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API Business Models: 20 Models in the summoner's, 20 Minutes Like. Estimated reading time: 4 minutes Added to. reading list Add to. reading list View my. If the sociology behaviour persists please contact us. Summary. NOTE: Qcon San Francisco - the 11th international software development conference - Nov 13-17, 2017. 100+ expert practitioner speakers, 1400+ attendees, 18 tracks to cover topics driving the evolution of software development today. Get more details or register now!
John Musser knows APIs. As the Globalization and Education Essay founder of the summoner's, Programmable Web, John has witnessed thousands of APIs and many business models. John recently shared his experience in a keynote address at the 2013 API Strategy Conference. The most frequent question asked of John is how do you make money from this? The answer depends on why. why do you want an lord of the API? There are many reasons to the summoner's tale, have an API and this leads to harvard referencing communication, the first of John's five API secrets that he discloses in summary, the keynote, an API strategy is not an what is my flaw API business model.
An API strategy is the summoner's tale summary about why you want an API and history a business model is the summoner's tale summary about how you make money from Globalization and Education Essay, it. Looking back to 2005, the the summoner's beginning of and Education Essay, APIs and the summoner's summary the time when Google Maps took off, there were four core API business models: free, developer pays, developer gets paid and indirect. Today in harvard referencing personal, 2013 there are still the same four core business models but each has expanded into a variety of the summoner's summary, different ways to provide and strategy monetise APIs. John's second secret is that most APIs have more than one type of ROI. For the remainder of his address, John takes a deep dive into tale summary, each of the core business models, starting with Free. Contrary to free eassays, popular belief, free is not the predominant API business model. John cites Facebook as an example plus all the government and the summoner's tale public sector APIs, but these free APIs are only a tiny fraction of is my fatal flaw, all API business models. The next category John describes is developer pays where application developers pay for tale summary the services provided by paradigm, the API. The Summoner's. This comprises many sub-categories such as pay as you go where developers pay only for the services or resources they actually consume.
John's example here is grand strategy Amazon Web Services which states in its pricing plan: Pay only for what you use. The Summoner's Tale Summary. There is many of the ideas in the declaration based on no minimum fee. A second sub-category, the tiered model offered by companies like Mailchimp provides lower cost per unit as you consume higher volumes of tale, their services. Strategy Matrix. Freemium is the summoner's summary a well known model where basic features are provided free but for sociology a fee you add services such as additional APIs, higher SLAs, an account representative etc. Tale Summary. John cites Compete and grand Google Maps as examples of the freemium model. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Unit-based pricing is another sub-category such as Sprint's offering where different features in free eassays, the API attract different charges. The final example of tale summary, developer pays is the paradigm transaction fee familiar to users of the summoner's tale, payment APIs where a percentage of the transaction is strategy matrix charged. John cites PayPayl, Stripe and summary Chargify as examples of this model.
The converse of developer pays is the developer gets paid business model and that is the paradigm next category that John describes. This category also has many sub-categories such as the tale affiliate revenue share model offered by broken lord of the, Amazon Affiliate Program where developers are paid for customer referrals. Another sub-category is revenue share where developers are paid a share of the revenue from referring purchases. John gives the the summoner's tale example of mysimon.com and howstuffworks.com, comparison sites which use shopping.com APIs to of the, support product comparisons and summary then gain revenue share from click-throughs. John notes that affiliate revenue share is not a small business. Expedia derives 90% of their revenue from an affiliate network using Expedia APIs which represents $2 billion per of the ideas of independence based year. Finally there is the the summoner's summary recurring revenue share model used by companies such as rdio.com where affiliates who refer new customers for subscription purchases are paid a revenue share for expressed in the were the life of tale summary, that customer. Glasses Lord Of The Flies. John's API business model secret number three is you need to bake your business model into your API. This is the the summoner's tale summary biggest secret that John wants his audience to go away and think about.
For example, the Amazon affiliate programme was a natural extension of what flaw, their retail business model. Out of the original four core business models, John now discusses the Indirect category which he thinks contains some of the the summoner's most interesting ways to monetize APIs. The first sub-category is free eassays content acquisition. Businesses like eBay and Twitter need to tale summary, rapidly acquire content in Essay, order to grow, so they use APIs to facilitate content acquisition. The Summoner's Tale. eBay APIs allowed power users to create mass listings in the eBay marketplace. Free Eassays. Twitter derives and the summoner's summary distributes content almost exclusively through APIs and many expressed in the declaration third-party applications.
Content dissemination is the next sub-category, where the tale New York Times has lots of content and is my fatal flaw utilises APIs to syndicate that content to partners. SaaS up-sell is another business model within the indirect category. Salesforce.com offers API access to their platform, but only for companies that pay the tale summary enterprise licence. Salesforce.com knows that API integration is glasses of the flies important and the summoner's summary uses that to upsell customers into of behaviorism, higher subscriptions. John characterises APIs as the the summoner's tale summary glue of any SaaS. Integration adds value to free eassays, SaaS applications and tale summary provides a stickiness factor that dramatically reduces churn.
John's API business model secret number four is is my flaw API business models are not one size fits all. The final business model John presents is the internal use model where companies use APIs to support their own business. The Summoner's Tale. NPR developed APIs to for content delivery to websites, iPad and mobile apps. Broken Glasses Of The. Over 99% of Evernote's API traffic is from the summoner's summary, iPad apps, mobile apps and partner apps. And Netflix uses its APIs to Globalization, support content delivery to over 800 different kinds of devices. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Hence John's fifth and final API secret is that internal use may be the biggest API use-case of matrix, them all.
Saul Caganoff Saul Caganoff is the tale summary CTO of Sixtree, an Australian system integration consultancy. He has extensive experience as an communication architect and the summoner's summary engineer in major integration and software development projects in Australia, the United States and broken glasses of the Asia. The Summoner's. Saul's professional interests include architecture at and Education, all levels - enterprise, solution and the summoner's applications - distributed systems, composite applications, cloud computing and of the flies cloud APIs. Fastly’s edge cloud platform powers secure, fast and reliable online experiences for the world’s most popular digital businesses. See for yourself. The Summoner's. You need to Register an InfoQ account or login to post comments. But there's so much more behind being registered.
Get the strategy matrix most out of the InfoQ experience. Tale Summary. Join a community of over many of the in the declaration of independence 250 K senior developers by signing up for our newsletter.
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Nov 17, 2017 The summoner's tale summary,
Sample Thesis Ama Computer College Essays and the summoner's tale, Research Papers. . Sociology! EFFECTS OF LIMITED NUMBER OF COMPUTERS REGARDS TO SATISFYING THE TOTAL NUMBER OF IT STUDENTS OF POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, SANTA ROSA A Thesis Submitted in Partial Ful?llment for the Course Requirement in English II Submitted to: Prof. Rachelle Carongoy Submitted by: Acuna, Jamacia R. Alimorom, Myla C. Amarante. Affect , Computer , Education 1256 Words | 5 Pages. How To Write a Thesis Statement What is a Thesis Statement? Almost all of summary, us—even if we don’t do it consciously—look early . in an essay for a one- or two-sentence condensation of the grand, argument or analysis that is to the summoner's tale summary follow. We refer to that condensation as a thesis statement.
Why Should Your Essay Contain a Thesis Statement? to test your ideas by sociology distilling them into a sentence or two to the summoner's tale summary better organize and develop your argument to of behaviorism provide your reader with a “guide” to your argument . Elementary school , English-language films , Family 1522 Words | 7 Pages. POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES College of Engineering Computer Engineering Department NDC Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila . Tel. The Summoner's Tale! No. 713-59-68 DESIGN PROJECT I APPROVAL SHEET TITLE Electronic Bulletin Board and Queuing Patient’s Number Display in many of the declaration based Kaunlaran Village Health Center, Navotas City PROPONENTS: • Balmes, Joanna Mariz S. • Del Rosario, Jhoana Marie B. Tale Summary! • Denus, Paul Aaron A. • Mateo, Juan Gabriel M. Thesis Adviser: Engr.
Antonio Velasco Approved: For Revision: . Barcode , Biometrics , College 598 Words | 4 Pages. A Sample Thesis With a Subtitle by Michael McNeil Forbes B.Sc., The University of British Columbia, 1999 M.Sc., The . University of British Columbia, 2001 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE AT THE MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY c Michael McNeil Forbes, 2000. All rights reserved. The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and referencing personal, electronic . 1065 Words | 5 Pages. ______________________________ An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the College of Arts and Sciences Bataan Peninsula State . University ______________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Tourism Management ______________________________ by Aldrin Gerald R. Galiste October 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Above all I would like to tale summary thank God for making me strong as I make this thesis , for grand strategy matrix, making me alive and stable during midnight. ASEAN , Bachelor's degree , Balanga City 1096 Words | 7 Pages. BLACK LIGHT MONEY DETECTOR A Thesis Submitted to Mr.
Rivera . Science Department Bernardo College In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements in Science IV Submitted By: (name) February 16, 2011 ABSTRACT . Black light , Electromagnetic radiation , Electromagnetic spectrum 1468 Words | 6 Pages. Philippines University Research and Publications Center RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1.0 (Working)/ Title : An Assessment on the Impacts of Gastronomic . Summary! Tourism in harvard personal Intramuros Restoration | 2.0 Name of the summoner's summary, ProponentFrance Kayla M. VillamorH-444B | 2.1 College /DepartmentCollege of grand strategy matrix, International Tourism and tale summary, Hospitality Management | 3.0 Statement of the free eassays, Problem Generally, the study seeks to assess the impacts of Gastronomic Tourism in the restoration of Intramuros. The researcher would like. Cultural tourism , Intramuros , Manila 1311 Words | 4 Pages. PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITY A Thesis Presented To The Department of the summoner's tale, Hotel and Restaurant Management . Paradigm! --------------------------------------- In Partial Fulfillment of the the summoner's tale summary, Requirements for the Degree of history, Bachelor of the summoner's tale summary, Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL The thesis attached hereto entitled, “PRE-EMPLOYMENT EXPECTATIONS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN LUCENA CITY” prepared and submitted by ______________________________________ in. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Better 470 Words | 3 Pages. objective of this project is to make a system the will help the many ideas expressed in the declaration of independence were based on, owners and employees in making and performing their task and business effectively and easily. . Another is to tale summary make their job faster. Our team is history of behaviorism, made up of the summoner's, third year students from the College of Information and Communications Technology from many of the expressed declaration of independence were, Nueva Ecija University of the summoner's summary, Science and Technology. Harvard Referencing Communication! We proposed our system in this business because of its condition; they are making their jobs manually.
It consumed lots of times, guts, and energy. Data type , Input/output , Login 719 Words | 4 Pages. ? AMA Computer University Identifying Code: AMACU Name : Rose Anne Osting Student ID: 10000268600 Print Date : . 2015-03-03 - - - - - Academic Program History - - - - - Program : BS Business Administration 2010-06-21 : Active in Program 2010-06-21 : BS Business Administration Specialization Reason : WEB 1st Semester 2010-2011 Course Description Units Earned/Grade Points. Academic term , Economics , Finance 880 Words | 4 Pages. SYSTEMS PLUS COLLEGE FOUNDATION Balibago, Angeles City 1.5 HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT 4 line spacing THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL RULES AND . REGULATION TO THE DISCIPLINE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT OF SYSTEMS PLUS COLLEGE FOUNDATION S.Y. 2012 – 2013 5 line spacing A research paper presented in partial fulfillment of the the summoner's summary, requirements of the subjects English and Values Education IV 5 line spacing Presented by sociology JULIEBERT SERRANO FERNANDEZ Y PARANADA 5 line spacing Presented to . Angeles City , College , Education 1140 Words | 7 Pages. My thesis proposal - Document Transcript 1. Taguig City Universityl of Computer ScienceDepartment of Computer . and Information Science Routing Slip Student: Truong Quoc Hung Degree: Master of Science Program: Applied Mathematics and the summoner's, Computer Science Thesis : IU Advise-A web based advising tool for academic advisors and students Dated: March 2, 2009 Hossein Hakimzadeh, Ph.D. Liguo Yu, Ph.D. Sociology! Michael R Scheessele, Ph.D.
Yu Song, Ph.D. 2. IU ADVISE-A WEB BASED ADVISING TOOL FOR ACADEMIC ADVISORS. Academic degree , Doctor of Philosophy , Doctorate 2504 Words | 7 Pages. to Students Welcome to the aCT Compass® Sample Reading Test! You are about to look at some sample test questions as you . prepare to take the actual aCT Compass test. The examples in this booklet are similar to the kinds of test questions you are likely to see when you take the actual aCT Compass test. Since this is summary, a practice exercise, you will answer just a few questions and you won’t receive a real test score. The answer key follows the sample questions. Free Eassays! Once you are ready to the summoner's summary take the.
A Few Questions , Difficulty level , Educational psychology 2223 Words | 7 Pages. cybercafes are places that have computers available, usually for fee, which you can use to go online. Internet cafes can be set up in actual . eating/drinking establishments, cruise ships, or other types of location. Besides using the computer workstation, you may also be able to print or scan documents, depending on many ideas expressed declaration were on, the Internet cafe. Internet cafes are particularly useful for travelling, as they’re pretty common in many countries, you don’t have to the summoner's tale summary have computer with, and history, using Internet cafe can. Cafe , Computer , Education 1617 Words | 6 Pages. DAV INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JALANDHAR Format for M.Tech Thesis synopsis Title page: 1. Summary! Name of referencing, Student and tale summary, PTU registration . No cum Roll No 2. Present official Address with E-mail, telephone No 3. Branch1 (indicate F.T./P.T.) 4. Broken Lord Of The! Year of Admission 5. Number of subjects passed till date 6. Proposed Topic: Introduction (should not exceed 3 pages including Figs.) Brief Literature survey (should not exceed 3 pages) Problem formulation: Need and the summoner's tale, significance of proposed research. Abrasive flow machining , Academic degree , Electrical engineering 1354 Words | 6 Pages. Effects of of behaviorism, computer to college students.
is in the field of the summoner's, computer where computer gaming among other people has become a rapid activity. Computer games as . a leisure time has become an ever-increasing part of human’s daily lives especially to of behaviorism those of tale, young people. History! The amount of time children and adolescents spend with computer games has been increasing steadily (Anderson, Gentile and Buckley, 2007). The Summoner's Tale Summary! In 2003, it was estimated that 430 million people worldwide , or 7% of the world’s population played computer games (Zona, 2004). Computer , Human behavior , Personal computer 966 Words | 6 Pages. Information Technology and matrix, Computer Science A Thesis Submitted to the faculty Of the College of the summoner's tale, Arts and . Of The In The Declaration! Sciences For the completion of the course Writing in the Discipline English 2 Submitted to: Ms. Nessa Estabillo Instructor Submitted by: Del MUNDO, Mark Anthony ESTABILLO, Christian Neil BARLAAN, Dan Anjo EMPEnO, Pauline March 2013 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the the summoner's tale summary, Study Many college students nowadays are more intrested in Computer Courses because of the. Algorithm , Computer , Computer science 772 Words | 3 Pages. SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of . Tourism and grand matrix, Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the the summoner's tale, Requirements for harvard referencing personal, the Degree Bachelor of Science in summary Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Free Eassays! Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to the summoner's tale summary certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of customer service of of the in the were based on, Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and submitted.
Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. INTERIOR DESIGN THESIS FORMAT A. PRELIMINARY PAGES i. TITLE PAGE – Includes the thesis title and the summoner's tale summary, the standard . Paradigm Sociology! thesis format. ii. Tale! APPROVAL SHEET – Includes the signature of the Thesis Adviser and paradigm, the College Dean specifying that the student has partially fulfilled the requirements leading to the course. iii. The Summoner's Summary! JURORS’ APPROVAL SHEET – Includes the signatures of the panel of jurors denoting their approval of the broken glasses of the, thesis work. iv. DEDICATION Contains the student’s. Design , Design management , Research 618 Words | 5 Pages. AMA COMPUTER LEARNING CENTER COLLEGE CAP Bldg., National Highway, Tagum City CUSTOMER’S ORDER TRACKING . The Summoner's! SYSTEM A Partial Documentation Submitted to the Faculty of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Submitted by: Torino, Camilo Magbutong, Jaymar Mantilla, Norell Omandam, Noriel Niel Rabino, Vanessa BSIT-3B Submitted to: Ms. Jinky Joyce O. Custodio October 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Computer nowadays is a basic need for harvard referencing personal, businesses.
Algorithm , Business , Computer 453 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis: Computer and Related Conectual Literature. Managers and executive believe a database is summary, one of the most valuable and grand strategy, important parts of a computer -based Information System However, . companies are increasingly employing Inventory System. A computer start with an inventory counts in tale memory. Lord Of The! Withdrawals are recorded by tale summary the computer as they are made, and the inventory balance is constantly revised. When the recorded point is reached, the computer automatically places an grand strategy matrix order, when this new order is received, the summary, recorded balance is increased. Computer , Database , Database management system 917 Words | 4 Pages. following thoughts: 1. What is computer dependency? In what manner does its manifestation would be considered excessive and threatening? . 2. Free Eassays! The causes of over dependency to computers and similar machines. 3. Summary! The pros and cons of free eassays, being too reliant on modern day technologies.
4. Tale Summary! How computer dependency is perceived in the society in free eassays general and in tale what way does it affect the latter. Of The Declaration Were Based On! 5. Related cases. 6. Ways on the summoner's tale summary, avoidance of being subjected to computer dependency. 7. General insight. Dependency 966 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis: Management and Caloocan City College. in gathering data. Questionnaire was used in gathering information and was conducted during the month of January.
The sample sizes for many of the expressed declaration based on, the . Tale! respondents are one hundred (100) students of College of Business and Accountancy. Of Behaviorism! The data gathered from the survey had been tabulated using ranking, percentage and weighted mean statistical methods. It was checked time to time by our Thesis Adviser. The researcher concluded the following based on the findings of the the summoner's summary, study. 1. The researchers therefore conclude. Administration , Affect , Business 683 Words | 3 Pages. OBJECTIVE To be able to give my services to a reputable organization that would fit my potentials, develop my technical skills and to . Many Ideas Based On! acquire necessary trainings for career advancement that would enable me grow professionally. Tale! COMPUTER / TECHNICAL SKILLS * Basic knowledge on SAP * Knowledgeable in AutoCAD * Basic knowledge on Networking * Knows designing using Macromedia Flash and Adobe Flash * Knowledgeable in Windows Operating System (98, 2000, ME. Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Flash , Adobe Systems 352 Words | 3 Pages. Faculty of Business and Enterprise Australian Graduate School of Entrepreneurship (AGSE) Thesis Proposal Template This is to many of the declaration of independence based on be a word . document that will be evaluated by the research committee of the Faculty of the summoner's, Business and Enterprise. History Of Behaviorism! It is recognised that under supervision, the candidate, within university policy guidelines, may change the scope and content of their research project.
The proposal should cover/include the the summoner's tale summary, following components. Free Eassays! 1) Title (up to tale 25 words) The title can be a working. Epistemology , Proposal , Proposals 1001 Words | 4 Pages. AMA Computer University -HISTORY Historical Highlights With 13 computers and 13 students in grand strategy matrix a rented tenement in . Summary! Mandaluyong in 1980, the AMA Education System has now grown into the biggest network of campuses in Asia. Glasses Lord Of The Flies! At present, it has more than 100 branches in tale summary the Philippines and abroad. It has an annual student population of personal communication, 150,000. And it has produced almost 200,000 highly competent computer professionals employed by various companies worldwide.
The AMAES started as an tale Institute of. AMA Computer University , Computer , Makati City 419 Words | 2 Pages. ? Computer College - Fairview Campus . Asia ’s 1st and Largest IT University Lot 9 Blk 129 Regalado Ave., Fairview, Pasong Putik, Quezon City CAPSTONE THESIS PROJECT PROPOSAL Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Name of Proponents: 1.0 Proposed Thesis Title: “Easy Login System for Computers in AMA Fairview using ID Barcode Scanner” 2.0 Area of Investigation: . Computer , Cryptography , Proposal 263 Words | 2 Pages. STI COLLEGE LUCENA Come, Visit and Explore Graceland Estates and Country Club (An Audio Video Production) A . Special IT Project proposal Presented to STI College Lucena Lucena City In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for of behaviorism, the Degree of Bachelor of Science in the summoner's tale Information Technology Major in Digital Arts By: Nyleah Legaspi Ricky Balasabas Dennis Narvaez Ma. Kristine Elvie Gien Villanueva Mr. Bill Marlow Estibal I.T Special Project Coordinator . CALABARZON , Cities of the Philippines , Pagbilao, Quezon 1013 Words | 5 Pages. Sample Statement of Purpose for Computer Engineering. Sample Statement of broken glasses of the, Purpose for Computer Engineering I am an undergraduate student at the summoner's tale summary, Birla Institute of Technology Science . (B.I.T.S), Pilani, India, majoring in Electrical Electronics Engineering and Computer Science. Towards the end of my undergraduate studies, I feel that I have gained enough experience and motivation to pursue graduate studies in Computer Engineering with specialization in Digital VLSI Design Computer Architecture. A research career in academia being my ultimate aim.
Academic degree , Computer , Electrical engineering 969 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is history, fun. The Summoner's Tale! thesis won't let me sleep. I love thesis ! yey! I just wanna sleep. Please help me with my . thesis , because I wanna pass my english class. Why make college so complicated? What do they even do with all the theses they make the students pass? . Academia 601 Words | 3 Pages. The Impact of Writing Thesis to College Students.
through others (vicarious learning). Paradigm! After the the summoner's, students were graduated in the high school level they are now ready to face the reality of their life. Free Eassays! Some . students were immediately looking for the summoner's tale summary, a job but the others are continuing their studies in harvard referencing personal college level where they focus on their skills. Then, if the students should enter to the tertiary level the the summoner's tale summary, students must encounter the sociology, new knowledge. Tale Summary! Of course, they acquire knowledge to their instructor who gave the broken glasses lord of the, best learning to them.
The students. Academia , Academic degree , Doctor of Philosophy 1071 Words | 3 Pages. ?AUTOMATED SUPREME STUDENT COUNCIL ELECTION SYSTEM FOR CONSOLACION COMMUNITY COLLEGE A Thesis Proposal Presented to . the Faculty of the School of the summoner's, Computer Studies, ConsolacionCommunity College In Partial Fulfilment of the history, Requirements for the degree Bachelor of Science in Information Technology By Mary Rose Deuna Ryan Montero Nino Baguio Ralph Michael Balindres Eduard Dave Codera Fritzie D. Skinner Adviser March 2015 Dedication . Ballot , Democracy , Election 1662 Words | 10 Pages. ?STUDENTS’ LOG IN AND LOG OUT MONITORING SYSTEM USING BARCODE SCANNER FOR CITY COLLEGE OF TAGAYTAY A Project Proposal Presented to the . Tale! Faculty of the Computer Science Department City College of referencing personal, Tagaytay Tagaytay City By: In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the tale summary, background of the free eassays, study, objectives of the study, scope and limitations of the summoner's summary, the. Ballot , Democracy , Election 2034 Words | 7 Pages. A PROPOSED AUTOMATED EXAMINATION FOR IT STUDENT FOR CIP PLF CROG FILIPINO 1 SUBJECTS OF INFORMATICS INTERNATIONAL CAINTA A Thesis . Presented to The Faculty of Informatics International College Cainta, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for Thesis A AQUINO, BENISON BSIT March 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Automation has been increasingly used in many of the expressed in the declaration were on the ranges of industries and has proven a notable impact to tale optimise productivity. Most of the developing countries.
Automation , Comprehensive examination , Educational technology 1333 Words | 5 Pages. ONLINE ENROLLMENT SYSTEM AND THE CURRENT COMPUTERIZED ENROLLMENT SYSTEM OF OLIVAREZ COLLEGE Researchers: Avila, Jovencio Jr. A. . Constantino, Emma P. Ragasa, Ryan Angelo C. Grand! Degree: Bachelor of Science in the summoner's summary Computer Science Adviser: Dr. Pastor Judith Valcorza Statement of the Problem This study intended to analyze the proposed online enrollment system and the current computerize enrollment system of Olivarez College . Specifically, this study sought to find answer to many of the ideas in the of independence on the following questions: 1. Administration , Arithmetic mean , Mean 1697 Words | 6 Pages. Village Antipolo City Philippines Mobile Number: +639178365014 / +63-02-7926562 Email add: email@example.com PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE V-Lha . I.T. Solution (Formerly known Exotech Computer ) Cogeo Village Antipolo City Phone Number: (0063 04) 792-6562 March 2011 – Present LAN Technician / Computer Technician ? Installation of tale, CAT 5 UTP Cable ? PC trouble shooting and upgrading ? PC Assembly HHIC-Phil Greenbeach Powertech Inc. Paradigm Sociology! Greenbeach One, Redondo Peninsula. .NET Framework , Cities of the Philippines , Manila 746 Words | 5 Pages. Flowchart and Thesis Introduction.
Thesis introduction is the first part of a thesis paper. Thesis introduction allows the readers to get the general . idea of what your thesis is about. The Summoner's Summary! Thesis introduction acquaints the readers with the thesis paper topic, explaining the basic points of the thesis research and pointing the sociology, direction of your research. Thesis introduction has to contain the following information: * The thesis paper topic; * The reasons which pushed a student to write his or her thesis paper exactly on this topic; . Flowchart , Greek loanwords , High school 1741 Words | 6 Pages. shaped, and even though instruction was rigid and tale, strict, knowledge was forced into the minds of the pupils by means of the tedious memory method aided by . the teacher’s whip, young Rizal was able to glasses of the acquire the necessary instruction preparatory for college work in Manila. The Summoner's Summary! (JRU, 2004) REFERENCE#2 and harvard referencing communication, so today, the city government is aiming for the summoner's tale, accessible quality education that promotes and prioritizes opportunities for harvard referencing personal, learning experiences to prepare the summary, youth to be globally competitive. Today, Binan. Ateneo de Manila University , Education , Higher education 1217 Words | 4 Pages. Sample Thesis Chapter 1 2 Only About Stress of College Students.
negative effects on history of behaviorism, the body. It has been shown that stress contributes to the initiation and the summoner's tale, development of specific tumors within the body. Everyone can . Grand! experience and the summoner's tale summary, suffer stress because of the modernity life of our world, but we will only focus on college students, because we know that studying is not that easy for everyone, and for them, stress is a thing that they need to get used to, because as a student, you’ll encounter things that will challenge your personality. Stress is not always bad. In. Anxiety , Arellano Chiefs , Arellano University 2175 Words | 7 Pages. ________________________________ ________________________________ Ms. Cindy Mabilog . Allyn Mae B. Free Eassays! Espinosa Thesis Adviser/ Principal Seven Pillars Catholic School ------------------------------------------------- Pseudonym: __________________________________________________________________________ . Clothing , Gay , Gay community 793 Words | 4 Pages.
Literature About Sales and Inventory System AMA EDUCATION SYSTEM LUCENA CAMPUS LC Pc Net Sales and Inventory System A Case Study . Presented To The Dean and Faculty Of Department of tale, Computer Studies AMA COMPUTER COLLEGE LUCENA CAMPUS In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in the Subject System Analysis Design Premium 5082 Words 21 Pages Sales and Inventory System (Revised) Colegio De San Juan De Letran College of Liberal Arts and Sciences 2nd Semester, School Year. AMA Computer University , Business , Colegio de San Juan de Letran 377 Words | 2 Pages. from cooperatives and from individual lenders ? Sample Size: A sample size of 50 respondents will be taken . for this study out of the massive counts of clients of Microfinancing and the available allotted time and the confined location we took the survey. Of Behaviorism! The 50 different borrowers from different financial providers who’s age lies between 20 years old up to 50 years will be our respondents. Tale Summary! The sample will be taken in the form of lord of the flies, strata based on name, age, gender. Mean , Research , Sample 795 Words | 5 Pages. parts, related literature and studies. Related Literature Foreign (Mary Ann Ecalnea, Minalyn Esguerra, Cridtia Mae Feleciano, Jamee Aubrey . Fernando, Jezrell Fiesta, Ma. Madona Flores, Gracel Kay Gacisano, Liezel Garcia and the summoner's tale summary, Davie Gonzales ( Thesis Book: Library Management System of Isabela State university – Roxas Campus) p.8-9) An Integrated Library System (ILS) usually comprises a relational database, software to interact with that database, and two graphical user interfaces (one for. Isabela , Jackson Creek Software , Librarian 912 Words | 4 Pages.
AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction lt;macro level conceptgt; ( Sample ) Computer is traced as a product from the ancient times . of computing devices that have been developed through the history of behaviorism, hands of generations’ pillars. Many did predict the transformation of computer in terms of appearance and potential uses, but no one wonder the phenomenal domination of computer in almost all arenas of man’s life as seen today. The birth of computer paved a way on the present mobility of technological trends in industries. Arithmetic mean , Mean , Rapid application development 1905 Words | 7 Pages. Republic of the the summoner's summary, Philippines TAGUIG CITY UNIVERSITY Gen. Santos Ave., Upper Bicutan, TAGUIG CITY College of Engineering, Technology, and . Computer Science This thesis in SAD 1 entitled LIBRARY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Prepared and submitted by Mr. Amiel V. Ebron in harvard referencing personal partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree Bachelor of Science in the summoner's tale Computer Science, has been examined accepted and paradigm sociology, recommended for final and oral examination. MR. JUAN DONDON B. URSUA Adviser: Date Signed . Academic degree , Algorithm , Bachelor's degree 523 Words | 4 Pages.
Computer nowadays is a basic need for businesses or companies. It helps a lot in such a way that it makes work more progressive and summary, . productive. History! It is an important thing that a company or small business should have because it helps a lot in many ways such as organizing, storing and manipulating data. Having computer programs may help a company grow bigger and the summoner's tale summary, be competitive in the flow of the business world. It helps a lot because almost all the companies nowadays uses computer literate.
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Aspects essentiels de la loi du 11 fevrier 2005, dite loi pour l’egalite des droits et des chances, la participation et la citoyennete des personnes handicapees. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. The Summoner's? Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info.
La loi du 11 fevrier 2005 apporte des evolutions pour repondre aux attentes des personnes handicapees dans cinq grands domaines : la compensation, la scolarite, l’emploi, l’accessibilite, les Maisons departementales des personnes handicapees. La loi met en ?uvre le principe nouveau du droit a compensation des consequences du handicap. Harvard Personal? Quels que soient l’origine et la nature de la deficience, l’age ou le mode de vie de la personne. Une equipe pluridisciplinaire evalue les deficiences mais aussi les aptitudes et les capacites de la personne handicapee. Tale Summary? Elle lui propose, au terme d’un dialogue avec elle ou avec ses proches, un plan personnalise de compensation du handicap . Paradigm? Ce plan vise a garantir la plus grande autonomie possible de la personne handicapee. The Summoner's Tale Summary? Il respecte son projet de vie. Free Eassays? Il repond a ses besoins et a ses aspirations. Tale Summary? Il comprend des mesures diverses : aides individuelles a domicile, orientation en etablissement, scolarisation, orientation professionnelle, etc. Free Eassays? La prestation de compensation du handicap ( pchi ), a domicile ou en etablissement, est au c?ur du plan personnalise de compensation. Summary? Elle n’est pas soumise a condition de ressources. Free Eassays? Contrairement a l’allocation compensatrice pour tierce personne ( actpj ) qu’elle remplace, la prestation de compensation permet de prendre en compte, au-dela des aides humaines, l’ensemble des besoins de la personne handicapee.
La prestation de compensation finance cinq types d’aides necessaires pour l’accomplissement des actes essentiels de la vie quotidienne et l’accompagnement a la vie sociale : des aides humaines : dedommagement ou salariat d’« aidants » familiaux, recours aux auxiliaires de vie professionnelle, a une tierce personne. The Summoner's Tale? Les personnes tres lourdement handicapees peuvent meme obtenir une aide 24 heures sur 24 ; des aides techniques : achat d’un fauteuil roulant et ses accessoires, d’un ordinateur a lecture optique, de protheses auditives, etc. Free Eassays? ; des aides specifiques et des aides exceptionnelles lorsque le besoin n’est pas couvert par une autre forme d’aide ; des amenagements du logement et du vehicule ainsi que les surcouts de transport ; des aides animalieres : l’entretien d’un chien d’assistance ou d’un chien guide d’aveugle. Le droit a l’ecole . Summary? Le droit d’inscrire a l’ecole tout enfant qui presente un handicap constitue une des evolutions fondamentales de la loi. Harvard Referencing? Celle-ci reconnait la responsabilite de l’Education nationale a l’egard de tous les enfants et adolescents. L’ecole ou l’etablissement scolaire le plus proche du domicile constitue l’etablissement de reference de l’enfant . Tale Summary? C’est seulement avec l’accord de ses parents ou de son representant legal qu’il peut etre inscrit dans une ecole ou un etablissement scolaire autre que cet etablissement de reference, s’il a besoin d’un dispositif qui n’existe pas dans l’etablissement le plus proche. La loi reconnait egalement aux enfants qui ont des besoins specifiques le droit de beneficier d’un accompagnement adapte . Paradigm Sociology? Les etablissements et services du secteur medico-social completent le dispositif scolaire ordinaire. La loi instaure un suivi personnalise pour garantir la coherence et la continuite du parcours scolaire : le projet personnalise de scolarisation. The Summoner's Summary? Il coordonne le deroulement de la scolarite et l’ensemble des actions pedagogiques, psychologiques, educatives, sociales, medicales et paramedicales, qui viennent completer la formation scolaire et sont necessaires pour assurer la coherence et la continuite du parcours scolaire. Personal Communication? Les parents sont etroitement associes a l’elaboration du projet personnalise de l’enfant ainsi qu’a la decision d’orientation prise, en accord avec eux, par la Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees ( cdaph ). La loi garantit l’egalite des chances entre les candidats handicapes et les autres candidats en donnant une base legale a l’amenagement des conditions d’examen.
La loi handicap affirme le principe de non-discrimination et donne la priorite au travail en milieu ordinaire en misant sur l’incitation des employeurs. The Summoner's Summary? Le dispositif de sanction est renforce et etendu aux employeurs publics. Les entreprises doivent prendre les mesures appropriees pour permettre aux travailleurs handicapes d’acceder a un emploi ou de conserver un emploi correspondant a leur qualification, ou pour qu’une formation adaptee a leurs besoins leur soit dispensee. Grand Matrix? Tout ou partie des depenses supportees a ce titre par l’employeur peut etre compense par des aides. Depuis 1987, les entreprises de plus de 20 salaries sont tenues a une obligation d’emploi d’au moins 6% de personnes handicapees . The Summoner's Summary? La loi du 11 fevrier 2005 reaffirme cette obligation et l’etend a de nouvelles categories de personnes handicapees : les titulaires de la carte d’invalidite et les titulaires de l’allocation aux adultes handicapes. Referencing Communication? Elle renforce la contribution a l’Association nationale pour la gestion du fonds pour l’insertion professionnelle des personnes handicapees ( agefiph ) pour les entreprises qui n’ont pas rempli leur obligation. Tale? Celle-ci sera meme triplee pour les entreprises n’ayant realise aucun effort au bout de trois ans. La loi cree une obligation pour les partenaires sociaux de negocier l’emploi des travailleurs handicapes , au niveau des branches tous les trois ans et dans les entreprises tous les ans. Outre l’application du principe de non-discrimination, le statut general de la fonction publique est modifie pour tenir compte des difficultes particulieres d’acces a l’emploi des travailleurs handicapes : modernisation du recrutement par contrat, recul ou suppression des limites d’age pour se presenter aux concours, creation d’un temps partiel de droit, mise en ?uvre d’amenagements d’horaires pour les fonctionnaires handicapes ou les « aidants » familiaux.
La loi cree un fonds pour l’insertion professionnelle dans la fonction publique qui sera alimente par la contribution des ministeres, des collectivites territoriales et des hopitaux publics ne respectant pas l’obligation d’emploi de 6 % de travailleurs handicapes. L’accessibilite est une condition primordiale pour permettre a tous d’exercer les actes de la vie quotidienne et de participer a la vie sociale. Many Of The In The Were? Aussi la loi prevoit-elle le principe d’accessibilite generalisee , quel que soit le handicap, physique, sensoriel, mental, psychique, cognitif, polyhandicap. La loi rend obligatoire l’accessibilite des locaux d’habitation neufs , prives ou publics, et dans certains cas, des locaux d’habitation existants lorsqu’ils sont l’objet de travaux. Elle etend l’obligation d’accessibilite a toute la chaine du deplacement : la personne handicapee doit pouvoir acceder a tous les batiments recevant du public et evoluer de maniere continue, sans rupture (amenagement de voirie, acces aux gares, transports en commun). Summary? Une attestation de conformite est desormais etablie en fin de chantier par un tiers independant pour les travaux soumis a permis de construire. La loi fixe des obligations de resultats et de delais a respecter, en limitant les possibilites de derogation (la derogation globale n’est plus possible). Harvard Referencing Personal Communication? Des sanctions sont fixees en cas de non-respect de ces regles : fermeture de l’etablissement ne respectant pas le delai de mise en accessibilite, remboursement des subventions publiques, amende de 45 000 ˆ pour les architectes, entrepreneurs et toute personne responsable de l’execution des travaux.
En cas de recidive, la peine est portee a 6 mois d’emprisonnement et a 75 000 ˆ d’amende. Une commission communale ou intercommunale d’accessibilite est constituee dans toutes les collectivites de plus de 5 000 habitants, permettant d’associer les personnes handicapees a la mise en ?uvre de l’accessibilite. Rendre le logement accessible . The Summoner's? En matiere de logement, l’objectif de la loi est de permettre aux personnes handicapees de pouvoir disposer d’un logement adapte et d’elargir le parc immobilier accessible afin d’ouvrir le choix de leur lieu de vie. Broken Glasses Of The Flies? Les batiments d’habitation collectifs neufs doivent etre accessibles et permettre une adaptation ulterieure plus facile des logements aux personnes handicapees. The Summoner's Summary? Des exigences proches s’imposent egalement aux maisons individuelles neuves. History? Les batiments d’habitation collectifs existants doivent etre rendus accessibles en cas de rehabilitation importante. Tale? Les mesures de mise en accessibilite des logements seront evaluees dans un delai de trois ans a compter de la publication de la loi. Mise en accessibilite des etablissements recevant du public . Free Eassays? La loi prevoit que les etablissements publics et prives recevant du public doivent etre tels que toute personne handicapee puisse y acceder, y circuler et y recevoir les informations qui y sont diffusees.
Dans les espaces ouverts au public, l’acces et l’accueil doivent etre possibles pour toutes les categories de personnes handicapees, dans les etablissements neufs recevant du public. Summary? La mise en accessibilite des etablissements existants doit intervenir dans un delai de dix ans. Paradigm Sociology? Les prefectures et universites doivent etre accessibles dans un delai de cinq ans. Dans un delai de dix ans, les transports collectifs seront accessibles a tous . The Summoner's? En cas d’impossibilite technique averee de mise en accessibilite d’un systeme de transport, les transports collectifs auront trois ans pour la mise a disposition de moyens de substitution accessibles au meme tarif que les transports collectifs. Many Ideas Expressed Were? Par ailleurs, des aujourd’hui, des mesures sont prises pour faciliter l’acces au transport public : acquisition et renouvellement de materiels roulants accessibles, accompagnateurs, systemes d’information, etc. L’acces a l’audiovisuel : l’obligation de sous-titrage. Tale? La totalite des programmes des chaines audiovisuelles , dont l’audience moyenne annuelle depasse 2,5 % de l’audience totale des services de television, devront etre sous-titres dans un delai maximum de cinq ans. Grand? Le Conseil superieur de l’audiovisuel ( csa ) et le gouvernement consultent chaque annee le Conseil national consultatif des personnes handicapees ( cncph ) sur le contenu des obligations de sous-titrage et de recours a la langue des signes francaise, inscrites dans les conventions et les contrats d’objectifs et de moyens des chaines. Les Maisons departementales des personnes handicapees : un lieu d’accueil pour les personnes handicapees.
La loi instaure le principe d’un lieu unique destine a faciliter les demarches des personnes handicapees. The Summoner's Tale Summary? Dans chaque departement , une Maison departementale des personnes handicapees ( mdph ) est creee et offre un acces unifie aux droits et prestations prevus pour les personnes handicapees. Lord? La Maison departementale des personnes handicapees exerce une mission d’accueil, d’information, d’accompagnement et de conseil pour les personnes handicapees et leurs familles. La Maison departementale des personnes handicapees a huit missions principales : elle informe et accompagne les personnes handicapees et leurs familles des l’annonce du handicap et tout au long de son evolution ; elle met en place et organise l’equipe pluridisciplinaire qui evalue les besoins de la personne sur la base du projet de vie et propose un plan personnalise de compensation du handicap ; elle assure l’organisation de la Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees ( cdaph ) et le suivi de la mise en ?uvre de ses decisions, ainsi que la gestion du fonds departemental de compensation du handicap ; elle recoit toutes les demandes de droits ou prestations qui relevent de la competence de la Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees ; elle organise une mission de conciliation avec les personnes qualifiees ; elle assure le suivi de la mise en ?uvre des decisions prises ; elle organise des actions de coordination avec les dispositifs sanitaires et medico-sociaux, et designe en son sein un referent pour l’insertion professionnelle ; elle met en place un numero telephonique pour les appels d’urgence et une equipe de veille pour les soins infirmiers. Un lieu unique pour toutes les problematiques du handicap . The Summoner's Tale? Les mdph associent toutes les competences impliquees actuellement dans l’accompagnement des personnes handicapees : le conseil general, la Direction departementale des affaires sanitaires et sociales ( ddass ), la Direction departementale du travail, de l’emploi et de la formation professionnelle ( ddtefp ), les Caisses d’allocations familiales ( caf ), les Caisses primaires d’assurance maladie ( cpam ) et l’Inspection academique. Grand? D’autres organismes peuvent etre associes. Un acces unifie aux droits et prestations. The Summoner's Tale Summary? Les equipes des commissions techniques d’orientation et de reclassement professionnel ( cotorep ), des commissions departementales de l’education speciale ( cdes ) et des sites pour la vie autonome ( sva ) sont aujourd’hui regroupees au sein des maisons departementales des personnes handicapees. Une equipe dediee et formee . Paradigm? Une equipe pluridisciplinaire est a la disposition des personnes handicapees et de leurs proches au sein de chaque mdph . The Summoner's Tale? Cette equipe peut etre constituee de medecins, d’ergotherapeutes, de psychologues, de specialistes du travail social, de l’accueil scolaire ou de l’insertion professionnelle, etc. Of The Expressed In The Were Based On? Elle evalue les besoins de compensation de la personne handicapee sur la base de son projet de vie. Tale Summary? Un referent pour l’insertion professionnelle est aussi designe au sein de chaque mdph . La Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees.
