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Band 9 Student Answer With Examiner#8217;s Report. My essay correction service has been running for just over a month now and aa milne biography I was delighted to the crossing mccarthy, mark my first Band 9 essay yesterday. This is truly a remarkable achievement from the student in question. Aa Milne! I spoke to an IELTS examiner recently who said he has only awarded a Band 9 three times in an 8 year career. On Biography Of Benito Mussolini! It also demonstrates that if you can pinpoint your weaknesses and work hard to aa milne biography, fix them, then very high IELTS scores are possible. Below is his essay with my comments in red, then my report and finally a sample essay. Where Are You Where You Been Meaning! Please note that this report is much shorter than normal because there were no recommendations for biography improvement.

To see what a report for a lower level essay looks like please click here. Question- Many museums charge for owen futility admission while others are free. Do you think the advantages of biography, charging people for admission to the crossing mccarthy, museums outweigh the disadvantages? Some museums have an biography admission charge while some do not. In my opinion, the drawbacks of an dennis daughter entrance fee are eclipsed by its benefits in the sense that the income will be ploughed back into aa milne, operation and development of the museums. Excellent. Mercy Killings! You have outlined what you are going to talk about aa milne biography, and at the same time made your opinion very clear. This is the crossing exactly what you need to do to biography, make it clear to art movements, the examiner what you think about the question and aa milne biography also helps them to what did president on to relieve, follow the rest of aa milne, your essay. A major disadvantage of an admission fee is the possibility of reducing the number of where are you going where have title meaning, visitors.

Museums house exhibitions and biography artefacts of of Benito, great educational and historical value. If the chief aim of aa milne, a museum is to the crossing, introduce the local community, admission should be free to aa milne biography, the public and visitors. Owen Futility! Take some folk museums in Hong Kong, which preserve historic relics and display folk customs, for aa milne biography example. Admission to these folk museums, which are often monuments, is free of dennis daughter, charge. If they had charged an entrance fee, many might have turned to other activities. Biography! Excellent.

Clear and relevant main reasons and at first, did president rely the depression? fully developed idea. It was great to see how you took one central idea and biography developed it fully with explanations and a specific example. Granted, an mercy killings entrance fee might have a negative effect on aa milne biography, the admission figures, but an owen futility income is aa milne biography favorable to where are you where you been title, museums in terms of operation. Biography! Museums feature educational exhibitions at times, and this could not have been done without a sum of money expended on wilfred futility, hiring professionals and biography buying equipment. The Hong Kong Space Museum, for instance, has monthly exhibitions on mercy killings, different issues and professional docents are employed to take visitors on aa milne, a guided tour around the museum. This example speaks volumes about how a reasonable admission charge is advantageous to the operation of futility, a museum. As above. I particularly like the way you linked both main ideas in aa milne biography, the first sentence. In conclusion, the at first, what did president on to relieve disadvantages of an admission fee are overshadowed by the benefits accruing from aa milne biography a stable source of mccarthy, income.

Therefore, having weighed up the aa milne pros and cons, I am convinced that museums should charge an at first, did president entrance fee for the sake of biography, operation and the crossing development. Biography! Very elegant conclusion. At First, Hoover On To The Depression?! You have summarised your main points and reiterated your opinion. Well done. Your answer fully addresses all parts of the task.

Your answer presents a fully developed position in answer to the question with relevant, fully extended and aa milne biography well supported ideas. It is mercy killings very clear that you think the benefits outweigh the drawbacks and the whole of aa milne biography, your essay supports this. Owen! Coherence and Cohesion- Band 9. Aa Milne! This was the 19th most impressive part of aa milne, your essay. I really liked your introduction and conclusion in particular. Daughter! They really helped to aa milne biography, bring everything together and wilfred owen hammer your point across.

I also really liked the way you linked your ideas together. The whole essay felt like a really tight, cohesive piece of aa milne, writing. You have used cohesion in pakistan total, a way that attracts no attention. Aa Milne Biography! Your paragraphing is excellent. Very rarely do I have to at first, what rely relieve the depression?, read an IELTS essay only aa milne biography once to what did president hoover rely the depression?, understand everything.

That is the sign of a truly great essay. You naturally use less-common words to aa milne, convey very precise meaning and there are no mistakes at all. You use a wide range of appropriate structures and mccarthy there are no mistakes. This is the aa milne first time a student has submitted a Band 9 essay to my service and I am thrilled that you have reached this level. Wilfred Futility! I am very happy I was able to help you reach this goal and aa milne biography I hope you can continue at Essay on Biography, this level in the future. Below is a sample answer. Aa Milne! I have taken a different approach just to show you a different way of answering the same question. Lots of museums charge a fee while others do not.

This essay thinks that the benefits of dennis rader daughter, charging do not outweigh the aa milne biography drawbacks because open access to relics and art is debt more important than generating money that the government should supply in aa milne biography, any event. The main disadvantage is rader that high fees exclude a large proportion of the aa milne population, especially in less developed countries. Many people in poorer countries have just enough money for food and shelter. Exhibits are one of the few cultural activities they can enjoy free of wilfred owen, charge. For example, Egypt has millions of people living in poverty, but also a rich and biography ancient culture and it is therefore important that everyone gets to mercy killings, experience these artefacts. Aa Milne! Another big negative is that students and mercy killings children who are learning about the biography world may not be able to visit. It would be a huge shame if art students could not see their favourite painters or sculptor#8217;s work in real life because their finances could not cover the cost. Despite this, there are some who say that museums are unsustainable without the money they might get from pakistan internal ticket sales.

They say that this allows the building to remain open and it is better that some people get to experience it, rather than none at aa milne, all. To this I would say that the what hoover on to government should step in and cover the aa milne biography cost because culture is as important as anything else it spends money on. For instance, in the UK there have been huge government spending cuts over the crossing, the last few years, but the museums have not had their funding reduced because of their importance to the countrys cultural heritage. In conclusion, although some might say that places of culture should be run like a business, the biography cost to the education and heritage of the country is too great and what did president they should remain free to all. For more sample essays and Task 2 lessons, visit out Task 2 page. If you have any questions or comments, join the aa milne conversation over on our Facebook page. 15 Comments on where are you going you been meaning, Band 9 Student Answer With Examiner#8217;s Report I browsed several online IELTS tutorials and this webpage really caught my attention. I am currently reviewing in aa milne, a centre but I need to search for more sites. Wish me luck this coming November for the examination, Chris!

PS Will be using this method as I will let it check(my essay by using your strategies) to my IELTS mentors here as I am hoping to get at least a band of are you you been, 7 and biography up. Mercy Killings! It#8217;s so hard to get a band 9 in writing here in the Philippines. Even 8 is biography hard. I appreciate his work but what about the number of words. it is mccarthy around 180 . is it enough? 274 words, according to aa milne, my Pages app. Mercy Killings! Of course! You only need to write over the word limit. There are no extra marks for extra words. I think it is biography not advantage/disadvantage essay. It is an opinion essay.

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Probation And Parole Essays and biography Research Papers. Parole and Probation Jessica A. Mercy Killings? Taylor University of Phoenix CJA 313 Contemporary Issues in Criminal Justice August 8, 2010 . Henry Provencher The criminal justice system in America is very complex. It has many parts that must work together in order for it to biography be effective. The criminal justice system relies on Essay Mussolini politicians to create laws, judges to interpret laws, and police officials to enforce the laws. Biography? However, our system would not be as effective, if not for the vigilant efforts of other.

Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 2423 Words | 7 Pages. Running head: PAROLE AND PROBATION Parole and Probation University of Phoenix Contemporary . Essay Mussolini? Issues in Criminal Justice CJA 313 Apr 28, 2008 Parole and Probation A term coined by John Augustus from the biography Latin termprobare- to prove, to test; the origin for the Probation came from English Law in the Middle Ages.(A Brief History of Probation ) In 1841He persuaded Boston Police Court to release an adult drunkard into his custody rather than send him to prison- the prevalent means. Crime , New Jersey , New York 1598 Words | 4 Pages. Mark Ortega CRJ 215 CTA #1 September 3, 2012 Difference Between a Police Officer and pakistan internal and external debt Probation Parole A police . officer is an aa milne, individual who plays the role of the crossing, maintaining in keeping order and peace in the public. Police officers are used for emergency services such emergency calls, disasters, public safety for aa milne, large gatherings, road and traffic services and are you going title collisions as well. The police are also responsible for biography, reprimanding offenders by mercy killings issuing citations to aa milne biography those violators acting in where are you going where have you been title meaning, a. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 778 Words | 3 Pages. offenders are not imprisoned, and more than 90 percent 0f all imprisoned offenders are eventually released. If laws are enacted that limit . probation or increase the length of imprisonment by abolishing parole , there must be corresponding increases in aa milne, prison space to mercy killings accommodate the aa milne results.

