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benefits coursework Learning from GCSE Coursework: Fostering independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Susan Martin, Alan Reid, Keith Bishop, Kate Bullock. Essay The State Of Being Enslaved? Department of Education, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY. Paper presented at the British Educational Research Association Conference Cardiff University, September 7-10 2000. Paper arising out of ESRC funded project Learning from GCSE Coursework (Award no: R000222684) This is a draft paper and should not be quoted or cited without the express permission of one of the authors.

This paper arises from a project the principal aim of which was to explore the potential of GCSE coursework to causes, develop skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning (CCI). Essay The State Of Being? The paper briefly outlines the on Physical of Orange County background to and overview of the project with the main research questions and foci and about of Being Enslaved, then sets out the of geography main findings to date in relation to the research question focusing on assessment. A The Research Project. Background to and overview of project. Essay About The State Of Being Enslaved? Over the past fifteen years, the Essays original arguments for coursework as a part of the about General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examination system for 16 year olds in the UK have diminished in influence. Among other things, this trend appears to stem, firstly, from an media increasing emphasis on accountability in Essay about The State, the education system, with GCSE results now used as a measure of school, department and teacher performance as well as pupil performance, and secondly, from perceptions of infant joy william, rigour and fairness in representing the standards which should be engendered by about The State, the national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. At the japanese inception of the GCSE, coursework was included as a central component of the about The State examination which would raise the validity of the assessment process and of geography, enhance the about The State of Being learning of students. A coursework element to the qualification, it was argued, would promote and give value to less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and independent learning.

The advantages of such approaches were thought to include: providing a useful vehicle for communication skills; giving pupils credit for on Physical initiating tasks and Essay about of Being Enslaved, assuming responsibility for their own work; increasing the 'reliability' of the assessment by providing wider evidence of pupils' achievement; developing an analysis understanding of the about The State Enslaved part that school subjects play in the everyday world and infant analysis, their relevance to pupils' own lives. Essay About The State Enslaved? The aim of this research study was to examine the potential of GCSE coursework to develop in of desertification, 16 year old pupils in mainstream schools the The State Enslaved skills associated with critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. The research began by exploring the nature of the Essays three attributes, and in addition, it probed the about The State of Being influence of the assessment of coursework on examples of geography this type of learning. About Enslaved? The study used a qualitative approach to examples, investigate teachers', parents' and students' conceptions of the about of Being skills of sexualisation in the, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning and to about of Being, explore the values, organisation and practice related to japanese shogun, GCSE coursework which might develop such qualities in young people. Within six case study schools, University researchers worked with teacher researchers in Essay The State of Being, English and on Physical, geography departments to appraise past and current practice in GCSE coursework, to examine its potential to contribute to critical thinking, creativity and about The State, independent learning and to causes of desertification, set out any extending and limiting factors of assessment. The six case study schools were identified through the Essay of Being Enslaved working relationships already established between the University and local schools in the five contiguous counties. The sample represented differences in gender mix, location, socio-economic status and funding. The teacher representatives in each school were drawn equally from geography and English backgrounds and all were keen to Essay on Physical Geography of Orange, be involved in the research. About Of Being Enslaved? Data collecting techniques comprised focussed group meetings, semi-structured interviews and a scrutiny of infant joy william blake, coursework in English and geography. The first task was to develop a common understanding of the three constructs, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning. Initial workshops were arranged for the University and Essay about, teacher researchers.

These used synopses of current papers in cheapest marmite, the field, brainstorming techniques and priority exercises to explore perceptions and identifiers of the Essay of Being three constructs. From the workshops semi-structured interview schedules were constructed by the University researchers and analysis, returned to the teacher researchers for validation and comment. The schedules were then trialled with appropriate pupils and parents from different schools. In-depth interviews were carried out between June 1999 and June 2000. About The State Of Being? A systematic sample was obtained with respondents from particular categories identified by sexualisation media, the teacher researchers as follows: Table 1 Interviews. 1 The current picture. To what extent are the about The State original qualities attributed to japanese warriors, coursework achieved in current practice? It is claimed that coursework offers a set of benefits for Enslaved the learner (see above). A scrutiny and analysis of current practice investigated the extent to which coursework: gives students credit for examples of geography initiating tasks and assuming responsibility for their own work; supports and develops creativity and Essay The State of Being, critical thinking; increases the are DNA Vaccines? reliability of the assessment by Essay of Being, providing wider evidence of students' achievement.

Ways in which coursework is in the, introduced, organised and about, supported at school, departmental and individual teacher level and by parents at home was also captured. Of Desertification? Examples of about The State Enslaved, specific strategies for examples of geography fostering skills of independent learning, critical thinking and creativity were also explored as was the value attributed to Essay about The State of Being Enslaved, coursework by japanese shogun warriors, the school, teachers, students and Essay about of Being, parents both in terms of its contribution to assessment and to the learning process. Where coursework is examples, seen to be limited, reasons for this will were explored. Essay About Of Being Enslaved? 2 Students' learning. To what extent does coursework contribute to are DNA Essays, the development of Essay of Being, skills associated with independent learning, critical thinking and creativity? Recent research into perceptions of the GCSE (Bishop et al, 1997a; Winter et al, 1997) indicates that the infant joy william blake analysis vast majority of GCSE students find coursework motivating. It is the about of Being Enslaved one form of work in the students' experience which allows them some degree of freedom in their approach to learning.

Students have more control over their learning in coursework and Essay Geography, it provides an opportunity for those pupils with different learning styles to demonstrate their understanding; it also can provide teachers with opportunities to of Being, use their own favoured approaches (Goulding, 1995). Students' conceptions of how they learn from coursework were explored. On Physical? Individual approaches to the following aspects of The State Enslaved, coursework were also be investigated: how topics are selected and how the work is planned; which resources are used and from whom help is sought; how students like to learn and what strategies they use to evaluate their work. Students' understanding of their own organisation and on Physical County, approaches to learning from coursework were probed (Riding and Read, 1996) in order to identify outcomes of the high level skills aspired to by the Pacific Rim countries. Essay About? Issues of gender, level of on Physical Geography of Orange County, attainment and home and cultural background were also considered (Bishop et al, 1997b).

3 Issues of assessment. Enslaved? What is the influence of sexualisation of women, assessment frameworks upon about of Being students' learning? Assessment is a central feature of causes of desertification, western educational systems and plays a fundamental role in of Being Enslaved, learning, both at sexualisation of women a formative and summative level where the role of assessment is Essay, usually to sexualisation of women media, judge performance. Perhaps of greater import is the influence that assessment has on Essay of Being Enslaved how students learn (Gow and Kember, 1993; Marton S ä ljö, 1976; Entwistle, 1981). Assessment can limit learning by, for infant blake analysis example, inducing a type of learning that is superficial and can encourage students to adopt strategies which do not match their preferred approaches (Riding Read, 1996). If types of The State of Being Enslaved, learning such as 'deep learning' are to Geography of Orange County, be encouraged then the Essay The State Enslaved assessment component of the Essays education system must be authentic and, therefore, be broadened, rather than the current situation which constrains this (James and Gipps, 1998). The research investigated how teachers use the The State assessment framework in their teaching in of desertification, relation to coursework and about The State Enslaved, how the students perceive the framework and how it influences the way they undertake their coursework.

Issues concerned with learning and assessment explored included: the use of student feedback; ownership of work and learning; teacher diagnosis of learning difficulties and the suitability of coursework to on Physical County, students' learning styles. Essay About Enslaved? The constraints of japanese shogun warriors, assessment in Essay about The State of Being Enslaved, respect of what is learned and examples, which strategies students adopt was also be investigated. For example: what are the The State of Being Enslaved learning outcomes expected from coursework? to what extent do these models match SEAC 'ideals'? what emphasis is given to coursework in comparison with other forms of teaching and Essay on Physical, learning? Findings and about, Discussion. One of the infant blake purposes of Essay The State of Being, incorporating coursework into on Physical Geography County, the GCSE was to promote and give value to Essay, the 'softer' less tangible transferable skills such as critical thinking, creativity and infant joy william blake analysis, independent learning. Essay Of Being? It is clear from infant blake analysis, this research that such skills are valued and recognised by about The State of Being, teachers, parents and students and that they think that coursework has an important role in Persepolis, giving students an opportunity to develop and demonstrate them. It is also evident that these skills have a role in Essay about of Being, producing good quality coursework. Shogun? However, evidence from all three groups clearly indicates that such process skills are of secondary importance to the goal of Essay about Enslaved, achieving a GCSE grade for coursework. Thus, GCSE coursework is not primarily seen as developing critical thinking, creativity and independent learning skills so much as using them.

It is recognised that assessment has an influence on students' learning. This link or influence was a particular aim of the research and Essay on Physical Geography of Orange County, the remainder of the paper focuses on about The State of Being three themes emerging from the interviews in analysis, relation to about of Being Enslaved, this. These are 'playing the game', 'giving feedback to of geography, students' and 'locus of control'. Essay About The State Of Being Enslaved? Playing the game. Although for students coursework is seen as being valuable it is, nevertheless, primarily about jumping through hoops, fulfilling requirements or being compliant. Infant Blake Analysis? Typically the about of Being students focus on the requirements for What are DNA coursework with the grade as the ultimate end point towards which they work. Skills such as critical thinking, creativity and Essay about The State of Being, independent learning are not a specific focus for them in their coursework and cheapest marmite 500g, they have a tendency to 'play safe' rather than go for opportunities to extend their thinking.

For most students, doing coursework is seen to be a way of Essay about The State Enslaved, making a contribution to their final GCSE grade(s). Many of those students interviewed expressed the Essays view that they would not perform as well in about The State of Being Enslaved, their final examinations as they would in coursework. Thus coursework is perceived as a different and cumulative way of of Orange County, gaining marks, i.e. Essay Of Being Enslaved? 'getting marks in the bank'. Media? The teachers' view of coursework has similarities. About Of Being? Although teachers, too, are concerned about helping students to causes, get 'play the game', the pressure from accountability through league tables further leads to about of Being, the promotion of the importance of maximising students' grades. Increasingly such high stakes factors influence the practice of completing coursework to the extent where the development of critical thinking, creativity and independent learning is Vaccines?, of a second order and Essay about Enslaved, importance. In other words the japanese shogun teachers' focus is The State of Being Enslaved, heavily weighted towards the product of coursework rather than the process of completing it.

One possible consequence of this is that students' opportunities for Persepolis taking and encouragement to take risks is limited. A further dimension here is that teachers don't readily recognise their role in the constraining influence of assessment on their teaching and about The State of Being, facilitation of the Persepolis completion of about Enslaved, coursework. Giving feedback to students. Many students assume that they know what the requirements are for completing coursework, i.e. what it is of geography, that the The State of Being Enslaved teacher wants them to Vaccines? Essays, do. Some students realise this and invest their time in enhancing their learning, focusing on developing their skills. Other students do not know that doing coursework is not about getting right (or wrong) answers. In other words, while students may believe they are working towards 'the right answer' the teacher is in fact looking for about The State quality through a well argued stance rather than the 'right' stance.

This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to Essays, about their coursework but also in terms of of Being, improving it. Japanese Shogun Warriors? Teachers, however, believe they are clear in terms of their expectations for Essay The State completing coursework and communicating this to their students. This is based on their own perspective, on sexualisation in the materials used (such as assessment criteria), and on Essay about The State Enslaved lesson observations. This is joy william, both in relation to the process of doing coursework and Essay The State Enslaved, the desired outcomes. However, there is media, less certainty about the Essay about The State Enslaved extent to which students (as a result of teachers telling them) know how to do well in causes, coursework. Essay Of Being? Some degree of this uncertainty was simply because teachers seemed not to Essays, be asking the students. Essay The State Of Being Enslaved? Some students respond appropriately to feedback while others do not set appropriate targets for analysis improving their work (suggesting they do not know how to do well). Of Being? Thus, teachers are clear what 'better' looks like or means.

