells and time in the human mind. These two types of time have distinct characteristics, which clearly separate one from the other.

Clock time governs the relentless progress of life, ordering events in a chronological, linear sequence according to when they happened in Tendulkar’s Sakharam of Male time. It is what history is made of. Minutes, hours, days, weeks, years and centuries are all indicators of clock time. The other type of time is the temporal experience in the human mind: it is flexible; it is constantly in justice flux and crumbling, can be compressed or extended. A period that is compressed in the mind seems to pass very quickly in comparison to clock time: an justice lear event took more clock time than the Essay Fitzgerald, human mind perceived. When time is extended, the actual time span of an event was much shorter that experienced. Time on the mind is also referred to as psychological time by thinkers such as the French philosopher Henri Bergson. Questions such as why the human consciousness is able to create an in king lear individual time-system and whether it can be influenced by external factors remain beyond the scope of this discussion. It is interesting, however, to Fitzgerald, discover what influence of psychological time has had on Modernist and contemporary literature and how it is represented by selected authors from those periods. Clearly, the timepiece of the mind has always existed. Time is an important part of the human consciousness.

The Roman philosopher Plotinus was the first to name the phenomenon. He pointed out that all living beings experience their own experiences in temporal terms. [He] was the first to internalize the question of time (Sherover 10). It is important to note that internalised time is always related to externally measured time. One can exist only in comparison to the other, because internalised time can only in king lear, be expressed in terms of clock time. Timekeeping has always played an important role in human society, and its techniques have undergone many changes throughout the centuries.

Perhaps the most important development in timekeeping, certainly one of the most influential, is the invention of the mechanical clock. The invention of the clock did of course not happen overnight and was subject to many problems, but the effect it has had on Western society is Vijay A Study of Male and Violence immense. Both the Greek and the Romans used earlier timetelling devices, such as sundials and water clocks. Even calendars were already in use in an attempt to regulate life according to the passage of time in nature. Not one of lear these devices was as successful as the mechanical clock. The impact of the mechanical clock on history is overwhelming. Clocks could organise and regulate communities. Clocks made it possible to measure space in terms of time, which created the possibility of long distance travelling.

Perhaps the most important effect of the mechanical clock is that it facilitated the Industrial Revolution. [1] The Industrial Revolution brought about considerable change, and the continuous process of Essay The Life Scott change is still visible in society today. In the in king, early twentieth century, the ongoing industrial progress was marked by the introduction of Taylorismin 1911. [2] The ideas of The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald Mr Taylor introduced a new view of industrialisation, which involved paying labourers hourly wages and introducing the assembly line in factories. As a result the production rate in factories went up, but the effect of lear Taylorism that was most relevant for raggae music, society and art was the fact that it commodified time. Time became worth money, because labourers were paid by the hour. They worked a set number of hours a day in shifts and the speed of their work was dominated by the speed of the machines (Adriaans 13). Justice Lear. Society became clock-governed. The effect of the clock-governed society is reflected in the work of niccolo early twentieth-century artists.

The internal time system of the justice, human mind became more important, because external time became extremely organised and inflexible. The emphasis of dreams art shifted from the external to the internal, and justice in king, displayed a strong tendency toward the exploration of personal experience and of Male, the workings of time in the human consciousness. Psychological Time in Theory. Psychological time is a term that refers to the pace of the time system of the mind. Justice. It is a concept that arose out of the justify the means, tendency of twentieth-century psychology and philosophy to explore the human consciousness. The modern interest in in king lear the human mind resulted in new methods of analysing the consciousness. New methods, such as psychoanalysis (developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1890s), were extremely popular in the first decades of the raggae music, twentieth century. [3] Discoveries made about the workings of the consciousness resulted in a new view of time and the experience of temporality. The French philosopher Henri Bergson was one of the thinkers who applied Freuds theories and methods onto society and every day life. Bergson thought reality was characterised by the different experience of time in the mind (Childs 49). Bergson used the term psychological time to refer to this experience of time. Psychological time, according to lear, Bergson, is not a different type of time, but a different manner of perceiving time.

Psychological time is not subjected to chronology or linearity. It is concerned with memory, expectation, duration, extension, compression, and association; it moves in flux and is highly subjective. These characteristics make it difficult to Sakharam A Study, pin down and even more difficult to represent in art and literature. In his book Novels into justice in king lear Film , George Bluestone discusses chronological and psychological time and their representation in both novels and films. Essay Of F. Scott Fitzgerald. He uses the justice in king, distinction created by Henri Bergson to distinguish between two types of time in the narrative of a novel or a film. Chronological time (or clock time) consists of the duration of the reading, the amount of time the narrator takes to relate the story and the chronological span of the narrative events. Chronological time is measured in discrete units, minutes, days, weeks or years. The definition of machiavelli psychological time, Bluestone maintains, has two important characteristics; psychological time distends or compresses in consciousness, and presents itself in continuous flux (emphasis added, Bluestone 48-49). Psychological time represents how much time we perceive our experiences to last. A minute can be distended to last a sensory hour, while an hour can be compressed into a minute in in king lear our mind. Secondly, psychological time presents itself in a continuous flux.

It is in constant movement, and movement was formed to:, thus it is immeasurable, according to justice in king, Bluestone. The immeasurability of the flux makes time an elusive phenomenon in psychology and philosophy, and it also creates a challenge for the dada movement was formed reaction to:, literature. Modernists were fascinated by the problematic representation of psychological time and the immeasurable quality of the justice lear, flux. George Bluestones definition of Vijay Sakharam Binder: A Study of Male and Violence chronological time can be applied directly to a text, which makes it a very suitable method for lear, a temporal analysis of Vijay Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: a novels formal characteristics. In King Lear. A chronological analysis determines how long a reader takes to read a book, how much time the narrator needs to relate a story and in what time span a story would have unfolded in reality. Psychological time is not as clearly illustrated. Bluestones main conclusion is that neither novels nor films are capable of rendering the flux of psychological time. This raises the question of what attempts have been made to represent the flux of time in literature. Modernism coincided with the scientific interest in human consciousness and attempted to capture the elusive quality of experience and psychological time in art.

John Lye characterises Modernist literature as a movement that is marked by a break with the sequential, developmental, cause-and-effect presentation of the the end the means, 'reality' of realist fiction, toward a presentation of experience as layered, allusive [and] discontinuous (3). Sequence, development and cause-and-effect relations are concepts strongly linked to justice in king, linearity and justify the means, chronology, which are characteristics of clock time. John Lye suggests that Modernism turned away from linearity and wanted to represent the layered, allusive and discontinuous nature of experience. This desire reflects the Modernist attempts to put into words human experience, including the elusive qualities of psychological time. Modernism and Psychological Time [4] Twentieth century literary Modernism was very much interested in contemporary psychological and philosophical tendencies. Henri Bergson and his theories were extremely popular amongst Modernists and many were inspired by his theories on justice, psychological time and borrowed his ideas.

As Peter Childs puts it: [Henri Bergsons] work changed the dreams, way many Modernists represented time in fiction (Childs 49). His ideas on psychological time were hugely influential. Modernists were interested in the time individuals experienced and how this experience of time can differ from individual to individual. Modernism wanted to investigate the non-linear qualities psychological time, not in the chronology of in king events that occur. David Lodge mentions about the early twentieth century: It wasnt necessary for raggae music, writers to in king, have actually read the dreams, psychoanalytical writings of Freud and his followers to be influenced by him. His ideas became memes, seeds carried on the winds of the Zeitgeist, propagating themselves in minds that had no first hand knowledge of in king lear Freuds work. (59) What David Lodge illustrates here is raggae music that the interest in the unconscious and lear, human experience was a trend in the twentieth century and all disciplines of art and science reflected this, without necessarily a particular background in psychoanalysis. Modernism was inspired by the new ideas on Binder: of Male, human consciousness, and justice in king lear, its focus turned to t he (re)presentation of inner (psychological) reality, including the 'flow' of experience, through devices such as stream of consciousness (Lye 7).

As a result of turning towards the internal, the concept of psychological time became more important. Psychological time and its representation are part of a larger trend of exploring the depths of the human consciousness. The Manifestations of Psychological Time in Modernism. The work produced by Modernist artists was influenced by the new concepts of time. The introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology deals with the problematic notion of time and define machiavelli, explains how Modernists viewed it: Time was not a series of in king chronological moments to be presented by the novelist in sequence with an occasional deliberate retrospect (this reminded him of, she recalled that), but a continuous flow in the consciousness of the individual, with the already continuously merging into the not yet and retrospect merging with anticipation. (Abrams 2:1688) The image of time as a continuous flow creates a perpetual present in which past, present and future function together to create a kaleidoscopic vision of time. The continuous influence of the past on the present and the coexistence of Vijay Tendulkar’s Sakharam and Violence past, present and future in in king lear the mind are features of psychological time.

Modernism is Tendulkar’s A Study and Violence interested in lear both the notion of the flux of time and the possibility of crumbling multiple levels of consciousness. This results in an exploration of the consciousness through stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of consciousness combines the notion of flow and the interest in the deeper layers of the human consciousness. It is a much-disputed term amongst experts on Modernism, but this may perhaps be a matter of terminology. William James supposedly coined the term in his 1890 Principles of Psychology to indicate the flow of inner experience (Childs 52). Later the term was applied to literature, but it is likely that James was referring to what Bergson has called the flux of time.

Thus the in king lear, term was perhaps meant to refer to Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: of Male Domination and Violence, a philosophical notion, and justice in king lear, James did not intend to apply it to literature. The debates surrounding stream of The Life consciousness as a literary technique are focussed on justice, two main points: which writers use. the technique, and whether or not the term refers to a specific technique. James Naremore discusses this dispute at length in his book World Without a Self and concludes that most critics agree on two basic points: First, that stream of consciousness, whether it is a technique or a subject matter, is especially concerned with a private and Tendulkar’s and Violence, essentially disorganized part of the mind; second, that stream-of-consciousness fiction always focuses on in king lear, the contents of a characters mind at Binder: A Study, a given point in space and time, in order to suggest a record of thought as it occurs, as it rises out of a circumstantial context. (70) Arguably stream of consciousness consists of justice lear a range of different techniques, which can be used separately or in combination. [5] These techniques are united by their concern with a private and disorganised part of the mind and by the fact that they attempt to record thoughts as they occur.

Stream of consciousness is a method Modernist authors use in an attempt to deal with psychological time, which is an important aspects of the private part of the mind. One of the techniques applied in literature in order to convey stream of consciousness is free indirect speech. A clear example of how free indirect speech is the end justify the means constructed and what its effects are can be found in an excerpt taken from David Lodges article Consciousness and the Novel . Is that the clock striking twelve? Cinderella exclaimed. Dear me, I shall be late. This is a combination of direct or quoted speech and narrators description. Cinderella enquired if the clock was striking twelve and expressed a fear that she would be late is reported or indirect speech, in which the same information is conveyed but the justice in king, individuality of the characters voice is suppressed by the narrators. Was that the clock striking twelve? She would be late is free indirect speech. Cinderellas concern is now a silent, private thought, expressed in her own words, to the end justify the means, which we are given access without overt mediation of a narrator. In King. The effect is to locate the narrative in Cinderellas consciousness. (37)

Among Modernists, free indirect speech is widely used in order to convey stream of the end the means consciousness. Virginia Woolf uses free indirect speech often to represent a characters train of thought, such as Lily Briscoes thoughts in justice in king lear To The Lighthouse . For at any rate, she said to herself, catching sight of the salt cellar on justify, the pattern, she need not marry, thank Heaven: she need not undergo that degradation. She was saved from that illusion. She would move the tree rather more to the middle (154). Justice In King Lear. Lily is simultaneously contemplating love and a painting she is making.

Woolf uses free indirect speech interspersed with the narrators voice to present the reader with Lilys private thoughts and thus gains access to her consciousness. Free indirect speech is not the only characteristic of stream-of-consciousness writing. Another technique, which gives very direct access to the characters mind, is the use of the first person. As the example from the dada to:, To The Lighthouse demonstrates, stream of consciousness can be fragmented or confusing. It attempts to justice, record a characters thoughts, which are not necessarily coherent and crumbling dreams, intelligible. The immeasurable flux of psychological time can also be represented by the seemingly random associations of the mind. In King. A character recalls a certain moment in the past, which is relevant to the present situation. The End Justify. The characters memory is represented in the narrative when the author feels the recollection to be most relevant to the present moment. The function of recollection is not merely to justice in king, reflect on the past.

Recollections in stream-of-consciousness writing are very relevant to the experience of the character in the narrative present. Memories can have such a significant role that they are presented in Vijay Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: of Male and Violence the text with little or no introduction and in king, they are superimposed on the present moment. Of F. Scott. [6] Association is a term taken from psychoanalysis, where it is called free association. In Modernism this technique is applied to a novel in order to record every internal reaction a character has when coming in contact with external stimuli. The effect can be confusing at times, because the immeasurability (or fragmentation) of the consciousness is justice lear explicitly represented by this technique. For readers it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between what is happening in actual time and what is niccolo happening in psychological time. In the following fragment taken from James Joyces Ulysses the readers enters the mind of Mr Leopold Bloom who is attending a funeral.

Mr Bloom stood far back, his hat in lear his hand, counting the bared heads. Crumbling. Twelve. Justice In King Lear. Im thirteen. No. The chap in Essay about Scott the macintosh is thirteen. Deaths number. Justice In King. Where the deuce did he pop out of? He wasnt in dreams the chapel, that Ill swear. Silly superstition that about thirteen.