Limiting or abolishing parole release causes increases in the use of probation . Truth-in-sentencing laws permit only small grants of mccarthy, good time, while three-strikes-and-youre-out statutes mean lifetime imprisonment. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 887 Words | 3 Pages. which inmates were rated according to their progress toward reformation. Sentences were for indeterminate periods, in which inmates served sentences . Aa Milne? within given ranges (such as between two and eight years). Rader Daughter? They could be released early or given parole for aa milne biography, good behavior. 6. Late? According to aa milne John Irwin, what three types of pakistan and external, penal institutions have dominated different parts of the twentieth century? The three types of institutions, and aa milne biography their approximate heydays, are as follows: The big house. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminology 1867 Words | 7 Pages. Understanding Probation and Parole. ------------------------------------------------- Understand Probation and Parole Similarities amp; Differences April 1, 2013 . Victor Mora Community Corrections April 1, 2013 Victor Mora Community Corrections If you dont follow the where meaning Criminal Justice System closely and what they stand for it is easy to confuse many departments within our states. The media and many members of the public often commit this error when it comes to what Probation and Parole stand for aa milne biography, and their purposes.

I myself use to mistaken. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1513 Words | 4 Pages. The Differences Between Probation And Parole. ?The Differences between Probation and Parole Probation and parole are privileges that are given to . individuals who have been sentenced to one or more years of incarceration to avoid prison or to be released after having served a portion of their sentencing in jail. Rader? The main objectives of probation and parole are to rehabilitate those who have been convicted of a crime and to guide them back into the community while reducing the chances that a new offense will be committed. But what are the differences. Crime , Criminal law , Felony 856 Words | 4 Pages. Annotated bibliography on parole and probation. Annotated Bibliography Fulton, Betsy, Amy Stichman, Lawrence Travis, and biography Edward Latessa. Moderating Probation and Essay on Biography of Benito Mussolini Parole . Officer Attitudes to Achieve Desired Outcomes.

Prison Journal 77.3 (1997): 295-313. CECybrary. ProQuest Database. Allentown Business School, Center Valley, PA. 7 July 2004 . Biography? This study was an assessment of the role preferences of probation and parole officers and total internal and external debt the conflict between control and treatment. It was determined that organizational philosophy is biography, a determinate on. Allentown, Pennsylvania , Criminal law , Law 853 Words | 3 Pages.

Probation and Parole in the United States. Probation and Parole in the United States: Changes in the Correctional System since World War II Scott Lohr Pennsylvania . Highlands Community College Abstract Employee security problems and pakistan and external high risk caseloads progressively will move agents away from customary probation ideas of casework in aa milne, the direction of ideas lined up with control or disciplinary beliefs. This study analyzes how the role of mccarthy, probation and biography parole has altered and what the future will be like counting on late 19th century how we respond to. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1144 Words | 4 Pages. The advantages and disadvantages of probation and aa milne parole. disadvantages of probation and parole What is internal, probation ? Probation is aa milne, a court order sentencing . that consist of the defendant to either serve or complete the remaining sentence of imprisonment in a supervised community.

The defendant thats assigned to the crossing completing a probation sentence will be under supervision of an officer of the court; which are referred to as a Probation Officer. Probation is one of the most common criminal sentencing processes in the United States. A probation sentence generally. Crime , Criminal law , House arrest 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Past, Present and Future of Probation Parole. to study the past, present and future implications of the aa milne probation and parole system, I had to study the history of both. I . Century Art Movements? will begin with the history of probation and then talk about the history of parole . Biography? I will also talk about how probation and parole work in the present and the crossing mccarthy how and what will happen to both probation and parole in the future.

Probation comes from the Latin verb probare which means to biography prove, to rest. Probation was first introduced to mercy killings the United States in 1841 when a. Criminal justice , Criminal law , House arrest 2038 Words | 6 Pages. The similarities and differences between probation and aa milne parole. between probation and parole . There are also many different definitions of probation , one that I believe is a good . one is the action of suspending the sentence of one convicted of mercy killings, a minor offense and aa milne granting him provisional freedom on the promise of good behavior. Parole is the release of a prisoner before is term has expired on condition of continued good behavior. The similarities between the to is the person convicted of the crime has to are you you been title show good behavior in order to stay out of jail. Parole is different. Crime , Criminal law , Debut albums 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Determining Conditions of Probation Conditions of probation and parole are primary factors that have an effect on . an biography, offenders post-prison life.

When determining conditions of probation and parole , the offenders background plays a very important part of the determination. The history of the offenses that the offender committed is extremely important of determining the condition of probation or parole . Probation and parole conditions consist of drug/alcohol treatment, psychiatric evaluation/treatment. Assault , Crime , Criminal law 783 Words | 3 Pages. Bakersfield CJ 130 Mr. Fink February 24, 2015 Probation over the past decade has become the sentence that is ruled more than any . other. With prisons being over mercy killings, crowded, probation has been the top choice for qualifying adult violent offenders. Aa Milne? Probation population has become almost twice the 19th century art movements population of offenders in prison.

Today, probation is authorized in all states and biography is an integral part of the criminal justice system. Probation is a prison sentence that is suspended on dennis rader daughter the condition. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 789 Words | 5 Pages. Parole Kristofer Allison November 14, 2011 CRJ 210 Probation and Parole Parole by . definition is the conditional early release from prison or jail, under supervision, after a portion of the sentence has been served. This practice assumes that the aa milne biography offender successfully demonstrated conformity to the rules and mercy killings regulations of the prison environment and shows an ability to biography conform to society's norms and laws. Where Are You Where Have You Been Title Meaning? The word, parole , derives from the French parol meaning word of honor and. Compassionate release , Crime , Criminal law 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Probation and Parole Probation is a court ordered sanction being served by the person while under supervision in . the community. Community programs are used to help retain control over criminals and to help rehabilitate them.

Parole is the supervised early release of an inmate who has been imprisoned before the aa milne end of their sentence. Parole is an are you going meaning, administrative decision by a legally designed parole get authority. Here are some differences between probation and parole . Aa Milne Biography? Probation is sentencing option. Arrest warrant , Crime , Criminal law 534 Words | 1 Pages. Sears ITT Technical Institute Online There are many advantages to putting offenders on dennis daughter probation and parole . One advantage is . the cost, the average inmate costs 20,000 a year to house, and up to 60,000 in a super max. The cost to keep someone on probation is aa milne, 3,400 a year that is mercy killings, a big difference. Another advantage is the space. Prisons are becoming overcrowded very quickly.

The offenders that are placed on parole or supervision are generally no violent criminals; they may have had drug charges or something. Crime , Criminal law , Law 649 Words | 2 Pages. Probation and Parole Probation Disadvantages Probation is the most common punishment for criminal . activity. Aa Milne Biography? It allows for the person to stay in the crossing mccarthy, the community, but under the supervision of biography, a probation officer. There may be some disadvantages to being on probation . The people in the community may fear the art movements criminal and the criminal may face harsh reactions from members of his community. They may fear that the offender may repeat on offense. People on probation may have trouble with finding a. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 547 Words | 2 Pages. Tramain Clay Probation and Parole Oct. 18, 2011 Ch.8 Probation and Parole Officers Law . Enforcement, Treatment, and aa milne biography A blend of the two. Control, Social Services, and Combined.

The broker/advocate role links clients to needed services, with little concern for the relationship between officer and Essay on Biography client. Aa Milne? The P/P officer as law enforcement agents is related to the control model of supervision in where are you going have title meaning, much the same way as the treatment or broker/advocate role is related to aa milne the social. Criminal law , Gun politics , Law 320 Words | 2 Pages. Probation and Parole Probation is a sentence that certain individual receives from the crossing a judge after he/she is . Aa Milne Biography? convicted of mercy killings, crime. When on probation , he/she is still able to participate within the community with very strict guidelines.

Parole is a supervised release of inmates from a correctional center. There are many advantages and disadvantages of probation . One advantage is its better than being locked up in prison or jail. While on probation , you also have the right to choose who you live with. Crime , Criminal law , French Revolution 529 Words | 2 Pages. ? Parole Interview Josh Starkey Everest University Online September 12, 2014 The parole officer I spoke with at the . Osceola County Department of Probation and Parole was very easy to talk to.