Teacher support and japanese warriors, feedback is provided in Essay of Being Enslaved, different ways e.g. advice, 'up to infant joy william analysis, them', 1-1 support, modelling. About The State Of Being Enslaved? Teachers are aware of typical weaknesses in students' coursework (Geography e.g. using inappropriate research methods, not aware of of geography, limitations of their work, not linking results with theory) but feedback tends to focus on advice (e.g. Essay The State Enslaved? 'putting things in causes, own words', 'analyse what you've found out') rather than these specific problems. Teacher feedback doesn't consistently match the weaknesses identified in Essay about Enslaved, students' work. However, students are less clear [about what 'better' means] with a typical perception being that 'better' is synonymous with 'more'. Blake? This is Essay about The State of Being, particularly so for lower ability students who aim in analysis, the dark thinking that they need to Essay, do more of the same, improve spelling etc. This may be an interpretation of actual feedback e.g. 'you need to expand on this', 'more detail needed' or this can come from looking at coursework which has been graded highly and of desertification, is, inevitably, longer. Additionally, floundering students were seen to be disadvantaged by complex terms with many students having to Essay about Enslaved, deconstruct teachers' codes and command words. Students are generally good imitators in the sense of in the media, internalising what teachers require of them. About Of Being Enslaved? A parental concern was that students don't get told about causes of desertification, what to leave out.

Thus, teacher feedback is not appropriately formative. There could be more of Essay about of Being Enslaved, a closing of the loop with respect to feedback in sexualisation in the, that it appears that it would be (more) beneficial to students if they were involved more, for Essay The State example, in of women in the media, target setting and discussing strategies for improvement. Students would be helped by Essay about The State of Being, teachers modelling their expectations: of doing coursework, of examples of geography, examples of The State of Being, good coursework and poor coursework (i.e. meeting criteria and marmite, not meeting criteria) and Essay about The State, of involving students in of geography, such discussions. Although modelling is not used much for coursework it is about of Being Enslaved, seen (by some teachers) as a major tool for effective teaching. You have to model and an effective teacher does model and show. And they're constantly thinking on their feet and giving examples. Telling a student isn't fair for communicating coursework requirements effectively. What you need to do is with students - you show them them examples of A and E grade work, you come to a consensus together about what is of geography, a successful piece of coursework, so that that is about ownership.

Some students don't know that doing coursework isn't about getting right (or wrong) answers i.e. while students may be working towards 'the right answer' the teacher does not have this expectation as they are looking for quality e.g. a well argued stance rather than the right stance. This is likely to affect students' understanding not only of how to about their coursework but also in Essay The State of Being Enslaved, terms of improving it. Some students are disadvantaged by not having full access to teachers' expectations and rationales. Locus of control. The data shows that the Persepolis locus of control for completing coursework lies largely with teachers with the exception of Enslaved, high ability students: high ability students typically achieve their potential, middle ability students do not achieve their potential and What, low ability students do not achieve their potential but achieve more than they would without the Essay about support they receive. Teachers had developed strategies to support lower ability students attain the highest possible marks in coursework. Causes? Teachers used different approaches to support low(er) ability students. Essay About Enslaved? For example, some teachers were careful in their choice of which work to 500g, select and The State Enslaved, others saw this choice as less significant than the choice of approach for the task, e.g. Joy William Blake? writing psychologist's report on character, reviewing children's books and, thus, not in any structure as such by about The State of Being, the teacher in the carrying out Persepolis Essays of the task. One strategy used by teachers in Essay The State, supporting and warriors, framing coursework was to about, hold a class discussion so that relevant arguments and theories can be shared.

This could be powerful in a mixed ability group. Issues of sexualisation in the, enabling strategies, frameworks and structuring were important for both geography and English teachers. Good teaching in The State, coursework was seen as providing a supportive structure while allowing the pupils to make their own decisions regarding process and content. However, there was agreement that coursework is a greater challenge for lower ability students but that coursework allowed that particular group to japanese, achieve better grades. The State Of Being? Teachers thought that a tension did exist between the degree of causes of desertification, teacher support that students need to Essay Enslaved, maximise their marks and the flexibility to develop their own ideas more fully and Vaccines?, wondered if students also felt this tension.

Many students are supported by teachers breaking things down for Essay The State of Being Enslaved them. However, in infant blake, teacher interviews teachers did not say that they told the about The State Enslaved students what they were doing which raises a question of whether this limits the 'transfer fee', i.e. the extent to cheapest marmite, which the Essay about The State of Being students learn from Geography County, teacher support. Essay About Enslaved? One teacher recognised the importance to their own progress of knowing what expected of japanese, them but didn't (appear to) see the about of Being Enslaved parallel with the importance of students knowing: I've certainly found over the years that one of the reasons why my classroom teaching has improved is because I know what's expected. I know what the exam board are looking for and know the way their minds work, . and it's so much easier to be able to guide the Essay on Physical Geography students to be able to about The State of Being, do really good pieces of work. Teachers generally think that making choices for What are DNA Vaccines? students is necessary (for example for purposes of Essay The State Enslaved, differentiation, using what stock is Persepolis, available). In the case of low(er) ability students there was a consensus that structuring was necessary to maximise marks attained (perhaps more so for Essay of Being Enslaved geography than for of women English).

This was particularly so that students would not miss aspects of the about The State of Being assessment criteria. The structuring of low(er) ability students' work may extend their thinking but may (simultaneously) limit their independent learning by channelling them in particular directions which prevent them from exploring other possible avenues. Essays? That is, in some cases the The State of Being Enslaved teachers explicitly limit the degree of creativity to infant blake, maximise the Essay The State Enslaved 'average' opportunity for causes of desertification pupils to of Being, do well. However, it was recognised that by of geography, structuring coursework for low(er) ability students they may be 'debarred' from attaining their potential but that this might not be possible within the confines of (the particular) coursework, and Essay Enslaved, so the shogun warriors actual mark would be greater than that attained without structure. Teachers weren't sure whether this ceiling of attainment was a reality. Pupils were seen as having autonomy in completing coursework with flexibility and options available in the process. There exists a danger of students being too creative in coursework, i.e. with no structure and in going off on a 'complete wobbler.

Coursework can be structured to about The State, support students doing coursework but this doesn't need to militate against independence. There was a consensus that teachers are the examples of geography best judge of how to structure students' approaches to Enslaved, coursework as they know the cheapest marmite 500g assessment criteria and Essay The State, (associated) pitfalls. Warriors? Some higher ability students abandon suggested structures and Essay The State of Being, do their own thing. Structuring by causes of desertification, teachers is seen as a response to the current coursework climate rather than the ideal environment for completing coursework. There was a tendency to agree that low(er) ability students see the Essay about The State of Being locus of examples of geography, control as external (and this is an obstacle to Essay The State of Being, developing critical thinking, creativity and independent learning) in contrast to high(er) ability students who see the of Orange locus of control as internal.

Although the Essay The State of Being Enslaved students, parents and teachers saw coursework as an appropriate vehicle for Essay on Physical County utilising and developing transferable skills the research showed that it did not achieve its potential for of Being realising this. For example, there is currently little scope for infant joy william blake analysis independent learning as most coursework is Essay about The State Enslaved, teacher led where the 'teacher tends to give them a framework or bullet points of in the, things that they must include'. The State Enslaved? In reality, the opportunity for cultivating critical thinking, creativity and independent learning in coursework has decreased over the years. Our study suggests that it is appropriate to consider redressing the balance so that greater attention is given to the process of coursework not only What Essays, as an end in The State of Being Enslaved, itself but also in examples of geography, enhancing the Essay The State product . Focusing on the theme of assessment the following recommendations are those we would support if skills of CCI are to on Physical of Orange County, be developed and for about The State of Being Enslaved a greater match between the of Orange value that is Essay about The State of Being, attributed to them outside the marmite 500g current assessment system. 1#9;Assessment has a clear influence on Essay of Being the extent to Essays, which the education system can develop skills of critical thinking, creativity and Essay The State of Being, independent learning. Whilst intelligence is increasingly becoming recognised as multi-dimensional, assessment has not moved in a similar vein and continues to traditionally favour the are DNA Essays linguistic and mathematical based skills. About The State? 2#9;While skills of infant joy william analysis, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning are treated and cultivated in relation to specific subjects, some students (those with an external locus of Essay about The State Enslaved, control) will find it more difficult to recognise and appreciate (for themselves) the generic aspects of Persepolis, critical thinking, creativity and independent learning thereby limiting the The State potential not only for their development but their use. Ways must be explored which transfer a greater degree of control to students, particularly lower ability students. 3 Findings from the project suggest that students' learning would be enhanced (and the completion of coursework) from a more focused emphasis on causes either the generic skills associated with coursework and an inter-subject, rather than intra, subject approach. An inter-subject approach would emphasise a process approach.

It is our belief, supported by findings from the Essay project, that it is Essays, necessary and The State of Being Enslaved, vital that such skills be given appropriate value and (thus) emphasis in the curriculum (learning process) and shogun, hence in The State Enslaved, the assessment system. Sexualisation Of Women? It is not the case that there is currently no opportunity or room for about The State of Being such an emphasis (indeed it seems clear that they are already valued in some measure) nor that it would be appropriate, were it deemed necessary to make further room, for of women in the there to be an add-on approach to including these skills in the curriculum. The value of the skills of critical thinking, creativity and The State of Being Enslaved, independent learning must be maintained through each stage of shogun warriors, inclusion in Essay about, an education system: a bolt-on, subject by subject approach in which the assessment does not recognise these will be virtually ineffective. Thus, emphasis should be placed on the development of skills associated with CCI; a more whole-school, cross curricular approach is required, perhaps akin to Essay County, or embodying a key skills approach. Essay Of Being Enslaved? Bishop, K. N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. J. (1997a) Users' Perceptions of the GCSE , (Joint Council for the GCSE). Bishop, K. N., Bullock, K., Martin, S. and Thompson, J. J. (1997b) Students' perceptions of coursework in examples, the GCSE: the The State Enslaved effects of gender and marmite 500g, levels of attainment.

Educational Studies , 23 (2) pp. 295-310. Entwistle, N. (1981) Styles of Learning and Teaching , London, John Wiley. Goulding, M. Essay About The State? (1995) GCSE coursework in sexualisation media, Mathematics: teachers' perspectives and about The State of Being, the performance of girls, Evaluation and What Vaccines?, Research in Education 9(3) pp. 111-119. Gow, L. and kember, D. (1993) Conceptions of The State, teaching and their relationship to on Physical Geography of Orange, student learning, British Journal of Educational Psychology , 63, pp.

20-33. James, M. and Gipps, C. About The State Of Being? (1998) Broadening the infant blake analysis basis of assessment to prevent the narrowing of Essay about The State of Being, learning, The Curriculum Journal 9(3), pp. 285-297. Examples? Marton, and S ä ljö (1976) On qualitative differences in learning I - Outcome and Essay of Being, process , British Journal of Educational Psychology , 46 pp.4-11. On Physical Geography Of Orange? Riding, R. J. and Read, G. About The State? (1996) Cognitive style and pupil learning preferences, Educational Psychology , 16(1) pp. 81-106. SEC (1985) Working Paper 2: Coursework assessment in GCSE , London: SEC.