Au sein de la mdph , la Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees prend les decisions relatives a l’ensemble des droits de la personne handicapee, sur la base de l’evaluation realisee par l’equipe pluridisciplinaire et du plan de compensation propose. History? En particulier, la Commission des droits et de l’autonomie des personnes handicapees est competente pour apprecier le taux d’incapacite de la personne handicapee, attribuer la prestation de compensation, reconnaitre la qualite de travailleur handicape, se prononcer sur les mesures facilitant l’insertion scolaire. Summary? Un tiers de la commission est compose de representants de personnes handicapees et de leurs familles. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Glasses Flies? Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Tale? En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Ideas In The Declaration Of Independence Were Based On? Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.
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ADTEC DIGITAL - Lead Engineer Resume Example. Tale? C and C++ - programming languages. TI MSP 430 microcontroller. VERILOG and VHDL - hardware descriptive languages. Strategy? LINUX - operating system. LINUX Shell - scripting and line command interface. Video Program Clock Reference (PCR) locking algorithm for multiplexed video streams over tale summary internet. ETHERNET - networking data layer.
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Responsible for the design and architecture of various software components for the Digital TV Transport Stream Multiplexer DTA3000. Technical group leader responsible for providing direction to junior engineers. Responsible for new software architecture and maintenance of tale summary Digital Program/Commercial Insertion ADTEC DPI1200. Architect and designer of second generation of referencing Digital Video Transport Multiplexer for broadcast contribution MUXC10. Delivered continuous product software releases for major global broadcasters. University of North Florida. University of the summoner's North Florida Digital imaging filtering for history noise reduction in video stream using TI's DSP TMS320C642. System communication design of a sensor array using TI MSP 430, TI DSP TMS320 microcontrollers, EE-PROMs (25LC540), proprietary and other digital protocols such as XMODEM, Serial Communication Interface (SCI), SPI and summary WCTP (DOD) for the Aquatic Real-Time Monitoring System (ARMS) of bioterrorism detection events project.
Web development communication system design to capture real time sensor data for transmission and history of behaviorism display utilizing XML, Net Beans, WCTP, and tale Apache Cocoon. Embedded system design of an grand matrix, Intelligent Photo Induced Charge (PIC) sensor using EE-PROMs (25LC540), TI TMS320C2000 DSP, data transceiver CreataLink 2 XT and embedded real time operating system µCOS-II. School Projects. Embedded system design of a Robotic Arm using the Motorola M68HC12 microcontroller and Futaba servo motors. Embedded system design of tale summary a Universal Remote using the TI MSP 430 microcontroller and an IR transmitter.
University of North Florida Special Events Staff University of history of behaviorism North Florida 2001, 2002 and the summoner's tale 2003 Group similar technologies to facilitate scanning Add quantifiable achievements. Revise the wording for II as it comes across as second version or you need to replace with another word like two. Matrix? Order statements in tale order of importance. Confirm if award is grand current. OTHER *Member, Eta Kapa Nu electrical engineering honor society. *Dean's list Fall 2001, Spring 2003 and Spring 2004. Tale Summary? *Member, Florida Engineering Society student chapter (2004). Harvard Referencing? *Native Spanish speaker. *Colombian tennis national champion, ATP ranked player, NCAA top ten ranked All American. Conference player of year 2002 and 2003, and regional and national senior of the year 2003. *Inducted to University of North Florida Hall of the summoner's tale summary Fame in 10/2013.
Engineering Supervisor@Palfinger Omaha Standard. Senior Product Development Engineer@BORGWARNER, POWERDRIVE SYSTEMS. Matrix? Software Engineer Specialist@BOEING Company. Tale Summary? Designer / CAD Operator@Ingersoll Rand. Design Engineer Intern@B/E Aerospace. Application Engineer@TMEIC Power Electronics Products Corporation. Design Engineer@SAINT-GOBAIN PERFORMANCE PLASTICS. Featured Jobs in many of the expressed were based on Jacksonville:View More Jacksonville Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for.
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Nov 17, 2017 The summoner's tale summary,
cold war essay ideas IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articles commemorating the the summoner's summary, end of the Cold War, and the fact that peace seems to be breaking out in strategy many regions of the world. Most of these analyses lack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what is essential and what is the summoner's tale summary contingent or accidental in harvard personal world history, and are predictably superficial. If Mr. The Summoner's? Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin or a new Ayatollah proclaimed the history, millennium from a desolate Middle Eastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce the rebirth of a new era of conflict. And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger process at work, a process that gives coherence and the summoner's tale summary order to the daily headlines. The twentieth century saw the developed world descend into a paroxysm of ideological violence, as liberalism contended first with the remnants of absolutism, then bolshevism and fascism, and finally an updated Marxism that threatened to lead to the ultimate apocalypse of nuclear war. But the century that began full of self-confidence in the ultimate triumph of Western liberal democracy seems at its close to be returning full circle to where it started: not to an end of ideology or a convergence between capitalism and socialism, as earlier predicted, but to an unabashed victory of economic and political liberalism.
The triumph of the West, of the Western idea , is evident first of paradigm sociology all in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism. In the tale, past decade, there have been unmistakable changes in the intellectual climate of the world's two largest communist countries, and grand strategy the beginnings of significant reform movements in both. But this phenomenon extends beyond high politics and it can be seen also in the ineluctable spread of consumerist Western culture in such diverse contexts as the peasants' markets and color television sets now omnipresent throughout China, the cooperative restaurants and clothing stores opened in the past year in Moscow, the Beethoven piped into Japanese department stores, and the rock music enjoyed alike in Prague, Rangoon, and tale summary Tehran. What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of paradigm sociology history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. This is the summoner's tale summary not to say that there will no longer be events to fill the pages of Foreign Affair's yearly summaries of sociology international relations, for the victory of the summoner's summary liberalism has occurred primarily in the realm of ideas or consciousness and is as yet incomplete in. the real or material world. But there are powerful reasons for believing that it is the ideal that will govern the material world in the long run . To understand how this is sociology so, we must first consider some theoretical issues concerning the the summoner's tale summary, nature of historical change. THE NOTION of the end of history is not an original one. Its best known propagator was Karl Marx, who believed that the direction of historical development was a purposeful one determined by the interplay of material forces, and would come to an end only with the achievement of a communist utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. But the concept of many of the ideas in the of independence were based on history as a dialectical process with a beginning, a middle, and an end was borrowed by Marx from his great German predecessor, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. For better or worse, much of Hegel's historicism has become part of our contemporary intellectual baggage.
The notion that mankind has progressed through a series of primitive stages of consciousness on his path to the present, and that these stages corresponded to concrete forms of social organization, such as tribal, slave-owning, theocratic, and finally democratic-egalitarian societies, has become inseparable from the modern understanding of man. Hegel was the first philosopher to speak the language of modern social science, insofar as man for him was the product of the summoner's summary his concrete historical and social environment and not, as earlier natural right theorists would have it, a collection of many of the in the declaration of independence were on more or less fixed natural attributes. The mastery and transformation of man's natural environment through the summary, application of science and paradigm sociology technology was originally not a Marxist concept, but a Hegelian one. Unlike later historicists whose historical relativism degenerated into relativism tout court, however, Hegel believed that history culminated in an absolute moment - a moment in summary which a final, rational form of society and state became victorious. It is paradigm sociology Hegel's misfortune to be known now primarily as Marx's precursor; and it is our misfortune that few of us are familiar with Hegel's work from direct study, but only as it has been filtered through the distorting lens of tale summary Marxism. In France, however, there has been an effort to save Hegel from sociology, his Marxist interpreters and to resurrect him as the philosopher who most correctly speaks to our time. Among those modern French interpreters of Hegel, the greatest was certainly Alexandre Kojeve, a brilliant Russian emigre who taught a highly influential series of seminars in Paris in the 1930s at tale, the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes . While largely unknown in the United States, Kojeve had a major impact on the intellectual life of the continent. Among his students ranged such future luminaries as Jean-Paul Sartre on the Left and Raymond Aron on the Right; postwar existentialism borrowed many of its basic categories from Hegel via Kojeve.
Kojeve sought to resurrect the paradigm, Hegel of the Phenomenology of tale summary Mind , the ideas in the declaration based, Hegel who proclaimed history to be at an end in 1806. For as early as this Hegel saw in Napoleon's defeat of the Prussian monarchy at the summoner's, the Battle of Jena the victory of the ideals of the French Revolution, and the imminent universalization of the many ideas expressed were, state incorporating the principles of liberty and equality. Kojeve, far from rejecting Hegel in light of the the summoner's summary, turbulent events of the next century and a half, insisted that the latter had been essentially correct. The Battle of Jena marked the end of history because it was at ideas expressed declaration based on, that point that the vanguard of humanity (a term quite familiar to Marxists) actualized the principles of the French Revolution. While there was considerable work to be done after 1806 - abolishing slavery and the slave trade, extending the franchise to the summoner's workers, women, blacks, and other racial minorities, etc. - the basic principles of the liberal democratic state could not be improved upon. The two world wars in referencing this century and their attendant revolutions and the summoner's tale upheavals simply had the effect of extending those principles spatially, such that the various provinces of many expressed in the of independence human civilization were brought up to the level of its most advanced outposts, and of forcing those societies in the summoner's Europe and North America at the vanguard of civilization to implement their liberalism more fully.
The state that emerges at the end of history is liberal insofar as it recognizes and protects through a system of harvard personal communication law man's universal right to freedom, and democratic insofar as it exists only with the consent of the the summoner's tale summary, governed. For Kojeve, this so-called universal homogenous state found real-life embodiment in the countries of broken glasses lord postwar Western Europe - precisely those flabby, prosperous, self-satisfied, inward-looking, weak-willed states whose grandest project was nothing more heroic than the creation of the Common Market. But this was only to be expected. For human history and the conflict that characterized it was based on the existence of summary contradictions: primitive man's quest for mutual recognition, the dialectic of the master and slave, the many of the ideas in the declaration of independence were, transformation and mastery of nature, the struggle for the universal recognition of rights, and the dichotomy between proletarian and capitalist. But in the universal homogenous state, all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied. The Summoner's Tale Summary? There is no struggle or conflict over large issues, and consequently no need for free eassays, generals or statesmen; what remains is primarily economic activity. And indeed, Kojeve's life was consistent with his teaching.
Believing that there was no more work for philosophers as well, since Hegel (correctly understood) had already achieved absolute knowledge, Kojeve left teaching after the war and spent the remainder of tale his life working as a bureaucrat in the European Economic Community, until his death in 1968. To his contemporaries at mid-century, Kojeve's proclamation of the end of history must have seemed like the typical eccentric solipsism of a French intellectual, coming as it did on the heels of World War II and at the very height of the Cold War. To comprehend how Kojeve could have been so audacious as to many of independence were on assert that history has ended, we must first of all understand the meaning of the summoner's tale Hegelian idealism. FOR HEGEL, the contradictions that drive history exist first of all in the realm of ideas declaration based on human consciousness, i.e. on summary, the level of ideas - not the harvard referencing personal communication, trivial election year proposals of American politicians, but ideas in the summoner's summary the sense of large unifying world views that might best be understood under the rubric of ideology. Ideology in this sense is not restricted to the secular and explicit political doctrines we usually associate with the term, but can include religion, culture, and strategy matrix the complex of moral values underlying any society as well. Hegel's view of the relationship between the ideal and the real or material worlds was an extremely complicated one, beginning with the fact that for him the distinction between the two was only apparent. He did not believe that the real world conformed or could be made to conform to ideological preconceptions of philosophy professors in any simpleminded way, or that the material world could not impinge on the ideal. Indeed, Hegel the professor was temporarily thrown out of work as a result of a very material event, the Battle of Jena.
But while Hegel's writing and thinking could be stopped by a bullet from the material world, the hand on the summoner's tale summary, the trigger of the gun was motivated in turn by the ideas of liberty and equality that had driven the French Revolution. For Hegel, all human behavior in the material world, and hence all human history, is rooted in referencing communication a prior state of consciousness - an tale summary, idea similar to the one expressed by John Maynard Keynes when he said that the views of men of affairs were usually derived from defunct economists and academic scribblers of earlier generations. This consciousness may not be explicit and self-aware, as are modern political doctrines, but may rather take the broken glasses of the flies, form of religion or simple cultural or moral habits. And yet this realm of consciousness in the long run necessarily becomes manifest in the material world, indeed creates the material world in the summoner's tale summary its own image. Consciousness is cause and not effect, and can develop autonomously from the material world; hence the real subtext underlying the apparent jumble of current events is the sociology, history of ideology. Hegel's idealism has fared poorly at the summoner's tale, the hands of later thinkers. Strategy Matrix? Marx reversed the priority of the real and summary the ideal completely, relegating the broken lord of the, entire realm of consciousness - religion, art, culture, philosophy itself - to a superstructure that was determined entirely by the prevailing material mode of production. Yet another unfortunate legacy of Marxism is summary our tendency to retreat into materialist or utilitarian explanations of political or historical phenomena, and our disinclination to believe in the autonomous power of ideas. A recent example of this is Paul Kennedy's hugely successful The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers , which ascribes the decline of grand matrix great powers to simple economic overextension.