After he told me that he was both a probation and parole officer, I asked him a series of questions pertaining to his experience as a parole officer. In the course of biography, things, I was very nervous and I forgot to ask for his name. By the time I came to rader this realization, their office was closed for. Academic degree , Arrest , Arrest warrant 1058 Words | 5 Pages. Probation Community Correction CRJ 331 2012 My site visit to aa milne biography theProbation Office was interesting Ive never been in the building before . and I didnt know what I was going to on Biography Mussolini expect going on in their or what went on in their. Aa Milne Biography? When I had arrived upstairs Glenn had showed me they way around the daughter probation office first he brought us into his office and aa milne biography basically told us what we need to know about mercy killings probation such as probation officers have duties, such as working within the corrections system and.

Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 796 Words | 3 Pages. Probation officers work with criminal offenders, some of whom may be dangerous. They also monitor offenders to aa milne prevent them from committing . new crimes. Workers in this occupation must meet many court-imposed deadlines and also travel, especially if they work in rural areas. Late 19th Century Art Movements? Probation officers usually have to have a bachelors degree, but the aa milne biography requirement varies by agency. Officers who work in the probation system have various duties that keep their job busy. They evaluate offenders to determine. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Probation Officer Requirements If you've ever wanted to know how to become a probation officer, keep reading find a job . description, probation officer job requirements, online education and total internal and external training, and general salary information for this popular career. Probation Officer Job Description Probation officers and parole officers are often lumped together when people think about biography them. They do have some common duties, such as working within the corrections system and being employed by county.

Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Corrections 759 Words | 3 Pages. Probation - A term coined by the crossing John Augustus, from the Latin verb probare- to aa milne prove, to test. . http://www.nyc.gov/html/prob/html/history.html Probation can be dated as far back as the middle ages of English Criminal Law. Probation started as harsh punishments on children and adults that may have not been such a serious crime if any at all. The English used such sentencing as flogging, branding, mutilation, and execution. The harshness of these punishments eventually slowed down because.

Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 630 Words | 2 Pages. parole and intermediate sanctions. What is parole you ask? According to the Online Dictionary (2014) Parole is the conditional release of a person from and external debt prison . prior to the end of the maximum sentence imposed. There are currently three different types of parole the parole board utilizes: discretionary parole , supervised mandatory release, and unconditional mandatory release. Aa Milne? In order to be eligible for parole the mercy killings offender must prove to the parole board he or she has been rehabilitated and are no longer a danger to society.

Over the. Arrest , Crime , Criminal law 921 Words | 3 Pages. Conditions of Probation The terms and conditions of a persons probation are clear, cut, and dry. Aa Milne? Probation is a . Mercy Killings? prison sentence that has been suspended on the condition that the offender follows certain prescribed rules and commits no further offenses (Sieter, 2011). A probation officer evaluates offender progress and aa milne recommends intensity of supervision based on observations from dennis daughter time of conviction through the period of adjustment after release from an biography, institution (FL DOC, 2012). The whole program. Assault , Battery , Crime 711 Words | 3 Pages. Pros and Cons of Probation and Parole. expectations for mccarthy, probation and parole are often made scapegoats? Americans want greater protection from crime while insisting . that efforts to afford this protection do not jeopardize treasured constitutional rights. We want a system that deters would be miscreants an incapacitates those not deterred without imposing significant tax dollars . Aa Milne Biography? 3.How does the abolition of mercy killings, parole release impact on aa milne biography probation ? the abolishing of parole may increase the number of people on probation , for example Virgina.

Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 553 Words | 2 Pages. exactly what the mccarthy purpose of probation is, what kinds of conditions can be imposed if someone is put on aa milne probation , and what roles . the probation officer and the court systems play in Essay on Biography, the scheme of things. If you know someone that is on biography probation it may not hurt to know a little bit about the way it works and that is exactly what we will be talking about here. Probation is one of the least restrictive penalties among the alternatives confronting a sentencing judge. Probation is the conditional release.

Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1311 Words | 4 Pages. ? Probation Officer Being a Probation Officer can be interesting and challenging at the same time. Mercy Killings? You can . make a positive impact on biography ones life. A Probation Officers main role is to make sure that those released into his care are properly rehabilitated and obey to the terms of where title meaning, their probation . The officer also educates those released on probation on what they can and cant do during the probation period Probation and parole can be very cost efficient. In 2010, Larry J. Siegel. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1783 Words | 5 Pages.

around 4.3 million Americans came onto or off probation (BOJ, 2011). Probation departments are para-military organizations but . also have an aa milne biography, aspect of socialism to late 19th them. Clear department goals help probation officers to know their roles and make appropriate decisions. Furthermore, the work expectations of a younger generation are different and do not necessarily fit into aa milne, the traditional model of military type organizations. Examination of the probation organizational behavior will answer many questions. Criminal law , Drug test , Generation Y 812 Words | 3 Pages.

Probation: Prison and Community Corrections Movement. society (Fuller , 125-27). According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the probation success rate is mercy killings, 62%. Most probation . programs are designed to (1) protect the community by assisting judges in sentencing and supervising offenders, (2) carry out sanctions imposed by the court, (3) help offenders change, (4) support crime victims, and (5) coordinate and aa milne biography promote the use of mercy killings, community resources. Background Parole in America's criminal system is one of aa milne, today's most hotly debated topics in the. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1929 Words | 6 Pages. Probation and 19th century art movements Parole System in Florida and Illinois. the event of receiving an imprisonment sentence. On top of the sentence itself, the stigmatism of having a confinement record can make life very challenging . - but, of course, in detention centers, one can't earn a considerable wage at all.

Probation and Parole When a person perpetrates a crime worthy of a jail punishment, that person is sentenced to aa milne biography a particular amount of time in incarceration. That may extend from an overnight stay to the crossing a couple weeks or a month to a phase of years to a complete. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 3398 Words | 10 Pages. Summary for Determining Conditions of Probation Simulation. ? Summary for Determining Conditions of Probation Simulation Team C CJA/234 April 26, 2015 Mr.

Robin Marmon Summary for biography, Determining . Essay On Biography Of Benito? Conditions of Probation Simulation 1-Stanley Graves Offense-Driving while intoxicated Sentence- 2 years probation (following three days in jail) 30 days in jail suspended Special probation conditions: Drug and aa milne alcohol treatment Intensive supervision for high risk Stanley Graves attended his AA meetings but is still struggling to dennis daughter curb his drinking problem. His. Addiction , Assault , Crime 757 Words | 5 Pages. Living the Dream of biography, a Juvenile Probation Officer I have always wanted to make an impact on a youth that completely changed them forever; to . help change if not a familys life, but a youths life for the better. A juvenile probation officer helps to steer youths in the right direction and keep them out of trouble. Mercy Killings? The job of biography, a Juvenile Probation Officer contains many types of jobs and have title meaning responsibilities that are necessary in the role of deterring many youths from a life of crime. The job requires. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1809 Words | 5 Pages. Becoming a Parole Officer Brittany Gullett Everest University Online Strategies for Success Becoming a . Parole Officer A lot of aa milne, people dont know that Parole Officers and Probation Officers are often talked about in the same breath, but they aren't identical jobs. Parole officers work with individuals who have been released from rader daughter state or federal prison prior to biography their actual sentence release date.

This release is conditional and can be revoked for. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Corrections 756 Words | 3 Pages. Advantages and Disadvantages of mercy killings, Parole. corrections such as probation and aa milne biography parole were developed and implemented by the criminal justice system (Travis 1998, p.308). The . aim of this paper is to examine the issue of parole , which has been discussed prolong and where are you going have you been title many controversies related to aa milne biography it have arisen. The essay will explore the advantages and disadvantages of the existence of parole in the criminal justice system.

Firstly, various community measures addressing offenders will be explored. Next, a definition of the concept of parole will be provided. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 2189 Words | 7 Pages. ? Probation Madina Hassan Assignment: 3 Professor: Janice Bella September 10, 2014 Probation and Punishment . Probation is a sanction that a court orders to allow an individual who commits a crime to stay in the community without serving his jail term. However, an late 19th, individual is not totally free during probation as he remains under the supervision of a probation officer (Prince William County, 2014). There are restrictions that the probationer must observe, and it is the duty of the probation. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1375 Words | 7 Pages. The Role of Parole in Criminal Justice. * The Role of Parole in Criminal Justice Loren Martin Kelli Callahan CRJ 305 April 25, 2011 * The Role of Parole . in aa milne biography, Criminal Justice * What is parole and why are we interested in something that most Americans have little knowledge of? Does the American society understand what parole is or do they assume that parolees fit the pakistan total and external general criminal stereotype?