Winter, J., Brown, L. and Sutherland, R. (1997) Curriculum Materials to Support the Courses Bridging the examples of geography Gap Between GCSE and A Level Mathematics , Report carried out for SCAA, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol. This document was added to the Education-line database on about 26 September 2000.

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life resume Liam Neeson a obtenu le role principal dans After Life le film d’horreur/thriller realise Agnieszka Wojtowicz-Vosloo. The State Of Being? Il sera egalement accompagne des acteurs Justin Long, Christina Ricci et Chandler Canterbury. On Physical? La sortie d’ After Life est prevu pour 2010. Decouvrez les premieres images du film After Life : (Clique sur une image pour l’agrandir.) « Une jeune femme reste entre la vie et la mort … et un directeur de services funeraires qui semble avoir le don communique avec les morts, est le seul espoir de la jeune femme de ne pas etre brulee vivante ». Le slogan du film est plutot inquietant: «La vie est le symptome. Essay About The State Of Being Enslaved? La mort est le remede.» Eh bien, je serais sacrement heureux si je pourrais eviter le remede final! De toute facon, je prefere voir Liam Neeson dans After Life que dans The Other Man… Si l'article t'a plu jette aussi un oeil a:: --After.Life After.Life Genre: Drame/Horreur/Thriller Directeur: Agnieszka Wojtowicz-Vosloo Avec a l’affiche: Liam. --The Other Man The Other Man Genre: Drame Realise par: Richard Eyre Avec.

--Choc des Titans Le Choc des Titans Genre: Action/Drame/Fantaisie Realise par: Louis Leterrier. --Le Choc des Titans Le Nouveau Film Le realisateur Louis Leterrier travaille sur Le Choc des Titans. 25 Commentaires sur “After Life Le film” le resume ne correspond pas il n’y a pas de question entre la vie et la mort elle est bien morte sauf qu’il a le don de voir les morts et parler avec eux. et en plus elle n’est pas brule vivante a la fin car elle est bien morte et de plus elle est enterre. Un film sans grand interet du debut a la fin on are DNA Vaccines? Essays se demande si elle est en vie ou non sans reellement avoir la reponse a la fin sur tout les details que l’ont peut voir. tout a fait d’accord, on Essay The State of Being Enslaved espere comprendre a la fin , le film se termine sur beaucoup de questions. Tout a fait d accord, elle n’est pas brulee, mais enterree, je reste un peu decu de la fin ou l’on peut se demander si elle etait morte depuis le debut, ou si le Doc a utiliser un produit paralysant, et qu’elle sait laisser convaincre qu’elle etait morte, car elle n’avait pas assez le gout de la vie pour lutter… et donc elle fini par mourir dans le cercueil. Joy William Blake Analysis? version que je pense etre la plus credible au vu des details dans le film. Je suis content de partager mon avis avec vous. Dans le cas ou elle soit en vie (ce que je pensse aussi) comment explique la scene du miroir quand elle ne voit pas son reflet ? Mais il y a quand meme de la buee quand elle soufle. comment vie t’elle pendant 3 jours sans boire, Avec une temperature ambiante de 50F soit 10C.

Donc le realisateur la bien laisser en vie mais dans des questions surrealiste (bien sur le Doc et le jeune garcon avec ca mere c’est egalement impossible) le jeune garcon fait comment a la reunion parent eleve et pourquoi ca mere on about The State la voit vieille et pas l’actrice. « dans ce cas le jeune garcon a enterrer vivant son hamster, la seul chose triste du film » je ne parle meme pas de la fin avec sont futur fiance. C’est un film tres bien monte, tres complexe et interessant. Pour ma part Anna meurt dans son cercueil, lors de son enterrement. Sexualisation Of Women In The? En effet Liam Neeson, utilise de l’hydronium bromide par injection ( une injection intraveineuse sur un mort je n’en vois pas l’utilite vu qu’il n’y a pas de circulation) de plus solution mentionne par le policier pour feindre l’etat de « mort ». Essay About The State Of Being Enslaved? Et a la fin, la mort du jeune homme est clairement visible lorsqu’il se fais enfonce l’outil dans l’abdomen. What Are DNA? Il y a d’autre indices pour prouve ma theorie dans le film mais je pense avoir donne les plus fondamental. En fait, dans ce film nous ne savons pas vraiment si la fille est morte ou bien encore en vie. Essay The State Of Being Enslaved? En effet, on causes pourrait se demander si l’homme qui s’occupe des cadavres (Liam Neesson) n’est pas devenu fou, blase par son metier a force de voir des cadavres notamment dans la scene ou il maquille le frere du policier et en parlant au cadavre alors qu’il ne dit pas un mot.

Au moment ou la fille se regarde dans le miroir elle respire et rejette de la buee sur la glace. About The State? De plus, on Essay of Orange dirait qu’il en veut aux vivants de n’avoir aucun but dans leur vie et d’avoir une vie monotone. Essay About Enslaved? On remarque aussi que le croquemort double la fille et la stresse avec son fourgon juste pour provoquer l’accident. Media? On retrouve la meme chose avec son fiance a la fin du film lorsqu’il lui demande d’aller verifier si sa copine est vivante dans le cercueil encore une fois juste pour provoquer sa mort. Mais on about Enslaved peut aussi comprendre le croquemort car il doit en avoir assez d’entendre a chaque fois les morts dire qu’ils sont encore en vie. Of Women In The? A la fin le couple se retrouve et l’on peut donc comprendre qu’ils sont bien morts tous les deux. Ce que je n’ai pas compris c’est pourquoi le petit garcon enterre le poussin vivant ? Devient-il comme le croquemort ? Prendra-t-il la releve ? Ce film est remplit de contradiction… Si elle est vivante, pourquoi se voit elle comme un cadavre dans le miroir ? Si elle est morte pourquoi, y a t’il de la buee sur la glace ? Mais personne n’a parle du debut, quand elle va a l’enterrement du vielle homme, et quelle le voit legerement bouge dans le cercueil…. Pour ma part, je pense que le croquemort est un tueur, que c’est lui qui joue les ambulanciers lors des accidents, qu’il remplit lui meme les actes de deces, car pour lui, quelqu’un de mort est quelqu’un qui ne croit tout simplement plus a la vie… E probleme c’est qu’a la fin l’ambulance passz devant le fourgon il lui faudrais un complice, pour avoir le corp si rapidement. Je pense que le couple est bien en vie car quand il le plante il bouge et parle, mais ce qui ne tien pas c’est bien l’ambulance et le passage a l’hopital.

Car a ce moment il est dans le fourgon a la fin. Au final pourquoi le frere mort et la vieille dame ne bouge pas, pourquoi le garcon a encore sa mere. Le realisateur devrait laisser sa place a une personne qui a une vrais ligne conductrice. Pour ma part je trouve que ce film etait tres complexe mais tout tenait la route. The State? Pour moi la jeune femme etait vivante mais sous l’hydronium bromide (un policier en parle comme etant une drogue servant a paralyser et ralentir les pulsations cardiaques et a la fin juste avant la ceremonie quand il lui fait l’injection l’on voit en gros plan le nom l’hydronium bromide sur le flacon) si l’on remarque il baisse la temperature de la piece pour baisser celle du corps de la jeune femme et pour finir on Geography of Orange s’apercoit meme que le « croque mort » etait avant l’ambulance sur le lieu de l’accident du fiance juste le temps d’une injection et hop declare mort par les ambulanciers. J’ai vraiment apprecie ce film et le recommande vivement ! je pense que Klly et Eber sont dans le vrai. Je pense aussi que Liam Neeson tue ses victimes en leur injectant se fameu hydromium bromide, juste avant la prise en charge des ambulancier. le realisateur enfin realisatrice insiste sur des details, pour nous donne des indices, comme la fourgonnette , l’hydromium, le vieux qui bouge, la buee, et il le dit clairement qu’il doit mettre les morts en terre. selon lui les gens qu’il tue sont deja mort, car il ne vive pas reellement.

il le repete encore a Christina Ricci que vivant n’est pas que sentir chie et mange. Essay The State Of Being Enslaved? et qu’elle etait deja morte avant. je pense aussi qu’elle est dans cette situation car elle a vue le vieux bouge ou qu’elle a ete remarque par le tueur. c’est un film assez dure a voir mais qui a le merite de dire que nous ne devons pas passe a cote de la vie et en profite si nous ne voulons pas nous retrouver sur la table d’Etienne ^^ Je pense pas qu’elle soit morte car : -Elle a encore du souffle puisque sur la glace on on Physical Geography County voit de la buee provoque par le froid hors un corps mort ne rejete pas d’air. – Parce qu’on voit sans cesse le croque mort descendre la temperature (plus on Essay about of Being a froid plus le corps devient pale) On peut egalement pense qu’il la maquille pour qu’elle croit qu’elle est morte en se voyant dans le miroir. – Parce que vers la fin le croque mort laisse pense a son fiance qu’elle est vivante et qu’il ne lui pas beaucoup de temps avant qu’elle n’etouffe.

– Enfin parce que quand le fiancee fini a la morgue on are DNA Vaccines? le voit clairement mourir quand le croque mort lui enfonce la tige. – Je crois que c’est le croque est devenu fou et qu’il entraine le gamin et que c’est pour sa que le gamin enterre le poussin le croyant mort. – Ce que je n’ai pas compris c’est pourquoi on about of Being Enslaved voit le fiance deterre sa copine, est la voir vivante alors que soit disant il n’a pas eu le temps d’y arriver a cause de l’accident qu’il a eu. Je trouve qu, il est un peu facile de croire qu, elle n, est pas morte parce qu, on County voit de la buee sur du miroir; c, est comme dire qu, elle n, est pas morte puisqu, on Essay of Being la voit deambuler tout le long du film dans la morgue. 500g? Le film est concu pour justement te laisser dans le doute. Au moment de son accident on Essay about The State Enslaved voit clairement une camionnette blanche. 500g? La meme qu’on apercoit a plusieurs reprises au long du film. About The State Of Being Enslaved? Et lors de la derniere injection on sexualisation in the voit clairement « Hydronium Bromide » sur le flacon. Essay About The State Of Being Enslaved? Donc tout laisse penser qu’elle etait en vie, sa peur qu’elle reagisse lors de l’enterrement, la buee sur le miroir, le fait qu’elle se deplace, il s’arrangeait juste qu’elle soit paralysee lorsqu’une personne devait la voir.

Il lui a laisser l’occasion de sortir pour voir si elle tenait veritablement a la vie, elle a preferer laisser passer sa chance convaincue par les precedents jours. Infant Joy William Analysis? Tout ce qui concerne le paranormal dans ce film ne se produisait que dans des reves. Essay About The State Of Being? L’homme devait seulement etre cingle et mettre ses victimes dans des situations ou il testait leurs envie de vivre. Elle se voit comme un cadavre dans le miroir car elle se voit telle que l’homme l’a maquille, on examples la voit normale en realite car on Essay about Enslaved la voit sous sa vision. What Are DNA Vaccines?? Elle n’est en aucun cas morte pendant le film, il lui injecte des produits parfois meme avec du mal. Enslaved? Il lui fait croire qu’elle est morte parce qu’il fait des recherches sur la psychanalyse humaine, lorsqu’il dit: « Les hommes pensent avoir peur de la mort, mais en realite, c’est de la vie qu’ils ont peur. Of Desertification? » Il n’a pas eu d’accident le fiance, c’etait juste un croisement. Essay About Enslaved? C’est pour nous faire croire sur le coup qu’il meurt et nous destabiliser que la scene est faite de telle sorte.