Obviously, this is true on some level: an empire whose economy is the summoner's tale barely above the level of subsistence cannot bankrupt its treasury indefinitely. But whether a highly productive modern industrial society chooses to spend 3 or 7 percent of broken lord of the flies its GNP on defense rather than consumption is entirely a matter of that society's political priorities, which are in summary turn determined in the realm of consciousness. The materialist bias of paradigm sociology modern thought is characteristic not only of people on the Left who may be sympathetic to Marxism, but of many passionate anti-Marxists as well. Indeed, there is on tale, the Right what one might label the Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism that discounts the importance of ideology and culture and sees man as essentially a rational, profit-maximizing individual. It is precisely this kind of individual and his pursuit of material incentives that is posited as the basis for economic life as such in economic textbooks. One small example will illustrate the problematic character of such materialist views.
Max Weber begins his famous book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism , by noting the different economic performance of Protestant and Catholic communities throughout Europe and America, summed up in the proverb that Protestants eat well while Catholics sleep well. Weber notes that according to any economic theory that posited man as a rational profit-maximizer, raising the piece-work rate should increase labor productivity. Harvard? But in the summoner's tale fact, in many traditional peasant communities, raising the piece-work rate actually had the opposite effect of lowering labor productivity: at the higher rate, a peasant accustomed to earning two and grand strategy matrix one-half marks per day found he could earn the same amount by working less, and did so because he valued leisure more than income. Tale? The choices of leisure over income, or of the matrix, militaristic life of the Spartan hoplite over the wealth of the Athenian trader, or even the ascetic life of the early capitalist entrepreneur over that of a traditional leisured aristocrat, cannot possibly be explained by the summoner's tale, the impersonal working of material forces, but come preeminently out of the sphere of consciousness - what we have labeled here broadly as ideology. And indeed, a central theme of Weber's work was to prove that contrary to Marx, the material mode of production, far from being the base, was itself a superstructure with roots in religion and culture, and that to understand the emergence of modern capitalism and the profit motive one had to study their antecedents in the realm of the spirit. As we look around the of independence based, contemporary world, the poverty of materialist theories of economic development is all too apparent. The Wall Street Journal school of deterministic materialism habitually points to the stunning economic success of Asia in the past few decades as evidence of the tale summary, viability of grand strategy matrix free market economics, with the implication that all societies would see similar development were they simply to allow their populations to pursue their material self-interest freely. Surely free markets and stable political systems are a necessary precondition to tale summary capitalist economic growth. But just as surely the cultural heritage of those Far Eastern societies, the expressed based, ethic of work and saving and family, a religious heritage that does not, like Islam, place restrictions on certain forms of economic behavior, and other deeply ingrained moral qualities, are equally important in explaining their economic performance. And yet the intellectual weight of materialism is such that not a single respectable contemporary theory of economic development addresses consciousness and culture seriously as the matrix within which economic behavior is formed. FAILURE to understand that the roots of economic behavior lie in the realm of consciousness and culture leads to the common mistake of attributing material causes to phenomena that are essentially ideal in nature.
For example, it is commonplace in the West to interpret the reform movements first in China and most recently in the Soviet Union as the victory of the the summoner's tale summary, material over history of behaviorism the ideal - that is, a recognition that ideological incentives could not replace material ones in stimulating a highly productive modern economy, and the summoner's that if one wanted to prosper one had to appeal to baser forms of self-interest. But the deep defects of socialist economies were evident thirty or forty years ago to anyone who chose to look. Why was it that these countries moved away from central planning only in free eassays the 1980s' The answer must be found in the consciousness of the tale summary, elites and leaders ruling them, who decided to opt for the Protestant life of wealth and risk over the Catholic path of poverty and security. That change was in no way made inevitable by the material conditions in matrix which either country found itself on the eve of the reform, but instead came about as the result of the victory of tale one idea over another. For Kojeve, as for glasses lord flies, all good Hegelians, understanding the underlying processes of history requires understanding developments in the realm of summary consciousness or ideas, since consciousness will ultimately remake the flies, material world in its own image. To say that history ended in 1806 meant that mankind's ideological evolution ended in the ideals of the French or American Revolutions: while particular regimes in the real world might not implement these ideals fully, their theoretical truth is absolute and could not be improved upon. Hence it did not matter to Kojeve that the consciousness of the the summoner's summary, postwar generation of Europeans had not been universalized throughout the world; if ideological development had in fact ended, the homogenous state would eventually become victorious throughout the material world. I have neither the space nor, frankly, the ability to defend in depth Hegel's radical idealist perspective. The issue is not whether Hegel's system was right, but whether his perspective might uncover the problematic nature of many materialist explanations we often take for granted. This is not to deny the role of material factors as such. To a literal-minded idealist, human society can be built around any arbitrary set of principles regardless of their relationship to the material world. And in fact men have proven themselves able to endure the most extreme material hardships in grand strategy matrix the name of tale summary ideas that exist in the realm of the spirit alone, be it the divinity of cows or the nature of the Holy Trinity.
But while man's very perception of the material world is shaped by his historical consciousness of it, the history of behaviorism, material world can clearly affect in return the viability of a particular state of consciousness. In particular, the spectacular abundance of advanced liberal economies and the infinitely diverse consumer culture made possible by them seem to summary both foster and preserve liberalism in the political sphere. Free Eassays? I want to avoid the the summoner's tale, materialist determinism that says that liberal economics inevitably produces liberal politics, because I believe that both economics and politics presuppose an autonomous prior state of consciousness that makes them possible. But that state of consciousness that permits the growth of liberalism seems to many in the declaration stabilize in the way one would expect at the end of history if it is underwritten by the abundance of a modern free market economy. We might summarize the the summoner's tale, content of the paradigm, universal homogenous state as liberal democracy in tale summary the political sphere combined with easy access to VCRs and stereos in the economic.
HAVE WE in fact reached the end of history? Are there, in history of behaviorism other words, any fundamental contradictions in human life that cannot be resolved in the context of modern liberalism, that would be resolvable by an alternative political-economic structure? If we accept the idealist premises laid out above, we must seek an answer to this question in the realm of ideology and consciousness. Our task is not to answer exhaustively the challenges to liberalism promoted by every crackpot messiah around the world, but only those that are embodied in the summoner's tale important social or political forces and many ideas in the declaration on movements, and which are therefore part of world history. For our purposes, it matters very little what strange thoughts occur to people in Albania or Burkina Faso, for we are interested in what one could in some sense call the common ideological heritage of mankind. In the past century, there have been two major challenges to liberalism, those of fascism and of communism. The former saw the political weakness, materialism, anomie, and lack of community of the West as fundamental contradictions in liberal societies that could only be resolved by tale summary, a strong state that forged a new people on broken glasses of the flies, the basis of summary national exclusiveness. Fascism was destroyed as a living ideology by World War II. This was a defeat, of course, on a very material level, but it amounted to a defeat of the idea as well. Broken Glasses Flies? What destroyed fascism as an idea was not universal moral revulsion against it, since plenty of people were willing to tale endorse the idea as long as it seemed the wave of the future, but its lack of success. After the war, it seemed to most people that German fascism as well as its other European and referencing personal Asian variants were bound to self-destruct.
There was no material reason why new fascist movements could not have sprung up again after the tale, war in other locales, but for the fact that expansionist ultranationalism, with its promise of unending conflict leading to disastrous military defeat, had completely lost its appeal. The ruins of the Reich chancellery as well as the paradigm, atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed this ideology on the level of consciousness as well as materially, and all of the pro-fascist movements spawned by the German and Japanese examples like the Peronist movement in Argentina or Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army withered after the war. The ideological challenge mounted by the other great alternative to liberalism, communism, was far more serious. Marx, speaking Hegel's language, asserted that liberal society contained a fundamental contradiction that could not be resolved within its context, that between capital and labor, and this contradiction has constituted the chief accusation against liberalism ever since. The Summoner's Summary? But surely, the class issue has actually been successfully resolved in the West. As Kojeve (among others) noted, the of the ideas expressed declaration of independence on, egalitarianism of modern America represents the essential achievement of the classless society envisioned by Marx. This is the summoner's summary not to say that there are not rich people and communication poor people in the United States, or that the gap between them has not grown in the summoner's tale recent years. But the root causes of economic inequality do not have to do with the paradigm, underlying legal and social structure of our society, which remains fundamentally egalitarian and moderately redistributionist, so much as with the cultural and social characteristics of the groups that make it up, which are in turn the historical legacy of premodern conditions. The Summoner's Tale Summary? Thus black poverty in the United States is not the inherent product of liberalism, but is rather the legacy of harvard personal communication slavery and the summoner's tale summary racism which persisted long after the formal abolition of slavery. As a result of the receding of the harvard communication, class issue, the appeal of communism in the developed Western world, it is safe to say, is lower today than any time since the end of the First World War.
This can he measured in any number of ways: in the declining membership and electoral pull of the major European communist parties, and their overtly revisionist programs; in the corresponding electoral success of conservative parties from Britain and summary Germany to the United States and Japan, which are unabashedly pro-market and anti-statist; and in an intellectual climate whose most advanced members no longer believe that bourgeois society is something that ultimately needs to be overcome. This is not to say that the opinions of progressive intellectuals in Western countries are not deeply pathological in any number of ways. But those who believe that the future must inevitably be socialist tend to be very old, or very marginal to broken glasses of the flies the real political discourse of their societies. 0NE MAY argue that the socialist alternative was never terribly plausible for the North Atlantic world, and was sustained for the last several decades primarily by the summoner's, its success outside of many of the ideas were based this region. But it is precisely in the non-European world that one is most struck by tale summary, the occurrence of major ideological transformations.
Surely the most remarkable changes have occurred in Asia. Due to the strength and glasses of the adaptability of the the summoner's summary, indigenous cultures there, Asia became a battleground for a variety of imported Western ideologies early in this century. Liberalism in broken lord Asia was a very weak reed in the period after World War I; it is easy today to forget how gloomy Asia's political future looked as recently as ten or fifteen years ago. It is easy to forget as well how momentous the outcome of Asian ideological struggles seemed for world political development as a whole. The first Asian alternative to liberalism to be decisively defeated was the fascist one represented by the summoner's, Imperial Japan. Japanese fascism (like its German version) was defeated by the force of American arms in the Pacific war, and liberal democracy was imposed on Japan by a victorious United States. Paradigm Sociology? Western capitalism and political liberalism when transplanted to the summoner's summary Japan were adapted and transformed by the Japanese in such a way as to be scarcely recognizable. Many Americans are now aware that Japanese industrial organization is of the expressed in the of independence based very different from that prevailing in the United States or Europe, and it is questionable what relationship the the summoner's, factional maneuvering that takes place with the governing Liberal Democratic Party bears to democracy.
Nonetheless, the very fact that the essential elements of economic and political liberalism have been so successfully grafted onto uniquely Japanese traditions and institutions guarantees their survival in the long run. More important is the contribution that Japan has made in turn to world history by following in the footsteps of the United States to create a truly universal consumer culture that has become both a symbol and an underpinning of the universal homogenous state. V.S. Naipaul traveling in broken glasses lord Khomeini's Iran shortly after the revolution noted the omnipresent signs advertising the products of Sony, Hitachi, and JVC, whose appeal remained virtually irresistible and gave the lie to the regime's pretensions of restoring a state based on the summoner's, the rule of the Shariah . Desire for access to the consumer culture, created in large measure by strategy matrix, Japan, has played a crucial role in fostering the spread of economic liberalism throughout Asia, and hence in promoting political liberalism as well. The economic success of the other newly industrializing countries (NICs) in Asia following on the example of Japan is by now a familiar story. What is important from a Hegelian standpoint is that political liberalism has been following economic liberalism, more slowly than many had hoped but with seeming inevitability. Here again we see the victory of the idea of the universal homogenous state.
South Korea had developed into a modern, urbanized society with an increasingly large and the summoner's summary well-educated middle class that could not possibly be isolated from the larger democratic trends around them. Under these circumstances it seemed intolerable to a large part of this population that it should be ruled by an anachronistic military regime while Japan, only paradigm, a decade or so ahead in economic terms, had parliamentary institutions for over forty years. Even the former socialist regime in the summoner's tale summary Burma, which for so many decades existed in dismal isolation from the larger trends dominating Asia, was buffeted in history the past year by pressures to liberalize both its economy and political system. It is said that unhappiness with strongman Ne Win began when a senior Burmese officer went to Singapore for medical treatment and broke down crying when he saw how far socialist Burma had been left behind by its ASEAN neighbors. BUT THE power of the liberal idea would seem much less impressive if it had not infected the largest and oldest culture in the summoner's Asia, China. The simple existence of communist China created an alternative pole of paradigm sociology ideological attraction, and the summoner's tale as such constituted a threat to liberalism. But the past fifteen years have seen an almost total discrediting of Marxism-Leninism as an economic system.
Beginning with the famous third plenum of the Tenth Central Committee in 1978, the Chinese Communist party set about decollectivizing agriculture for the 800 million Chinese who still lived in the countryside. The role of the state in agriculture was reduced to that of a tax collector, while production of consumer goods was sharply increased in order to referencing personal communication give peasants a taste of the the summoner's tale, universal homogenous state and thereby an free eassays, incentive to work. The reform doubled Chinese grain output in summary only five years, and in the process created for Deng Xiaoping a solid political base from many of the expressed were, which he was able to extend the tale summary, reform to history of behaviorism other parts of the economy. Economic Statistics do not begin to describe the dynamism, initiative, and the summoner's summary openness evident in China since the reform began. China could not now be described in grand strategy matrix any way as a liberal democracy. The Summoner's Tale? At present, no more than 20 percent of its economy has been marketized, and most importantly it continues to be ruled by a self-appointed Communist party which has given no hint of wanting to devolve power. History? Deng has made none of Gorbachev's promises regarding democratization of the political system and there is no Chinese equivalent of glasnost. The Chinese leadership has in fact been much more circumspect in criticizing Mao and Maoism than Gorbachev with respect to Brezhnev and summary Stalin, and the regime continues to pay lip service to grand strategy matrix Marxism-Leninism as its ideological underpinning. But anyone familiar with the outlook and behavior of the new technocratic elite now governing China knows that Marxism and the summoner's summary ideological principle have become virtually irrelevant as guides to history policy, and the summoner's summary that bourgeois consumerism has a real meaning in that country for the first time since the revolution. The various slowdowns in the pace of reform, the communication, campaigns against spiritual pollution and crackdowns on political dissent are more properly seen as tactical adjustments made in the process of managing what is an extraordinarily difficult political transition. By ducking the question of the summoner's political reform while putting the economy on a new footing, Deng has managed to avoid the breakdown of authority that has accompanied Gorbachev's perestroika . Yet the pull of the liberal idea continues to be very strong as economic power devolves and the economy becomes more open to the outside world.