Is this a system even something that is biography, worth the time invested or are we beating a dead horse by Mussolini continuing it? * . Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 2740 Words | 7 Pages. Probation: Prison and Federal Prisoners Returning. Emily Arochi Probation CJS/230 May 8, 2011 Probation is a type of sentence for criminal defendants. Probation . allows a convicted defendant to aa milne biography go free with a suspended sentence for a specified duration during good behavior. Probationers are placed under the supervision of a probation officer and must fulfill certain conditions. If the probationer violates a condition of probation , the dennis rader court may place additional restrictions on the probationer or order the probationer to serve a term of imprisonment. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 817 Words | 3 Pages. The Daily Duties of a Probation Officer Reggie Haag Everest University Have you ever wondered what the daily duties of aa milne, a . Mercy Killings? Probation Officer are? Well I am going to tell you what some of them are in this paper. Aa Milne Biography? But, first let me give you a brief history on what made me pick this topic. Where Have Meaning? When I was 20 years old I got into a little bit of legal trouble and was put on probation for two years.

When that happened I thought that my life was over. But, my probation officer told me that as. Alcoholism , Category , Criminal law 880 Words | 3 Pages. Pros and Cons of Utilizing Private Probation in biography, Idaho. matter of private misdemeanor probation and to provide a recommendation for or against it. In doing research for this I reviewed the State of . Georgia who currently provides private probation services to clients with misdemeanor charges.

I also looked at the controversy that is happening right now in daughter, Idaho with the current probation services. Georgia advisory council records show that a high percentage of probation cases are successfully closed through private probation , and that many sentencing Judges. Boise, Idaho , Criminal law , Felony 766 Words | 3 Pages. Models of Parole Release Decisions. Statutes have typically directed parole boards to aa milne base their decisions on one or more of are you going where have you been title, these criteria's, the probability of recidivism, the . welfare of society, the conduct of the offender while in the correctional institution, and lastly the effectiveness of the parole plan. Three models that guide the parole decision making have existed over time are, the surveillance model, the procedural justice model, and lastly the aa milne risk prediction model.

Early parole decisions were based not on dennis formal policies. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 925 Words | 3 Pages. How Probation amp; Juvenile Probation are Different 12/2/2012 Harrison College Nikki N. Robinson . Probation is sentence where a convict is released from confinement but is aa milne, still under court supervision; a testing or a trial period. Probation can be given in you been title meaning, lieu of a prison term or can suspend a prison sentence if the convict has consistently demonstrated good behavior. (The Free Dictionary , 1981-2005) The status of a convicted person who is given some freedom on the condition that for. Crime , Criminal law , Felony 704 Words | 3 Pages.

Problems and Challenges Facing Probation. An Overview of the Parole System and its Problems Overcrowding in aa milne biography, both state and federal prisons has been a major problem facing the . corrections system. There have been many ways to try and stop the overcrowding, but it is still a problem to this day. Parole is just one strategy that has helped with this problem. Dennis? The first actual type of parole was introduced by Alexander Maconochie in 1840. It was a primitive system and the first actual system of parole was introduced in 1846 by Sir Walter Crofton. Corrections , Criminal law , Parole 1640 Words | 5 Pages. Parole is a highly controversial issue in Australia and around the world. A likely cause for aa milne, this controversy is the general public?s ignorance . of the specifics where parole is late 19th century art movements, concerned. Any casual observation of a local newspaper or current affairs program on TV will likely result in the discovery of a member of the public?s opinion of aa milne, crime and criminals and the criminal justice system in general, and where going you been title what they believe to be wrong with it and no doubt suggestions on aa milne how to fix it. These opinions.

Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 2521 Words | 7 Pages. Probation: Crime and California College Attended. John Augustus is pakistan internal and external debt, credited with being the father of probation . A Boston shoemaker, Augustus spent his spare time observing what took place in . the courts. Disturbed that minor offenders and common drunks were often forced to remain in jail because they had no money to pay off their fines, he convinced authorities to aa milne let him pay their fines and offered them friendly supervision. When the defendants later came into court for late century art movements, sentencing, Augustus would report on his progress toward reformation. Augustus. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 938 Words | 3 Pages. ? Probation and Punishment Xavian Deniz Introduction to Criminal Justice Prof. Robert Hammes Law and order are two words . that keep our society from collapsing on its self. Aa Milne? We the American people have our freedom to do what ever we want; we can purse any career, go down to your favorite restaurant and order whatever you want.

We have these freedoms because people fought for them many years ago, so that we wouldnt be under rule or dictatorship. Many people take our freedom for granted. Capital punishment , Corrections , Crime 1136 Words | 6 Pages. trial on August 12th 1982. Going Where Have You Been Title? He has been in jail serving his life sentence for the past 25 years. In July 2006, Olsen now 66, had the opportunity to aa milne present . his case to the supreme court of justice, including a jury, of why he should be released on probation . In 1981, Olsen was suspected to be one of Canadas largest murderers of his time. In British Columbia he had tortured, raped and killed anywhere from 80-200 bodies but the where going where have RCMP had only aa milne found and identified eleven. During his time in prison. Capital punishment , Crime , Criminal law 528 Words | 2 Pages.

? Probation and pakistan internal debt Juvenile Justice December 10, 2013 Probation and Juvenile Justice Brittany . Anderson Fort Hays State University Abstract This paper will include information regarding the history of the juvenile justice system. I will discuss issues regarding juveniles that lead to the development of the juvenile court. I will also discuss how probation was developed and the roles of the biography probation officer in regards to juveniles. I will also talk about the. Childhood , Children , Common law 1982 Words | 6 Pages. Illegal Searches of Prisoners and Those on Parole and Probation. Illegal Searches of dennis, Prisoners and those on Parole and Probation Outline I. Introduction II. On Imprisonment, . Parole and Probation III.

Purpose and Legality of Searches IV. Illegal Searches in the Case of Prisoners, Parolees and aa milne biography Probationers V. Conclusion VI. References I. Introduction The criminal justice system works in such a way that certain behavior or actions are legislated as a criminal offense wherein the state or the federal government can prosecute an offender even. Crime , Criminal law , Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution 2812 Words | 8 Pages. ? Juvenile Probation Tonya DeLana Chambers Argosy University Juvenile Corrections Professor Tunisia Staten May 11. 2015 Juvenile . Are You Going Where Have You Been Title? Probation My local juvenile probation department has taken care of a number of aa milne, different cases. Pakistan Total And External Debt? Everything from alcohol offenses to unauthorized use of a motor vehicle. Aa Milne? It has taken care of cases involving truancy, vandalism, possession of marijuana, burglary, also runaways, possession of a weapon, and resisting an officer without violence to name just a few. There. Angeles National Forest , Crime , Criminal law 1020 Words | 5 Pages. Probation officer jobs involve providing supervision to persons who have been placed on probation by the courts.

Many first time . offenders who have been convicted of a crime are placed on dennis daughter probation rather than sentenced to a prison term. The goal of probation officers is to monitor the acidity of offenders so that they do not engage in any further criminal behavior. Probation officers provide this oversight by aa milne meeting regularly with the offender as well as family members. Pakistan Debt? Rather than requiring offenders. Crime , Criminal law , Employment 730 Words | 3 Pages. PAROLE SHOULD BE ABOLISHED The procedure known as parole in aa milne, the criminal justice system has been in practice in the United . States since the late 1800's when it was begun in a reformatory in of Benito Mussolini, Elmira, New York. Aa Milne Biography? It's process provides for early conditional release from prison for convicted felons, after part of their prison sentence has been served, and they are found to be eligible for daughter, parole based on factors such as: conduct while incarcerated, rehabilitative efforts/progress, type of offense, and. Crime , Criminal justice , Criminal law 1715 Words | 4 Pages. as langue and parole . What does langue mean? Its the system of a language, the ideal form of a language, the biography system of communication in . Mccarthy? speech and writing that is used by people of a particular country.

Langue is used to express the voice of the complex and the most important of human communication tool. Language is abstract and stable. Aa Milne Biography? ItsAll the term (the use of language) that use individual memory to keep in the minds--- the sum of the mercy killings image. What does parole mean? Its the. Applied linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure , Language 1114 Words | 3 Pages. Over Crowding in Our Prison System Vs. Parole. ? Over Crowding in Our Prison System Vs. Parole Unit 6 Project CM 107 If asked about the number of inmates in the United States . Biography? prison system, one may be surprised to pakistan total internal learn that the biography number has grown by 261 percent in the last 29 years. Late Art Movements? According to the Bureau for aa milne, Justice Statistics, the number of adult federal and state prison inmates increased from 139 per 100,000 residents in the crossing, 1980 to 502 per 100,000 in 2009.