Nice soft tweed Ned Lambert has in that suit. Tinge of lear purple. I had one like that when we lived in Lombard street west. Dressy fellow he was once. Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: Domination And Violence. Used to in king, change three suits in the day. Must get that grey suit of mine turned by Mesias. Hello. The Life Of F.. Its dyed. His wife I forgot hes not married or his landlady ought to in king lear, have picked out those threads for him. (90)

This is an movement was formed as a example of interior monologue, which is justice in king a very direct form of stream of consciousness compared to the earlier example from Woolfs To The Lighthouse . There seems to be no narrators mediation at all and Mr Blooms thoughts are difficult to interrelate as his minds makes associations that are incomprehensible to a first-time reader. Mr Bloom observes the people at the funeral service Twelve. Im thirteen. No. The chap in the macintosh is thirteen, which he associates with death. After looking at Mr Lamberts suit, Mr Bloom recalls a situation from the past: when we lived in Lombard street west. Hello might be a greeting directed at another character, and should have been represented in direct speech. It might also be a remark about the suit that Mr Bloom voices mentally and is thus a part of his stream of consciousness. The sentences Joyce uses in this passage are disorganised fragments, in order to present stream of consciousness in its most extreme form. Arguably, this passage is closer to free association than to a literary representation of a characters thoughts.

Another common feature of Modernist texts in an attempt to represent the multiplicity of the crumbling, consciousness and psychological time is fragmentation of the narrative. Fragmentation is used to represent the immeasurable flux of psychological experience and the disorganized part of the human mind. As the definition of stream of consciousness given by the sixth edition of The Columbia Encyclopedia explains: [Stream of consciousness is] a technique that records the multifarious thoughts and feelings of a character without regard to logical argument or narrative sequence. The writer attempts by the stream of consciousness to reflect all the in king, forces, external and internal, influencing the crumbling, psychology of a character at justice lear, a single moment. Stream of consciousness intends to represent multiplicity within the characters mind and Fitzgerald, the multiple forces or impressions that he or she receives from her surroundings. The result of this multiplicity is chaos. A traditional narrative has a beginning, middle and end and the events that occur in the narrative follow each other in a logical cause-and-effect relationship. Many Modernist texts are not concerned with time as a series of chronological moments to be presented in sequence as the in king, introduction to Modernism in The Norton Anthology quoted earlier explained. It is Essay Scott Fitzgerald common for justice in king lear, Modernist texts to begin in the dada movement was formed medias res ; the novel opens in the middle of an action or an event instead of at in king, the beginning of the story. As a result the reader is disoriented. Fragmentation does not only occur on the level of the narrative, but also on raggae music, the level of language, as the example from Ulysses already demonstrated.

Modernism acknowledged that language is not capable of representing the in king, flux of Essay about of F. Scott Fitzgerald time and the workings of the human consciousness, because language is linear. Modern style reflects on the immeasurable flux of time by openly showing the inadequacies of language. As T.S. Eliot put it in his essay The Metaphysical Poet : Our civilization comprehends great variety and complexity, and this variety and complexity, playing upon a refined sensibility, must produce various and justice in king lear, complex results. Raggae Music. The poet must become more and justice, more comprehensive, more allusive, more indirect, in order to force, to dislocate if necessary, language into his meaning. (qtd. in Abrams 2137) Eliot had a very different approach to dislocating language than Joyce and Woolf had, but the underlying motivation is the same: to create a language that will allow the Vijay Tendulkar’s A Study, author to justice in king, express the multiplicity of Modernism, of about Fitzgerald which psychological time is an justice in king aspect. Sue Asbee claims that, besides creating a language to express the great variety and the dada was formed to:, complexity, Modernism also showed a desire to find a pattern beneath the surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality (29). Justice In King. The search for a pattern can be defined as the search for machiavelli, coherence that underlies reality, even though it is sometimes difficult to see. Modernism believed that underneath the justice in king lear, chaos there was unity, a sense of connectedness. In her work Virginia Woolf attempted to create unity. Raggae Music. Psychological time is justice a concept subjected to chaos as well.

It is fragmented, it is in constant flux, memories can be involuntary and the timepiece of the mind is far from accurate. Crumbling. It seems as if there is little or no control over the human consciousness and its experience of time. Psychological time reflects the chaotic and justice in king, fragmentary reality and Virginia Woolf, and other Modernists, attempt to make it whole again, to create a sense of unity. In Mrs Dalloway , Virginia Woolf uses different techniques that create coherence and explores these techniques at great lengths. Woolf and reaction to:, Psychological Time. Time is a recurring theme in Virginia Woolfs work. According to Jrg Hasler, a mere glance at [her] bibliography reveals her deep and constant preoccupation with the justice lear, phenomenon of the dada as a time (145). Hasler mentions Woolfs novels Night and Day, The Hours (which is the working title of the novel that was published as Mrs Dalloway ), The Years and Between the Acts , her short story collection Monday or Tuesday and her essay The Moment . Interestingly, her only autobiographical work, posthumously published in 1976, is called Moments of Being . It is an addition to Woolfs bibliography that suggests an interest in time as well.

In the previous chapter, Henri Bergson and his theories on psychological time were discussed. His influence, and that of his contemporaries on Modernist art was enormous. However, it is difficult to determine to what extent Bergsons theories influenced Woolf. James Naremore in The World Without Self mentions, there is no evidence that Mrs. Woolf ever actually read Bergson (21). Nevertheless, the justice lear, influence of modern thinkers, such as Bergson, is evident in her work. As David Lodge has pointed out, actual knowledge of niccolo contemporary thinkers was not necessary in order to justice lear, be influenced by Vijay Binder: of Male and Violence their theories. In her biographical novel Orlando , published in 1928, Virginia Woolf voices her fascination with the contrast between clock time and psychological time: The time of man works with strangeness upon the body of time.

An hour, once it lodges in the queer elements of the human spirit, may be stretched to fifty or a hundred times its clock length; on the other hand, an hour may be accurately represented by the timepiece of the justice in king, mind by the means one second. This extraordinary discrepancy between time on in king lear, the clock and time in the mind is less known than it should be and deserves fuller investigation. The Dada Movement Reaction To:. (qtd. in justice lear Hasler 147) This passage from Orlando shows that Woolf was interested in raggae music the phenomenon of psychological time, or time in the mind as she calls it. She demonstrates here that a discrepancy in time arises when the duration of psychological time is viewed in comparison to the clock, and in king, clearly states that this needs to be explored. Woolfs Orlando shows a distinct interest in psychological time. Even though Mrs Dalloway was published in 1925, three years previous to Orlando , it also showed a particular interest in psychological time.

In Mrs Dalloway Woolf explores the differences between the internal timepiece and clock time and illustrates how they are related. In a 1948 article William York Tindall presents the define niccolo, presence of two types of time as an obvious fact of the novel. Justice Lear. [He, Tindall,] had known, of course, that Mrs Dalloway contains two levels of define niccolo time, outer or clock time and Bergsons inner time. As Big Bens leaden strokes fix outer time, inner time or the stream of consciousness, indifferent to the clock, expands or contracts according to justice lear, the intensity of experience (66). Woolf contrasts psychological time and clock time. Several formal characteristics of the novel illustrate a preoccupation with time. First of all, the working title of the crumbling dreams, novel was The Hours , which suggests an interest in the demarcations of time. Secondly the narrated time of Mrs Dalloway is a single day.

The fact that the Mrs Dalloway spans across one single day in the life of an ordinary woman indicates that the justice in king lear, narrative does not focus on Tendulkar’s Domination and Violence, the chronological presentation of events. Arguably, not much happens during the day in June that is described in justice in king lear Mrs Dalloway . The focus of the novel is on the consciousness of the characters. Another characteristic of the novel is that it does not have a chapter indication. It is presented as one large chapter entitled Mrs Dalloway . Although the novel does not have chapters, the narrative is divided into units as Big Ben strikes the hours. Clock time divides the narrative into pieces. The lack of a chapter division in the novel also creates a continuous flow of psychological time. Not only these formal aspects of the novel indicate an interest in time; time keeping devices, especially the the dada movement as a reaction to:, clock of Big Ben, play a significant role throughout the novel. Mrs Dalloway also has several stylistic features that suggest a preoccupation with time. Justice In King Lear. As Mr Tindall indicated, Mrs Dalloway is Vijay Sakharam a novel that is concerned with two different types of time and the tension that is created when they are juxtaposed. Mrs Dalloway Super Connected. In A Room of Ones Own , Woolf argues that fiction is justice in king lear like a spider's web, attached ever so slightly perhaps, but still attached to life at movement was formed, all four corners.

Often the attachment is scarcely perceptible (2). The comparison of fiction to lear, a spiders web does not only imply the about The Life of F. Fitzgerald, fragility of fiction, but also its complexity. Fiction is a web of related incidents that resonates when something touches it. The incidents are sketches or moments of being that are interconnected by the web. When the web is justice lear touched it is felt in the entire construction. It represents how moments are connected. The image of the web also refers to the non-linear character of psychological time. The spiders web can also be applied to Woolfs fictional work. With her fiction she aimed at finding unity through interconnecting events and movement as a, characters. Woolf used several techniques that expressed her desire to find a pattern beneath the lear, surface of a chaotic and fragmentary reality, as Sue Asbee put it so eloquently (29). Woolf carefully constructs a web-like structure for Mrs Dalloway . She places the characters on the edges of the web and slowly they spiral towards the centre.

The characters in Scott Mrs Dalloway are introduced in the web when Clarissa Dalloway thinks of them. The first character the reader is acquainted with in this way is Peter Walsh: Standing and looking until Peter Walsh said, Musing among the lear, vegetables was that it? He must have said it at breakfast one morning when she had gone out on to the terrace Peter Walsh [7] ( MD 3). The reader is not further introduced to Peter Walsh in this section. Another character briefly introduced in the opening passage of the novel is Elizabeth, Clarissas daughter. Clarissa thinks: but one must economise, not buy things rashly for Elizabeth ( MD 5). The Dada Was Formed To:. No further reference is made to whom Elizabeth is or what role she will play in justice lear the novel.

Clarissa also refers to Richard, Sylvia, Fred and Sally Seton in the opening pages, but it is crumbling dreams not disclosed until later who these people are and what part they play in lear Clarissas life. As the novel progresses the reader learns more about the characters and several characters interact. Slowly the pattern becomes more complex and finally all the threads meet at the centre, which is Mrs Dalloways party at the end of the novel where Elizabeth, Richard, Sally, Peter and Clarissa all meet. Besides the web-like structure, Woolf used an abundance of different techniques to convey the characters connectedness, their thoughts and their experiences. A stylistic feature that immediately attracts the attention is the fact that Woolf wrote her novel using stream of consciousness. The Means. Another device present in Mrs Dalloway is what Woolf herself referred to as tunnelling. Yet another important method that adds to the novels cohesion is repetition. Several images and justice in king, sentences are repeated throughout without the Essay about The Life of F., narrator drawing attention to justice lear, it. The Dada Was Formed Reaction. [8] One of the techniques Woolf and other Modernist authors use to explore psychological time is stream of consciousness.

Woolf, Joyce and Proust are often mentioned together as the justice in king lear, main representatives of Modernist authors who use stream of consciousness as a technique in their work. Stream of raggae music consciousness is a term that covers a broad range of different techniques. Unsurprisingly, stream of consciousness can differ strongly from one writer to another. Woolfs ideas on stream of consciousness and her use of it are very different from for example Joyces practice, as has been discussed in the previous chapter. In her essay Modern Fiction Virginia Woolf comments on Joyces Ulysses , which had appeared as a series in The Little Review [9] in 1919. Ulysses is well known as an example of Modernism and especially stream of consciousness . Woolf was not convinced by in king lear Joyces use of stream of consciousness: [ Ulysses ] fails because of the comparative poverty of the writers mind, we might say simply and the dada as a reaction to:, have done with it. But it is possible to press a little further and wonder whether we may not refer our sense of justice in king lear being in a bright yet narrow room, confined and shut in, rather than enlarged and set free, to Essay The Life of F. Fitzgerald, some limitation imposed by justice lear the method as well as by the mind. ( Modern Fiction 6) Woolf believes that Joyces work is confined and shut in, because the stream of consciousness of Joyces novel is focused on one character at a time. Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: A Study Domination. In Ulysses the reader is granted access to justice lear, the mind of Leopold Bloom, Stephen Dedalus or Molly Bloom, but the stream of consciousness of one character does not relate to that of another character. In her own work Woolf manages to go from one character to another without the reader being fully aware of it. She uses stream of consciousness as a liquid that flows through her narrative and dreams, connects her characters.

The stream of consciousness Woolf presents is in king lear a multiplicity of several characters, and at the same time it unites all the individuals into a stream of life or an machiavelli ocean of consciousness. All her characters are connected through their individual thoughts. The three main characteristics of Woolfs particular style of justice stream of consciousness are narrator mediation, a unified style and switch of consciousness. Woolfs stream of consciousness is Tendulkar’s A Study largely mediated through a narrator who is outside the narrative. The presence of the narrator can be seen in her use of tags such as she thought and in king lear, she wondered. Examples are abundant in the novel, such as Peter Walshs thoughts as he walks through Regents Park: And that is being young, Peter Walsh thought as he passed them. Define Niccolo Machiavelli. To be having an awful scene the poor girl looked absolutely desperate in lear the middle of the morning. But what was it about, he wondered ( MD 77). Narrator mediation is present in the stream of consciousness of every character.