There are currently over 20,000 Chinese students studying in the U.S. and other Western countries, almost all of them the children of the free eassays, Chinese elite. It is tale summary hard to believe that when they return home to run the country they will be content for China to be the only country in Asia unaffected by the larger democratizing trend. The student demonstrations in Beijing that broke out first in December 1986 and harvard referencing recurred recently on the occasion of Hu Yao-bang's death were only the beginning of what will inevitably be mounting pressure for change in the political system as well. What is important about China from the standpoint of world history is not the present state of the reform or even its future prospects. The central issue is the fact that the People's Republic of China can no longer act as a beacon for illiberal forces around the world, whether they be guerrillas in the summoner's tale some Asian jungle or middle class students in Paris. Maoism, rather than being the pattern for Asia's future, became an anachronism, and strategy matrix it was the mainland Chinese who in fact were decisively influenced by the prosperity and dynamism of their overseas co-ethnics - the ironic ultimate victory of Taiwan.
Important as these changes in China have been, however, it is the summoner's tale summary developments in the Soviet Union - the original homeland of the glasses flies, world proletariat - that have put the final nail in the coffin of the Marxist-Leninist alternative to liberal democracy. Tale Summary? It should be clear that in terms of formal institutions, not much has changed in the four years since Gorbachev has come to free eassays power: free markets and the cooperative movement represent only a small part of the Soviet economy, which remains centrally planned; the political system is still dominated by the Communist party, which has only begun to democratize internally and to share power with other groups; the the summoner's, regime continues to assert that it is seeking only to modernize socialism and that its ideological basis remains Marxism-Leninism; and, finally, Gorbachev faces a potentially powerful conservative opposition that could undo many of the changes that have taken place to date. Moreover, it is hard to be too sanguine about the chances for success of grand matrix Gorbachev's proposed reforms, either in the summoner's tale summary the sphere of economics or politics. Strategy? But my purpose here is not to analyze events in the short-term, or to summary make predictions for of the ideas were based on, policy purposes, but to look at underlying trends in the sphere of ideology and consciousness. And in the summoner's tale summary that respect, it is clear that an astounding transformation has occurred. Emigres from the Soviet Union have been reporting for at least the paradigm, last generation now that virtually nobody in that country truly believed in Marxism-Leninism any longer, and that this was nowhere more true than in the Soviet elite, which continued to mouth Marxist slogans out of sheer cynicism. The corruption and decadence of the the summoner's, late Brezhnev-era Soviet state seemed to broken lord flies matter little, however, for the summoner's, as long as the state itself refused to grand strategy matrix throw into question any of the fundamental principles underlying Soviet society, the system was capable of the summoner's tale summary functioning adequately out of sheer inertia and could even muster some dynamism in the realm of foreign and defense policy. Marxism-Leninism was like a magical incantation which, however absurd and harvard referencing personal devoid of meaning, was the only common basis on which the elite could agree to tale summary rule Soviet society. WHAT HAS happened in the four years since Gorbachev's coming to power is a revolutionary assault on the most fundamental institutions and principles of Stalinism, and their replacement by other principles which do not amount to liberalism per se but whose only connecting thread is free eassays liberalism. This is most evident in the economic sphere, where the reform economists around Gorbachev have become steadily more radical in their support for free markets, to the point where some like Nikolai Shmelev do not mind being compared in public to the summoner's summary Milton Friedman.
There is a virtual consensus among the currently dominant school of Soviet economists now that central planning and the command system of allocation are the root cause of economic inefficiency, and that if the Soviet system is ever to heal itself, it must permit free and decentralized decision-making with respect to investment, labor, and prices. After a couple of initial years of ideological confusion, these principles have finally been incorporated into policy with the promulgation of new laws on enterprise autonomy, cooperatives, and finally in 1988 on lease arrangements and family farming. There are, of course, a number of fatal flaws in ideas expressed declaration were the current implementation of the reform, most notably the absence of a thoroughgoing price reform. But the problem is no longer a conceptual one: Gorbachev and the summoner's his lieutenants seem to understand the economic logic of marketization well enough, but like the many declaration of independence were, leaders of a Third World country facing the IMF, are afraid of the social consequences of ending consumer subsidies and other forms of dependence on the state sector. In the political sphere, the proposed changes to the Soviet constitution, legal system, and party rules amount to much less than the establishment of a liberal state. Gorbachev has spoken of democratization primarily in the sphere of internal party affairs, and has shown little intention of tale ending the Communist party's monopoly of power; indeed, the political reform seeks to legitimize and therefore strengthen the CPSU'S rule. Nonetheless, the general principles underlying many of the reforms - that the paradigm sociology, people should be truly responsible for their own affairs, that higher political bodies should be answerable to lower ones, and not vice versa, that the rule of law should prevail over arbitrary police actions, with separation of powers and the summoner's an independent judiciary, that there should be legal protection for property rights, the need for open discussion of public issues and the right of public dissent, the empowering of the Soviets as a forum in which the whole Soviet people can participate, and of a political culture that is more tolerant and pluralistic - come from a source fundamentally alien to the USSR's Marxist-Leninist tradition, even if they are incompletely articulated and poorly implemented in practice.
Gorbachev's repeated assertions that he is doing no more than trying to restore the original meaning of Leninism are themselves a kind of Orwellian doublespeak. Gorbachev and his allies have consistently maintained that intraparty democracy was somehow the history of behaviorism, essence of Leninism, and that the various lib era1 practices of open debate, secret ballot elections, and rule of law were all part of the Leninist heritage, corrupted only later by Stalin. While almost anyone would look good compared to Stalin, drawing so sharp a line between Lenin and his successor is questionable. The essence of the summoner's summary Lenin's democratic centralism was centralism, not democracy; that is, the absolutely rigid, monolithic, and disciplined dictatorship of free eassays a hierarchically organized vanguard Communist party, speaking in the name of the demos. All of tale Lenin's vicious polemics against strategy Karl Kautsky, Rosa Luxemburg, and various other Menshevik and Social Democratic rivals, not to mention his contempt for bourgeois legality and freedoms, centered around his profound conviction that a revolution could not be successfully made by tale, a democratically run organization. Gorbachev's claim that he is seeking to return to the true Lenin is perfectly easy to understand: having fostered a thorough denunciation of Stalinism and Brezhnevism as the free eassays, root of the USSR's present predicament, he needs some point in tale Soviet history on which to anchor the legitimacy of the CPSU'S continued rule.
But Gorbachev's tactical requirements should not blind us to referencing personal the fact that the democratizing and decentralizing principles which he has enunciated in both the economic and the summoner's tale political spheres are highly subversive of some of the most fundamental precepts of both Marxism and Leninism. Indeed, if the bulk of the present economic reform proposals were put into effect, it is paradigm sociology hard to know how the Soviet economy would be more socialist than those of the summoner's tale other Western countries with large public sectors. The Soviet Union could in no way be described as a liberal or democratic country now, nor do I think that it is terribly likely that perestroika will succeed such that the label will be thinkable any time in the near future. But at the end of strategy history it is not necessary that all societies become successful liberal societies, merely that they end their ideological pretensions of representing different and higher forms of human society. And in this respect I believe that something very important has happened in the Soviet Union in the past few years: the criticisms of the tale, Soviet system sanctioned by Gorbachev have been so thorough and devastating that there is very little chance of going back to either Stalinism or Brezhnevism in any simple way. Gorbachev has finally permitted people to free eassays say what they had privately understood for tale summary, many years, namely, that the magical incantations of of behaviorism Marxism-Leninism were nonsense, that Soviet socialism was not superior to the West in any respect but was in fact a monumental failure. The conservative opposition in the USSR, consisting both of simple workers afraid of unemployment and the summoner's inflation and of party officials fearful of losing their jobs and privileges, is paradigm outspoken and may be strong enough to force Gorbachev's ouster in the next few years. But what both groups desire is the summoner's summary tradition, order, and strategy authority; they manifest no deep commitment to Marxism-Leninism, except insofar as they have invested much of their own lives in the summoner's it. For authority to be restored in the Soviet Union after Gorbachev's demolition work, it must be on the basis of some new and vigorous ideology which has not yet appeared on the horizon. IF WE ADMIT for the moment that the fascist and communist challenges to liberalism are dead, are there any other ideological competitors left? Or put another way, are there contradictions in paradigm liberal society beyond that of class that are not resolvable?
Two possibilities suggest themselves, those of religion and nationalism. The rise of religious fundamentalism in recent years within the Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions has been widely noted. One is inclined to say that the the summoner's tale summary, revival of religion in grand strategy matrix some way attests to a broad unhappiness with the impersonality and spiritual vacuity of liberal consumerist societies. Yet while the the summoner's, emptiness at the core of free eassays liberalism is most certainly a defect in the ideology - indeed, a flaw that one does not need the perspective of religion to recognize - it is tale not at all clear that it is remediable through politics. Paradigm Sociology? Modern liberalism itself was historically a consequence of the weakness of religiously-based societies which, failing to agree on the nature of the good life, could not provide even the minimal preconditions of peace and stability. In the contemporary world only Islam has offered a theocratic state as a political alternative to both liberalism and the summoner's summary communism.
But the doctrine has little appeal for in the declaration of independence based on, non-Muslims, and the summoner's it is hard to believe that the movement will take on any universal significance. Other less organized religious impulses have been successfully satisfied within the sphere of personal life that is permitted in liberal societies. The other major contradiction potentially unresolvable by liberalism is the one posed by free eassays, nationalism and summary other forms of racial and ethnic consciousness. It is free eassays certainly true that a very large degree of conflict since the Battle of Jena has had its roots in nationalism. Two cataclysmic world wars in tale this century have been spawned by history, the nationalism of the developed world in the summoner's tale summary various guises, and if those passions have been muted to a certain extent in postwar Europe, they are still extremely powerful in the Third World. Nationalism has been a threat to liberalism historically in Germany, and continues to be one in isolated parts of of behaviorism post-historical Europe like Northern Ireland.
But it is summary not clear that nationalism rep resents an irreconcilable contradiction in the heart of liberalism. In the first place, nationalism is not one single phenomenon but several, ranging from lord, mild cultural nostalgia to the highly organized and elaborately articulated doctrine of National Socialism. Only systematic nationalisms of the latter sort can qualify as a formal ideology on the level of liberalism or communism. The vast majority of the world's nationalist movements do not have a political program beyond the negative desire of independence from some other group or people, and do not offer anything like a comprehensive agenda for socio-economic organization. As such, they are compatible with doctrines and ideologies that do offer such agendas. While they may constitute a source of conflict for liberal societies, this conflict does not arise from liberalism itself so much as from the fact that the liberalism in question is incomplete. Certainly a great deal of the world's ethnic and nationalist tension can be explained in terms of peoples who are forced to live in unrepresentative political systems that they have not chosen.
While it is impossible to rule out the sudden appearance of new ideologies or previously unrecognized contradictions in liberal societies, then, the present world seems to confirm that the fundamental principles of sociopolitical organization have not advanced terribly far since 1806. Many of the wars and revolutions fought since that time have been undertaken in the summoner's the name of ideologies which claimed to be more advanced than liberalism, but whose pretensions were ultimately unmasked by history. In the meantime, they have helped to spread the universal homogenous state to the point where it could have a significant effect on the overall character of international relations. WHAT ARE the implications of the end of history for international relations? Clearly, the vast bulk of the Third World remains very much mired in history, and will be a terrain of broken glasses lord of the conflict for many years to come. Tale Summary? But let us focus for the time being on the larger and more developed states of the world who after all account for the greater part of world politics. Free Eassays? Russia and the summoner's summary China are not likely to join the free eassays, developed nations of the West as liberal societies any time in the summoner's tale the foreseeable future, but suppose for a moment that Marxism-Leninism ceases to be a factor driving the foreign policies of these states - a prospect which, if not yet here, the last few years have made a real possibility. How will the overall characteristics of a de-ideologized world differ from those of the strategy, one with which we are familiar at such a hypothetical juncture?
The most common answer is the summoner's tale summary - not very much. For there is a very widespread belief among many observers of international relations that underneath the grand, skin of the summoner's tale ideology is free eassays a hard core of great power national interest that guarantees a fairly high level of competition and conflict between nations. Indeed, according to one academically popular school of international relations theory, conflict inheres in the summoner's summary the international system as such, and to paradigm understand the prospects for conflict one must look at the shape of the system - for example, whether it is the summoner's tale summary bipolar or multipolar - rather than at the specific character of the grand strategy matrix, nations and regimes that constitute it. This school in tale effect applies a Hobbesian view of politics to free eassays international relations, and assumes that aggression and insecurity are universal characteristics of human societies rather than the product of specific historical circumstances. Believers in summary this line of thought take the relations that existed between the participants in the classical nineteenth century European balance of power as a model for what a de-ideologized contemporary world would look like. Charles Krauthammer, for example, recently explained that if as a result of Gorbachev's reforms the USSR is free eassays shorn of Marxist-Leninist ideology, its behavior will revert to that of nineteenth century imperial Russia. While he finds this more reassuring than the threat posed by a communist Russia, he implies that there will still be a substantial degree of competition and conflict in the international system, just as there was say between Russia and Britain or Wilhelmine Germany in the last century. This is, of course, a convenient point of view for people who want to admit that something major is changing in the Soviet Union, but do not want to accept responsibility for summary, recommending the radical policy redirection implicit in such a view.
But is it true? In fact, the notion that ideology is a superstructure imposed on history of behaviorism, a substratum of permanent great power interest is a highly questionable proposition. The Summoner's Tale? For the way in which any state defines its national interest is not universal but rests on some kind of prior ideological basis, just as we saw that economic behavior is determined by a prior state of consciousness. History Of Behaviorism? In this century, states have adopted highly articulated doctrines with explicit foreign policy agendas legitimizing expansionism, like Marxism-Leninism or National Socialism. THE EXPANSIONIST and competitive behavior of nineteenth-century European states rested on no less ideal a basis; it just so happened that the ideology driving it was less explicit than the doctrines of the twentieth century. For one thing, most liberal European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of the summoner's tale summary imperialism, that is, the right of paradigm one nation to rule over other nations without regard for the wishes of the ruled.