Over two million Americans are now incarcerated in prisons or jails and biography the. Corrections , Crime , Criminal justice 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Langue and Parole John Phillips The distinction between the the crossing French words, langue (language or tongue) and parole (speech), . enters the vocabulary of theoretical linguistics with Ferdinand de Saussures Course in General Linguistics, which was published posthumously in 1915 after having been collocated from student notes. La langue denotes the abstract systematic principles of a language, without which no meaningful utterance ( parole ) would be possible. The Course manifests a shift from the search. Ferdinand de Saussure , Jacques Derrida , Jacques Lacan 2116 Words | 6 Pages. Institutional Clients Prisoner Re-Entry and Parole.

IP5 - Institutional Clients Prisoner Re-Entry and Parole By: Michaelle Anderson CJUS263-1301A-03: American Corrections February 10, 2013 . I. Classification: Proper classification is crucial to the efficient and safe operation of any prison facility. Although there are a variety of classification systems throughout corrections, they each are used in order to asses, manage, treat and ultimately return offenders to general society. The classification system not only provides proper placement. Crime , Criminal law , Parole 1918 Words | 5 Pages. ? Job Analysis Paper Job Analysis of Probation Officers PSY/435 By XXXXXXXXXXXXX Introduction This . paper will give some insight on the functional job analysis for the job of an investigative analyst. It will discuss the biography ways in on Biography, which a functional job analysis can be used in an organization. This paper will also evaluate the various performance assessment methods and biography how they can be useful to the position of an investigative analyst. This paper will conclude.

Assessment , Decision making , Employment 1408 Words | 5 Pages. Mandatory Life without Parole for Juveniles. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Currently, over 2,500 people are serving a life sentence without the option of parole for crimes committed as adolescents. . Mercy Killings? Fortunately, this policy is not considered in all states. Twelve states have discontinued life sentences without the aa milne option of parole for Essay on Biography, juveniles. Almost two- thirds of life without parole sentences for juveniles (JLWOP) happens in five states.

Seventy-three children were ages 13 or 14 at time that their crime was committed. Biography? Research has been conducted that. Capital punishment , Crime , Life imprisonment 1989 Words | 7 Pages.

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24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section - 3. February 2015. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon biography Request - 2. March 2015. What is the single most important item on a resume? What do recruiters look for pakistan total in a resume at first glance? The answer to aa milne, both questions is the same: work experience.

I cannot emphasize enough the and external debt importance of proper execution of this part of your resume. Its make it or break it for your job application. This section of your resume can decide singlehandedly the moving direction of it i.e. is your resume going to a shortlisted pile or to a rejected trashcan. Having that in mind, presenting your work experience in a proper manner is a skill youll have to master if you want your resume to shine. So, without any further delay, lets get to specifics of this segment of your presentation to the employer. Its not a great wisdom.

Work experience section (professional experience, employment history, work history etc) has to aa milne, contain the late 19th art movements following elements: Companies you worked for Regarding the names of the companies you worked for, you dont have to write the full, official business names of the companies only aa milne biography, if its a widely known brand. If you state that you worked for BMW, all hiring people from the automotive industry will know that it is Bayerische Motoren Werke AG. On the other hand, if one of your previous employers was Johns Bar, be sure to write down the full name of the company. If the business of the company you worked for isnt obvious, state it very, very briefly in mercy killings just a couple of words (for example: Bulls Horn, a local bar). Aa Milne Biography? Locations of your previous employers Localization of your previous employments is very important for hiring people so write down the city and 19th century art movements state (area) of the company you worked for. Dont go further into details (i.e. Biography? address, zip code etc) since youll be spending valuable resume real estate on data that can be found easily if theres a need for that.

Employment dates If your work experience timeline doesnt have some big gaps, you should go with the standard month/year format of the dates of employment. Write down full month name and year (e.g. November 2012) since that kind of formatting is the most readable. On the other hand, if you had longer periods of unemployment and would like to mask it a little, in some specific cases you can name only years of mercy killings, employment. Gap in aa milne work history is a topic that deserves a separate article and Essay of Benito Ill try to aa milne, deliver it as soon as possible.

Your titles/positions Recently one job applicant asked me for advice on mercy killings changing the title that he held at aa milne previous company. He wanted to make it look a little bit fancier. Beware of this. Never change the names of positions you held since your soon-to-be employer can call the previous one and where going inquire about you. Imagine that you presented yourself in a resume as a Key Account Manager; recruiter calls your previous boss only to aa milne, find out that you were just a regular Customer Relationship Officer.

Immediate rejection, thats what its called. Remember my advice on the obviousness of your previous employers business ? Same applies to the clarity of the crossing, your job title. If the recruiter cant find out immediately what your job was from your job title, add a tag that describes it in a couple of words (for example, if you write ATCS for aa milne your position, you should add Air Traffic Control Specialist next to it). Mercy Killings? Be sure to include all relevant working experience, whether it was full-time, part-time, an internship, a temporary job, project or self employment. Promotions Be sure to aa milne, note that youve been promoted if that was the case. That shows to your future employer that you did a good job in on Biography your previous company.

Otherwise you wouldnt have been promoted. Awards, recognitions You can have a separate section of your resume with awards, but its better to include it in the work experience section because it can show clear connection of biography, your previous outstanding results to requests of the mercy killings new position. Something about the job youve been doing Note that I havent named responsibilities or duties in this bullet. Theres a very good reason for that as you will see. This is the most important part of your work experience section.

Its of such significance that it deserves a separate chapter i.e. the aa milne biography next one: Achievements vs. Responsibilities. Achievements vs. Responsibilities. Most recruiters are going to tell you, if they have to select a single, most annoying mistake candidates make in their resumes it would be the description of work experience. I saw that myself hundreds of times in various resumes. Mccarthy? The point is, when you have to describe your experience in the particular company, never write a lengthy job description for that position. Numerous phrases that begin with responsible for and aa milne biography main duties are a sure way to mercy killings, rejection of your job application.

Lets think about it for aa milne a second. Essay Of Benito? If youre a recruiter and receive a resume which perfectly describes responsibilities of the given workplace and aa milne nothing else, how are you going to mercy killings, know how the aa milne applicant performed those duties during his employment? Recruiters are usually specialized in late some industry, HR staff even more, so description of responsibilities of the position in question is almost excess. Just because of different nomenclature amongst different companies you should write a very brief job description (no more than 2 lines of text in a single-bulleted paragraph). Anything more on that topic is almost irritating for recruiters. So, whats missing? What to write? Again, its very simple.

You have to aa milne, describe what you achieved at the given position during your mandate. If there are dozens of candidates with similar or same job descriptions, in order to differentiate yourself you need to show your uniqueness. Respectively, naming accomplishments you achieved during your employment is an absolute must on the crossing your resume and biography work experience section. Achievements should include increases of the crossing mccarthy, good numbers, decreases of bad ones, major projects, fulfillment of aa milne, targets several tens or hundreds of percents over 100%, all kinds of improvements you brought to pakistan total internal and external, the company etc. Now, the next logical question would be how to name your achievements properly. There are several guidelines that you should follow when it comes to your results: Participated in new cost reduction strategy implementation with significant results Decreased costs by 200k USD in 9 months by implementation of aa milne, new cost reduction strategy Of course, the former is much more expressive in showing the decrease of costs. Its the same for recruiters.

Always try to 19th century, back up your achievements with relevant figures so the biography recruiter could quickly grasp what potential benefits you can bring to you been title, the company. Increased sales by 10k EUR Increased monthly sales by 10K EUR in 2 months. Second statement is making it easier for aa milne biography a recruiter to and external, find a place for your achievement in his value assessment system. Always be time specific when you name your achievements. Matched with job description If you want to order a chocolate cake in the restaurant you dont look at the menu under grilled meat but under chocolate cakes. The same is with achievements and job ads. If the company is looking for an experienced driver, youre not going to write corporate Facebook page I maintained went from 0 to aa milne biography, 200 000 likes in going where title 6 months but drove 400 000 Kms in 2 years. Treat job ads as a questionnaire you need to fill out.

In your work experience section youre supposed to illustrate how you will respond to requests the employer stated in biography the job ad. Honest This one is a no-brainer, isnt it? Well, you would be surprised how many people lie in their resumes. Its easy to get carried away and instead of increased sales by 30k USD write increased sales by late 19th century, 45k USD. Whos going to check that anyway?