Je suis d’accord avec le reste de tes explications. Julien, elle n’est pas dutout morte. Of Desertification? Elle est en vie. C’est vraiment un super de bon film. elle est bien vivante puisque des l’enterrement du vieille homme au debut du film,le croque mort la repere comme prochaine victime. The State Enslaved? Pour ma part le petit garcon va prendre la releve puisque a la fin du film quand le fiance s’aprete a prendre la voiture la petit lui dit « attacher bien votre ceinture » puis qui on are DNA Vaccines? voit apres l’accident du fiance– le croque mort et le petit ( la ceinture c’etait pour bien s’assurer de recuperer le fiance vivant).

Je pense que ds ce film,le croque mort veut donner une lecon aux vivant qui ne profite pas assez de leur vie puisque souvenez vous vers la fin il dit a l’actrice » c’est ca que tu voulai t’en aller,va y je te laisse » et juste quand elle veut passer la porte elle est a nouveau hanter par ses demons et n’ose pas franchir le pas et la il lui dit » tu es comme les autres mais je pensai que tu etait differente » .Et enfin le vieille homme qui bouge ds son ce cerceuil est la preuve qu’il y a plusieur victime ainsi que le produit qu’il injecte. The State Of Being? Il a tout simplement reussi a la convaincre qu’elle est morte et a fait croire au petit que quand il a vu par la fenetre il avait le don de voir les fantomes hors qu’elle etait bien reelle. Voila mon petit roman est fini bonne journee a tous :) Bon je me pose pas mal de question, a mon avis le realisateur veut nous rendre tare, je suis totalement d’accord avec les explications pour la drogue et le reste mais y’a aussi des choses qu’on ne peut explique, comme le coup du miroir pourquoi se voit-elle en cadavre et surtout pourquoi le mec cache le miroir en dessous d’un drap alors que c’est a l’etage? Puis la voix de la fille au telephone? ensuite il y a l’histoire de la figurine que le fiance retrouve, c’est quelque chose de paranormal, elle bouge en fonction de l’emplacement du fiance, il apercoit sa fiance quand il trouve la figurine dans la voiture, puis dans la chambre la figurine tourne la tete en fonction du mec. Causes Of Desertification? Enfin y’a des explications pour le faites qu’elle soit vivante tout le long du film mais y’a des histoire chelou qui reste incomprise.

Mon avis sur ce film que j’ai trouve excellent. About The State Of Being Enslaved? Anna n’est pas morte du debut a la fin (sauf apres avoir ete enterree vivante). Infant Joy William Blake Analysis? Elliot maintient ses victimes dans un etat proche de la mort avec ce produit (hydronium bromide – pendant tout le film il lui fait des injections, en particulier au moment ou il recoit des visites) et en baissant la temperature de la piece, on of Being comprend qu’elle est vivante a la fin, lorsqu’elle se regarde dans le miroir avec la buee (buee qu’il avait d’ailleurs effacee dans la piece a l’etage). Examples Of Geography? Le petit garcon ainsi que d’autres elements (je pense au mur de photos au moment ou l’on entend toutes les voix) nous aide a comprendre la mentalite de Elliot, car on Essay about Enslaved le voit enterrer vivant un poussin dans une boite en repetant les memes mots que lui. Cheapest? De plus, Elliot recommence le meme scenario avec l’ami d’Anna en lui faisant prendre des risques au volant. Enslaved? Jack lui avait pourtant dit de mettre sa ceinture de securite, mais il a un accident de voiture dans lequel il a manifestement la cage thoracique ecrasee. Joy William Analysis? Encore une fois, on Essay about Enslaved voit Elliot prendre en charge le corps et tuer directement pour ne plus avoir de problemes cette fois ci. Ce film est troublant car on cheapest ne sait pas vraiment (de tout le long) si Anne est morte ou non. About Of Being Enslaved? La scene du debut avec les neons qui s’eteignent indique-t-elle l’imminence de la mort, on sexualisation in the media ne le sait pas. Essay About The State Enslaved? La vision du cadavre dans le miroir est-elle reelle ou liee a un effet d’optique, … Plusieurs points restent neanmoins assez flous, de meme que la facon dont Elliot maintient en vie les corps pour les recuperer ensuite dans son funerarium.

Ce film m’a vraiment plus, et j’aurai aime un quart d’heure en plus pour approfondir certains points, mais cela reste un film inedit, dont l’approche change radicalement de tout ce qui a ete vu. Sexualisation Of Women In The? A voir. Anna n’est pas morte, c’est une certitude. About? Deux raisons a ca : La plus flagrante, c’est qu’on voit sur le flacon a la fin : Hydroxide Bromium, le fameux produit qui paralyse. La seconde, c’est qu’on injecte pas un produit dans le cou a un cadavre, soi-disant pour relacher les muscles. Marmite 500g? Pour qu’un produit se diffuse dans le corps, le coeur doit battre.

Lorsqu’on veut injecter quelque chose dans le corps d’un cadavre, il faut le faire avec un drain, et ca n’a jamais ete le cas avec Anna. Y’a une troisieme raison un peu moins evidente, mais le fait que Paul ait mis sa ceinture, l’a garde intact. About The State Of Being? Il a juste la blessure sur la poitrine probablement due a cette ceinture justement. En effet Anna n’est pas morte, je ne repeterai pas les raisons cites auparavant, mais la scenariste nous laisse des indices tout au long du film. What Essays? L’hydroxide , la buee dans le miroir, la temperature qu’il maintient basse ect . About The State Of Being Enslaved? Il y a aussi le fait que le tueur repete souvent . Examples Of Geography? il ne font que chier et pisser, hors un cadavre ne faut pas cela. Essay About Of Being Enslaved? De plus, il ne draine jamais le corps d’ Anna de son sang, il ne coud pas ses levres.

En ce qui concerne les septique… Allez voir dans les extra du film , la scenariste le precise qu’Anna est bien vivante. Ensuite, pour les choses un peu moins evidente dans le film et qui reste sans reponse, comme les lumieres au debut qui s’eteingne une apres l’autre. Examples? On voit souvent Anna prendre des medicaments.. on Essay The State Enslaved ne sait pas pour quel raison et elle fait aussi allusion qu’elle n’est pas du tout comme sa mere. What? Alors on Essay about The State of Being peut s’imaginer ou du moins pretendre qu’elle est depressive ou autre chose et bien sur quelque fois la prise de medicament provoque des hallucination ou tout simplement un probleme de courant. En ce qui concerne le fait qu’elle se voit comme un cadravre, l’eclairage y est pour beaucoup , de plus des le debut du film on of women in the voit qu’elle a deja le teint bleme. The State? Il y a meme une femme qui lui demande si elle va bien. Causes? La prise de medicament ainsi que les injection n’aide pas a son teint. Essay Enslaved? Puis, le tueur baisse la temperature ce qui entraine le teint blanchatre et elle ne mange pas. Il y a quelq’un plus haut qui se demandais comment elle a pu survivre sans boire ni se nourir. Media? On peut vivre un certain nombre de temp sans manger et tres peu sans boire. The State Enslaved? Mais, elle ne passe que 3 jours dans cette endroit ce qui est parfaitement plausible.

On ne voit pas non plus tout ce qui se passe, mais il y a un fait tres important, un indice, que le scenariste nous a laisse. Of Desertification? On voit souvent le tueur qui lave ses instruments. Enslaved? Des scene du film qui peuvent paraitre inutile , mais en fais cela nous laisse croire que si il y a de l’eau elle peut boire et je raporte encore le fait que tueur precise que les mort pisse et chie…donc il boit. Finalement, pour la final du film. Of Desertification? Le fiance ne se rend pas vraiment jusqu’au cimetiere.

Il a son accident avant, provoquer sans aucun doute par l’embaumeur. About Enslaved? Et la scene ou l’on voit le fiance dans le cimetierre n’est qu’un reve du fiance lui meme. Essay On Physical County? On le sait, car dans cette scene lorsqu’il tient Anna ,elle disparait sous ses yeux. Essay About The State Of Being? C’est la meme chose pour les autres scene d’anna lorsu’elle voit des mort ou des choses horrible se sont dans ses reve…un peu comme ses propres demons a elle. bref, un merveilleux film qui se tient du debit a la fin ou les plus petit details sont important et ou rien n’est laisse au hasard. encore un petit detail … chez un mort le sang coagule .. Cheapest? a la fin elle se pete les ongles dans le cerceuil et il y a du sang qui coule raison de plus pour justifier le fait qu elle etais bien vivante. je suis tout a fait d’accord avec cette analyse, plusieurs indices nous laisse penser qu’elle est belle et bien vivante. Essay About Enslaved? Personnellement je ne n’avais pas fait attention au fourgon qui avait provoque l’accident au debut. Cheapest Marmite 500g? De plus ce que je ne comprenais pas c’est pourquoi enfonce-t-il quelque chose ( dans le coeur ) du mec, et qu’il a mal ?? Alors que la femme qui avait deja recu des injections n’avait senti.

Parce qu’il est vivant . j’aime tous les commentaires du style : » film sans interet , confus ect » mais le realisateur a une idee plus profonde que vous le pensez, son but est de faire parler de ce film bien apres sa diffusion ( ce que l’on est en train de faire) en quelque sorte nous faisons vivre une nouvelle fois ce film qui est selon moi un chef-d’oeuvre ! Je pense que le personnage de Liam Neeson est un serial killer(la collection de photos…). Je viens de voir le film, et il me semble qu’un point determinant a ete oublier lors de la question « Anna est-elle toujours vivante lorsqu’elle se fait enterrer? » (question a laquelle de nombreux internautes ont repondus de facon plus ou moins pertinente). The State Of Being Enslaved? En effet, je me pose la question de savoir si il est possible d’injecter un produit en seringue dans un cadavre, etant donne que son c?ur ne bat plus et donc que le sang ne circule plus. Causes? Et dans le cas contraire, pourquoi injecter un produit paralysant a une femme deja morte, dont le corps apres trois jours place dans une chambre a 10°C devrai etre mou, voir flasque?

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the subjective necessity for social settlements. contents: preface · the The State of Being, subjective necessity for social settlements · how to cite this piece. Jane Addams (1869-1935) is, perhaps, best known as a pioneering social worker and social activist, however she was also a committed internationalist and critical intellectual. Joy William? She introduced and developed the idea of the settlement house to Essay about of Being, the United States (founding Hull House with Ellen Starr in 1889); campaigned for better social conditions and led investigations into various areas of health and welfare. Jane Addams saw education as the foundation for democracy. She also argued for women's suffrage and for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts.

Her pacifism led her to oppose US entry into the First World War. After the cessation of examples of geography, hostilities she was active in organizing relief supplies. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, Jane Addams died in 1935. As becomes clear from the opening paragraph, this paper was the first of two talks Jane Addams gave at the School of Applied Ethics in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1892. Like Samuel Barnett she believed that settlements were based on the idea of reciprocal need. On the one side there was the need of poor people for help with their 'objective problems', and on the other, the need of the more privileged to express their ideals in practical ways.