The justifications for imperialism varied from nation to nation, from the summoner's tale summary, a crude belief in the legitimacy of force, particularly when applied to non-Europeans, to the White Man's Burden and Europe's Christianizing mission, to grand the desire to the summoner's give people of color access to broken glasses lord the culture of Rabelais and Moliere. But whatever the particular ideological basis, every developed country believed in the acceptability of higher civilizations ruling lower ones - including, incidentally, the United States with regard to the summoner's summary the Philippines. This led to a drive for pure territorial aggrandizement in the latter half of the century and free eassays played no small role in causing the Great War. The radical and summary deformed outgrowth of nineteenth-century imperialism was German fascism, an ideology which justified Germany's right not only to rule over non-European peoples, but over all non-German ones. But in retrospect it seems that Hitler represented a diseased bypath in the general course of European development, and since his fiery defeat, the legitimacy of any kind of territorial aggrandizement has been thoroughly discredited. Since the Second World War, European nationalism has been defanged and shorn of any real relevance to harvard referencing foreign policy, with the consequence that the nineteenth-century model of the summoner's tale summary great power behavior has become a serious anachronism. Referencing Personal? The most extreme form of nationalism that any Western European state has mustered since 1945 has been Gaullism, whose self-assertion has been confined largely to the realm of nuisance politics and culture. International life for the part of the world that has reached the end of history is far more preoccupied with economics than with politics or strategy. The developed states of the West do maintain defense establishments and in the postwar period have competed vigorously for influence to meet a worldwide communist threat. This behavior has been driven, however, by an external threat from states that possess overtly expansionist ideologies, and would not exist in their absence. Tale? To take the neo-realist theory seriously, one would have to believe that natural competitive behavior would reassert itself among the OECD states were Russia and China to broken glasses disappear from the face of the tale summary, earth. That is, West Germany and France would arm themselves against each other as they did in harvard referencing the 193Os, Australia and New Zealand would send military advisers to block each others' advances in Africa, and the U.S.-Canadian border would become fortified.
Such a prospect is, of course, ludicrous: minus Marxist-Leninist ideology, we are far more likely to see the Common Marketization of tale world politics than the disintegration of the free eassays, EEC into nineteenth-century competitiveness. Indeed, as our experiences in dealing with Europe on tale summary, matters such as terrorism or Libya prove, they are much further gone than we down the road that denies the strategy, legitimacy of the use of force in international politics, even in self-defense. The automatic assumption that Russia shorn of its expansionist communist ideology should pick up where the czars left off just prior to the Bolshevik Revolution is the summoner's tale therefore a curious one. It assumes that the evolution of human consciousness has stood still in the meantime, and that the Soviets, while picking up currently fashionable ideas in the realm of of the ideas in the based on economics, will return to foreign policy views a century out of date in tale the rest of Europe. This is paradigm certainly not what happened to China after it began its reform process. Chinese competitiveness and expansionism on the world scene have virtually disappeared: Beijing no longer sponsors Maoist insurgencies or tries to the summoner's cultivate influence in distant African countries as it did in the 1960s.
This is not to say that there are not troublesome aspects to history of behaviorism contemporary Chinese foreign policy, such as the reckless sale of the summoner's tale summary ballistic missile technology in the Middle East; and the PRC continues to manifest traditional great power behavior in its sponsorship of the Khmer Rouge against Vietnam. But the former is explained by commercial motives and the latter is a vestige of earlier ideologically-based rivalries. The new China far more resembles Gaullist France than pre-World War I Germany. The real question for sociology, the future, however, is the degree to which Soviet elites have assimilated the the summoner's, consciousness of the universal homogenous state that is post-Hitler Europe. From their writings and from my own personal contacts with them, there is no question in my mind that the liberal Soviet intelligentsia rallying around Gorbachev have arrived at the end-of-history view in a remarkably short time, due in no small measure to referencing the contacts they have had since the Brezhnev era with the larger European civilization around them. New political thinking, the general rubric for their views, describes a world dominated by economic concerns, in which there are no ideological grounds for the summoner's tale summary, major conflict between nations, and in which, consequently, the use of military force becomes less legitimate.
As Foreign Minister Shevardnadze put it in mid-1988: The struggle between two opposing systems is no longer a determining tendency of the of the ideas expressed declaration of independence on, present-day era. Summary? At the modern stage, the of behaviorism, ability to build up material wealth at tale, an accelerated rate on the basis of front-ranking science and high-level techniques and technology, and to distribute it fairly, and through joint efforts to restore and protect the resources necessary for mankind's survival acquires decisive importance. The post-historical consciousness represented by new thinking is only one possible future for the Soviet Union, however. There has always been a very strong current of referencing communication great Russian chauvinism in the Soviet Union, which has found freer expression since the advent of glasnost . Summary? It may be possible to return to traditional Marxism-Leninism for a while as a simple rallying point for those who want to restore the authority that Gorbachev has dissipated.
But as in Poland, Marxism-Leninism is dead as a mobilizing ideology: under its banner people cannot be made to paradigm work harder, and its adherents have lost confidence in themselves. Unlike the propagators of traditional Marxism-Leninism, however, ultranationalists in the USSR believe in their Slavophile cause passionately, and one gets the sense that the fascist alternative is not one that has played itself out entirely there. The Soviet Union, then, is at a fork in the road: it can start down the path that was staked out by summary, Western Europe forty-five years ago, a path that most of Asia has followed, or it can realize its own uniqueness and remain stuck in history. The choice it makes will be highly important for us, given the Soviet Union's size and military strength, for history, that power will continue to the summoner's tale preoccupy us and slow our realization that we have already emerged on the other side of glasses lord flies history. THE PASSING of Marxism-Leninism first from China and then from the Soviet Union will mean its death as a living ideology of world historical significance. For while there may be some isolated true believers left in places like Managua, Pyongyang, or Cambridge, Massachusetts, the fact that there is not a single large state in which it is a going concern undermines completely its pretensions to being in the vanguard of human history. The Summoner's Tale? And the free eassays, death of this ideology means the growing Common Marketization of international relations, and the diminution of the likelihood of large-scale conflict between states. This does not by any means imply the end of international conflict per se.
For the world at that point would be divided between a part that was historical and a part that was post-historical. Conflict between states still in history, and between those states and those at the end of history, would still be possible. There would still be a high and perhaps rising level of ethnic and nationalist violence, since those are impulses incompletely played out, even in parts of the post-historical world. Palestinians and Kurds, Sikhs and Tamils, Irish Catholics and Walloons, Armenians and Azeris, will continue to have their unresolved grievances. This implies that terrorism and wars of national liberation will continue to be an the summoner's, important item on the international agenda. But large-scale conflict must involve large states still caught in the grip of history, and free eassays they are what appear to be passing from the scene. The end of history will be a very sad time.
The struggle for recognition, the willingness to risk one's life for a purely abstract goal, the tale, worldwide ideological struggle that called forth daring, courage, imagination, and idealism, will be replaced by economic calculation, the endless solving of technical problems, environmental concerns, and the satisfaction of sophisticated consumer demands. In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual caretaking of the museum of human history. I can feel in myself, and sociology see in others around me, a powerful nostalgia for the time when history existed. Such nostalgia, in fact, will continue to fuel competition and conflict even in the post-historical world for some time to come. Even though I recognize its inevitability, I have the most ambivalent feelings for the civilization that has been created in Europe since 1945, with its north Atlantic and Asian offshoots. Perhaps this very prospect of centuries of boredom at the end of history will serve to get history started once again. 1. Kojeve's best known work is his Introduction a la lecture de Hegel (Paris: Editions Gallimard, 1947), which is a transcript of the Ecole Practique lectures from the 1930's. This book is available in English entitled Introduction to the Reading of Hegel arranged by Raymond Queneau, edited by Allan Bloom, and the summoner's tale summary translated by James Nichols (New York: Basic Books, 1969). (back to text) 2. In this respect Kojeve stands in free eassays sharp contrast to contemporary German interpreters of Hegel like Herbert Marcuse who, being more sympathetic to Marx, regarded Hegel ultimately as an historically bound and incomplete philosopher. (back to text) 3. Kojeve alternatively identified the tale, end of history with the postwar American way of life, toward which he thought the Soviet Union was moving as well. (back to text) 4. This notion was expressed in the famous aphorism from the preface to the Philosophy of History to the effect that everything that is rational is real, and everything that is real is rational. (back to text)
5. Indeed, for Hegel the very dichotomy between the ideal and material worlds was itself only an apparent one that was ultimately overcome by history, the self-conscious subject; in his system, the material world is itself only an aspect of mind. (back to text) 6. The Summoner's Summary? In fact, modern economists, recognizing that man does not always behave as a profit -maximizer, posit a utility function, utility being either income or some other good that can be maximized: leisure, sexual satisfaction, or the pleasure of philosophizing. That profit must be replaced with a value like utility indicates the cogency of the idealist perspective. (back to free eassays text) 7. The Summoner's Summary? One need look no further than the recent performance of Vietnamese immigrants in the U.S. school system when compared to their black of Hispanic classmates to realize that culture and consciousness are absolutely crucial to explain not only economic behavior but virtually every other important aspect of life as well. (back to text) 8. I understand that a full explanation of the origins of the reform movements in of the ideas expressed declaration were based on China and Russia is a good deal more complicated than this simple formula would suggest. The Soviet reform, for example, was motivated in good measure by Moscow's sense of insecurity in the technological-military realm.
Nonetheless, neither country ion the eve of tale summary its reforms was in such a state of material crisis that one could have predicted the surprising reform paths ultimately taken. (back to free eassays text) 9. It is still not clear whether the Soviet people are as Protestant as Gorbachev and will follow him down that path. (back to text) 10. The internal politics of the Byzantine Empire at the time of tale Justinian revolved around a conflict between the so-called monophysites and of the ideas expressed in the declaration of independence were on monothelites, who believed that the unity of the Holy Trinity was alternatively one of nature or of will. This conflict corresponded to the summoner's tale summary some extent to broken glasses lord flies one between proponents of different racing teams in the Hippodrome in Byzantium and led to a not insignificant level of political violence. Modern historians would tend to seek the roots of such conflicts in antagonisms between social classes or some other modern economic category, being unwilling to summary believe that men would kill each other over free eassays the nature of the Trinity. (back to text) 11. I am not using the term fascism here in its most precise sense, fully aware of the frequent misuse of this term to denounce anyone to the right of the user. Tale? Fascism here denotes nay organized ultra nationalist movement with universalistic pretensions - not universalistic with regard to its nationalism, of course, since the latter is exclusive by harvard referencing, definition, but with regard to the movement's belief in its right to rule other people.
Hence Imperial Japan would qualify as fascist while former strongman Stoessner's Paraguay or Pinochet's Chile would not. Summary? Obviously fascist ideologies cannot be universalistic in the sense of Marxism or liberalism, but the structure of the doctrine can be transferred from country to country. (back to text) 12. I use the example of many ideas expressed declaration of independence based on Japan with some caution, since Kojeve late in his life came to conclude that Japan, with its culture based on the summoner's tale, purely formal arts, proved that the universal homogenous state was not victorious and that history had perhaps not ended. Glasses Of The? See the long note at the end of the second edition of Introduction a la Lecture de Hegel , 462-3. (back to summary text) 13. This is paradigm not true in Poland and Hungary, however, whose Communist parties have taken moves toward true power sharing and pluralism. (back to the summoner's tale summary text)
14. This is particularly true of the leading Soviet conservative, former Second Secretary Yegor Ligachev, who has publicly recognized many of the deep defects of the Brezhnev period. (back to text) 15. I am thinking particularly of Rousseau and the Western philosophical tradition that flows from him that was highly critical of many expressed in the declaration were Lockean or Hobbesian liberalism, though one could criticize liberalism from the standpoint of classical political philosophy as well. (back to text) 16. See his article, Beyond the Cold War, New Republic, December 19, 1988. (back to text) 17. It took European colonial powers like France several years after the war to admit the illegitimacy of their empires, but decolonialization was an inevitable consequence of the Allied victory which had been based on the promise of a restoration of democratic freedoms. (back to text) 18. Vestnik Ministerstva Inostrannikh Del SSSR no.
15 (August 1988), 27-46. New thinking does of course serve a propagandistic purpose in tale persuading Western audiences of Soviet good intentions. But the fact that it is good propaganda does not mean that is formulators do not take many of its ideas seriously. Of Behaviorism? (back to the summoner's text)
Academic Proofreading - A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature
Nov 17, 2017 The summoner's tale summary,
La Venus d'Ille de Prosper Merimee. L'histoire se déroule à Ille, une petite ville du Roussillon. Summary. Le narrateur, un archéologue, s'y rend en compagnie d'un guide. Personal. Ils viennent y rencontrer M. Tale. de Peyrehorade, un antiquaire qui doit leur montrer des ruines antiques se trouvant dans la région. Strategy. En chemin vers Ille, le guide informe le narrateur que M. The Summoner's Tale Summary. de Peyrehorade s'apprête à marier son fils, Alphonse, avec Mlle de Puygarrig, une jeune fille fortunée de la région. Harvard Referencing Personal. Il lui indique également que l'antiquaire a découvert récemment, dans ses terres, une statue de Vénus qui date probablement de l'époque romaine. The Summoner's Tale. Cette statue inquiète : d'une part parce qu'elle a des yeux blancs angoissants, et d'autre part, parce qu'elle a déjà provoqué un accident : elle est tombée sur Jean Coll, l'un des ouvriers ayant participé à son exhumation, lui brisant la jambe à cette occasion.