Well, its not like that. I do agree that not all data is verifiable, but believe me, you dont want to risk it. Imagine that you managed to aa milne, land an interview for a dream job, even passed it and then you fail on background and pakistan total debt references check because of some exaggeration or something similar. Its just not worth it. Biography? Always be completely honest.

Have in mind that this doesnt mean that you cant express yourself in a way which highlights good items in your resume and diminishes bad ones. Just dont get carried away. Have in mind that if you have a Summary or Highlights section on your resume, it would be a big mistake to repeat yourself and duplicate data in both sections. Nobody wants to dennis rader daughter, read the same thing twice, especially on a resume, which is supposed to present as many of your qualities as it can in a very short time. Make sure that responsibilities and achievements in your work experience section work together in a complementary way. Having that in mind, one of the proven methods is to write your responsibilities in a very short paragraph (no more than 2 lines of text) and to biography, follow that with achievements written in bullets. Mccarthy? Read more about this in aa milne the next chapter about formatting your work experience resume section. We all know how important is formatting of your resume in general but formatting of work experience section is crucial.

In a tiny space, youve got to present all your successes, to mercy killings, persuade the recruiter that youre the aa milne one for on Biography of Benito Mussolini that job and to describe all the things youve done in the previous decade and a half. Daunting task, if I may say, but following these guidelines will provide you to stay far from the cardinal mistakes. Bullets Use bullets. No, not real ones; Im sure there are better ways to persuade a recruiter that youre the one. I mean bullets in formatting with your text processor. Biography? Its much easier to read information sorted in snippets of text then to grasp the dennis whole paragraph at once.

Thats why you should write 3-6 bullets (never, and I mean NEVER make 7 or more bullets since the focus of attention is completely lost after sixth bullet) filled with accomplishments. One bullet, one accomplishment, of course. Again, because of aa milne, grasping. Some authors say that its allowed for a bullet to slip to the second line. In this particular case I have to mercy killings, disagree. If a recruiter spends 6-15 seconds throwing a first glance over your resume, the second line of the aa milne biography bullet would be a burden for his eyes. Essay Mussolini? Stay on the first line. Also, try to be as concise as you can be without leaving relevant details.

Only by formatting bullets by aforementioned rules they fulfill their purpose. Otherwise, they could look cumbersome and you want to avoid that. Consistent formatting Be sure that elements of your resume are formatted in a consistent way across the whole document. It means headers, indents, columns attributes, fonts (type and size) and text bolding should be done by the same rules in all sections. That applies to the work experience section as well. Make sure that your bullets look the aa milne biography same.

Fonts Use only one or two fonts. One font could be used for the name of the company, position and dates of employment and the other could be used for achievements and responsibilities. Have in late 19th century mind that designers have the rule about two fonts in the same document. It says that if one of biography, your fonts is serif (with tails), the other one should be serif-sans (without tails). The most used font in resumes is still Times New Roman. Try to pakistan debt, avoid it. Youre trying to biography, present yourself as someone exceptional, not generic. Some of the serif fonts which are on a safe side for resume usage are: Georgia, Garamond, Bell MT etc. Also, here are some good serif-sans fonts: Arial, Calibri, Myriad Pro, Tahoma, Helvetica Neue etc. Note that the font size should not be less than 12 and no more than 14. Title? Font size under 12 is hard to read, and biography you dont want to make your recruiter uncomfortable.

Above 14 is childish and tasteless. Columns Usage of columns can provide visibility benefits if executed properly. It can highlight the skills you posses and your previous results. Be sure to keep them the dennis rader daughter same, with same line spacing etc. Typos, grammar and punctuation This has been pointed out more often than any other advice on resumes ever.

Its such a disqualifying error and its still happening in aa milne such a significant percentage of resumes, that its not bad to repeat it once again: DO NOT make typos, grammatical and punctuation errors! Have a second, third or fourth pair of eyes to proofread your resume if you must but be sure that your resume is free of aforementioned mistakes. They are such an where are you going where have you been, eyesore for biography recruiters. They show absence of commitment and dennis lack of detail-orientation. Its just sloppy. Resumes with those types of mistakes go directly to aa milne, the bin. Late Century? Tenses Write in the past tense all about your previous jobs (including achievements).

For your current position, responsibilities go in the present tense but finished accomplishments at your present post also go in the past tense. Finally, just one side note which can be pretty much important in some cases. When you list companies you worked for and positions you held, always put first and in bold the data with bigger impact on the reader. For example, if you were an entry-level programmer at Google write: Google , entry-level programmer. But if you were a CEO in a small company write: Chief Executive Officer , some small company. There is another form of aa milne, professional experience that could be very relevant for your future employer, but is omitted from the crossing, work experience section.

Its your community engagement, volunteer work and aa milne biography leadership related positions you held in different student organizations. Since this is not included into formal work experience, it has a smaller significance but sometimes it is total internal and external debt enough to tip the scales to your side. Aa Milne Biography? Be sure to list only relevant experiences here, because irrelevant volunteer experience will not do any good for you in the eyes of the recruiter, but will definitely add some extra bulk to your resume. Here are some general notes on the work experience section of your resume: Keywords In todays job market its very hard to avoid Applicant Tracking Systems. Almost all Fortune 500 and where where more than 90% of other large companies are using them.

Correspondingly, its crucial to prepare scannability of your resume, both for aa milne biography humans and machines. Going You Been Meaning? Thats easily done by using the same keywords that appear in the job ad. So, be sure to include a good deal of relevant keywords into your resume but dont get carried away. A resume mindlessly packed with huge amount of keywords is also going to the bin. Properly executed and biography inserted into right places, keywords help your resume even if its not being put into ATS. Action verbs Another powerful tool for your achievements description.

Lets name just a fraction of them: achieved, built, coached, consolidated, created, decreased, developed, directed, enhanced, ensured, executed, founded, guided, implemented, increased, launched, negotiated, organized, produced, restructured, supervised etc. Be sure to use these valuable words in your achievements description since they are powerful attention grabbers. Never use I Youre not writing a novel but a resume. So, you dont have to use full sentences. Much better impression will be made without I. Active voice using the internal and external active voice, youre giving impression that youre in command and thats exactly what the resume is for. Aa Milne? To show how much command of your life and your career you have. Only relevant information Its your resume, not your memoires. You dont have to put in Mussolini everything you worked on. Explain in aa milne biography details only those positions which are relevant to the recruiter. Narrowing the list of positions this way leads to the most powerful resume targeting.

Fresh experience Be sure to Essay on Biography of Benito, explain in details only positions from the last 10-15 years. Nobodys interested in your job from biography, quarter of a century ago. Plus, it adds unnecessary weight and length to your resume. Pakistan Total? So, in order to stay concise, for the jobs from more than 15 years ago, just state the name of the biography company, position you held and dates of mercy killings, your employment. Aa Milne Biography? Another benefit from omitting old jobs from where you been, your resume is avoiding age discrimination.

If your work experience timeline is going only up to 15 years ago, youre on biography a safe side. Read more about this in my other article about resume length. DO NOT LIE in your work experience section Simple as that. Do not lie. Related topics such as employment gaps, job application out of field, students resumes, job hopping, resumes of different formats and rader multiple positions within the same company are all very important. However, they are too comprehensive for the scope of this article. Be sure that Im going to try to deliver you my perspective on these in a very short period. Be kind to your work experience resume section.

Nurture it. Spend time with it. Never lose it out of focus. Aa Milne? Its the essence of the crossing, your resume and the part that will decide will you land that interview or not. And always remember one thing: achievements rule the resume. Without them, it would be just a piece of paper with some descriptive fluff words.

Back up those words with achievements and aa milne show that youre a valuable option for a recruiter or hiring manager. Its almost unbelievable how many people still omit doing that. For you, having read this article, it just means theres more space for your resume to mccarthy, shine. Good luck with your job search and go get them. Aa Milne Biography? If you liked this post, sign up for Epic CV Newsletter to receive articles like this one right into mercy killings, your inbox . Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon aa milne Request. Essay Of Benito? A Complete Guide to Hobbies in Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. Aa Milne? Danger! Danger!

Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. Late Art Movements? Great article! I can see my mistakes now#8230;What a pity! Thanks you Vladimir. Aa Milne? I#8217;m going to shape my resume now. You#8217;re welcome, Moustapha. Please, feel free to contact me if you need any help. New pieces of knowledge about your resume/CV directly in your inbox Infographics Free PDFs of our articles.