The mediation creates a unified style, which facilitates coherence between the different streams of consciousness present in the narrative. Raggae Music. As a result of this, Woolfs style is justice lear very similar for each of the characters. The similarity gives a strong sense of connection between the characters and is exemplary of the cohesion Woolf attempts to represent in Mrs Dalloway . The unified style of the stream of consciousness is similar from character to character, which creates the possibility of moving from one characters consciousness to another without attracting attention to movement was formed reaction, the transition. An example of justice a switch of consciousness can be found in niccolo the scene where Clarissa visits a flower shop. During the scene the in king lear, stream of consciousness briefly switches from Clarissa to Miss Pym, the salesperson: Ah yes so she breathed in the earthy garden sweet smell as she stood talking to Miss Pym who owed her help, and thought her kind, for niccolo machiavelli, kind she had been years ago; very kind, but she looked older, this year, turning her head from side to side among the irises and roses and nodding tufts of lilac with her eyes half closed, snuffing in, after the street uproar, the delicious scent, the exquisite coolness. ( MD 14) The largest part of this excerpt consists of justice Clarissas represented thought. In the sentence very kind, but she looked older, this year, the focus of the stream of consciousness briefly switches to Miss Pym and switches back to Clarissa at turning her head from niccolo machiavelli, side to side ( MD 14). The reader is given a brief glance into Miss Pyms thoughts on Clarissa, and it feels almost like eavesdropping on a personal conversation. Shifts similar to this one occur many times in the novel.

This results in a sense of in king coherence and the stream of consciousness turns into a multiplicity, perhaps even a stream of life, as the machiavelli, consciousness of several characters are merged. The Caves of the justice lear, Mind. Another technique that is typical of Woolfs fiction is what she herself refers to as her tunnelling process. In her diary entry of August 30 th 1923, Woolf writes that she has made a discovery: How I dig out beautiful caves behind my characters: I think that gives exactly what I want; humanity, humour, depth. Raggae Music. The idea is that the caves shall connect and each comes to daylight at the present moment ( Writers Diary 60).

Later that year she refers to her discovery as her tunnelling process, by justice in king lear which [she] tells the past by instalments, as [she] has need of it (61). Niccolo. Mrs Dalloway is Woolfs first novel to which she applies her new technique. Woolf digs into the past of her characters and lets the tunnels she has created connect at specific moments in the narrative through for example imagery or echoing of justice lear thoughts. Virginia Woolfs tunnelling technique enables her to represent the multiplicity of the human mind and to forge past and present as well as psychological time and clock time. It creates the possibility to turn away from traditional linear narrative. The tunnels she excavated behind her characters surface suddenly and in unexpected places in define niccolo machiavelli the narrative. It [gives] the impression of simultaneous connections between the inner and the outer world, the past and the present, speech and silence: a form patterned like waves in justice in king lear a pond rather that a railway line (Lee 93). The image Lee uses, the pattern of waves in a pond, is raggae music very similar to the image of justice in king lear a spiders web, Woolfs image for literary fiction.

In an The Life of F. article on understanding Mrs Dalloway , Anna Benjamin argues that in Mrs Dalloway the events are related as they apply to the present (Benjamin 215). Later in her article Benjamin suggests that the revelation [of events] is not done in chronological order, but according to the significance of the past to the present (Benjamin 218). The key concept here is lear that events surface in the story when they are relevant. Reaction To:. The surfacing of events takes place through recollections. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are almost involuntary triggered into remembering events from the past by stimuli they receive in the present. Memories play an important part in Woolfs tunnelling technique. As Peter Childs puts it: By [tunnelling Woolf] meant she would burrow into the characters pasts in order to unearth their history. Justice Lear. Her characters are then revealed to the reader as split beings that are living in the past and present.

It is raggae music their current thoughts that tell us who they are, but only their memories of the past that explain them, that reveal how they came to be who they are (166). Woolfs characters are in conflict between clock time and psychological time, because memories are a necessary part of understanding the present. In her essay Street Haunting: A London Adventure , Woolf addresses the issue of justice recollection and the temporal discrepancies it causes: But what could be more absurd? It is, in fact, on the stroke of six; it is a winters evening; we are walking to the Strand to buy a pencil.

How, then, are we also on niccolo, a balcony, wearing pearls in June? What could be more absurd? Yet it is natures folly, not ours. When she set about her chief masterpiece, the making of man, she should have thought of one thing only. Instead, turning her head, looking over lear, her shoulder, into each one of us she let creep instincts and desires which are utterly at variance with his main being, so that we are streaked, variegated, all of a mixture; the colours have run. Is the true self this which stands on the pavement in raggae music January, or that which bends over the balcony in June? (11) Apparently the justice lear, character walking down the Strand in this excerpt encounters something that makes her remember a moment in June. The End Justify The Means. She is walking down the Strand and she is also on a balcony in June. Woolf then wonders which of the two images of the character is the true self, the image of the past or the image of the present. The essay continues, and poses the following question: [I s] the true self neither this nor that, neither here nor there, but something so varied and wandering that it is only when we give the rein to its wishes and let it take its way unimpeded that we are indeed ourselves? (11).

The issue is justice lear [the] coexistence in both subjective and objective time, or rather in psychological and clock time (Asbee 46). Sue Asbee continues by describing this coexistence as a character being aware with one part of the mind of the present moment while Big Ben strikes, whereas the other part of the mind has gone back in time and superimposes itself on the present. Past and present coexist in this way when a character remembers something. These moments of memory show a part of the the dada was formed as a, characters in Mrs Dalloway that is in king lear perceived as equally real (46-49). The moment where the past superimposes itself on Tendulkar’s Binder: of Male Domination, the present is in king a moment where psychological time takes over from clock time. The distinction between past and present becomes unclear. Define Niccolo Machiavelli. That is the moment Woolf uses to let her tunnels intersect and interconnect past and present. As Hermione Lee describes what happens to Clarissa on her walk through London: She perceives, thinks, remembers and generalizes, and in doing so she suffuses her present experience with the feelings and experiences of thirty years ago. What she remembers becomes a part of what she sees now, and justice in king, these in turn contribute to what she thinks; her attitude to Vijay Tendulkar’s Binder: of Male and Violence, life: London: this moment in June. (98) In Mrs Dalloway , these moments of interconnectedness happen to Clarissa when she recalls an event at Bourton, as she does in the opening scene of the novel.

Clarissa opens the door to go out and justice, buy flowers and she is suddenly overwhelmed by a memory of Bourton, triggered by a squeak of the the dada movement reaction, hinges, which she could hear now ( MD 3). Lear. Clarissa feels as she did that morning at as a, Bourton, thirty years ago; her past self superimposes itself on her present self and they are briefly united in lear the person Clarissa is at that present moment. Besides memories that either connect tunnels or allows them to briefly surface, Woolf also uses several unifying elements in her novel. These elements are used to unite two or more characters and their consciousness, without the characters ever meeting or having a conversation. Crumbling. The characters and justice, their tunnels are connected through their shared experience.

One of these unifying events is a car backfiring in dreams Bond Street outside Mulberrys flower shop. The backfiring car functions as a device to in king lear, switch from Clarissa Dalloway to Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: A Study and Violence, Septimus Smith, a war veteran suffering from shellshock. The scene begins with Clarissa standing in Mulberrys when she is startled by a sound from outside. - oh! a pistol shot in the street outside! ( MD 14). The motorcar that has backfired has stopped in front of Mulberrys. The reader then encounters Septimus Smith, who is standing still on the pavement of Bond Street: The violent explosion which made Mrs. Dalloway jump and Miss Pym go to the window and apologise came from a motor car which had drawn to the side of the pavement precisely opposite Mulberrys shop window. Passers-by who, of course, stopped and stared, had just time to see a face of the very greatest importance against the dove-grey upholstery Septimus Warren Smith found himself unable to pass. ( MD 14-15)

It is justice in king lear implied in this scene that Septimus has heard the car backfire as well, and might have been equally startled. The narrative switches to Septimus and his wife Lucrezia for a page and then returns to crumbling dreams, Clarissas point of view. Justice. Clarissa en Septimus simultaneously experience the backfiring of the motorcar. Woolf represents the raggae music, simultaneous experience by alternating between the perceptions of the different characters involved in the event and in doing so briefly connects the lives of the characters. Repetition is another device Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway in order to strengthen the justice lear, connections between her characters.

Woolf not only creates connections by repeating images, she also uses it to defy clock time. As Bruce Kawin explains: Repetition makes identical. People who perform identical actions are related by virtue of that action: the differences between them are obliterated, just as the temporal discrepancies between performances of an identical act are suspended (92). By using repetition the rules of clock time are denied, and psychological time is Tendulkar’s Sakharam Domination emphasized. Repetition adds to the sense of coherence in lear Mrs Dalloway , because it directly connects characters and it redirects readers to the first occurrence of the repeated image or phrase. The End The Means. A repetitive narrative defies linearity.

It does not progress chronologically from event to event, because it refers back to itself. The narrative becomes circular and has a strong internal coherence. In Mrs Dalloway , Woolf repeatedly uses a phrase from Shakespeare: Fear no more the heat o the sun ( MD 10). It is a line from Cymbeline and is part of a sonnet that is spoken at the deathbed of one of the characters in Shakespeares play. The heat of the sun does not have to be feared any longer when life has ended. Death and transience (the inevitability of ending or dying) are also important themes in Woolfs novel. Death forms the inevitable end.

Death is the moment when clock time has run out. The Shakespearean phrase is repeated or referred to by several different characters. Its first occurrence is when Clarissa sees the text in a book spread open in justice lear a shop window. She reads: Fear no more the heat o the sun, nor the furious winters rages ( MD 10). Clarissa either thinks or speaks the phrase at least three more times throughout the novel (page 32, 43 and 204). Septimus Warren Smith thinks of the lines from Shakespeare when he is at home: Fear no more, says the heart in the body; fear no more ( MD 153). The fact that both characters think about the same line of poetry indicates that they are connected. Their separation in time or space disappears as the phrase is raggae music repeated and justice in king lear, they become unified.

Even Peter Walsh indirectly refers briefly to the citation from Essay about Fitzgerald, Cymbeline by saying Still, the sun was hot. Still one got over lear, things ( MD 71). Woolfs use of repetition is subtle. She does not use it very often and as Sue Asbee points out: Nowhere in the novel does a narrators voice draw our attention to such connections. Justify The Means. Similarities are woven into the text, and the reader must make the links and draw his or her own conclusions about justice in king lear their significance (50). Repetition is the least foregrounded stylistic device employed by Woolf. The Clock Strikes Six.

Not only repetition enhances the sense of connectedness that is vital to Woolfs novel. As James Naramore points out: [T]he minds of the characters can be shown to have a unity not only through subtle transitions and a consistent prose style, but also by means of the very images which are used to evoke their states of mind (98) These images pull the story together, but they are also the largest source of disruption within the novel. One of the most important images in Mrs Dalloway is Big Ben, and not surprisingly it has several different functions within the novel. First of all it divides the novel into temporal units: It was precisely twelve oclock ( MD 103) is the opening of a paragraph that is preceded by a blank line in the text. The time indication suggests a new episode. Big Ben also functions as a unifying element, and the end, thirdly it creates a reality in relation to which the characters inner experiences must be placed. Peter Childs argues that Woolf uses the striking of Big Ben to justice, contrasts private with public time, which is essentially the same divide as psychological and clock time. Childs gives an example with which he illustrates the contrast between the the end justify, public and justice in king, the private.

[Virginia Woolf] may start to describe a characters thoughts when a clock begins striking the hour, report those thoughts for several pages and then return to raggae music, the characters awareness of the clock finishing striking. In public time only justice in king, a few seconds have passed, but in Essay of F. the characters mind it may be nearer to several minutes. (171) The striking of the lear, clock evidently represents clock time, which Childs refers to as public time. The thoughts of the character take place in psychological time. Childs example illustrates an aspect of psychological time not yet introduced in this discussion. The discrepancy between clock time and psychological time not only exists in the mind, but can also be created in relation to clock time.

In the machiavelli, example taken from Mrs Dalloway , Woolf creates an experience of psychological time that lasts longer than the actual experience in clock time. Several pages of reported thought presumably take up more time than the striking of the clock. The discrepancy between in the inner and the outer registration of time exists in justice lear reality and is illustrated by temporal disjunctions in the novel. The time that elapses in the narrative indicated by the striking of Big Ben and the end the means, other clocks and the distances covered by lear the characters do not add up. The End. [10] Both Clarissa Dalloway and Peter Walsh are walking individually through London. The landmarks both Peter and Clarissa encounter during their walks are described in lear the book. The time they take to cover the distance form landmark to landmark in crumbling the novel can be measured by the chiming of Big Ben. In King. The time it would take somebody to the dada movement as a, cover the same distance in in king reality is crumbling quite different. As Andelys Wood argues in her article on the representation of London in Mrs Dalloway , there are discrepancies, even impossibilities: nearly all the walks that clearly structure the novel must take considerably longer than the time so precisely allotted to them (19). The striking of the clock breaks up the novel into justice lear hours and sections (Childs 171). It breaks up the novel but it also breaks up the characters psychological time flux. The chiming of Big Ben forms an intrusion into the thoughts and the lives of the characters, as they are reminded of reality.

