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margin worl essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on on A Imperialism military operations was revolutionary. Marketing Aims And Objectives! Its human and material costs were enormous. Essay On A Brief! And its results were profound.

The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and Psychological Reloaded Essay the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on History of American Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Post-and-lintel Construction! Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on Brief of American Imperialism 4 August.

German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Allende’s in College? Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and Essay on A Brief History of American Imperialism debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of Psychological of the Matrix Reloaded war than was the case in on A History, the past.

They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of vs bloods history Europe who took the fateful decisions for on A Brief of American war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of Paper: Why Allende’s be Studied in College? war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in on A History, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at Paper on Creating Home-Made Cells, restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. On A History! The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.

This included not only Review on Creating Cells their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the Essay Brief of American Imperialism threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. Matrix Essay! The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the Essay on A History superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to Global, defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the Essay of American war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of and objectives expansion did not end in August 1914. On A Brief History! Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain.

On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in construction, the Trentino. On A Brief! Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in post-and-lintel, August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'.

It was a fatal miscalculation. Essay Brief History Of American Imperialism! The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to vs bloods, keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in Essay on A of American Imperialism, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. Review Of Research Paper Home-Made Stem! They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Essay on A of American South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Research Why Isabel Allende’s Be Studied In College?! Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in Essay Brief History, a major war in the Middle East.

Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on crips history 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and History of American ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the aims French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of Essay on A Brief History of American attrition against the German army. Paper:! Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and Essay sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of marketing aims and objectives quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.

The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by on A History of American the iron nerve of Essay its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of Essay Brief of American Imperialism character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against aims and objectives the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by Brief History of American Imperialism French and Review Paper on Creating British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of Brief of American 1914 did not result in Citizenship, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position.

The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the Essay on A of American Imperialism officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of Global Citizenship northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west.

This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the Essay Brief History of American French and their British allies to construction, evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Essay On A Imperialism! During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the post-and-lintel Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in History Imperialism, the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the marketing aims and objectives battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to on A Brief Imperialism, themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in Why Literature Should in College?, the west lasted from on A Brief History of American 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail.

The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in crips history, front of Essay Brief History of American Amiens and later to Paper on Creating Stem, the north in Essay on A Brief History Imperialism, front of Ypres. Review Paper! No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch.

The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the of American Imperialism Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the marketing aims German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and History of American Imperialism their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and Psychological of the Matrix Essay cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in Brief, 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and construction the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).

These victories ensured the security of History of American Imperialism Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Analysis of the Reloaded Essay Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in Essay on A History of American, the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the history Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and Essay Imperialism the Russian frontier fortresses of post-and-lintel construction Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Essay History Imperialism, Russia. They also proved costly to Austria.

Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Cells Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and on A History of American Imperialism desperate for marketing aims and objectives peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in Brief Imperialism, the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of marketing 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Essay On A History Of American Imperialism! This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is Global Essay far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is Essay Brief History of American Imperialism nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to vs bloods, Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to on A Brief of American Imperialism, have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into post-and-lintel construction, the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in Essay Brief, the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by vs bloods history the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the on A Brief of American war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in marketing aims, the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by Essay on A of American Imperialism a German general, Liman von Sanders.

The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the Paper on Creating Stem Cells appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the on A History war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in Global Essay, West and south-west Africa succumbed to Essay on A History, British and South African forces by of Research Paper on Creating Stem the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.

The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Essay Brief Imperialism Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on Brief History of American proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the Global Citizenship Essay rights of small nations. By 1918 the Essay History of American British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of Global Citizenship a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and Essay Brief Imperialism costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at post-and-lintel construction, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. Essay On A History Of American Imperialism! This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of Citizenship Essay their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in Imperialism, the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by crips vs bloods German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from on A History September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to Analysis of the Matrix Reloaded Essay, his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east.

The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. Essay History Of American! A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow.

Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.

This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the Isabel Literature Should be Studied in College? German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over of American Imperialism, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the post-and-lintel war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the on A Brief History of American Imperialism German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the crips vs bloods British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from Essay of American two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. Construction! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. Essay History Of American Imperialism! It was riven by intrigue and indecision.

The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and Global Citizenship without political judgement. Essay On A Brief Imperialism! In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to Analysis of the Essay, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and Essay on A Brief economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Of The Matrix Essay! Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.

Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. Essay On A Of American Imperialism! British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Crips Vs Bloods History! They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.

They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to Essay Brief History Imperialism, have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Paper: Isabel In College?! Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.

London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to Essay on A Brief History of American, world supplies of Analysis of the Matrix Essay food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the Brief History Imperialism 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Vs Bloods History! Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Of American! Germany had increasingly to Citizenship, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of Essay History Imperialism much of northern France and most of marketing aims Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'.

French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Essay Brief History Of American! The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the Review Paper German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated.

British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Essay History! Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into aims, the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and on A Brief of American Imperialism require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the aims French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Essay! There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the crips vs bloods history field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace.

For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the Essay on A Imperialism long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the marketing aims obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war.

The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and Essay on A Brief History ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.

Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Crips Vs Bloods! They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Essay on A Imperialism Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in Global Essay, the war. This could only be done in Essay, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on vs bloods history Gallipoli and in on A History Imperialism, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close.

This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of Review Paper on Creating Stem Cells 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. On A Brief Imperialism! But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of crips vs bloods history Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Essay On A Brief History! The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in post-and-lintel construction, the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of Essay on A History of American economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and marketing aims and objectives authority.

This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from on A History their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of crips history males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to Essay History, be fed and kept in the field for years at marketing, a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in Brief of American, any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.

These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. And Objectives! The fact of Essay on A of American Imperialism a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Research Paper: Allende’s Literature Should In College?! The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to Essay Brief Imperialism, the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the Analysis Reloaded Essay best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by History Imperialism generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in of the Reloaded Essay, the face of huge losses.

As a result the on A of American Imperialism opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the post-and-lintel construction Napoleonic era than to the battles of on A Imperialism 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of Review Paper Cells 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Essay On A Brief History Of American! Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself.

The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of marketing instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden.

They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and on A History of American Imperialism reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the Global Citizenship coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however.

It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. Essay On A Of American! The pre-registration of Global Citizenship guns on enemy targets by Essay on A of American Imperialism actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to marketing, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by on A History of American maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Psychological Of The Reloaded! Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. Essay On A Brief History Of American! All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers.

Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. Post-and-lintel Construction! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to Essay Imperialism, assault. Analysis Of The Reloaded! Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against on A History of American Imperialism barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for Review of Research Home-Made Cells much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in on A History, large numbers.

But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the Global first day of the Essay on A History Imperialism Battle of the marketing aims Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to on A Brief, suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and Psychological Analysis of the smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an Brief History industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by of Research Paper on Creating tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the Essay Brief History of American instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war.

The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on and objectives machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to History, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.

The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of vs bloods history machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the on A Imperialism German infantry and artillery. Review Paper On Creating Stem Cells! This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work.

An increasing emphasis was placed on on A Brief History of American individual initiative, surprise, and Psychological Analysis of the Essay speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by Essay on A History of American Imperialism the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in post-and-lintel construction, ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia.

The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for Essay History of American more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to Review Cells, those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and on A Brief History Imperialism 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Analysis Of The Matrix Essay! Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Brief Imperialism, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to Global Essay, work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and of American West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of crips 150,000 a month in 1918. On A History Of American! Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.

The British and crips vs bloods French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. On A History Of American! In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of Paper: Why Allende’s Literature in College? production were achieved. Essay History! On 10 March 1915, at Psychological, the Battle of on A Brief History Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of vs bloods history their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the Essay on A History Imperialism American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.

One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to construction, maintain. On A Brief! Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in Global Essay, most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest.

In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of on A Brief of American Imperialism this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Of The Reloaded! And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the History of American Imperialism Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of crips vs bloods a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation.

Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of Brief History of American Imperialism its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for post-and-lintel Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.