This paper was, as Jane Addams states in her introduction, 'an attempt to analyze the motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for that sentiment for universal brotherhood'. Originally published as 'A new impulse to an old gospel' Forum 14 (1892) pp342-356 and later in Essay about The State Enslaved, Henry C. Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and Social Progress, New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell. Sexualisation Of Women Media? This version is taken from Essay about of Being Enslaved (1910) Twenty Years at Hull House, New York: Macmillan. links: university and social settlements · Addams - socialized education. The full text of Twenty Years at Hull House is available on the Celebration of Women Writers site. The Ethical Culture Societies held a summer school at marmite 500g Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1892, to which they invited several people representing the then new Settlement movement, that they might discuss with others the general theme of Philanthropy and Social Progress. I venture to Essay about The State of Being, produce here parts of a lecture I delivered in Plymouth, both because I have found it impossible to formulate with the same freshness those early motives and strivings, and because, when published with other papers given that summer, it was received by the Settlement people themselves as a satisfactory statement. I remember on on Physical golden summer afternoon during the about of Being, sessions of the Vaccines? Essays, summer school that several of us met on the shores of a pond in a pine wood a few miles from Plymouth, to discuss our new movement. The natural leader of the group was Robert A. Woods.

He had recently returned from a residence in Toynbee Hall, London, to open Andover House in Boston, and had just issued a book, English Social Movements, in Essay The State of Being, which he had gathered together and focused the many [page 114] forms of of Orange, social endeavor preceding and contemporaneous with the English Settlements. There were Miss Vida D. Scudder and Miss Helena Dudley from the College Settlement Association, Miss Julia C. Lathrop and Essay about The State of Being Enslaved, myself from Hull-House. Some of us had numbered our years as far as thirty, and we all carefully avoided the extravagance of statement which characterizes youth, and yet I doubt if anywhere on the continent that summer could have been found a group of people more genuinely interested in sexualisation in the media, social development or more sincerely convinced that they had found a clue by which the conditions in crowded cities might be understood and the agencies for social betterment developed. We were all careful to avoid saying that we had found a life work, perhaps with an instinctive dread of expending all our energy in Essay about of Being Enslaved, vows of constancy, as so often happens; and yet it is interesting to note that of all the people whom I have [page 115] recalled as the enthusiasts at that little conference have remained attached to of geography, Settlements in actual residence for longer or shorter periods each year during the eighteen years that have elapsed since then, although they have also been closely identified as publicists or governmental officials with movements outside. It is Essay The State of Being Enslaved, as if they had discovered that the Settlement was too valuable as a method as a way of approach to the social question to abandoned, although they had long since discovered it was not a social movement in itself. This, however, is anticipating the future, whereas the of women media, following paper on The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements should have a chance to speak for itself. It is Essay about The State Enslaved, perhaps too late in the day to causes, express regret for its stilted title. This paper is an attempt to analyze the motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon Essay about The State Enslaved, conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for that sentiment for universal brotherhood, which the best spirit of our times is forcing from an emotion into a motive.

These young people accomplish little toward the solution of this social problem, and sexualisation of women media, bear the brunt of being cultivated into unnourished, oversensitive lives. They have been shut off from the common labor by which they live which is The State Enslaved, a great source of moral and physical health. They feel a fatal want of harmony between their theory and their lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action. I think it is hard for us to realize how seriously many of [page 116] them are taking to the notion of infant joy william, human brotherhood, how eagerly they long to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal. These young men and women, longing to Essay about of Being Enslaved, socialize their democracy, are animated by certain hopes which may be thus loosely formulated; that if in a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to establish a higher political life than the Essay of Orange, people themselves crave; that it is difficult to see how the notion of a higher civic life can be fostered save through common intercourse; that the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and Essay The State of Being Enslaved, must be made universal if they are to be permanent; that the good we secure for in the, ourselves is precarious and uncertain, is floating in mid-air, until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life. It is easier to Essay, state these hopes than to formulate the line of motives, which I believe to constitute the trend of the subjective pressure toward the Settlement. Sexualisation In The? There is something primordial about these motives, but I am perhaps overbold in designating them as a great desire to share the The State Enslaved, race life. We all bear traces of the starvation struggle which for so long made up the life of the race.

Our very organism holds memories and glimpses of that long life of our ancestors, which still goes on among so many of our contemporaries. Nothing so deadens the sympathies and shrivels the power of enjoyment as the persistent keeping away from the of geography, great opportunities for helpfulness and a continual ignoring of the starvation struggle which makes up the life of at least half the race. To shut one's self away from that [page 117] half of the race life is to shut one's self away from the most vital part of Essay of Being Enslaved, it; it is to live out of geography but half the humanity to which we have been born heir and to use but half our faculties. We have all had longings for a fuller life which should include the use of these faculties. These longings are the physical complement of the Intimations of Immortality, on which no ode has yet been written. To portray these would be the work of Essay The State, a poet, and it is sexualisation in the media, hazardous for Essay about Enslaved, any but a poet to attempt it.

You may remember the forlorn feeling which occasionally seizes you when you arrive early in the morning a stranger in causes of desertification, a great city: the stream of laboring people goes past you as you gaze through the plate-glass window of your hotel; you see hard working men lifting great burdens; you hear the about The State of Being Enslaved, driving and jostling of huge carts and of women in the media, your heart sinks with a sudden sense of futility. The door opens behind you and you turn to of Being Enslaved, the man who brings you in your breakfast with a quick sense of human fellowship. You find yourself praying that you may never lose your hold on it all. A more poetic prayer would be that the blake analysis, great mother breasts of our common humanity, with its labor and suffering and its homely comforts, may never be withheld from you. You turn helplessly to the waiter and feel that it would be almost grotesque to Essay of Being, claim from him the sympathy you crave because civilization has placed you apart, but you resent your position with a sudden sense of cheapest marmite, snobbery. Literature is full of portrayals of these glimpses: they come to shipwrecked men on rafts; they overcome the differences of an incongruous multitude when in the presence of a great danger or [page 118] when moved by a common enthusiasm. They are not, however, confined to such moments, and if we were in Essay about of Being Enslaved, the habit of telling them to each other, the recital would be as long as the tales of children are, when they sit down on the green grass and confide to each other how many times they have remembered that they lived once before.

If these childish tales are the stirring of inherited impressions, just so surely is the of Orange, other the striving of inherited powers. It is true that there is nothing after disease, indigence and a sense of guilt, so fatal to health and to life itself as the want of a proper outlet for active faculties. I have seen young girls suffer and about The State Enslaved, grow sensibly lowered in vitality in of geography, the first years after they leave school. In our attempt then to give a girl pleasure and freedom from of Being care we succeed, for the most part, in examples of geography, making her pitifully miserable. She finds life so different from what she expected it to be. She is besotted with innocent little ambitions, and does not understand this apparent waste of herself, this elaborate preparation, if no work is provided for her. There is a heritage of noble obligation which young people accept and about of Being, long to perpetuate. The desire for action, the wish to examples, right wrong and alleviate suffering haunts them daily.

Society smiles at it indulgently instead of making it of value to itself. The wrong to them begins even farther back, when we restrain the first childish desires for Essay The State of Being, doing good, and tell them that they must wait until they are older and better fitted. We intimate that social obligation begins at a fixed date, forgetting that it begins at birth itself. We treat them as children who, with strong-growing limbs, are allowed to use their legs [page 119] but not their arms, or whose legs are daily carefully exercised that after a while their arms may be put to high use. We do this in spite of the protest of the best educators, Locke and Pestalozzi. We are fortunate in the meantime if their unused members do not weaken and disappear. They do sometimes.

There are a few girls who, by the time they are educated, forget their old childish desires to help the world and to play with poor little girls who haven't playthings. Parents are often inconsistent: they deliberately expose their daughters to knowledge of the distress in the world; they send them to Essay County, hear missionary addresses on famines in India and China; they accompany them to lectures on the suffering in Siberia; they agitate together over the forgotten region of East London. In addition to this, from babyhood the altruistic tendencies of these daughters are persistently cultivated. They are taught to be self-forgetting and self-sacrificing, to consider the Essay about The State, good of the whole before the good of the ego. But when all this information and culture show results, when the daughter comes back from college and begins to recognize her social claim to the submerged tenth, and to evince a disposition to fulfill it, the family claim is strenuously asserted; she is told that she is unjustified, ill-advised in her efforts. If she persists, the family too often are injured and unhappy unless the efforts are called missionary and the religious zeal of the family carry them over their sense of abuse. When this zeal does not exist, the result is perplexing. It is a curious violation of what we would fain believe a fundamental law–that the final return of the deed is upon of desertification, the head of the doer. Enslaved? The deed is that of exclusiveness [page 120] and caution, but the return, instead of falling upon the head of the exclusive and cautious, falls upon a young head full of generous and examples of geography, unselfish plans.

The girl loses something vital out of her life to which she is entitled. She is The State, restricted and unhappy; her elders meanwhile, are unconscious of the situation and we have all the elements of a tragedy. We have in America a fast-growing number of cultivated young people who have no recognized outlet for their active faculties. They hear constantly of the great social maladjustment, but no way is What are DNA Vaccines? Essays, provided for them to change it, and their uselessness hangs about them heavily. Essay About Enslaved? Huxley declares that the sense of uselessness is the severest shock which the human system can sustain, and that if persistently sustained, it results in atrophy of function. These young people have had advantages of college, of European travel, and of economic study, but they are sustaining this shock of inaction. They have pet phrases, and they tell you that the things that make us all alike are stronger than the things that make us different. They say that all men are united by joy william blake analysis needs and sympathies far more permanent and radical than anything that temporarily divides them and sets them in opposition to each other. If they affect art, they say that the decay in artistic expression is due to the decay in ethics, that art when shut away from the human interests and from the great mass of Essay The State Enslaved, humanity is self-destructive. They tell their elders with all the bitterness of youth that if they expect success from cheapest 500g them in business or politics or in The State of Being Enslaved, whatever lines their ambition for them has run, they must let them consult all of marmite, humanity; that they must let them [page 121] find out what the people want and how they want it. It is Essay The State of Being Enslaved, only the stronger young people, however, who formulate this.

Many of them dissipate their energies in so-called enjoyment. Others not content with that, go on studying and go back to college for their second degrees; not that they are especially fond of study, but because they want something definite to do, and their powers have been trained in the direction of mental accumulation. Many are buried beneath this mental accumulation with lowered vitality and discontent. Examples Of Geography? Walter Besant says they have had the vision that Peter had when he saw the Essay about The State of Being Enslaved, great sheet let down from heaven, wherein was neither clean nor unclean. He calls it the sense of humanity. It is not philanthropy nor benevolence, but a thing fuller and Essay of Orange County, wider than either of these. This young life, so sincere in its emotion and good phrases and yet so undirected, seems to Essay The State, me as pitiful as the other great mass of destitute lives. One is supplementary to the other, and some method of communication can surely be devised. Mr. Barnett, who urged the cheapest, first Settlement,–Toynbee Hall, in East London,–recognized this need of outlet for the young men of Oxford and Cambridge, and hoped that the Essay The State Enslaved, Settlement would supply the communication. It is easy to see why the What are DNA Essays, Settlement movement originated in England, where the years of education are more constrained and Essay, definite than they are here, where class distinctions are more rigid.

The necessity of it was greater there, but we are fast feeling the pressure of the need and causes, meeting the necessity for Settlements in America. Our young people feel nervously the need of [page 122] putting theory into action, and about The State Enslaved, respond quickly to the Settlement form of in the media, activity. Other motives which I believe make toward the Settlement are the about The State of Being Enslaved, result of a certain renaissance going forward in infant joy william, Christianity. The impulse to share the lives of the poor, the desire to make social service, irrespective of propaganda, express the spirit of Christ, is as old as Christianity itself. We have no proof from the records themselves that the early Roman Christians, who strained their simple art to the point of grotesqueness in their eagerness to record a good news on the walls of the catacombs, considered this good news a religion.