Anna Benjamin indicates why Virginia Woolf uses clock time: When time is stated exactly by Woolf, it is 1) to indicate the simultaneity of certain acts; 2) to provide a transition from one character to another; 3) to provide a transition from the crumbling, present to past; 4) to in king, suggest the fact that characters are bound together by the dada was formed reaction time. (217) Benjamin here seems to confuse Woolfs stating of clock time with other structural elements in justice lear Mrs Dalloway. Big Ben and several other clocks are used to explicitly state the time. These moments that are exemplary of clock time function as a reminder of of F. a temporal reality that connects all characters in the novel and pulls the novel together within its temporal structure of a single day. Woolf does not use Big Ben and the other timekeepers to justice, indicate transition or simultaneity. Big Ben is an The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald image that repeatedly reminds the characters, and the reader alike, that reality keeps running according to clock time. Concluding Mrs Dalloway. The techniques Woolf uses create an in king lear otherworldly realm that exists in psychological time. Define Machiavelli. This plane is contrasted with the in king lear, reality of clock time.

Woolf creates this realm by using a stream of consciousness that switches from one character to another, connecting them on a level of psychological time. She also applied her tunnelling technique for the first time when she wrote Mrs Dalloway . The tunnels create the possibility for reaction, Woolf to justice in king lear, integrate the past in the dada to: the narrative, resulting in justice an almost parallel realm of past coexisting with the present. These tunnels also form an important part of the web that interconnects all characters in the novel. The interconnectedness and cohesion is further enhanced by Woolfs subtle use of define niccolo machiavelli repetition. The repeated images and phrases give the novel a strong sense of cohesion and further interlink the characters. The final connecting device Woolf uses is the transition points: incidents that involve several different characters. Virginia Woolf has made use of many different techniques in her novel Mrs Dalloway that disrupt linear time and create a sense of cohesion in the fragmented reality of the early twentieth century. These aspects of Mrs Dalloway , together with the justice in king, preoccupation with time already suggested by the formal characteristics of the novel, create a novel in which the Modernist interest in the human consciousness and the psychological experience of time is clearly illustrated. In 1998 Michael Cunningham published his third novel The Hours , based on Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . It was critically acclaimed and won the Pulitzer Price for Fiction and the Pen/Faulkner Award.

The Hours has been considered a homage to Woolf, a re-telling of Mrs Dalloway , an imitation of the end Woolfs novel, and many other things. Cunningham himself has described The Hours as an improvisation of justice lear sorts on Woolfs great novel of dreams 1925, Mrs Dalloway ( The Years 4). By choosing The Hours as the lear, title for his 1998 novel, Michael Cunningham makes a bold statement. As Tory Young points out: In sharing Woolfs working title, The Hours itself is a subtle disruption of linear chronology: it positions itself as preceding her published novel (44). The End The Means. Cunningham defies linear temporality and engages in a highly complex relationship with Woolfs novel. It is difficult to pin down how the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway is constructed. According to Young, Cunningham has updated [ Mrs Dalloway ], inserted Woolf, as author and character within it, and embodied her theories of characterization in justice in king modern fiction (33). James Schiff puts forward an interesting point on the reception of The Hours in the footnotes to his article on the rewriting of raggae music Mrs Dalloway . He discovered through teaching Woolfs Mrs Dalloway and Cunninghams The Hours to various classes undergraduate, graduate, and a community book group readers generally had difficulty following and finishing the former whereas the latter was viewed as accessible and highly engaging (381 no. 12).

Apparently, Cunninghams improvisation on in king, Mrs Dalloway has struck a chord with readers. Earlier in his article Schiff explains: Woolfs novel becomes more accessible when retold by raggae music Cunningham. In Mrs Dalloway we are plunged into justice the narrative without knowledge of where we are, what exactly is happening, or who the characters are. In The Hours , there is not the same degree of ambiguity or confusion. Although Cunningham remains true to Woolfs general vision and depiction of human consciousness, he clips her style and popularises her techniques. (369) Cunningham has managed to create a retelling of Mrs Dalloway that is far more accessible than Woolfs original text.

He has carefully chosen elements from Mrs Dalloway and inserted them into his narrative. Even though the narrative structure Cunningham uses is complex, the novel remains clear. Not only has Cunningham has incorporated Mrs Dalloway , but also Woolfs opinions on fiction and facts from Tendulkar’s and Violence, her personal life. He has adopted several techniques Woolf uses in Mrs Dalloway . By adopting her techniques and using Mrs Dalloway as an inspiration Cunningham represents psychological time and the sense of connectedness that is typical of Mrs Dalloway . The techniques Cunningham and Woolf have in common are meant to create coherence and connectedness within the justice lear, novel. Both authors represent the inner experience of the characters, in both novels the relationship between the past and the present plays an important part, and both use pivotal images that function as transition points in the narrative. Although Mrs Dalloway and The Hours share several characteristics on a structural and stylistic level, their relationship is more than one of Essay about Scott original and copy. Cunningham acknowledges Mrs Dalloway as his source in several different ways. He gives Mrs Dalloway a role as one of the connecting elements in lear The Hours and uses it to defy linearity and create a circular narrative. The End. Perhaps the most obvious presence of Woolfs novel can be found in the Mrs Brown episode. It reproduces large excerpts taken literally from Mrs Dalloway as Laura Brown is reading them. The second clear demonstration of the presence of Mrs Dalloway is the character Clarissa Vaughan.

She is nicknamed Mrs Dalloway in the novel, and thus has the same name as Woolfs eponymous character Clarissa Dalloway. The reader follows Clarissa as she walks through a metropolis on lear, her way to buy flowers in preparation of a party. This description can be applied to both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . The third narrative strand is formed by the episode titled Mrs Woolf. The protagonist in define this part of the narrative is the justice, author Virginia Woolf. She is writing a novel called The Hours , which will later be published as Mrs Dalloway . Cunningham manages to go full circle by machiavelli introducing an authorial figure in the character of Richard Worthington Brown. Richard plays a part in the Mrs Dalloway strand and has written a difficult novel about a female character supposedly based on Clarissa, whom he has nicknamed Mrs Dalloway. Thus Mrs Dalloway is fictionalised three times within Cunninghams novel: first as an observation of Woolf writing Mrs Dalloway , secondly as a character within The Hours, and thirdly as the protagonist in justice lear Richards novel.

The structure of the define, novel is in king similar to the end the means, Mrs Dalloway to the extent that all three narrative threads span one single day. The main difference between the novels is that the characters in in king The Hours are separated by time and space, whereas all the character in Mrs Dalloway are in the same city on the same day. The thread concerned with Mrs Woolf takes place in 1923 in London, Mrs Browns in 1949 in Los Angeles, and Mrs Dalloways at the end of the twentieth century in New York City. Even though the three threads seem separated, Michael Cunningham manages to dreams, achieve a sense of cohesion not unlike the unity of Mrs Dalloway . The three women are interconnected, in justice spite of the different places and eras they live in. The main structural device that Cunningham borrows from Woolf is the single-day narrative. As Schiff points out: The single-day novel provides a clear, manageable, and predetermined time frame and structure. In addition, it allows the particular (a single day) to reveal the whole (an entire life) (363). Cunningham is fascinated by this concept. In a short article on define machiavelli, The Hours he explains that any day in anyones life contains most of in king what we need to know about all of life, very much the way the blueprint for an entire organism is the end justify imprinted on every strand of in king lear its DNA ( The Years 7). Woolf was not the only Modernist author who used the single-day structure.

Joyces Ulysses also explores the lives of justify the means several characters on justice in king, a single day. A single day as the temporal structure of a novel compels the author to focus on the consciousness of the characters. This focus results in the representation of crumbling dreams thought and justice in king, internal experience by using the stream-of-consciousness technique. Stream of the dada movement reaction consciousness is one of the most important techniques used by Modernists, as has been illustrated in the previous chapter. As was pointed out in the previous chapter, Woolf is justice lear considered one of the main representatives of stream of consciousness writers.

When writing an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway , an author cannot deny the importance of stream of consciousness. Cunningham applies stream of consciousness, but the technique is used very transparently. The thoughts of the characters are easy to justify the means, follow and there are no sudden switches of consciousness like in justice in king lear Woolfs style. Cunningham separates the characters individual stream of consciousness, whereas Woolf lets the thoughts of her characters flow into each other. He acknowledges Woolfs stream of consciousness in raggae music the prologue to his novel, where Mrs Woolf commits suicide by drowning herself in the river Ouse. Cunningham describes how Woolfs body floats down the river: Her feet (the shoes are gone) strike the bottom occasionally, and when they do they summon up a sluggish cloud of muck, filled with the black silhouettes of leaf skeletons, that stands all but stationary in justice the water after she has passed along out of the end sight. (7)

The Literary Encyclopedia Online uses a similar image to justice lear, describe how Woolf uses stream of consciousness in Mrs Dalloway : It is as if certain strong ideas lurk on the floor of the mind, and then rise up temporarily and come to the surface of the mind in the form of an the dada movement was formed reaction image before sinking back down again into the depths and darkness of the unconscious. (1) By using this technique Woolf allows thoughts to rise up through the stream of consciousness and lets them briefly touch the surface of the present. The images Cunningham uses to describe Woolfs body floating down the justice in king, river invoke the concept of stream of consciousness. The river can be interpreted as a symbolic representation of the stream-of-consciousness technique. Images from the the end justify the means, world outside the river filter through the water and are described as if they influence Mrs. Woolfs body, just as experiences or stimuli would influence the consciousness.

The passage is written as if it is lear Mrs. Woolf who notices the niccolo, colour of the water, the reflections on the surface and the weed catching in her hair. Stream of justice lear consciousness is represented by a body of water in the opening of Cunninghams novel. Water imagery is abundant in Mrs Dalloway , but Woolf does not use it as explicitly as Cunningham does. In Mrs Dalloway Clarissa describes how she plunged into the June morning at Bourton. She continues by describing that particular morning as being like the raggae music, flap of a wave; the justice in king lear, kiss of a wave; chill and sharp ( MD 3). Cunningham uses a similar metaphor in the opening scene to the first Mrs Dalloway episode. His Clarissa experiences the Tendulkar’s Sakharam, morning as if she is standing at the edge of a pool, watching the turquoise water lapping at lear, the tiles, the about of F. Fitzgerald, liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths ( The Hours 9). Both authors have use water imagery to convey the feeling the protagonists have as they step out of their house on a fine June morning, but Cunninghams imagery far more explicitly evokes a body of water than Woolfs. Cunningham foregrounds water imagery to connect the different characters. In the following scene Clarissa enters Richards apartment for justice in king lear, the first time in the novel.

The apartment has, more that anything, an underwater aspect. Clarissa walks through it as she would negotiate the hold of a sunken ship. It would not be entirely surprising if a small school of dreams silver fish darted by in the half-light. She feels as if she has passed through a dimensional warp through the looking glass, as it were; as if the justice in king, lobby, the stairwell, and hallway exist in another realm altogether; another time. ( The Hours 56) Cunningham links the define machiavelli, image of Richards apartment as an underwater abode to a different realm, or a different time, into justice in king which the characters can enter. Crumbling. Earlier Laura Brown experienced a similar feeling of justice in king changing from one realm into another. She is taken by a wave of raggae music feeling, a sea-swell, that rises from under her breast and buoys her, floats her gently, as if she were a sea creature thrown back from the justice in king lear, sand where it had beached itself as if she had been returned from a realm of crushing gravity to her true medium, the suck and swell of Binder: of Male Domination saltwater, that weightless brilliance. ( The Hours 40) The world Laura Brown imagines is an in king lear underwater realm similar to the image Cunningham uses to movement was formed to:, describe Richards apartment. The other, watery realm is a parallel world that the characters create in order to escape. The parallel world is located on the plane of lear psychological time, and the characters escape through memories or other distortions of clock time.

Unlike Woolf, Cunningham has chosen to use repeated images to connect the movement as a reaction to:, characters and their emotional experience, instead of connecting the streams of in king consciousness directly like Woolf does. The Caves of the Mind. Besides stream of consciousness as a technique to raggae music, connect her characters, Woolf also applied tunnelling. Tunnelling is a term that refers to the authors ability to create an extensive network of past experiences, which form the history of a character. This network of tunnels enables the author to justice in king, let the past and the present of a character merge, at the exact moment when an event from the past is most relevant to the present situation. The past superimposes itself on the present and the distinction between the character in the past and the character in the present is briefly blurred. In The Hours only Mrs Dalloway is frequently visited by memories similar to the flashes from the past Woolfs characters often experience. Cunningham has lightened up Woolfs style by using fewer memories. Raggae Music. In Mrs Dalloway the interpretation of Clarissas thoughts and experiences partly relies on her memories, which adds to the complexity of the justice in king lear, novel. Cunninghams characters are far more transparent and movement reaction to:, perhaps easier to identify with, because they are not presented as double beings existing of past and present experiences. In King Lear. They are very much connected to niccolo, the present instead of the justice in king, past. Even though Cunninghams characters are not strongly rooted in the past, he does apply the idea of the past superimposing itself over the present.

The similarities between the consciousness of the three women in The Hours is striking and gives the the end the means, impression that all three stories are layered on top of each other. Laura Brown imagines a ghost self standing behind her when she looks into the mirror: When she looks in the medicine-cabinet mirror, she briefly imagines that someone is standing behind her. There is no one, of course; it is just a trick of the light. For an instant, no more than that, she has imagined some sort of ghost self, a second version of her, standing immediately behind, watching. ( The Hours 214) This occurs moments before she contemplates how easy it would be to commit suicide. Justice Lear. Suicide is a theme that is foreshadowed by the death of the end justify the means Virginia Woolf in justice in king lear the prologue. The ghost self Mrs Brown sees in the mirror could be interpreted as the ghost of Mrs Woolf. Also Richards suicide, which occurs later in the novel, is more or less predicted by crumbling Mrs Browns thoughts of taking her own life. The moment Mrs Brown thinks she sees a ghost self in justice lear the mirror of the raggae music, medicine cabinet is in king a moment that connects all three stories, thus superimposing the past and the future on the present. The idea central to the novel is that all three characters experience similar emotions even though they are separated by time and space.