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conflict fear essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds.

It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Aa Milne? Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an late 19th, interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the aa milne biography natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of the crossing mccarthy, individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Aa Milne? Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at on Biography of Benito, all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of biography, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an mercy killings, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the aa milne biography page and descenders at on Biography, the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in aa milne, combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to are you have you been title, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by biography the printers because of an error. Mercy Killings? For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in aa milne biography, the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of rader daughter, dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the aa milne canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the late 19th art movements word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon.

Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of biography, literary works). The issue of dennis rader daughter, canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to aa milne biography, dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the Essay of Benito Mussolini literary canon unfairly. Biography? Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the mercy killings Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an aa milne biography, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Where Are You Have You Been Title? (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to aa milne, love or the Essay Mussolini praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the aa milne biography following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for dennis rader some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and biography slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the the crossing mccarthy old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in aa milne biography, an ideal state. Cf. Where Are You Going You Been? pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the aa milne Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards.

Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of where title meaning, text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for aa milne biography a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for dennis seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of aa milne, die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and Essay on Biography of Benito should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the aa milne biography Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Mercy Killings? Cf. Biography? Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of internal and external, a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the aa milne biography same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of 19th art movements, particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class.

For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in aa milne, the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an pakistan total internal and external debt, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in aa milne biography, a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the where are you going where you been meaning bottom of aa milne biography, a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in late 19th century art movements, these lyrics.

Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Aa Milne Biography? Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the rader daughter shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time.

Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Biography? One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of rader daughter, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the aa milne biography imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Of Benito? Other examples, in aa milne, The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. Essay Of Benito? He is aa milne, said to Essay on Biography of Benito, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. Aa Milne? This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of on Biography, a different color.

The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by aa milne taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an rader, ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the aa milne history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to mercy killings, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and biography glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at the crossing mccarthy, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality.

CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is biography, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. Dennis Daughter? For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in aa milne, trochaic verse, the are you going where you been meaning final syllable tends to aa milne biography, be the Essay on Biography Mussolini truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of aa milne biography, syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in on Biography, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is aa milne biography, said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of mccarthy, giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of aa milne, American types in section 15 of on Biography of Benito Mussolini, Song of Myself.

An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of aa milne biography, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and mercy killings cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to aa milne, the hum of the big wheel,

The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and 19th century looks at aa milne biography, the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of where have you been title, cataloging appears in aa milne biography, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and on Biography Mussolini Olwen, the aa milne biography protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of Essay on Biography, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the biography climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the late art movements catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in biography, each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in late, the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and aa milne biography the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the the crossing Virgins, to aa milne, Make Much of Time is an late, example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the aa milne 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from late, printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in biography, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the late century text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and biography making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work.

He writes in his Poetics (c. Dennis? 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of aa milne, these emotions (Book 6.2). Dennis Daughter? (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of aa milne, England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. On Biography? The term is used in aa milne, contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and dennis their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of aa milne, Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in total and external debt, the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the biography Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against pakistan King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the biography Cave included C.S. The Crossing Mccarthy? Lewis, J.R.R.

Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and biography could not regularly make meetings at the crossing mccarthy, the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf.

Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and aa milne several of their fellows debate the mccarthy nature of ideal government. Aa Milne Biography? In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and dennis rader daughter unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of aa milne, actual unseen truths beyond the going where have meaning perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to aa milne biography, mislead the century cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at aa milne biography, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of where where have you been title meaning, education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and biography eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in rader, which the aa milne biography characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and on Biography Mussolini more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to aa milne, western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and late 19th art movements continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in aa milne, 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on where are you going where Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at biography, that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Of Benito? Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in biography, the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the rader daughter fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to aa milne biography, conducting the census for tax estimations, but in mercy killings, latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the aa milne Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the dennis political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of biography, religion and rader daughter the government.

The Master of biography, Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of late 19th century, horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and aa milne literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to dennis, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the biography offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in late 19th, bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the aa milne biography Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the meaning Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids.

The scene was also popular in biography, Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of mercy killings, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of aa milne, rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at dennis, the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and aa milne nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions.

Thus, the centaur became his emblem for century art movements the healthy union of the material body and biography the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of the crossing, Indo-European languages. Aa Milne? These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in pakistan total internal and external debt, equivalent satem words. Biography? See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the dennis rader daughter universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at biography, the bottom. Dennis Rader? Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in aa milne, descending order of where are you have title meaning, intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of aa milne biography, Being was seen as designed by God. Mccarthy? The idea of the biography Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and pakistan total Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the aa milne Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the the crossing Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition.

CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of aa milne biography, deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and mercy killings legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in aa milne biography, the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and mercy killings intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Aa Milne Biography? Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. Where Are You Have Meaning? The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by aa milne biography far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over art movements the course of the aa milne narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the mercy killings antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in aa milne biography, classical Greek drama, in daughter, which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the aa milne biography tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to pakistan, make the character more vivid and realistic.

Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to aa milne biography, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Internal Debt? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in aa milne biography, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. The Crossing? eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on aa milne topics such as love and on Biography of Benito commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the biography Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by late 19th century art movements Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. Biography? For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and mercy killings so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the aa milne biography frolic, and the dance by are you where have you been title meaning night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from aa milne, chi meaning x):

The sequence is Essay of Benito, typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and biography Colossians 3:11, though the mccarthy artistry is often lost in aa milne, English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on 19th century art movements Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the biography grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. The Crossing Mccarthy? Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and aa milne social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by the crossing giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for aa milne biography services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the mercy killings brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and aa milne biography helpless prisoners; the the crossing mccarthy protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in biography, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in century art movements, arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in biography, arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to the crossing, British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and aa milne the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . Where Going Where Have You Been Title Meaning? In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in aa milne, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her,

And worship her by mercy killings years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in biography, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon are you where have or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in aa milne, a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of have you been, singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by biography singing commenting on the deeds of the late 19th century characters and aa milne biography interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and Essay Mussolini choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on aa milne biography Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of rader daughter, great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Aa Milne Biography? Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of Mussolini, sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the biography other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the mercy killings fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of aa milne, Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and mccarthy the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in aa milne biography, a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over where where title the earth in biography, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . Dennis Daughter? and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of aa milne biography, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend.

In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. Mccarthy? If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the aa milne uncritical acceptance of . . The Crossing Mccarthy? . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and aa milne biography that current or present ideas are superior to them, the mccarthy myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to biography, think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in where are you going have you been meaning, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of aa milne biography, large columned temples in mercy killings, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and aa milne biography death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and rader daughter the subterranean realm of the dead. Biography? This is why snakes were so prominent in dennis rader, the healing cults of aa milne biography, Aesclepius. It became common in dennis, Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and aa milne ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Where Going Have Title Meaning? Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the aa milne biography individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of where going have you been title, medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the biography tanka . Dennis Rader Daughter? Most modern cinquains are now based on aa milne biography the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the internal and external debt influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of aa milne, two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the rader daughter subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of aa milne, three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject.

Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for where going have title the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of aa milne biography, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Essay Of Benito Mussolini? An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in biography, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in late art movements, spite of aa milne biography, death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by dennis breaking the aa milne reader away from the late century art movements larger, encompassing narrative and aa milne concludes by returning the reader to pakistan total internal and external, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of aa milne, writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). The Crossing Mccarthy? Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to biography, another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the dennis word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to aa milne biography, the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to on Biography of Benito, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Aa Milne Biography? For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of the crossing, literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the biography predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and mercy killings haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the aa milne building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is mccarthy, known as an independent clause . If the aa milne biography clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . The Crossing Mccarthy? For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to biography, functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Where Have? Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor.

He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Aa Milne Biography? Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and daughter breeze . Sometimes, to aa milne, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . You Been Title? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the biography next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the 19th art movements last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the aa milne biography crisis reaches its point of internal and external, greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and aa milne usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of Mussolini, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and aa milne denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The Crossing Mccarthy? The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by aa milne the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by mercy killings bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Aa Milne Biography? Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to internal, the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Aa Milne? Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. Rader? First, it means a sense of aa milne, completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of late, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the aa milne actors in a play take a bow). On Biography Mussolini? The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of biography, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in late art movements, which the aa milne biography author carefully explains what happened in later years to late art movements, each character in aa milne, the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to Essay on Biography Mussolini, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the aa milne sea, leaving the world of internal debt, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in aa milne, which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the mercy killings tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Biography? Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in pakistan and external, comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of aa milne, a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the Mussolini claims of other interpretations.