Jesus had no set of truths labeled Religious. On the contrary, his doctrine was that all truth is one, that the Essay The State of Being Enslaved, appropriation of it is joy william blake, freedom. His teaching had no dogma to mark it off from truth and action in general. He himself called it a revelation–a life. About The State Enslaved? These early Roman Christians received the Gospel message, a command to love all men, with a certain joyous simplicity.

The image of the Good Shepherd is sexualisation, blithe and gay beyond the gentlest shepherd of about of Being Enslaved, Greek mythology; the hart no longer pants, but rushes to the water brooks. The Christians looked for the continuous revelation, but believed what Jesus said, that this revelation, to 500g, be retained and Essay The State of Being, made manifest, must be put into terms of action; that action is the only medium man has for receiving and sexualisation media, appropriating truth; that the doctrine must be known through the will. That Christianity has to be revealed and embodied in the line of social progress is a corollary to the simple proposition, that man's action is found in his social [page 123] relationships in the way in which he connects with his fellows; that his motives for action are the zeal and affection with which he regards his fellows. Essay The State Of Being? By this simple process was created a deep enthusiasm for humanity; which regarded man as at once the on Physical Geography of Orange County, organ and the object of revelation; and by this process came about the wonderful fellowship, the true democracy of the early Church, that so captivates the imagination. Essay The State Of Being? The early Christians were preeminently nonresistant. They believed in love as a cosmic force. There was no iconoclasm during the minor peace of the Church. They did not yet denounce nor tear down temples, nor preach the end of the world. They grew to a mighty number, but it never occurred to them, either in their weakness or in their strength, to regard other men for an instant as their foes or as aliens. The spectacle of the Vaccines? Essays, Christians loving all men was the most astounding Rome had ever seen.

They were eager to sacrifice themselves for the weak, for The State, children, and for the aged; they identified themselves with slaves and did not avoid the plague; they longed to share the common lot that they might receive the constant revelation. It was a new treasure which the early Christians added to the sum of all treasures, a joy hitherto unknown in the world–the joy of finding the Christ which lieth in each man, but which no man can unfold save in fellowship. A happiness ranging from the cheapest, heroic to the pastoral enveloped them. Essay About The State? They were to possess a revelation as long as life had new meaning to unfold, new action to propose. I believe that there is a distinct turning among many young men and women toward this simple acceptance of examples of geography, Christ's message. They resent the Essay, [page 124] assumption that Christianity is a set of ideas which belong to the religious consciousness, whatever that may be.

They insist that it cannot be proclaimed and instituted apart from the social life of the community and that it must seek a simple and of desertification, natural expression in the social organism itself. The Settlement movement is only one manifestation of that wider humanitarian movement which throughout Christendom, but pre-eminently in England, is Essay about of Being, endeavoring to embody itself, not in a sect, but in society itself. I believe that this turning, this renaissance of the early Christian humanitarianism, is going on in America, in Chicago, if you please, without leaders who write or philosophize, without much speaking, but with a bent to express in social service and in terms of cheapest marmite 500g, action the spirit of Christ. Certain it is that spiritual force is found in the Settlement movement, and it is Essay The State Enslaved, also true that this force must be evoked and must be called into play before the success of any Settlement is assured. Examples? There must be the The State Enslaved, overmastering belief that all that is noblest in infant joy william blake, life is of Being Enslaved, common to on Physical of Orange, men as men, in Essay about of Being Enslaved, order to accentuate the marmite, likenesses and about The State Enslaved, ignore the differences which are found among the people whom the Settlement constantly brings into juxtaposition. It may be true, as the Positivists insist, that the very religious fervor of man can be turned into love for infant joy william analysis, his race, and his desire for a future life into content to live in the echo of his deeds; Paul's formula of seeking for the Christ which lieth in Essay, each man and of desertification, founding our likenesses on him, seems a simpler formula to The State Enslaved, many of us. In a thousand voices singing the Hallelujah Chorus in Handel's Messiah, it is possible to causes of desertification, distinguish [page 125] the leading voices, but the differences of training and cultivation between them and the voices in about The State, the chorus, are lost in of desertification, the unity of purpose and in the fact that they are all human voices lifted by about The State of Being a high motive. This is a weak illustration of what a Settlement attempts to do.

It aims, in a measure, to develop whatever of social life its neighborhood may afford, to focus and cheapest marmite 500g, give form to that life, to bring to bear upon The State, it the Vaccines?, results of Essay about The State of Being, cultivation and training; but it receives in exchange for the music of isolated voices the volume and strength of the chorus. It is quite impossible for me to cheapest 500g, say in what proportion or degree the subjective necessity which led to the opening of Hull-House combined the three trends: first, the desire to interpret democracy in social terms; secondly, the impulse beating at The State of Being the very source of our lives, urging us to aid in the race progress; and, thirdly, the of Orange County, Christian movement toward humanitarianism. It is difficult to analyze a living thing; the analysis is at best imperfect. Many more motives may blend with the three trends; possibly the desire for a new form of social success due to Essay about The State, the nicety of imagination, which refuses worldly pleasures unmixed with the joys of self-sacrifice; possibly a love of approbation, so vast that it is not content with the treble clapping of delicate hands, but wishes also to hear the bass notes from toughened palms, may mingle with these. The Settlement then, is an experimental effort to infant joy william blake, aid in the solution of the social and industrial problems which are engendered by the modern conditions of life in a great city.

It insists that these problems are not confined to Essay, any one portion of a city. It is an attempt to relieve, at the same time, the overaccumulation at [page 126] one end of society and cheapest, the destitution at the other; but it assumes that this overaccumulation and destitution is most sorely felt in the things that pertain to social and educational privileges. From its very nature it can stand for no political or social propaganda. It must, in a sense, give the warm welcome of an inn to all such propaganda, if perchance one of them be found an angel. The only of Being Enslaved thing to be dreaded in the Settlement is that it lose its flexibility, its power of quick adaptation, its readiness to change its methods as its environment may demand. It must be open to on Physical Geography of Orange County, conviction and must have a deep and abiding sense of Essay The State of Being Enslaved, tolerance. Examples? It must be hospitable and ready for experiment. It should demand from its residents a scientific patience in the accumulation of The State of Being, facts and the steady holding of Vaccines?, their sympathies as one of the best instruments for that accumulation. It must be grounded in a philosophy whose foundation is on the solidarity of the human race, a philosophy which will not waver when the race happens to be represented by a drunken woman or an idiot boy. Its residents must be emptied of all conceit of opinion and all self-assertion, and ready to arouse and interpret the public opinion of Essay The State of Being, their neighborhood. They must be content to live quietly side by side with their neighbors, until they grow into a sense of relationship and mutual interests.

Their neighbors are held apart by Vaccines? differences of race and language which the residents can more easily overcome. They are bound to see the needs of their neighborhood as a whole, to furnish data for legislation, and to use their influence to of Being Enslaved, secure it. In short, residents are pledged to causes of desertification, devote themselves to the duties of good citizenship and to about of Being Enslaved, the arousing of the Essay County, social energies [page 127] which too largely lie dormant in every neighborhood given over to industrialism. They are bound to regard the entire life of their city as organic, to make an effort to unify it, and to protest against its over-differentiation. It is always easy to The State, make all philosophy point one particular moral and all history adorn one particular tale; but I may be forgiven the reminder that the best speculative philosophy sets forth the solidarity of the human race; that the highest moralists have taught that without the advance and improvement of the whole, no man can hope for any lasting improvement in his own moral or material individual condition; and that the subjective necessity for Social Settlements is therefore identical with that necessity, which urges us on on Physical Geography of Orange County toward social and individual salvation. Note: The full text of the book is about The State of Being, available on the Celebration of Women Writers site: Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes.

Acknowledgement : The picture of Jane Addams was taken in 1914 and is held by the Library of Congress and released into the public domain under a Creative Commons licence. How to cite this piece : Addams, J. (1893) 'The subjective necessity for social settlements' in Henry C. Marmite 500g? Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and Social Progress , New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell. Republished as chapter six of Jane Addams (1910) Twenty Years at Hull House , New York: Macmillan. Also available in the informal education archives : http://www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/addams.htm. This piece has been reproduced here on the understanding that it is not subject to any copyright restrictions, and that it is, and will remain, in the public domain.

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0195080017 - Irrationality: an Essay about of Being, Essay on Akrasia, Self-deception, and Self-control by What are DNA Vaccines?, Alfred R Mele. First Edition (1) Seller-Supplied Images (1) Not Printed On Demand. Free US Shipping (6) star star star star_border star_border and up (26) star star star star star_border and up (26) star star star star star (15) Irrationality : An Essay on Akrasia, Self-Deception, and Self-Control. Essay Of Being! Item Description: Oxford University Press, Incorporated. Paperback. Book Condition: Good.

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Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. Mele provides us with a host of helpful examples, including ones from the psychological literature, on which to test theories and sexualisation in the hone intuitions, provides clear and insightful discussion of the various theories advanced in the philosophical literature, and has interesting positive accounts of his own to offer. -- Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. (Philosophy). Bookseller Inventory # AAV9780195080018. Irrationality: An Essay on Akrasia, Self-Deception, and Self-Control. The State! Item Description: Oxford University Press, 1992. Paperback. Book Condition: Used: Good. Bookseller Inventory # 14787506. Irrationality: An Essay on Akrasia, Self-Deception, and Self-Control. Item Description: Oxford University Press 1992-07, 1992. Book Condition: New.

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200 pages. Dimensions: 8.1in. x 5.4in. x 0.6in.Although much human action serves as proof that irrational behavior is remarkably common, certain forms of irrationality--most notably, incontinent action and self-deception--pose such difficult theoretical problems that philosophers have rejected them as logically or psychologically impossible. Here, Mele shows that, and how, incontinent action and self-deception are indeed possible. The State Of Being Enslaved! Drawing upon recent experimental work in the psychology of action and inference, he advances naturalized explanations of akratic action and self-deception while resolving the paradoxes around which the philosophical literature revolves. In addition, he defends an account of self-control, argues that strict akratic action is an insurmountable obstacle for sexualisation in the, traditional belief-desire models of action-explanation, and explains how a considerably modified model accommodates action of this sort. Essay Enslaved! This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from What Vaccines?, Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback.

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[80] Isothermal of these has a mutual pedal habitat. For predicate, interrogans serotype icterohaemorrhagiae is most commonly found in later, interrogans serotype canicola in many and Essay about The State, L. Elioth Gomez Pr.2 AP Bio Essay Question: 29.) Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an cheapest, inability to digest starch. This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the Essay Enslaved condition. a. Describe the most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition.

Explain your reasoning. Include in your discussion a sample cross(es) sufficient to verify your proposed pattern. b. Explain how a mutation could cause this inability to digest starch. c. Describe how modern techniques of molecular biology could be used to determine whether the mutant allele is present in a given individual. The most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition would be recessive because the parents are not affected but the offspring is. They are most likely carriers for the inability to digest starch. Since both parents are carriers, they are able to pass on examples, the gene to their offsprings; this would result in full expression of the gene.

If one parent is a carrier and the other is Dominant the offspring may inherit the allele but doesn’t express the gene. One can use a Punnett Square, monohybrid cross to determine the probable pattern of inheritance for this condition. S will be used as the dominant allele that does not express the inability to digest starch; the s is recessive and will represent the inability to Essay The State Enslaved, digest starch. One probable pattern of inheritance would be to cross two heterozygous alleles this example shows that both the parents carry the condition, but is not dominant. The probability when crossing the two heterozygous parents would be a 25% that their child will express the gene, the child inherited both the recessive alleles (ss), wont be able to digest starch. Two of their children will carry the s allele. Two of those four children will be able to digest starch, because they also have the dominant allele S, which determines that they are not affected with this condition. The fourth child will receive two dominant alleles and does not carry the condition. A second probable pattern of inheritance is to examples of geography, a homozygous dominant parent SS cross with a heterozygous parent Ss. In this example, when the homozygous dominant gene is crossed with a heterozygous gene, there is a 25% probability that their child will carry the s allele but will express the condition, because the s is Essay about The State Enslaved, recessive.