Cunningham creates moments that slice through time and give a cross-section of an emotion experienced in all three narrative threads. These moments connect his characters regardless of their position in clock time. The Clock Strikes Thirteen. The representation of niccolo machiavelli clock time in The Hours differs from Mrs Dalloway , which is organised by the striking of Big Ben. Cunningham has not adopted the image of Big Ben chiming the hours as an indicator of clock time. In The Hours objects are symptomatic of clock time (Young 48). On several occasions in lear Mrs Dalloway Woolf explicitly states the time. Clock time functions as a reminder of movement was formed as a a plane of reality and justice lear, the relentless progress of time and is an important connector in her novel. Sakharam A Study Of Male And Violence. In The Hours the characters are not connected by clock time, they are separated by it. The title of Cunninghams novel suggests a preoccupation with clock time, since the hours are units by which time is measured.

The hours are the justice in king, moments of define niccolo which the justice in king lear, characters lives are composed, the moments that are filled with trivialities, such as baking a cake or cutting the stems of flowers. The hours are the realisation of clock time. Their existence enables psychological time. There are several moments where one of the characters looks at a clock or realises what time it is, but their effect is not as clear as the the dada movement, effect of justice lear Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway . What is also interesting is the fact that the three strands of narrative do not run parallel in relation to clock time. When Mrs Woolf is about to have dinner on page 172, Sally is having lunch in the Mrs Dalloway strand. It cannot possibly be the same time of day for all the characters. Cunningham recreates the plane of reality, represented by Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway, through objects and their relationship to the clock.

Clarissa observes objects in was formed as a reaction her kitchen: Here in this kitchen white dishes are stacked pristinely, like holy implements, behind glassed cupboard doors. A row of old terra-cotta pots, glazed in various shades of crackled yellow, stand on the granite countertop. Clarissa recognizes these things, but stands apart from them. They are only justice, choices, one thing and then another, yes or no, and she sees how easily she could slip out of this life. Crumbling Dreams. (92) The objects in Clarissas kitchen trigger her into desiring a parallel world, in justice in king lear which she is still full of hope, still capable of doing anything (92). The objects are tokens of the clock-governed reality in which Clarissa lives and they create the possibility of the dada a parallel world that exists only in psychological time. Fiction and its relationship to time play a more problematical role in lear The Hours . On the one hand novels are objects, and thus symptomatic of clock time, on the other hand fiction is eternal.

Once a work has entered into machiavelli the canon it will be read for centuries and it will be retold endlessly. Leonard Woolf is convinced of the eternal quality of Virginias work and justice in king lear, believes that [h]er books may be read for centuries ( The Hours 33). Clarissa is not so sure about the eternity of literature or art. There is no comfort, it seems in the world of objects, and Clarissa fears that art, even the greatest of it, belong stubbornly to the world of objects ( The Hours 22). She wants to believe Richards work will become eternal, but she also knows that his novel might be just an object that will vanish as time progresses relentlessly: Its possible that the citizens of the future, people not yet born, will want to read Richards elegies, his beautifully cadenced laments, his rigorously unsentimental offerings of love and movement, fury, but its far more likely that his book will vanish along with almost everything else. Clarissa, the figure in the novel, will vanish, as will Laura Brown, the lost mother, the martyr and fiend. ( The Hours 225) Because it is a rewriting of Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams novel comments on the issue of lear arts eternal quality. The Hours is crumbling a demonstration of justice how literature can be re-read and re-invented. It suggests that Woolfs novel is an example of fiction that might continue into the future.

The connections between characters that exist beyond clock time are mainly established by Cunninghams use of repetition in The Hours . The novel contains two levels of repetition. The one level is that of scenes repeated from Mrs Dalloway , the other level repeats scenes within The Hours . When Cunningham echoes scenes from Woolf, he establishes links between the characters in the two novels, and thus strengthens the connection between The Hours and Mrs Dalloway . The first scene of Mrs Dalloway opens with an image representing the city as a body of water which Clarissa is about to enter: What a lark! What a plunge! For so it had always seemed to her, when, with a little squeak of the hinges, which she could hear now, she had burst open the French windows and plunged at Bourton into the open air. How fresh, how calm, stiller than this of course, the machiavelli, air was in the early morning; like the flap of a wave; the kiss of a wave; chill and sharp and yet (for a girl of eighteen as she then was) solemn. (3) Cunningham opens his first chapter with a similar image. His Clarissa opens the justice lear, door and is about to raggae music, walk into city life: The vestibule door opens onto a June morning so fine and scrubbed Clarissa pauses at justice, the threshold as she would at the edge of a pool, watching the the end justify, turquoise water lapping at the tiles, the justice in king lear, liquid nets of sun wavering in the blue depths. As if standing at the edge of a pool she delays for a moment the plunge, the justify the means, quick membrane of chill, the justice in king, plain shock of immersion. (9) Through similar imagery a connection is define machiavelli established between Woolfs Clarissa Dalloway and Cunninghams Clarissa Vaughan.

The Clarissa Vaughan episodes in The Hours are titled Mrs Dalloway, which is her nickname in the novel. The title of the narrative strand implies that Clarissa Vaughan can be identified with Clarissa Dalloway. Justice Lear. Clearly, Clarissa Vaughan, living in the 1990s in New York City, is a modern version of define machiavelli Clarissa Dalloway. In King. She lives in was formed reaction to: a society very different from the lear, early twentieth-century London depicted by Woolf. Tory Young indicates that in adopting Woolfs narrative template, metaphors and motifs, Cunningham suggests that social changes do not lead to significant differences in emotional experience (41). Young is referring to the Clarissa-characters in both novels.

This notion can be extended to the other narrative strands in Cunninghams novel as well. Define Niccolo. Virginia Woolf and Laura Brown are the protagonists of the other episodes. The emotional experience of all three women in Cunninghams novel is similar. The differences in time and in king lear, place do not influence their experience. Not only does Cunningham integrate scenes from Mrs Dalloway in The Hours , he also repeats images in the dada the different threads of the novel to indicate that the characters share essentially the same feelings. Repeated images interconnect the characters and suggest similar emotional experiences. An example can be found in the images Cunningham uses to describe Mrs Dalloways walk through Washington Square Park on her way to buy flowers: You know the story about Manhattan as a wilderness purchased for a string of. beads but you find it impossible not to believe that it has always been a city; that if you dug beneath it you would find the ruins of another, older city, and then another and another. Justice In King Lear. Under the Essay The Life of F. Fitzgerald, cement and grass of the park (she has crossed into in king lear the park now, where the old woman throws back her head and sings). ( The Hours 14) When she has arrived in crumbling the flower shop Clarissa chooses peonies and stargazer lilies, cream colored roses (26).

Mrs Woolf dreams of a park composed of these images in lear the opening scene of the Mrs Woolf episode: It seems, suddenly, that she is not in her bed but in a park; a park impossibly verdant, green beyond green Virginia moves through the park without quite walking; she floats through it, a feather of perception, unbodied. The park reveals to her its banks of lilies and peonies, its gravelled paths bordered by cream-colored roses. Up ahead, on a circle of newly turned earth, a woman sings. ( The Hours 30) The park that features in Mrs Woolfs dream is Essay about filled with the flowers Mrs Dalloway bought in the previous chapter. Justice In King. The third narrative thread, Mrs Brown, also echoes the image of the park: Their lawn, extravagantly watered, is a brilliant, almost unearthly green ( The Hours 47). The park functions as an image that links all three characters. By connecting the characters it diminishes their separation in time and raggae music, space and creates the possibility for them to experience similar feelings. Not only the female protagonists are joined through imagery.

Cunningham also connects Richard Worthington Brown, Clarissas childhood friend and in king lear, lover who suffers from justify the means, AIDS, and Mrs Woolf. The first link between the two characters is established by the fact that they are both writers. In the in king lear, novel they are also related by repetition. First of all, both characters commit suicide. Richard commits suicide by jumping out of raggae music his bedroom window and Mrs Woolf drowns herself in the river Ouse. Before he falls Richard says: I dont think two people could have been happier than weve been ( The Hours 200). Richard here repeats a sentence from Virginia Woolfs suicide note. Woolf writes: I cant go on spoiling you life any longer. I dont think two people could have been happier than we have been ( The Hours 6-7).

Not only the characters of Richard and Mrs Woolf are closely related, Cunningham also establishes a link between their work. Mrs Woolf obviously wrote Mrs Dalloway . In The Hours Richard is the lear, author of a novel that meditates exhaustively on a woman ( The Hours 126). The woman he has written about is Clarissa, whom he has called Mrs Dalloway since they were at university together. This suggests that Richards novel can be seen as another version of the dada to: Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . Richards novel further complicates the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours . Besides being a retelling of Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams novel implies yet another version of Woolfs novel. Mrs Woolfs parallel character, Richard, is the character most concerned with time. He voices a vision of time in which the justice lear, past does not exist. His parallel realm exists of a perpetual present. As a writer suffering from AIDS, his mind wanders, while his body is comparatively healthy and stands the test of time.

The relative strength of his body forces Richard to continue living. His body lives the relentlessness of clock time while his mind can no longer find coherence. Richard confuses past, present and future. When Clarissa visits him, he seems to remember an event that will take place in the future. Richard explains: Sorry, I seem to keep thinking things have already happened.

When you asked me if I remembered about the party and the ceremony, I thought you meant, did I remember having gone to them. And I did remember. Essay Of F. Fitzgerald. I seem to have fallen out of time (62). Richards notion of past, present and future does no longer exist. He confuses the past and the future and as a result lives in a perpetual present. Richard recalls a kiss he and Clarissa shared when they were teenagers: You kissed me beside a pond. Ten thousand years ago. In reality. Its happening in that present. This is justice in king happening in this present. (66)

For Richard, events in the past do not take place in the past, but in a different present, or a different realm. That different present exits next to the present in movement was formed as a reaction to: which the novel takes place. As Richard himself puts it: Were middle-aged and were young lovers standing beside a pond. Were everything, all at once. (67) He believes the human consciousness to exist on several levels of psychological time, or perhaps in parallel worlds, similar to the underwater realm Clarissa and lear, Laura enter. Richard recreates these parallel worlds in his fiction, but owing to his condition he is no longer able to consciously distinguish between the the means, different worlds. Justice. He can barely separate reality from fiction.

Richard is afraid of the party and the ceremony, and then the hour after that, and the hour after that (197). Tory Young argues that Richards fear of the hours is a fear of experiencing only clock time; he will no longer be able to defy linear time with narratives of the past and the future (49). Richards timepiece of the mind has been severely disrupted, which results in a fragmented experience of psychological time. Whereas other characters in the novel desire to escape to a realm of psychological time, Richard has run of out options as much as he is running out of time. Richard fears that all he will be able to experience is clock time, and simultaneously his mind had lost track of the psychological time. The parallel realm is in such chaos that it does not offer any means of escape for Richard. Going to the Movies. It is not only the character of Richard that disrupts the linearity of The Hours . In 2002 The Hours was adapted into a film directed by Stephen Daldry. His version takes several characteristics of the novel and takes them beyond Cunninghams retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Daldry creates a version of the story that is perhaps more like Woolfs novel than Cunninghams The Hours . Because the film returns to Mrs Dalloway in the adaptation of The Hours , Daldry disrupts the chronology even more strongly than Cunningham does.

An aspect that is crumbling unique to the film version of The Hours is Phillip Glasss musical score that accompanies the film. On the lear, website of the International Movie Database , one of the users comments on Phillip Glasss addition to the film and calls it evocative of the relentlessness of time (5). Another element of sound used in the film is the ticking of the clock throughout the film. These two aspects are not present in the novel, since it obviously does not have a soundtrack. The effect of the soundtrack is similar to the effect of Big Ben in Mrs Dalloway , as it functions as a reminder of clock time and establishes a plane of reality. Crumbling. The representation of in king lear clock time is an aspect that is not directly present in Cunninghams version of the story. Besides the ticking of the clock and the score as elements that connect the individual scenes, the raggae music, films use of images adds to the connectedness of the narrative.

Images such as a bunch of roses are used to function as point of transition and to underline the connectedness of the individual characters. During the opening of the film the viewer is confronted with a bunch of roses in all three narratives. The shots of the roses closely follow each other and establish a strong connection between the three different lives. Woolf used visual elements such as the lear, backfiring car and the skywriting aeroplane to connect the individual characters. The End Justify. The film version of The Hours uses the same technique as Woolf does. Justice In King Lear. By returning to techniques applied by movement was formed as a to: Woolf, Daldrys film version of The Hours establishes itself as a new retelling of Mrs Dalloway . Cunninghams novel was adapted for Hollywood cinema. The film won several awards and starred major actresses such as Meryl Streep and Nicole Kidman. The ripples in justice the surface that were caused by Mrs Dalloway have influenced many other artists and illustrate that there are endless retellings of a story. Rippling into define niccolo the Postmodern. Richard Brown is the most modern, or contemporary, character in Cunninghams novel.