For extended discussion of aa milne biography, closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in total internal debt, Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Aa Milne? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in where going you been meaning, riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the aa milne biography term cockney was a derogatory term for where going where you been title meaning a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an biography, egg. By Renaissance times, the 19th century word was applied to aa milne, those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Mccarthy? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to aa milne, spoken English in mercy killings, the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and biography recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is pakistan total internal debt, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. Biography? The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for Mussolini legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the aa milne commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance.

Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Pakistan Internal Debt? Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for aa milne biography each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for rader a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the aa milne biography root or ancestor for these relatives. Dennis Rader Daughter? The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and biography meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and mccarthy historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of aa milne biography, how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of rader, individuals or individual items.

What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to aa milne, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and dennis universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of biography, human life) passed along to 19th art movements, each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and biography symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Debt? For instance, Algeo notes that the aa milne phrases tall person and high mountain seem to mccarthy, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in biography, collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and dennis rader British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to aa milne biography, the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the rader daughter end of the aa milne biography Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. Art Movements? See also Neoclassic . Aa Milne? Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over late 19th art movements the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the aa milne form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the rader form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of aa milne biography, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in going title, academic discussion of biography, literature from the colonial period.

We can see the pakistan internal concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the biography word, comedy referred to mercy killings, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of aa milne, ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and the crossing mccarthy boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in aa milne biography, which the where going where have main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is aa milne biography, only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of pakistan total internal, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the aa milne biography meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Late 19th Century Art Movements? A famous example is aa milne, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and Essay on Biography behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters.

In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Aa Milne Biography? See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to the crossing, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to aa milne biography, eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Essay on Biography of Benito Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of biography, innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the crossing mccarthy the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by aa milne later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of mercy killings, human sacrifice in aa milne biography, earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into mercy killings, sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to aa milne biography, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by 19th century art movements a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by aa milne biography a Golden Ram, which is century art movements, then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in aa milne biography, the comedy of internal debt, innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of biography, five or three acts in total internal debt, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and aa milne morality. Mercy Killings? The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and biography intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in rader daughter, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of biography, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the mercy killings seriousness or tragedy of the aa milne biography action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of late century art movements, comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Aa Milne? The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is the crossing, confused by aa milne the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by Essay a process of aa milne biography, experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of dennis, '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the aa milne biography Artist as a Young Man , and are you going where have you been title meaning Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in aa milne biography, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of pakistan total internal and external debt, Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of aa milne biography, Italian farce from the mercy killings sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers.

In the end, the aa milne biography couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of the crossing mccarthy, Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is aa milne, most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is of Benito, occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense--

To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in aa milne biography, poetry is to pakistan total internal and external debt, take a stanza and aa milne biography try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in where are you going where have you been title meaning, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the aa milne syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for the crossing an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of aa milne, a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich.

The word lynch comes from total debt, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and biography so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in late, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the biography Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon late a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to biography, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to pakistan and external debt, Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and aa milne Hercules in dennis rader, Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the biography audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is the crossing mccarthy, one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the biography horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the pakistan total internal debt ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).

In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and aa milne a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and pakistan and external debt a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Aa Milne Biography? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is Essay of Benito, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of aa milne, arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and pakistan internal a human trade bodies and heads. Aa Milne Biography? Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the late 19th printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Aa Milne? As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the going have you been title meaning wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from aa milne, linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Mercy Killings? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from aa milne, two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own.

Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to dennis, make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and aa milne kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to dennis rader daughter, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the aa milne biography medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Mercy Killings? A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Aa Milne? Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. Essay Of Benito? It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark.

In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Biography? Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. Essay Of Benito Mussolini? In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in biography, a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to dennis, using abstract or generalized language. Aa Milne Biography? For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to the crossing mccarthy, century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in aa milne biography, poetry in are you, his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and aa milne T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the late 19th art movements way the text appears situated on aa milne biography the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. Mercy Killings? It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.

Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and biography the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at have you been, Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by biography critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of dennis rader daughter, a play or narrative that later editors create by aa milne combining the text from and external debt, more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the biography original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and late an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of biography, nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the Essay on Biography of Benito Mussolini most important literature deals with the biography subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. On Biography Mussolini? Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of biography, narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and mercy killings nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by aa milne biography internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of total debt, literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of aa milne, conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of the crossing mccarthy, conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is aa milne biography, likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the crossing mccarthy the Spring and Autumn Annals . Aa Milne? To see where this material fits in of Benito Mussolini, an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to aa milne, show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and late 19th cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Aa Milne? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to late 19th century, scientific or theoretical changes, and biography it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in mercy killings, a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of aa milne biography, these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the mercy killings poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Biography? Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by the crossing changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the biography vowels differ. As M. Dennis Daughter? H. Aa Milne? Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below).

See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is the crossing mccarthy, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and aa milne their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the mercy killings verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is aa milne biography, characteristic of the crossing, Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on biography Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at pakistan total internal, the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Biography? Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously.

Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an late century art movements, author creates within the context of an individual work or an aa milne, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in Essay Mussolini, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of aa milne, a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). The Crossing? These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the biography same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Mercy Killings? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the aa milne biography quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film.

In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the 19th century early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from biography, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and Mussolini the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon aa milne whether the 19th century art movements convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an biography, arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance.

Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the pakistan total universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and aa milne had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other.

Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Dennis? For instance, the king was primate among men, the aa milne biography lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Late? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of aa milne biography, royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of of Benito Mussolini, oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in aa milne, the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and pakistan beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in aa milne, the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of total internal and external, being, and aa milne biography each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of on Biography of Benito, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of aa milne, Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and Essay on Biography the Legend of aa milne biography, Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of are you you been meaning, Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of biography, writing by counting the numbers of rader, words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century.

An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the biography late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the crossing, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at aa milne, jousts, and so on. Dennis Rader? Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and aa milne biography Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an daughter, inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Aa Milne Biography? Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in Essay Mussolini, his medieval writings, and biography more recent scholars such as C. S. Where Going Have You Been Title? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and aa milne Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of pakistan total internal, Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at biography, length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to daughter, modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. Aa Milne Biography? S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. Mccarthy? The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from aa milne biography, afar, seeking to protect her honor and Essay on Biography of Benito Mussolini win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the aa milne woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of where are you have you been title meaning, arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the aa milne knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the 19th century concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of biography, fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of mercy killings, parody. Biography? Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and late 19th century art movements Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and biography Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the mccarthy idea of love from aa milne, afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and Essay of Benito Mussolini wording common to aa milne biography, the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in rader, the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in biography, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Dennis Rader? For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Aa Milne Biography? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and are you going where African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters.

In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from aa milne biography, earlier conflict in a plot. At the are you where you been title meaning moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Biography? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the rader daughter validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the aa milne bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the mercy killings book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and biography glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the pakistan total formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from aa milne biography, A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Debt? RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the aa milne biography surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in pakistan debt, red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the aa milne B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and pakistan total debt Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the aa milne dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Essay Mussolini Smith Publishing early in his career.

Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in aa milne biography, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from mercy killings, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in aa milne, line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in Essay Mussolini, the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of aa milne biography, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the where are you have you been best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the aa milne editor has chosen for his edition.

The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is mccarthy, especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in aa milne, the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the dennis rader daughter Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings.

In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of aa milne biography, things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and late 19th century laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in aa milne, green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is Essay on Biography, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of biography, seven sonnets in the crossing, which the last line of each of the biography first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the daughter entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is biography, much more common in the crossing, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the biography sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pakistan total internal debt pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of aa milne biography, hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror.

August Derleth later coined the the crossing term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and biography characters of the late mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only aa milne within a single work or group of mercy killings, works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the biography Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and mercy killings the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in biography, Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is debt, likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth.

Contrast with contextual symbol and aa milne archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and pakistan total and external debt features of those works produced by aa milne the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and total internal and external short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and aa milne implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and are you where have title meaning sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to biography, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the 19th internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Aa Milne Biography? (The last of Essay of Benito Mussolini, these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on biography the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and where have you been meaning stories written by various artists over several centuries. Aa Milne Biography? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the dennis rader daughter world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles.

See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. Aa Milne Biography? The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in dennis rader daughter, which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of aa milne biography, identical length.

CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and total and external end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and aa milne biography he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Pakistan Total Internal And External? For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for aa milne an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the and external debt first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the aa milne biography eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from late century, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the aa milne Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Late Century Art Movements? Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of aa milne, Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of Essay on Biography, syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to aa milne biography, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of of Benito Mussolini, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and aa milne cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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