There is a 75% probability that one of the offspring will not carry the examples condition because the offsprings inherited the two dominant S alleles, and therefore will not carry the s allele. Two heterozygous cross: Heterozygous X Homozygous Mutations are changes in a DNA sequence. There are three types of about point mutations, which are base-pair subsitution, insertion and deletion. The base pair substitutions are missense, nonsense, and sense mutations. Missense mutations have altered codons, but still code for a message, but not necessarily the right amino acid. Nonsense mutations change the examples codon sequence to make it read the stop codons, UGA, UAG, and UAA. Sense mutations change the codon from a stop codon to a start codon (AUG). Sense mutations result in The State longer polypeptides, and nonsense mutation may cause shorter polypeptides. Insertion mutation adds a base, and deletion removes a base or codon.

These types of mutations cause frame shift mutations, which may alter the reading frame of a gene. Mutations can cause the inability to digest starch. To digest starch an blake, enzyme, which are made out of amino acids. By changing the sequence of DNA, there maybe an The State of Being Enslaved, area that codes for the enzyme that digest starch, when alternated the gene may no longer code for the production of that enzyme. With this disruption no transcription or translation would occur for that enzyme. A modern technique of molecular biology that could be used to determine whether the mutant allele is 500g, present is DNA fingerprinting. For every 1,000 nucleotides inherited, there a polymorphism. These DNA polymorphisms change the length of the DNA fragments produced by the digestion of restriction enzymes. The exact number and size of fragments produced by a specific restriction enzyme digestion varies for an individual. The resulting fragments, called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms can be separated and their size determined by electrophoresis.

These restriction enzymes that flank these repeating sequences cut the DNA strand creating RFLPs. The differences in about The State of Being the fragments can be quantified to create a DNA fingerprint. Distinct RFLP patterns can be used to identify a mutation in an individual. Ap biology human systems essay - writing essay. The Advanced Placement Program. Sample Questions for of women in the Biology 5. The bones of a human arm are homologous. AP Grades The Readers’ scores on Essay, the essay and. The AP Biology course is Geography County, designed to enable you to.

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AP Biology Essay Questions. HUMAN SYSTEMS QUESTIONS. ap biology human systems essay Related Articles. The following is Essay of Being, a comprehensive list of essay questions that have been asked on past AP exams. The questions are organized according to units. Unit 1 (Basic Chemistry and Water)

1. The unique properties (characteristics) of County water make life possible on Earth. About Of Being? Select three properties of water and: for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of sexualisation of women water. for each property, describe one example of how the about The State of Being Enslaved property affects the functioning of living organisms. Unit 2 (Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and sexualisation in the media, Metabolism) 2. Describe the chemical composition and configuration of enzymes and discuss the factors that modify enzyme structure and/or function. 3. After an enzyme is mixed with its substrate, the amount of product formed is determined at 10-second intervals for 1 minute. Data from this experiment are shown below: Draw a graph of about The State of Being Enslaved these data and answer the following questions. What is the on Physical of Orange initial rate of this enzymatic reaction? What is the rate after 50 seconds? Why is it different from the initial rate?

What would be the effect on product formation if the enzyme where heated to a temperature of 100? C for 10 minutes before repeating the experiment? Why? How might altering the substrate concentration affect the rate of the reaction? Why? How might altering the pH affect the rate of the Essay about Enslaved reaction? Why? 4. Enzymes are biological catalysts. Relate the chemical structure of an enzyme to its specificity and catalytic activity.

Design a quantitative experiment to of desertification, investigate the influence of pH or temperature on Essay about of Being Enslaved, the activity of an enzyme. Describe what information concerning the structure of an enzyme could be inferred from your experiments . Unit 3 (Cell Structure and Function, Cell division) 5. Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through it by each of the of geography following processes: 6. Describe the structure of a eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell. 7. About The State Enslaved? Discuss the sexualisation of women media process of cell division in animals. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the about The State of Being cell cycle. Do Not include meiosis.

8. Are DNA Essays? A laboratory assistant prepared solution of 0.8 M . 0.6 M . 0.4 M . and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis . that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer (a) a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment: (b) the results you would expect from your experiments: and Essay about The State of Being, (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. On Physical Geography Of Orange? (Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in your discussion.) 9. The State Of Being? Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the causes following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, Describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in the movement of specific molecules across membranes; and Essay about of Being Enslaved, Explain the significance of each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use difference cell types as examples.) Unit 4 (Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration) 10. Describe the similarities and differences between the biochemical pathways of aerobic respiration and photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells.

Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers. 11. Of Desertification? The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environmental temperature, wavelength of light, and light intensity. Using a photosynthetic organism of your choice, choose only Essay about, ONE of the three variables (temperature, wavelength of light, or light intensity) and for this variable. design a scientific experiment to determine the effect of the variable on the rate of photosynthesis for the organism; explain how you would measure the rate of photosynthesis in your experiment; describe the results you would expect. Explain why you would expect these results. 12. Essay On Physical Of Orange? Describe the light reactions of Essay of Being Enslaved photosynthesis and, for both a C 3 and a C 4 plant, trace the path of a carbon dioxide molecule from the point at which it enters a plant to its incorporation into a glucose molecule.

Include leaf anatomy and biochemical pathways in examples of geography your discussion of each type of about of Being Enslaved plant. 13. Explain what occurs during the Krebs (citric acid) cycle and What, electron transport by about of Being, describing the following: The location of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain in mitochondria. The cyclic nature of the reactions in the Krebs cycle. Of Geography? The production of ATP and reduced coenzymes during the cycle. The chemiosmotic production of ATP during electron transport. 14. Membranes are important structural features of cells.

Describe how membrane structure is related to the transport of materials across the membrane. Essay About Of Being Enslaved? Describe the on Physical Geography County role of membranes in the synthesis of Essay about ATP in either cellular respiration or photosynthesis. 15. Energy transfer occurs in all cellular activities. For 3 of the following 5 processes involving energy transfer, explain how each functions in the cell and give an example.

Explain how ATP is involved in each example you choose. 16. The results below are measurements of cumulative oxygen consumption by germinating and dry seeds. Gas volume measurements were corrected for changes in temperature and pressure. Cumulative Oxygen Consumed (mL) Using the graph paper provided, plot the results for the germinating seeds at 22? C and at 10? C. Cheapest? Calculate function the rate of about Enslaved oxygen consumption for the germinating seeds at 22? C, using the time interval between 10 and 20 minutes. Account for the differences in oxygen consumption observed between: germinating seeds at 22? C and at examples of geography 10? C germinating seeds and Essay about The State Enslaved, dry seeds Describe the essential features of an experimental apparatus that could be used to causes of desertification, measure oxygen consumption by Essay The State, a small organism. Explain why each of these features is necessary. Unit 5 (Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, DNA Replication) 17.

State the conclusions reached by Mendel in his work on the inheritance of characteristics. Explain how each of the following deviates from Geography County, these conclusions. 18. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning DNA. Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene. Hershey and Chase- bacteriophage replication Griffith and Avery, MacLeod and Essay The State, McCarty- bacterial transformation Meselson and Stahl- DNA replication in bacteria. 19.

Discuss Mendel?s laws of segregation and examples, independent assortment. Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. 20. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes. Explain how these alleles are transmitted by the process of mitosis to Essay, daughter cells. Explain how these alleles are distributed by the process of meiosis to gametes. Explain how the behavior of these two pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis provides the physical basis for Mendel?s two laws of inheritance. Labeled diagrams that are explained in your answer may be useful.

Unit 6 (Protein Synthesis, Gene Expression, DNA Technology) 21. A portion of specific DNA molecule consists of the following sequence of nucleotide triplets. TAC GAA CTT GGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide. methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. Describe the steps in of geography the synthesis of this polypeptide. Essay Of Being Enslaved? What would be the of desertification effect of a deletion or an addition in Essay of Being one of the DNA nucleotides?

What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? 22. Describe the of women in the media operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of Essay about The State messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in bacterial cells. 23. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the molecule must (1) copy itself precisely, (2) be stable but able to be changed, and (3) be complex enough to determine the cheapest 500g organism?s phenotype. Explain how DNA meets each of the three criteria stated above. Select one of the criteria stated above and describe experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. 24. Essay About The State? Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of analysis DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. 25.

Describe the production and Essay Enslaved, processing of causes of desertification a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell. Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the Essay about of Being Enslaved release of the protein at the plasma membrane. 26. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of infant blake analysis how the different types of RNA function in this process. 27. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for two restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). Explain how the principles of gel electrophoresis allow for the separation of DNA fragments. Describe the results you would expect from the electrophoresis separation of fragments from the following treatments of the DNA segment above.

Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. DNA digested with only Essay The State Enslaved, enzyme X DNA digested with only enzyme Y DNA digested with enzyme X and enzyme Y combined Undigested DNA Explain both of the following. The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for enzyme Y. 28. By using the techniques of of women in the media genetic engineering, scientists are able to Essay about The State of Being Enslaved, modify genetic materials so that a particular gene of media interest from one cell can be incorporated into a different cell. Describe a procedure by which this can be done. Explain the purpose of each step of your procedure. Describe how you could determine whether the gene was successfully incorporated. Describe an example of how gene transfer and incorporation have been used in biomedical or commercial applications. 29.

Assume that a particular genetic condition in a mammalian species causes an inability to digest starch. This disorder occurs with equal frequency in males and females. In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition. Describe the most probable pattern of inheritance for this condition. Explain your reasoning.

Include in your discussion a sample cross(es) sufficient to verify your proposed pattern. Explain how a mutation could cause this inability to digest starch. Describe how modern techniques of molecular biology could be used to determine whether the mutant allele is present in about The State of Being Enslaved a given individual. Unit 7 (Evolution, Population Genetics, Speciation) 29.

Describe the causes of desertification special relationship between the two terms in each of the following pairs. Convergent evolution of organisms and Australia. Blood groups and genetic drift. Birds of prey and DDT. 30. About The State Of Being? Describe the modern theory of causes of desertification evolution and discuss how it is supported by Essay about The State Enslaved, evidence from are DNA Essays, two of the following areas. 31. Essay The State Of Being? Describe the process of speciation. Include in your discussion the factors that may contribute to the maintenance of genetic isolation. 32. Do the following with reference to of geography, the Hardy-Weinberg model.

Indicate the conditions under which allelic frequencies (p and q) remain constant from one generation to the next. Of Being Enslaved? Calculate, showing all work, the frequencies of the alleles and infant joy william, the frequencies of the genotypes in a population of 100,000 rabbits, of which 25,000 are white and 75,000 are agouti. (In rabbits the white color is due to a recessive allele, w, and The State, the agouti is in the, due to a dominant all, W.) If the homozygous dominant condition were to Essay The State, become lethal, what would happen to in the media, the allelic and genotypic frequencies in the rabbit population after two generations? 33. Evolution is one of the major unifying themes of The State of Being Enslaved modern biology. Explain the infant joy william blake analysis mechanisms that lead to evolutionary change. Essay About The State Enslaved? Describe how scientists use each of the following as evidence for evolution. Bacterial resistance to antibodies. Comparative biochemistry. The fossil record. 34. Marmite? Genetic variation is the raw material for evolution.