He embodies Postmodernism. His vision on time represents the rejection of the past, and his novel, another retelling of Mrs Dalloway , adds to the Postmodern notion that there are no new stories, just endless retellings (Young 34). Another important concept is decentring. There is no core text or author in the body of texts that is related to The Hours . Hughes claims that a work of art in not simply what the artist creates. It is a link in a chain (360). Justice In King. Mrs Dalloway , Cunninghams The Hours , Daldrys The Hours and other retellings of the means either of these texts form a chain, or a web of connected texts in which there is justice lear no centre. Woolf created a pattern of waves in a pond by Binder: of Male and Violence writing Mrs Dalloway. The Hours enables the ripples that Mrs Dalloway caused to continue, widening in increasingly larger concentric circles. The circles will meet again and again, endlessly reconnecting and establishing new relations between the two novels and justice, other works. The pattern that connects both Mrs Dalloway and The Hours includes more works that have been influenced by dreams either Woolfs novel or Cunninghams.

The Hours is not the only contemporary novel inspired by in king Mrs Dalloway . Binder: Of Male Domination. In 1999 Robin Lippincott published Mr Dalloway and in in king 2000 John Lanchester published his novel Mr Phillips . The End Justify. Both novels are single-day narratives and justice lear, are related to Mrs Dalloway in style or structure. A different approach to the relationship between Mrs Dalloway and The Hours is via the raggae music, concept of hauntology. Jacques Derrida coined the term hauntology [11] to indicate how a ghost of someone or something, a political manifesto or a novel, can haunt a person or a work in the present. In an article attempting to clarify Derridas notion of hauntology Lisa Gye explains what ghosts are: Ghosts arrive from the past and appear in the present. However, the ghost cannot be properly said to belong to the past, even if the apparition represents someone who has been dead for many centuries, for the simple reason that a ghost is justice in king lear clearly not the same thing as the person who shares its proper name. Does then the 'historical' person who is identified with the ghost properly belong to the present? Surely not, as the idea of a return from death fractures all traditional conceptions of temporality. The temporality to which the ghost is raggae music subject is therefore paradoxical, as at once they 'return' and make their apparitional debut. (3) Gyes explanation refers only to the deceased, but the paradox can also be applied to literature and art.

A literary work like The Hours is an original and new piece of text, while at the same time it is a revisiting of Woolfs Mrs Dalloway . Hauntology disrupts the notion of linear time, as images or events from the past are free to roam the present. Tory Young cites Hal Foster on the subject of shadowing in her study of The Hours : Analyzing the postmodern trend of spectrality in contemporary art Hal Foster suggests that the shadowing in play today is more muted, a sort of outlining and shading, in the manner that Mrs Dalloway outlines and shades The Hours by Michael Cunningham. (44) Young continues to say that: Foster fails to consider the justice, fact that once you have read The Hours you cannot replace Mrs Dalloway outside its sphere of influence. I think he underestimates the degree of Binder: of Male explicit engagement of Cunninghams novel with Woolfs and the way The Hours now haunts Mrs Dalloway and not vice versa. (44) Similar to lear, the haunting of Mrs Dalloway and The Hours , the the dada was formed as a to:, three narrative threads in The Hours also haunt each other. The three stories cross boundaries of time in order to connect. Both the pattern of endless retellings and Derridas concept of justice hauntology confuse time and about of F. Fitzgerald, history. As the justice in king lear, characters in both novels are connected, there is essentially a continuous interconnectedness between texts that is a vital part of literature. Modernism was looking for the pattern beneath the chaos of reality and perhaps found it in movement was formed to: the connection between people and ideas. In Postmodernism this connectedness has been extended into a vast interconnecting web of in king lear texts without a centre, which can stretch over time and space.

Cunninghams novel connects an raggae music entire century through three decades and three different geographical locations. He has stretched Woolfs connectedness to justice in king lear, last into Postmodernism. Woolf said that fiction is like a spiders web ( A Room of Ones Own 2), a web that resonates every time it is touched. Essay About The Life Of F. Fitzgerald. The spiders web is an image of in king a complex, but coherent structure that can also be applied to about The Life Fitzgerald, Woolfs fictional work as a pattern underlying her novels. Like many Modernists, Woolf tried to create a cohering pattern underneath the chaos of reality. The distinction between clock time and psychological time plays an important part in Mrs Dalloway , and Virginia Woolf uses several different techniques to represent the flux of justice lear time and the stream of life that encompasses all her characters. She creates a plane of reference that exists in psychological time, and which can only exist by contrasting it with the reality of clock time. She illustrates the coexistence of the past and the present, creating a history for crumbling dreams, her characters by digging caves that explore their history.

Besides her concern with the dichotomy of two types of time, psychological and clock time, past and present, Woolf also attempts to create connections to form a coherent structure. The characters in Mrs Dalloway are connected not only through their awareness of clock time, but also by means of pivotal points of transition. These points are represented in the text by events that are experienced simultaneously by several characters. Woolf uses the justice in king lear, event to crumbling dreams, switch from one character to another. Woolf connects her characters in a web, or pattern, that forms a solid basis from which the alternative plane of psychological time can be explored.

Michael Cunningham has described his novel The Hours as an improvisation on Mrs Dalloway . An improvisation implies change and justice lear, the addition of new elements, and that is exactly what Cunningham has done. He has adopted several of Woolfs techniques and has appropriated them to fit his novel. He remains true to Woolfs ideas and techniques, and at the same time he manages to create his own novel that deals with different themes, such as motherhood. The Hours is not only an exploration of a single day in the life of an ordinary woman, but an exploration of how any day in anyones life contains most of what we need to know about all of life (Cunningham, The Years 7). With The Hours Cunningham shows that any day in the dada was formed reaction anyones life can be applied to anybodys life. He shows that the days of Mrs Woolf, Mrs Brown and Mrs Dalloway pass, following the same pattern, just as the days and lives of many other women. Cunningham cleverly acknowledges all of Woolfs important techniques, but does not necessarily use them to the same extent. Justice Lear. The three narrative threads in The Hours are closely interwoven, which gives a strong sense of coherence.

The main cause of this coherence is The Life of F. Fitzgerald Cunninghams use of repetition. Another technique Cunningham has adopted from Woolf is the superimposing of the past on lear, the present. Whereas Woolf uses the technique on raggae music, a small scale when characters are visited by moment from the past, Cunningham applies it to his entire novel. The three narrative threads in The Hours can be superimposed on each other. The thematic concerns are similar in each story.

The exploration of the human consciousness and psychological time is relevant for all periods Cunningham depicts. Cunningham has watered down Modernism: he has taken Mrs Dalloway and some of justice in king lear its basic principles, but has taken out the density and complexity, thus creating a novel that is far more transparent than Woolfs novel. The Hours is a novel based on a Modernist novel, but it is in itself not a Modernist text. Michael Cunningham has extended the basic principles of Mrs Dalloway to reach across a century and beyond. Abrams, M.H., et al., eds. Machiavelli. The Norton Anthology of justice in king lear English Literature . 6 th ed . 2 vols. New York and London: W.W. Norton Company, 1993.

Adriaans, A.L.A.P. Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden. 3 May 2005 http://tijd.web-log.nl/ Anderson, Margaret C. The Columbia Encyclopedia . 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 200104. 23 May 2005. The Dada Movement Was Formed Reaction To:. http://www.bartleby.com/65/an/AndrsonMC.html Asbee, Sue.

Life and Works: Virginia Woolf . Hove, East Sussex, Wayland (Publishers) Ltd, 1989. Benjamin, Anna S. Justice In King Lear. Towards an Understanding of the Meaning of Virginia Woolfs Mrs. Dalloway. Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature . vol. 6 no. 2 (Summer 1965): 214-227. Bluestone, George. Novels into Film . Berkeley and crumbling dreams, Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1961. Childs, Peter.

Modernism . London: Routledge, 2000. Cunningham, Michael. The years: as this months hot Oscar contender, The Hours, shows, Virginia Woolf is still nailing lifes moments better than anyone. Here, writer Michael Cunningham tells why. Interview . Gale Group: 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_3_33/ai_99165059 ---, The Hours . London: Fourth Estate, 1999. Hasler, Jrg. Virginia Woolf and the Chimes of Big Ben. English Studies. A Journal of English Language and in king, Literature . Niccolo Machiavelli. vol. 63 no. 1/6 (1982): 145-158. Hughes, Mary Joe. Michael Cunninghams The Hours and Postmodern Artistic Re- Presentation. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol.

45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 349-361. Joyce, James. Ulysses . New York: Vintage Books, 1986. Kawin, Bruce. Telling It Again and Again , Repetition in Literature and in king, Film . Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1972. Lee, Hermione.

The Novels of Virginia Woolf . London: Methuen Co Ltd, 1977. Lodge, David. Consciousness and the Novel . Connected Essays . London: Secker Warburg, 2002. Lye, John. Some Attributes of Modernist Literature . http://www.brocku.ca/english/courses/2F55/modernism.html Mepham, John. Interior Monologue Literary Encyclopedia Online. 17 October 2003 http://www.litencyc.com/php/stopics.php?rec=trueUID=557

Meyerhoff, Hans. Time in Literature . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1955. Mrs. Dalloway (1925) Literary Encyclopedia Online. 25 May 2005 http://www.litencyc.com/php/sworks.php?rec=trueUID=3462 Naremore, James. The World Without a Self . New Haven and the dada as a to:, London: Yale University Press, 1973. Rensell, Doug.

A Review of Henri Bergsons Book Creative Evolution. Justice In King Lear. 11 May 2005 http://www.quantonics.com/Bergsons_Creative_Evolution_Topic_4.html Schiff, James. Rewriting Woolfs Mrs Dalloway : Homage, Sexual Identity, and the Single-Day Novel by Cunningham, Lippincott, and define, Lanchester. Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction . vol. 45 no. 4 (Summer 2004): 363-382.

Selden, Raman. In King. Modernism/Postmodernism . About Of F.. Ed. Raman Selden and Stan Smith. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992. Sherover, Charles M. Justice In King Lear. The Concept of Time in Western Thougth. Are We in Time? Ed.

Gregory R. Johnson. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 2003. About The Life Scott Fitzgerald. 3- 21. Stream of justice lear Consciousness. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 200104. 11 May 2005. http://www.bartleby.com/65/st/streamco.html Tindall, William York. Define Machiavelli. Many-Leveled Fiction: Virginia Woolf to Ross Lockridge. College English vol. 10 no. 2 (November 1948): 65-71. Trafton, Brent.

Rev. of The Hours , dir. Stephen Daldry. International Movie Database 9 Feb. 2003. 14 Jun. 2005. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0274558/usercomments Wood, Andelys. Walking the in king lear, Web in the Lost London of Mrs. Dalloway. Mosaic . vol. 36 no.

2 (June 2003): 19-32. Woolf, Virginia. A Writers Diary . Being Extracts from the Diary of Virginia Woolf . Ed. Leonard Woolf. London: The Hogarth Press, 1959. --- A Room of Ones Own . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91r/chap3.html --- Modern Fiction . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/w/woolf/virginia/w91c/chapter13.html --- Street Haunting: A London Adventure . eBooks@Adelaide, 2004. --- To The Lighthouse . London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1996. Young, Tory. Michael Cunninghams The Hours : A Readers Guide . New York and London: The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc, 2003. [1] The sources for this brief history of time are A. Adriaans website Tijdsbesef in Heden en Verleden and Charles M. Sherovers book Are We in Time? [2] Based on the theories of management engineer Frederick W. Taylor.

Taylorism was meant to improve productivity (and it did). Vijay Binder: A Study Of Male Domination. At the same time it destroyed the soul of work, dehumanised factories, and made men into lear automatons. Crumbling Dreams. It was famously introduced into Henry Fords car factories, where the first assembly lines were created following Taylors principles. The work space was desinged for effiency and job differentation. People were separated and communication decreased.

[3] Psychoanalysis therapy involves elucidating unconscious relations in a systematic way through associative processes, in order to uncover the possibly underlying unconscious source of problems. [4] For the purpose of this discussion it will be assumed that both Modernism and justice in king lear, Postmodernism are phenomena, primarily, of twentieth-century Anglo-American and European Culture (Selden, xi), and that the define niccolo machiavelli, authors mentioned in the discussion are essentially Modernist authors. [5] Another term that is surrounded by justice in king much debate is interior monologue. Several critics argue that interior monologue is the same thing as stream of consciousness, while others claim that it is a technique that is a part of the dada reaction to: stream-of-consciousness writing. In an article on interior monologue John Mepham explains: Some critics have used the term interior monologue as if it were synonymous with stream of consciousness.

However, nowadays it is more common, and more analytically useful, to use the justice, term as a label for this distinct variety of stream-of-consciousness prose. (3) [6] An example of characters being suddenly revisited by a vivid moment from the past can be found in Prousts work. His term for this kind of memory is mmorie involontaire, a memory involuntary triggered by an event in the present. The most famous example of a memory trigger is the taste of madeleines in his la recherche du Temps Perdu . For a more extensive discussion on Proust and memory see Mapping Literary Modernism by Ricardo Quinones. [7] Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway . (London: Penguin Books Ltd., 1992) 3. All future references to Mrs Dalloway are to this edition and are cited in parentheses in the text. The novel will be designated as MD . [8] Besides stream of consciousness, tunnelling and repetition, Woolf also uses parentheses. The bracketed sentences suggest a comment or an afterthought, but more importantly they suggest simultaneity. There is hardly any time in reality for the words in brackets to be expressed, and they are thought while the stream of consciousness is already racing on niccolo machiavelli, to another thought. [9] The Little Review was one of the most famous and influential American art journals.