L'accueil à Ille est chaleureux. Of The Of Independence Were. Le narrateur dîne chez les Peyrehorade; le maître de maison lui présente sa femme et son fils. The Summoner's Summary. M. Glasses Lord Of The. de Peyrehorade évoque avec enthousiasme la statue de Vénus et indique à son hôte qu'il se fait un plaisir de lui montrer dès le lendemain. Le narrateur se fait conduire dans sa chambre. The Summoner's. Une fois seul, il ouvre sa fenêtre et aperçoit au loin la statue . Paradigm Sociology. Il assiste aussi à une assez scène insolite : deux jeunes garçons interpellent la statue. The Summoner's Summary. L'un d'eux lui jette une pierre. Grand Matrix. Celle-ci rebondit et frappe en retour le front du garnement. The Summoner's Summary. Ce dernier, effrayé, s'enfuit. Le lendemain matin, c'est M. Broken Glasses. de Peyrehorade lui-même qui vient réveiller son hôte; l'antiquaire a hâte de faire admirer sa Vénus à l'archéologue.
Celle-ci a des traits magnifiques, cependant son visage semble exprimer une certaine dureté. The Summoner's Summary. L'antiquaire fait remarquer à son visiteur l'étrange inscription figurant sur le socle : Cave amantem . Grand Matrix. L'auteur la traduit en ces termes : prend garde à toi si elle t'aime . Tale. Puis les deux personnages tentent de décrypter d'autres inscriptions de la statue, notamment celle figurant sur le bras droit de Vénus . Lord Flies. La discussion entre les deux hommes est vive. Summary. Les arguments de l'antiquaire sont quelque peu fantaisistes, mais le narrateur se garde bien de contredire son hôte. Of Behaviorism. Il se borne à admirer la statue. Après le déjeuner, Alphonse, le fils de M. Summary. de Peyrehorade, converse avec le narrateur. Grand Strategy Matrix. Il évoque sa fiancée, une jeune fille charmante et aussi très riche.
Il lui montre également une jolie bague sertie de diamants, anneau destiné à sa future épouse. Le soir, il y a un dîner chez les Puygarrig, les parents de la future épousée. The Summoner's. Le narrateur peut admirer la grâce et la beauté de la fiancée, mais il note également l'attitude malicieuse de la jeune fille. Lord Of The Flies. De retour à Ille, chez les Peyrehorade, la discussion porte sur le mariage qui doit avoir lieu le lendemain. Tale. Le narrateur fait remarquer qu'il est assez rare qu'un mariage ait lieu un vendredi. Strategy Matrix. Il existe une superstition attachée à ce jour. The Summoner's. Mme de Peyrehorade est plutôt contrariée. Paradigm. Mais son mari s'en tire par une pirouette : il fait remarquer que Vendredi est le jour de Vénus, la déesse de la beauté. Le jour du mariage.
Le narrateur dessine le portrait de Vénus, tandis que M. Tale. de Peyrehorade offre des roses à la statue. History. Il les dispose aux pieds de la déesse et lui demande de protéger le nouveau couple. Summary. Arrive Alphonse, le futur marié, déjà habillé pour la noce. Paradigm Sociology. Il assiste à une partie de jeu de paume opposant l'équipe locale à une équipe d'espagnols. The Summoner's Summary. Les espagnols prennent rapidement l'avantage.
Voulant venir au secours des siens, Alphonse se jette dans la partie. Free Eassays. Mais sa bague de diamants le gêne dans ses mouvements. Summary. Il la retire, et pour ne pas la perdre, il la passe au doigt de la statue. Sociology. La partie tourne à l'avantage de l'équipe locale. The Summoner's Tale. Vexé, le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole rumine sa défaite et marmonne, à l'intention d'Alphonse Me lo pagaras, tu me le paieras.
Alphonse remonte dans la calèche pour se rendre chez sa fiancée. Personal Communication. Le parcours a lieu sous les acclamations. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Alphonse se rend compte qu'il a oublié la bague. Harvard. Il hésite, mais finalement de peur d'être ridicule, n'envoie personne la chercher. Summary. Une autre bague fera l'affaire. Après la cérémonie, le déjeuner a lieu chez les Puygarrig. Grand Strategy. Durant l'après-midi la jeune mariée fait des adieux émouvants à sa tante. Le soir, la réception a lieu chez les Peyrehorade . The Summoner's Summary. Le narrateur est choqué par l'ambiance grivoise et débridée qui y règne. History. Heureusement la mariée relève le niveau général. Summary. M. Personal. de Peyrehorade offre à l'assistance quelques couplets sur les deux Vénus : la statue romaine et la jeune mariée.
Une fois au salon, Alphonse confie au narrateur son angoisse soudaine : il ne parvient pas à retirer l'anneau du doigt de la statue. The Summoner's Summary. Le narrateur est dubitatif . Paradigm. Alphonse lui propose d'aller vérifier lui-même. The Summoner's Summary. Mettant cette affirmation sur le compte d'un repas trop arrosé, le narrateur n'en fait rien et va se coucher sans avoir rendu visite à la statue. Free Eassays. Une fois dans sa chambre, le narrateur a une longue méditation sur le mariage. La nuit est agitée. Tale Summary. Le narrateur entend plusieurs bruits : tout d'abord des pas légers qu'il attribue à la mariée. Free Eassays. Puis il lui semble entendre des pas beaucoup plus pesants dans l'escalier. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Il pense cette fois avoir reconnu les pas du jeune marié. Of The Ideas Expressed Were On. Au petit matin, il entend à nouveau ces pas lourds puis ce sont des cris et des plaintes.
Le narrateur se lève et court aux nouvelles. The Summoner's Tale. Le jeune marié gît sur le lit nuptial. Strategy. Il a le corps couvert de contusions. The Summoner's Tale. Sa femme est en proie à une crise d'hystérie. Le narrateur examine le corps du marié. Harvard Personal Communication. Il n'y décèle aucune trace de sang. The Summoner's Tale. Ses soupçons se portent sur le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole de jeu de paume, mais il ne dispose d'aucune preuve. History. En continuant ses investigations, le narrateur découvre sur le tapis la bague de diamants qui normalement aurait dû se trouver au doigt de la statue.
Il constate aussi qu'il n'y aucune trace d'effraction dans la maison. The Summoner's Tale. Dehors les seules empreintes que l'on peut relever sont celles qui mènent à la statue. Le narrateur apprend ensuite de la bouche du procureur que la mariée est devenue folle. Free Eassays. Il lui dévoile la déposition qu'elle a faite : elle s'est couchée la première. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Puis elle a entendu quelqu'un pénétrer dans la chambre . Free Eassays. Elle a pensé que c'était son mari. Summary. Cette personne s'est couchée dans le lit et elle a senti la présence d'un corps glacé. Paradigm. Plus tard une seconde personne est entrée dans la chambre, qui cette fois lui a dit ces quelques mots : Bonsoir ma petite femme. Tale Summary. La jeune mariée a vu alors la statue qui était dans son lit enserrer son mari jusqu'à l'étouffer. Communication. La jeune femme s'est alors évanouie et n'a retrouvé ses esprits qu'au petit matin. The Summoner's. Elle a alors vu la statue quitter la chambre. Le procureur convoque ensuite le capitaine de l'équipe espagnole.
Ce dernier récuse l'accusation et fournit au procureur un alibi incontestable. Broken Glasses Flies. Le narrateur, craignant pour sa réputation, refuse d'explorer la piste surnaturelle. Après l'enterrement, le narrateur quitte Ille et rentre à Paris. Tale. Il apprend quelques mois après que M de Peyrehorade est mort lui aussi et que Mme de Peyrehorade a décidé de faire fondre la statue pour en faire une cloche. Of Behaviorism. Visiblement ceci n'a pas suffi à faire disparaître la malédiction, car depuis que cette cloche sonne, les vignes d'Ille ont déjà gelé deux fois.
Contexte de l'écriture de la Vénus d'Ille. Nouvelle de Prosper Mérimée (1837) Mérimée a eu l'idée de cette nouvelle lors de son voyage dans le Roussillon en 1834. The Summoner's. Il y avait découvert un site antique où des fouilles archéologiques avaient révélé un temple antique dédié à Vénus. Referencing Personal Communication. Mêlant imagination et érudition (Mérimée a été inspecteur des Monuments Historiques), il nous offre avec la Vénus d'Ille , l'une des plus célèbres de ses Nouvelles fantastiques. The Summoner's Tale. Dans sa correspondance, Mérimée évoque une histoire de revenants : c'est suivant moi, mon chef d'œuvre . Ille-sur-la-Têt est une petite ville de Catalogne, située sur la route de Perpignan à Prades, à 24 km à l'ouest de Perpignan. Paradigm Sociology. Mérimée a visité cette région au cours de son voyage dans le midi de la France entre le 12 et le 14 novembre 1834.
Archéologue parisien, il n'est jamais nommé dans le récit. The Summoner's Summary. Il est accueilli très cordialement par M. Referencing Personal Communication. de Peyrehorade, antiquaire à Ille, mais il ne peut s'empêcher de regarder ces honnêtes provinciaux avec une certaine condescendance. The Summoner's. Alors qu'il souhaitait simplement satisfaire sa passion pour l'archéologie, le narrateur se retrouve, malgré lui, plongé au cœur d'un drame. Notable cultivé d'Ille, M. Free Eassays. de Peyrehorade est antiquaire. Tale Summary. C'est lui qui accueille très chaleureusement le narrateur. Of Behaviorism. C'est un bourgeois de province, qui se prendrait bien volontiers pour un savant. Tale Summary. Il est amoureux d'une statue de Vénus découverte récemment, dans ses terres. Of The. Il mourra quelques mois après la mort de son fils, sans doute de chagrin. C'est le fils de M. The Summoner's Tale Summary. de Peyrehorade. Lord. Il doit épouser, le lendemain de l'arrivée du narrateur, Mlle de Puygarrig, une jeune fille fortunée de la région.
Le jour de son mariage, il passe bien imprudemment sa bague au doigt de la statue. The Summoner's Summary. Il en mourra. Mlle de Puygarrig, une jeune fille fortunée de la région. Free Eassays. Elle est belle et raffinée. The Summoner's Tale Summary. Elle devient Mme Alphonse, en épousant le fils Peyrehorade. Of Behaviorism. Elle perdra dans la tragédie son mari et selon les témoins son équilibre mental.
L'épouse de M. The Summoner's. de Peyrehorade. Lord Of The Flies. Elle incarne l'étroitesse d'esprit de la bourgeoisie provinciale . The Summoner's. A la différence de son mari qui est subjugué par la Vénus, elle, se méfie : Savez vous (dit M. Grand Matrix. de Peyrehorade au narrateur), que ma femme voulait que je fondisse ma statue pour en faire une cloche à l'église ? ). A la fin du récit son fils et son mari sont morts, et Mme de Peyrehorade fait fondre la statue pour en faire une cloche . Quelques jugements sur Mérimée et ses nouvelles. Mérimée, agnostique et qui n'a jamais été baptisé, nourri de Voltaire, des Encyclopédistes et des Idéologues, rivalisant avec son ami Stendhal de sarcasmes contre l'Eglise, les prêtres et toutes les religions, affichait l'impiété, un matérialisme intrépide, une confiance hautaine dans la science et la raison. Tale Summary. En fait, il n'est sûr de rien, il est torturé par le doute, obsédé par une présence qu'il n'appelle pas Dieu parce qu'il se refuse au dogme comme à la révélation, mais qu'il décèle dans les forces mystérieuses de l'Univers, dans la toute puissance du destin, dans l'innommable comme dans l'ineffable . Strategy. Stendhal, lui, n'avait aucune inquiétude religieuse ni métaphysique : aussi n'a-t-il jamais écrit de conte fantastique . The Summoner's Tale. Pour en rêver, ne fût-ce qu'un seul, il faut avoir le sens du mystère, de l'au-delà, d'une transcendance de quelque nature qu'elle soit. Marcel Schneider, La littérature fantastique en France , Fayard, 1964. Il sait faire vingt pages, où les romantiques s'évertuent à souffler un volume. Harvard Referencing Personal. Aussi quelle plénitude dans cette brièveté.
Un paysage est complet en cinq ou six lignes. Tale Summary. Les caractères se dessinent par une action significative, que le romancier a su choisir en faisant abstraction du reste. Il est simple aussi : ni sensibilité, ni grandes phrases; un ton uni, comme celui d'un homme de bonne compagnie qui ne hausse jamais la voix. Declaration Of Independence. On peut imaginer l'effet de cette voix douce et sans accent quand elle raconte les pires atrocités. Tale. Car Mérimée est cruel, il conte avec sérénité toutes sortes de crimes, de lâchetés et de vices, les histoires les plus répugnantes ou les plus sanglantes; ne croyant ni à l'homme ni à la vie, il choisit les sujets où son froid mépris trouve le mieux à se satisfaire. Gustave Lanson, Histoire de la Littérature française , 1894, Hachette. Thierry Ozwald, Colomba, La Vénus d'Ille (Nathan) Michel Viegnes, Colomba, La Vénus d'Ille (Hatier) Kléber Haedens Une Histoire de la Littérature française , Grasset 1970.
Dictionnaire de la Littérature française du XXème siècle (Albin Michel, Encyclopaedia Universalis) Le Robert des Grands Ecrivains de langue française. Achetez des livres à propos de merimee venus chez l'un de nos partenaires. Retrouvez les grands moments. du Festival de Cannes Molière, ce grand peintre de l'homme tel qu'il est. Free Eassays. Shakespeare seul a enfanté une humanité aussi large et aussi vivante.
Emile Zola, 1881. Aujourd'hui, maman est morte. The Summoner's Summary. Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas. Of Behaviorism. J'ai reçu un télégramme de l'asile : Mère décédée. The Summoner's Tale. Enterrement demain. Harvard Referencing Personal Communication. Sentiments distingués.
Cela ne veut rien dire. Summary. C'était peut-être hier. Paradigm Sociology. mais il y a au monde une chose sainte et sublime, c'est l'union de deux de ces êtres si imparfaits et si affreux. The Summoner's Summary. On est souvent trompé en amour, souvent blessé et souvent malheureux; mais on sociology aime, et quand on tale est sur le bord de sa tombe, on sociology se retourne pour regarder en arrière et on tale summary se dit : j'ai souffert souvent, je me suis trompé quelquefois, mais j'ai aimé. Many Of The Ideas Declaration Of Independence Based On. C'est moi qui ai vécu, et non pas un être factice créé par mon orgueil et mon ennui. The Summoner's Summary. Alfred de Musset.
Dcouvrez sur aLaLettre un rsum de Candide de Voltaire.