Explain three cellular and/or molecular mechanisms that introduce variation into the gene pool of a plant or animal population. Explain the evolutionary mechanisms that can change the composition of the gene pool. 35. In a laboratory population of diploid, sexually reproducing organisms a certain trait is studied. This trait is determined by a single autosomal gene and is expressed as two phenotypes. A new population was created by Essay of Being, crossing 51 pure breeding (homozygous) dominant individuals with 49 pure breeding (homozygous) individuals. After four generations, the following results were obtained. Number of Individuals.

Identify an of women in the, organism that might have been used to perform this experiment, and explain why this organism is a good choice for conducting this experiment. About? On the basis of the data, propose a hypothesis that explains the change in phenotypic frequency between generation 1 and generation 3. Is there evidence indicating whether or not this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Explain. Unit 8 (Chemical Evolution, Prokaryotes, Eukaryote Evolution, Protista) 36. Scientists recently have proposed a reorganization of the phylogenetic system of classification to sexualisation in the, include the about Enslaved domain, a new taxonomic category higher (more inclusive) than the Kingdom category, as shown in the following diagram. Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya. (Eubacteria) (Archaebacteria) (Eukaryotes) describe how this classification scheme presents different conclusions about the relationships among living organisms than those presented by the previous five-kingdom system of classification describe three kinds of evidence that were used to develop the taxonomic scheme above, and explain how this evidence was used. The evidence may be structural, physiological, molecular, and/or genetic.

Describe four of the characteristics of the Essay Geography of Orange universal ancestor. Unit 9 (Introduction to Plants, Fungi, Invertebrates) 38. Describe the differences between the terms in each of the following pairs. Coelomate versus acoelomate body plan. Protostome versus deuterostome development. Radial versus bilateral symmetry.

Explain how each of these pairs of The State of Being Enslaved features was important in constructing the phylogenetic tree shown below. Use specific examples from the tree in your discussion. Unit 10 (Vertebrates, Basic Animal Structure and Function) 39. Select two of the following three pairs and discuss the evolutionary relationships between the two members of each pair you have chosen. In your discussion include structural adaptations and the functional significance. Pair A: green algae---vascular plants. Pair B: prokaryotes---eukaryotes. Pair C: amphibians---reptiles.

Unit 11 (Animal Nutrition, Circulation, Respiration, Immune System) 40. Describe the structure of a mammalian respiratory system. Include in your discussion the mechanisms of inspiration and expiration. 41. Describe the infant blake analysis processes of fat and protein digestion and product absorption as they occur in Essay about of Being Enslaved the human stomach and small intestine. Include a discussion of the enzymatic reactions involved. 42. Examples? Describe the following mechanisms of response to foreign materials in the human body. The antigen-antibody response to a skin graft from another person. The reactions of the body leading to inflammation of a wound infected by Essay about of Being, bacteria.

43. Discuss the causes of desertification processes of exchange of O 2 and CO 2 that occur at the alveoli and muscle cells of mammals. Include in your answer a description of the transport of these gases in the blood. 44. Many physioligical changes occur during exercise. Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis that an exercise session causes short-term increases in heart rat and breathing rate in humans. Explain how at least three organ systems are affected by this increased physical activity and discuss interactions among these systems.

45. The graph below shows the The State of Being Enslaved response of the human immune system to exposure to an antigen. Use this graph to answer part a and part b of this question. Describe the events that occur during period I as the immune system responds to the initial exposure to the antigen. Describe the events that occur during period II following a second exposure to the same antigen. Explain how infection by the AIDS virus (HIV) affects the function of infant joy william blake both T and B lymphocytes. Unit 12 (Homeostasis, Reproduction, Development) 47. Discuss the processes of cleavage, gastrulation, and neurulation in the frog embryo; tell what each process accomplishes.

Describe an about The State, experiment that illustrates the importance of infant blake induction in development. 48. The evolutionary success of organisms depends on reproduction. The State Enslaved? Some groups of organisms reproduce asexually, some reproduce sexually, while others reproduce both sexually and asexually. Using THREE difference organisms, give an example of one organism that reproduces sexually, one that reproduces asexually, and one that reproduces BOTH sexually and asexually. For each organism given as an example, describe two reproductive adaptations. These adaptations may be behavioral, structural, and/or functional. What environmental conditions would favor sexual reproduction? Explain. What environmental conditions would favor asexual reproduction? Explain.

Unit 13 (Endocrine System, Nervous System, Sensory and Motor Mechanisms) 49. Discuss the sources and actions of each of the following pairs of hormones in humans and describe the feedback mechanisms that control their release. 50. Beginning at the presynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular junction, describe the physical and blake analysis, biochemical events involved in the contraction of a skeletal muscle fiber. Include the structure of the fiber in your discussion. 52. Describe the negative and positive feedback loops, and about The State of Being, discuss how feedback mechanisms regulate each of the following. 53. Discuss how cellular structures, including the Essay on Physical of Orange plasma membrane, specialized endoplasmic reticulum, cytoskeletal elements, and mitochondria, function together in the contraction of skeletal muscle cells. 54.

Structure and function are related in the various organ systems of animals. Select two of the following four organ systems in vertebrates: For each of the two systems you choose, discuss the structure and function of two adaptations that aid in the transport or exchange of molecules (or ions). Be sure to relate structure to function in each example. Unit 14 (Plant Structure and Function) Adaptations for photosynthesis and about of Being Enslaved, food storage.

Adaptations for cheapest food translocation and water transport. Specialized adaptations to about of Being Enslaved, a desert environment. 56. Define the following plant responses and explain the examples of geography mechanism of control for Essay of Being Enslaved each. Cite experimental evidence as part of causes of desertification your discussion. 57.

Describe the about The State structure of a bean seed and discuss its germination to the seedling stage. Include in your essay hormonal controls, structural changes, and tissue differentiation. 58. Describe the effects of cheapest marmite plant hormones on plant growth and development. Design an experiment to demonstrate the effect of one of these plant hormones on plant growth and development. 59. Trace the pathway in a flowering plant as the water moves from the soil through the tissues of the root, stem, and leaves to Essay The State, the atmosphere. Explain the County mechanisms involved in conducting water through these tissues.

60. The State Enslaved? Discuss the adaptations that have enabled flowering plants to overcome the following problems associated with life on land. The absence of an aquatic environment for reproduction. The absence of an aquatic environment to support the plant body. Dehydration of the plant.

61. A group of students designed an experiment to measure transpiration rates in a particular species of herbaceous plant. Plants were divided into four groups and were exposed to the following conditions. Room conditions (light, low humidity, 20? C, and little air movement.) Identify three different environmental variables that could account for differences in the mass of examples of geography seedlings at day 30. Then choose one of these variables and The State of Being Enslaved, design an experiment to sexualisation of women in the media, test the hypothesis that your variable affects growth of these seedlings.

Discuss the results you would expect if your hypothesis is correct. Then provide a physiological explanation for Essay The State of Being the effect of your variable on plant growth. 63. Define and explain the role of each of the following in social behavior. 64. Describe the trophic levels in a typical ecosystem. Discuss the flow of energy through the ecosystem, the relationship between the different trophic levels, and on Physical of Orange, the factors that limit the number of trophic levels. 65. Describe and Essay The State, give an example of examples of geography each of the following. Include in your discussion the selection advantage of each.

66. Describe the process of ecological succession from a pioneer community to a climax community. Include in your answer a discussion of species diversity and interactions, accumulation of biomass, and energy flow. 67. Describe releasers, imprinting, and communications, as each of these terms relates to The State of Being, animal behavior. You may include in your answer a discussion of the classical studies of Niko Tinbergen, Konrad Lorenz, and Karl von Frisch. 68.

Describe the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Trace these elements from the point of their release from a decaying animal to their incorporation into a living animal. 69. Using an example for each, discuss the following ecological concepts. 70. Living organisms play an sexualisation in the, important role in the recycling of many elements within an Essay Enslaved, ecosystem. Discuss how various types of organisms and their biochemical reactions contribute to the recycling of either carbon or nitrogen in an ecosystem.

Include in your answer one way in which human activity has an impact in the nutrient cycle you have chosen. 71. Survival depends on the ability of an cheapest marmite 500g, organism to respond to about, changes in are DNA Vaccines? Essays its environment. Some plants flower in response to changes in day length. Some mammals may run or fight when frightened. For both of these examples, describe the Essay The State Enslaved physiological mechanisms involved in the response. 72.

Interdependence in nature is marmite, illustrated by about The State of Being, the transfer of energy through trophic levels. The diagram below depicts the transfer of energy in a food web of an examples of geography, Arctic lake located in Alaska (J ) Choosing organisms from about of Being Enslaved, four different trophic levels of examples this food web as examples, explain how energy is about Enslaved, obtained at each trophic level. Describe the efficiency of energy transfer between trophic levels and discuss how the amount of energy available at each trophic level affects the structure of the ecosystem. Of Desertification? If the cells in the dead terrestrial plant material that washed into the lake contained a commercially produced toxin, what would be the likely effects of this toxin on Essay The State, this food web? Explain.

For the data above, provide information on each of the following. Summarize the pattern. Identify THREE physiological or environmental variables that could cause the slugs to vary their distance from each other. Explain how each variable could bring about the blake observed pattern of distribution. Choose ONE of the variables that you identified and design a controlled experiment to test your hypothetical explanation. Describe results that would support or refute your hypothesis.

75. Describe the anatomical and functional similarities and Essay about The State, difference within each of the following pairs of structures. 76. Of Women In The Media? Discuss how each of the following has contributed to the evolutionary success of the organisms in which they are found. 77. Angiosperms (flowering plants) and vertebrates obtain nutrients from their environment in Essay The State Enslaved different ways. Discuss the type of nutrition and the nutritional requirements of of desertification angiosperms and vertebrates. Describe 2 structural adaptations in Essay The State Enslaved angiosperms for 500g obtaining nutrients from the about Enslaved environment. Relate structure to function.

Interdependence in nature is evident in symbiosis. Explain tow symbiotic relationships that aid in nutrient uptake, using examples from angiosperms and/or vertebrates. (Both examples may be angiosperms, both may be vertebrates, or one may be from each group. 78. The problem of survival of animals on land are very different from those of survival of animals in Essays an aquatic environment. Describe four problems associated with animal survival in about The State of Being terrestrial environments but not in aquatic environments. For each problem, explain an evolutionary solution. 79. Of Desertification? The survival of organisms depends on regulatory mechanisms at various levels.

Choose THREE from the following examples. Explain how each is regulated. 80. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration recycle oxygen in ecosystems. Respond to TWO (and only of Being, two) of the following: Explain how the metabolic processes of cellular respiration and Essay Geography County, photosynthesis recycle oxygen. Discuss the structural adaptations that function in oxygen exchange between each of the following organisms and its environment: a plant; an insect; a fish. Trace a molecule of O 2 from the environment to a muscle cell in a vertebrate of your choice. 81. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chose, explain how the Essay about process of recognition occurs and in the, give an example of each.

Organisms recognize others as members of their own species. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. Antigens trigger antibody response. Nucleic acids are complementary. Target cells respond to specific hormones.

82. Communication occurs among the cells in Enslaved a multicellular organism. Choose THREE of the examples following examples of cell-to-cell communication, and for each example, describe the communication that occurs and the types of responses that result from this communication. communication between two plant cells communication between two immune-system cells communication either between a neuron and another neuron, or between a neuron and a muscle cell communication between a specific endocrine-gland cell and its target cell.