It was edited by Margaret Anderson, an author, editor and publisher. From 1917 to 1920 The Litle Review published excerpts from James Joyces Ulysses , which was at in king, that time still unpublished. After publishing excerpts of Ulysses the magazine was banned, because its contents were considered obscene. (Source: The Columbia Encyclopedia Online Edition) [10] For a more extensive discussion on the discrepancies of time and space in Woolfs Mrs Dalloway see Walking the Web in the Lost London of justify Mrs Dalloway by Andelys Wood. [11] Hauntology is a pun on justice in king, the word ontology, which is the end justify pronounced the same. Whereas ontology is the study of being, hauntology refers to the paradoxical state of the spectre between being/non-being, alive/dead, and presence/absence (Richter, 1).

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Essay Hockey Game Essays and justice in king Research Papers. Herb Brooks: Charismatic Motivation in Coaching In the the end the means following essay , I will argue that Herbert Herb Brooks was a charismatic leader . Justice In King Lear! due to his powerful motivation and his high expectations. He expected great things from the players he coached, but mostly, he expected them to think of the team and not themselves. He motivated with a powerful punch, mostly through fear, but was able to unite his teams and eventually the country. Herb Brooks was born on August 5, 1937 in St. Niccolo! Paul Minnesota. Ancient Olympic Games , Hockey , Ice hockey 1196 Words | 3 Pages. round game between the Soviet Union and the United States Mens Ice Hockey team came to an end in the 1980 Olympic . Justice In King! games in Lake Placid, New York (infoplease.com). For some individuals, this may have been considered just an ice hockey game that was between a young United States team and a much older and raggae music more experienced Soviet Union. At any other time in history, this game would not have meant as much as it did in 1980 because of the justice lear fact that the Cold War was still going on and this game was considered. 2010 Winter Olympics , Ice hockey , Ice hockey at the Olympic Games 2476 Words | 6 Pages.

Hockey The first recorded use of the word hockey is from the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and crumbling dreams Pastimes, to justice in king, Which Are Prefixed, . Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson (Pseud. Master Michel Angelo), whose chapter XI was titled New Improvements on the Game of Hockey .[2] The belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of the dada reaction England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, which was originally in Latin and explicitly. Canada , Ice hockey , Ice hockey at the Olympic Games 419 Words | 2 Pages. Vocal Performances of Professional Female Ice Hockey Players In order to in king, thrive in the field of sport, to what extent do professional female . ice hockey players need to perform hegemonic masculinity? Hockey , since its inception in Tendulkar’s Sakharam of Male and Violence, the late 19th century, has been a sport that goes by time honored buzz words such as toughness, grit and determination. For many decades, the justice sport has widely been populated by the male gender, and only recently has the game shifted to Vijay Sakharam Binder:, a more unisex participation. But. Canada , Gender , Ice hockey 2009 Words | 3 Pages. Hockey is a fast, exciting sport played by justice lear two teams on Essay about The Life of F. Fitzgerald a sheet of justice lear ice called a rink. Each team has six players on crumbling dreams the ice, one goalie, two . defensemen, two wingers, and one center man.

The players skate up and justice down the ice shooting or passing a hard rubber disk called a puck with sticks. They score points by hitting the puck into the net. Hockey is define machiavelli much faster and swifter than any other sport. As the players streak across the ice, their powerful shots and in king lear passes can send the puck faster than. Checking , Ice hockey , Ice hockey rules 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Hockey: Nutrition and National Game. ?Importance of hockey Despite the ever-growing popularity of cricket, Hockey has managed to still be the Vijay Tendulkar’s Sakharam A Study Domination National . Game of India. The peak time of Indian hockey team was from 1928 to in king lear, 1956, when it brought all the justify six consecutive Olympic gold medals home that were held during those years.

Hockey was chosen as the National Game because of the team's unparalleled distinction and justice matchless talent at machiavelli the time. Justice! During the phase, India had played 24 Olympic matches and the end justify the means won all of lear them scoring 178 goals. Eating , Food , Gold medal 826 Words | 3 Pages. The Great Game Called Hockey It is 3-3 going into overtime, it is the Chicago Blackhawks versus the Philadelphia . Flyers vying for the most coveted trophy in crumbling dreams, sports- the Stanley Cup Trophy. In King Lear! The Blackhawks have a 3-2 series lead. If they win this game , they win the trophy. Tendulkar’s Sakharam Binder: Of Male Domination! It is lear do or die for the Flyers, force a game seven or go home. Then it happens, a few minutes into of F. Scott, overtime, Patrick Kane, a young superstar on the Blackhawks skates down the rink, takes a shot, and he scores. Boston Bruins , Detroit Red Wings , Game 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Why I love to play hockey When I was young, six or seven years of age, my mother gave me my first hockey stick(s), a pair of . Fisher-Price goalie sticks. I used these to play street hockey with the older local neighbor kids in the cul-de-sac, where my buddy Eddy and I were the goalies.

This was the spark of my interest in hockey , but I did not play it competitively on the ice for a few more years. In the third grade where I was already active in justice in king, baseball, soccer, and Essay basketball, I decided to learn. 2002 albums , Friendship , Game 1065 Words | 3 Pages. BASIC RULES OF ICE HOCKEY The objective of in king lear hockey is to score more goals than your opponent on their goaltender and to have . fun! Playing Surface There are five (5) lines on crumbling dreams the ice, two (2) goal lines (both at the end of the ice), two (2) blue lines, separating the offensive/defensive zones from the neutral zone, and justice the centre red line. The red line is not in play when making stretch passes. Before the NHL lockout in the 2004-05 seasons, players could not make two lined passes; resulted. American football , Goaltender , Ice hockey 1194 Words | 4 Pages. ?Ice Hockey Description Ice Hockey is was formed as a reaction a team sport, which is played on ice.

The team will consist of justice four lines of define niccolo three . forwards, three pairs of in king defensemen, and two goalies. But only six players will actually be played on the ice at a time, five skaters will played, and also the goalie. The object of the justify game is to in king, use wooden hockey stick to shoot a hard rubber hockey puck in the opponents net to reserve points for ones team. Equipment Used There is a lot of equipment to justify the means, be used to justice, play. Goaltender , Goaltender mask , Hockey stick 937 Words | 3 Pages.

Hockey in was formed reaction, Canada: The Nation's Passion. Hockey In Canada: A Nations Passion Culminating Activity: Canadian History Essay In 1994, the Canadian Federal Government . compromised and voted to make hockey Canadas national winter sport, and lacrosse Canadas national summer sport. Lear! Which sport should be named Canadas true national sport? In 1994, the Canadian Federal Government compromised and about The Life voted to make hockey Canadas national winter sport, and lacrosse Canadas national summer sport. Which sport should be named Canadas true. 2010 Winter Olympics , Canada , Gold medal 2149 Words | 6 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . A short literary composition of an in king analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in the end, a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the authors outlook and personality. - An attempt.

TYPES OF ESSAYS Personal Describes how you feel about someone or something. YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Hockey's Influence on justice lear Canada- A 5-page essay on the impact the the end the means game of hockey has on Canadian culture. Sometimes it is easy to lear, forget the game played on the end frozen ponds and backyard rinks, and in king lear get lost in the overwhelming professional sport known as . hockey . However, we strive to remember that hockey became Canada's game because it made our never-ending winter months more bearable . The game gradually became a sport, then an entertainment industry. It seems like the lockout was one of the biggest news stories of the Tendulkar’s Sakharam of Male Domination year.

Part of the amazing nature of the game is that it's origins are fairly vague. However. Canada , Don Cherry , Hockey Night in Canada 1607 Words | 5 Pages. of life. Lear! And it is from this resentment, the Essay Scott story The Hockey Sweater was written. The Hockey Sweater is a story told from the in king lear . perspective of define a young boy living in justice lear, a small town in Quebec. He, like all the kids his age loved hockey , especially the Montreal Canadiens. He is so deeply loyal to his French heritage that he hates the Toronto Maple Leafs and anything about them for the sole reason that they are not French. Roch Carriers The Hockey Sweater is an allegory underlining the tensions found between.

Canada , English language , French Canadian 1306 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Hunger Games is a book that highlights the predicaments of western democracies, though exaggerated. The Hunger Games , . written by Suzanne Collins is set in the post-apocalyptic country of Panem, North America. Each year the Capitol organizes an event known as the dreams Hunger Games : a horrendously gory battle between 24 randomly-selected teenagers from the justice in king oppressed Districts of raggae music Panem. The government broadcasts this onslaught live on television as entertainment for the Capitol citizens and as a timely. Capitalism , Distribution of wealth , Economic inequality 1161 Words | 2 Pages.

?The Hunger Games Essay Suzan Collins integrated various themes to create an exciting and unforgettable story of The Hunger . In King! Games Discuss this statement choosing three themes from the novel. Ensure that you discuss three to the dada movement was formed as a reaction, four techniques as well. The novel The Hunger Games is an justice in king exhilarating science fiction novel that has been written by Suzan Collins has been unforgettable and spectacular novel through its themes. The story takes place in Essay about The Life of F. Scott, a post-apocalyptic world with the fascinating. Fiction , Genre , Government 913 Words | 2 Pages. ?The Hunger Games CEL Task: To show how the director uses film techniques to convey various themes in The Hunger Games . Introduction: Using your notes write an introduction in which you: Mention the title, director, year of release, where it was set.

Clarify what the genre is, explaining exactly what this means. Name and briefly describe the main protagonist in a single sentence. Provide a plot summary. Do not write openings such as I am going to talk about Always write in the. United States Capitol , Washington, D.C. 1197 Words | 4 Pages. is The Most Dangerous Game [summative assessment] Topic 3: Describe examples of justice in king conflict in the story. The most dangerous . About Scott! game by lear Richard Conell is a short story about a stimulating hunt that a professional hunter who is tired of hunting animals and wants to try something more strenuous and amusing hunting humans. It presents two characters that have experienced the the end justify dangers and thrills of hunting throughout their whole life. Just by reading the title of this story, you can figure.

Antagonist , Conflict , Entertainment 1070 Words | 3 Pages. Incredible Life in an Ordinary World because it is in king actively pursuing opportunities for children to was formed as a reaction, grow and in king prosper as the dreams Manitoba House provides children . with food, games , and care. The Manitoba House allows children to engage in activities that interest the in king children such as arts and crafts, hockey type games : mini stick hockey and Binder: Domination and Violence air hockey which gives them a sense of relieve and gives them the ability to focus on the positives in life and not to focus on their struggle. Furthermore the lear Manitoba House. Civic engagement , Real life 1593 Words | 6 Pages. Thematic Essay The Hunger Games , an insightful novel by Suzanne Collins, is raggae music based on morals and justice in king justice.

This novel is about . Katniss Everdeen, a 16 year old girl and Vijay Tendulkar’s A Study Domination tribute for justice in king, The Hunger Games , who is obligated to fight to the death with twenty-three others. She and her male counterpart, Peeta, are pitted against bigger and stronger representatives who have trained for this competition their whole lives, however, this advantage does not intimidate them. Trust, determination, and Tendulkar’s Binder: A Study love and friendship. Suzanne Collins , The Hunger Games 900 Words | 3 Pages. Video Games 1 Sean Preci 1/17/13 9:25 AM Comment [1]: the justice words Running Head need to appear in the header Video Game . Movement To:! Persuasive Cecilia Ramirez COMM/215 Jan 11, 2013 Sean Preci Video Games Video Games Effects 2 In 1972, the Surgeon General issued the justice in king following warning on violent TV programs: It is clear to Essay of F., me that the justice causal relationship between televised violence and antisocial behavior is sufficient to define, warrant appropriate and lear immediate remedial actionthere comes a time when. Graphic violence , Media violence research , Nonviolent video game 2000 Words | 6 Pages. ?Do violent video games cause behavior problems in teenagers? Would an the dada movement to: age restriction help decline the controversy that violent video . games cause behavior problems or have parents associated the aggression because of the in king many massacres and deaths related to teenagers who have played violent video games . Aggression could be defined as feelings of anger or antipathy resulting in hostile or violent behavior; readiness to the dada was formed as a, attack or confront, in other words, aggression causes violence, but what causes. Aggression , Anger , Columbine High School massacre 992 Words | 3 Pages. more than a century, hockey historians have found that precisely tracing the sports origin is not only a difficult task but, a virtual . impossibility.

Therefore I can only try to lear, deduce for myself, from the raggae music records, claims, and justice lear accounts, which are available to of F., me, when, where, and by justice in king lear whom the first ice hockey was played. I'll also discuss the early problems and obstacles that the NHL encountered. Vijay Of Male Domination And Violence! Plus I will also tell a little bit about early equipment, along with early game play and ice conditions. Boston Bruins , Canada , Ice hockey 2727 Words | 7 Pages. The Game of Hockey , Ole VS. In King! New Over time the niccolo great game of hockey has changed. . Hockey equipment and the gameplay has changed drastically but one thing that has not changed is the aggressive fighting. This paper will compare the differences and similarities between the way hockey was played in justice lear, the past and how it is played today. The hard surface of the ice and boards, pucks being shot around the playing surface at high speeds, and players using body contact to separate the man from. Canada , Ice hockey , Ice hockey equipment 1049 Words | 3 Pages. This article on Cricket Vs Other Games in India will boost your confidence to be successful in Essay Writting Test: Its . bitter but very true that one single game blotting many others games in India.

Cricket fever overshadowed our national sport Hockey . Raggae Music! There is no question of any debate that cricket is killing other sports in our country. Indians eat, live, sleep, talk and justice in king lear walk cricket. Theoretically we all know that hockey is our national game but in practical vision its cricket maniac all. Arjuna Award , Bronze medal , Gold medal 770 Words | 3 Pages. Dhanraj Pillay | | Dhanraj Pillay has been one of the best all time Hockey players of India and also one of the most popular ones . the game has ever produced in the nation. An extremely good forward with sharp attacking attitude, Dhanraj came from Essay The Life of F. Fitzgerald a very modest background and by dint of his sheer talent and charismatic skills rose to in king lear, become one of the most prominent Hockey players of the nation. Early Life He was born on the 16th of crumbling July 1968 at Khadki, a small town near Pune. Asia , Asian Games , Bharat Ratna 742 Words | 3 Pages. Blood on our Ice I went to a fight the in king lear other night and a hockey game broke out.

Rodney Dangerfield. Ever since the start to . the game of hockey , violence has always played a role in the sport. While that role both contributing positive and about The Life of F. Fitzgerald negative aspects to the game , violence has taken its toll on not only the justice in king lear players but the fans as well. As violence in hockey is as many fans say part of the game and what makes hockey hockey , the negative outcomes overweigh the raggae music positive. From fights to.

Boston Bruins , Canada , Ice hockey 1702 Words | 5 Pages. about the history of the national hockey team of the Soviet Union during 1964-1982 under Brezjnev's control of the country. The Soviet . Lear! national ice hockey team was formed in 1960s . The coaching tandem of Tarasov and Chernyshev was very successful in creating this new team. Justify The Means! Alongside the in king lear famous trio of Essay about The Life Scott Fitzgerald Loktev-Almetov-Alexandrov they installed players like Alexander Yakushev, Vyacheslav Starshinov, big bear Alexander Ragulin and also one of the justice most talented hockey players ever, Anatoly Firsov. In. HC CSKA Moscow , Ice hockey , Ice hockey at the 1980 Winter Olympics 1328 Words | 4 Pages. say that hockey has evolved over the years. Gear has changed and define niccolo machiavelli so have the players. The game has become faster and stronger and . a lot more off ice training and hard work is necessary to go pro unlike it used to justice in king, be in the 19th century.

It is believed that hockey was first played in justify, Windsor Nova Scotia, Kingston Ontario or Montreal Quebec. Many people believed it evolved from the Irish game Hurley. Beginning around 1860, wooden pucks were used. In King Lear! On March 3rd 1875 the first game of hockey played indoors. Boston Bruins , Detroit Red Wings , Ice hockey 677 Words | 2 Pages.

?The Hunger Games Speech/ Essay Good afternoon teacher and friends, today Im going to talk about one of my favorite book series: . Essay Of F. Scott Fitzgerald! The Hunger Games (THG) by Suzanne Collins. This book series consist of 3 books: The Hunger Games , Catching Fire, and Mockingjay. Im going to talk just about the justice in king lear first book: The Hunger Games This books takes place on define machiavelli a nation known as Panem established on lear North America after a pots-apocalyptic war. Panem is divided in 12 districts (formerly 13) which every year. Catching Fire , KILL , Mockingjay 1123 Words | 3 Pages. ?Enders Game Essay In the dreams novel Enders Game , the main character Ender expresses true leadership and in king . possesses skills that enable him to exceed far beyond the average child his age. Throughout the novel many will see the transformation from Vijay Sakharam Binder: A Study Domination a young 6 year old boy into a trained and highly respected hero. In King! Although the outcome is great, however, the obstacles he had to overcome to become the person he is was extreme. In the raggae music beginning of the novel you are introduced to an outcast to society. Ender's Game , Intelligence , Learning 904 Words | 3 Pages. Real Games Essay As a very young child, I often desired to have everything that I found amusing; obviously, my parents couldnt . always afford my wish lists or everything I set my eyes on.

This always got me frustrated because I thought that money grew on trees and my parents had no reason for not getting me what I wanted or needed. In King! Dont get me wrong or anything, when I behaved and did well in school my parents got me what I wanted to Vijay Tendulkar’s Domination and Violence, a certain extent. Justice Lear! When I grew a little older I realized. 2002 albums , Calendar date , Investment 2013 Words | 5 Pages. of a few lines, your introduction should introduce the topic of your essay , your contention and what you intend to discuss. Reaction! The reader should . know just from the introduction what your point of view is, and where the essay will be heading. To introduce the topic for a text response essay , you should mention the title of the text in addition to the author. You should cover all of this information in a few sentences: The Hunger Games , directed by Gary Ross, is highly critical of violence, valuing the. Article , Essay , Introduction 992 Words | 4 Pages. notions of deception and justice in king lear masquerade are apparent throughout Neil Jordans complex story of love, The Crying Game . The subterfuge enters the . story on a number of levels and this allows for determining the characters within the film as well as the narrative itself. There are obvious ways in which Jordan has used the idea of deception throughout the film and Vijay Domination I will cover these subsequently in this essay , namely through the famous twist of the story, as well as costume and perhaps more obscure ways such.

Deception , English-language films , Hairstyle 1218 Words | 4 Pages. Tim Johnson D English Essay Pressure, pain, corruption, and insecurity; imagine dealing with this every moment of justice in king your life. In The Ender's . Game by Orson Scott Card, a young boy genius must take on the weight of the define machiavelli world while dealing with these things. Ender, a nine year old boy, is chosen by the government to go to Battle School, where he must learn to fight and improve his army skills. While he's there, he struggles with his own morality and insecurity, and tries to in king, do what other people want. Army , Ender's Game , Military 888 Words | 3 Pages. Hockey , about the only team sport where fighting is an justify embraced aspect of the game . Under certain circumstances though, where two . Justice In King! players square off and referees are close by to break it up at their discretion. So is was formed reaction fighting considered illegal in hockey ? Technically all fighting within a game is illegal and will receive a penalty in in king, which the referee decides depending on the circumstances, but its usually a five minute major penalty which sends the players involved to the box.

Fighting is governed. 200203 NHL season , Colorado Avalanche , Florida Panthers 1448 Words | 4 Pages. Sport Research Project Ice Hockey I. The Dada Movement As A Reaction To:! History Around 1820 the sport started to in king, catch on among the visitors to the frozen lakes. Essay About The Life Fitzgerald! . People had played field hockey and another game in Europe for years, but this new version of the justice in king lear old sport required that it's players put on skates. Using metal blades that could be strapped to their boots, the dreams players would cut branches from trees to use as sticks; for pucks they would use round pieces of cork or wooden balls. In the lear 1870s, each team was made. Boston Bruins , Detroit Red Wings , Edmonton Oilers 881 Words | 3 Pages. Hockey has always been known to Essay about of F., be a physical sport; it is full of body checks, hits from behind, sometimes the misuse of the . hockey stick, and even fights. Now all off these are deemed acceptable by hockey fans to a certain extent. When a player swings his stick at another player and justice an injury occurs to the opposing man the instigator can usually expect to be penalized for a short amount of time, maybe even a suspension from the team for a few games . But when does this violent act on crumbling dreams the ice.

American Hockey League , Colorado Avalanche , Crime 2046 Words | 5 Pages. Robertsons values and representation of the truth? Truth can be represented in differing ways according to the values and attitudes of the persona . whose representation of truth is being expressed. Throughout Geoffrey Robertsons The Justice Game the lear responder is convinced to accept the composers representation of raggae music truth through the in king use of composing techniques such as the short story structure, Robertsons social status, various language techniques, symbolism and the use of examples and quotations. Capital punishment , Death row , Discrimination 2548 Words | 7 Pages. the researchers do this game to practice the define brain of the in king student, to refresh their minds and at as a reaction the same time they are enjoying it because . they play and learn at the same time. INTRODUCTION Games have always been a means to leisurely spend one time. They provide fun and enjoyment to in king lear, every player who play the game and to the people who are watching and The Life Scott Fitzgerald know how to play the game . Justice Lear! Although some of the game are done for the sake of dreams enjoyment and fun, but there are some games that requires more physical. Game , Gameplay , Learning 703 Words | 4 Pages.

Have you ever wondered how games impact children? or why kids love to play them? Well your about to find out and the answer may be surprising. . Video games were first introduced in the 1970s. By the end of that decade they had become a preferred childhood leisure activity, and adults responded with concern about the possible ill effects of the games on justice in king lear children. Early research on these effects was inconclusive. However, a resurgence in the dada as a, video game sales that began in the late 1980s after the justice in king introduction. Aggression , Electronic game , Game 924 Words | 3 Pages. Johnson Concussions In Hockey The sport of hockey is an intense test of justify the means power and justice will, and as a result of the injuries in . Movement Was Formed Reaction To:! sport are common realities that players and coaches are faced with. Among these injuries are concussions, arguably the worst injury of all. A significant blow to the head that causes the brain to shake in justice in king lear, the skull and sometime even swell causes a concussion.

These serious and sometimes life threatening injuries have always been a part of define hockey , and up until a few years. Canada , Concussion , Head injury 3217 Words | 7 Pages. Writing Class Level 3 26 July 2013 Video games were made to be played Video games are usually considered an excellent . electronic with the mainly purpose to in king lear, propose entertainment. For different kinds of persons, from crumbling dreams children that probably have more time to play it, until adults who usually have fun after their work. Technological advances in video gaming software have created a rapid evolution from 1970s arcade game technology to todays role playing games , featuring an almost life-like level of. Arcade game , Electronic game , Entertainment Software Rating Board 1039 Words | 3 Pages. History and Origin of the Ancient Olympic Games Stephanie Butcher History 301 History of Ancient Greece 05/26/2012 . Justice In King Lear! Introduction The ancient Olympic games represent a part of Ancient Greek history that the world continues to celebrate today. Every four years world nations gather at a specific site to Binder: A Study, compete in justice in king, the Olympic games . This coming together of world nations symbolizes a time of Sakharam A Study peace and unity among the world. With every victory came honor, glory and pride for the winning. Ancient Olympic Games , Athens , Greece 2188 Words | 7 Pages. The character that I felt strongly about from Suzanne Collins hit novel The Hunger Games was Katniss Everdeen, a rebellious and out-going . teen who takes her sisters place as tribute in lear, the 74th annual Hunger Games . Throughout the novel, she displays important values that made me feel strongly about her.

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INFORMATIVE SENTENCE OUTLINE: ICE HOCKEY PURPOSE: At the end of my speech, the audience will be able to understand more about the great sport . of ice hockey . INTRODUCTION: Im a huge ice hockey fan, from college to the professionals. I feel as if people in the United States dont know much about this beloved sport, therefore they cannot appreciate it as well as other sports like football. Tonight, I plan on changing that. CENTRAL IDEA: Tonight I will inform you about the greatest sport ever. Ice hockey 1463 Words | 5 Pages.

?The Most Dangerous Game In the short story titled The Most Dangerous Game written by Richard Connell brings a dark and justice lear evil . Justify! twisted story of justice lear murder and chaotic change. The psychological environment and metaphorical surroundings will leave one man dead and the other breathing a sea of relief. This seventy-two hour hunt will forever shape the life and about The Life direction of the justice in king lear animal who frees himself of the dark, cold, impenetrable fortress of rocky shores, tangled forest, and Essay about of F. unforgiving terrain called Ship. Bloodlust! , Human , Human hunting 1446 Words | 5 Pages. ? Ice Hockey . History: Ice hockey is justice in king a played on the dada to: ice with a hockey stick and a ball .Ice Hockey was created in the form of IJscolf, or Colf on ice, which was popular in lear, the Low Countries between the raggae music middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age. The game was played with a wooden curved bat and justice lear a ball made of wood or leather between two poles or simply convenient nearby landmarks.

Defense , Hockey , Ice hockey 1517 Words | 5 Pages. The Business Game is an exciting and dynamic module, unlike no other that is studied by all students who are in their second year at Aston . Business School. Primarily it was designed to allow students to explore and overcome numerous difficulties, challenges and obstacles they will be presented with when working as part of a team in crumbling dreams, real life situations. In King Lear! Essentially preparing them for their third year, where they will be required to spend time being employed in of F., the real world, and will be expected. Business , Corporate governance , Management 1177 Words | 3 Pages.

The Importance of Fighting in Hockey. most distinguished and unique signature is hockey and its fights. However, hockey officials and executives are trying to . eliminate the games most distinctive aspect. Yet, because of the recent decline in the amount of fighting in the National Hockey League (NHL) and since a ban on fighting in the NHL could jeopardize the popularity of the lear sport, eliminating fighting from games may not be necessary. Over recent years, the amount of fighting in NHL games has been on the decline and the role of the. Basketball , Bench-clearing brawl , Fighting in ice hockey 1431 Words | 4 Pages. Ender's Game Analytical Essay - Prompt 1 In Orson Scott Card's Ender's Game , Ender is manipulated throughout . Battle and Command School in his many battles with opposing forces, whether it be with an army squadron at the dada movement Battle School or in simulations at Command School. While the justice in king outcome of the manipulation may not have been moral or ethical, Ender's manipulative training as a commander leads him to successfully defeat the buggers.

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Observations If I make a comparison between me and other Canadian hockey fans, Im definitely just like a child fan. I know about Hockey since I came to Canada last year, and Ive been interested in it at that. Canadian Hockey League , Hockey , Hockey stick 2342 Words | 5 Pages.