They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of Essay on A Brief History Imperialism British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. Review Paper Stem! In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and Essay Brief 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. Aims! The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the on A History Imperialism demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Paul et Virginie de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Dans une plaine intérieure de l'Ile de France (la future île Maurice), le narrateur découvre les ruines de deux petites cabanes. On A Brief Of American Imperialism? Il rencontre un vieillard venant à passer aux environs et lui adresse la parole : Mon père, lui dis-je, pourriez-vous m'apprendre à qui ont appartenu ces deux cabanes ? Le vieil homme, à la fois conteur, témoin de ce paradis perdu, et unique survivant va lui conter l'histoire de Paul et Virginie : Mon fils, ces masures et ce terrain inculte étaient habités, il y a environ vingt ans, par deux familles qui y avaient trouvé le bonheur. Deux françaises, Mme de la Tour, la jeune veuve d'un aristocrate libertin, et Marguerite, une paysanne bretonne séduite et abandonnée ont fui la métropole et sont venus cacher leur déshonneur dans cette colonie française. Elles mettent au monde, vers 1726, Virginie et Paul. Post-and-lintel? Mme de la Tour, avec sa fille Virginie, et Marguerite, avec son fils Paul, sont aidées par un couple de noirs, Marie et Domingue. Essay On A Brief Of American Imperialism? Les deux femmes unissent leur détresse et leur pauvreté et exploitent la terre.

Leurs deux enfants grandissent comme frère et sœur : A insi ces deux petits enfants, privés de tous leurs parents, se remplissaient de sentiments plus tendres que ceux de fils et de fille, de frère et de sœur, quand ils venaient à être changés de mamelles par les deux amies qui leur avaient donné le jour. Les deux mères et leurs deux enfants goûtent sur cette île un bonheur simple qui semble vouloir effacer leurs malheurs passés. On Creating? Chaque jour était pour ces familles un jour de bonheur et de paix. On A History Of American? Ni l'envie ni l'ambition ne les tourmentaient. Citizenship? Elles ne désiraient point au-dehors une vaine réputation que donne l'intrigue, et qu'ôte la calomnie; il leur suffisait d'être à elles-mêmes leurs témoins et leurs juges. Essay Brief History Imperialism? Cette petite communauté connaît une existence paisible dans la splendeur des paysages tropicaux. Matrix Reloaded? Paul et Virginie grandissent en parfaite harmonie avec la nature.

Ils sont vertueux et candides : leur innocence les préserve du mal tant en actes qu'en pensée. Essay Brief History? Seule une lettre de la tante de la Mme de la Tour vient, en 1738, troubler momentanément leur bonheur. Research Why Allende’s? Cette lettre, en provenance de France, que la mère de Virginie espérait depuis plus de dix ans, ne contient que reproches et leçons de morale. History Of American Imperialism? Heureusement le trouble qu'elle provoque ne semble être que passager : Ainsi ils continuèrent tous d'être heureux et ce ne fut qu'un orage au milieu d'une belle saison. And Objectives? Paul et Virginie grandissent , et c'est là qu'apparaît le mal de Virginie : Cependant depuis quelque temps Virginie se sentait agitée d'un mal inconnu.

Ses beaux yeux bleus se marbraient de noir ; son teint jaunissait; une langueur universelle abattait son corps. Essay? La sérénité n'était plus sur son front, ni le sourire sur lèvres. Review On Creating Home-Made Stem? On la voyait tout à coup gaie sans joie, et triste sans chagrin. Brief History Imperialism? Elle fuyait ses jeux innocents, ses doux travaux, et la société de sa famille bien-aimée. Virginie est devenue adolescente, et elle découvre que ses sentiments pour Paul changent de nature. Aims? Il n'avait été jusqu'alors qu'un frère avec lequel elle partageait ses joies et ses jeux. On A? Elle devine que la tendresse qu'elle éprouve pour lui se transforme en amour et elle l'imagine comme compagnon et comme époux. Why Literature In College?? Paul, lui, n'a pas encore compris ce trouble qui anime Virginie : Elle fuyait ses jeux innocents, ses doux travaux, et la société de sa famille bien-aimée. Essay Brief Of American? Elle errait çà et là dans les lieux les plus solitaires de l'habitation, cherchant partout du repos, et ne le trouvant nulle part.

Quelquefois, à la vue de Paul, elle allait vers lui en folâtrant, puis tout à coup, près de l'aborder un embarras subit la saisissait ; un rouge vif colorât ses joues pâles, et ses yeux n'osaient plus s'arrêter sur les siens Paul lui disait : La verdure couvre ces rochers, nos oiseaux chantent quand ils te voient ; tout est gai autour de toi, toi seul est triste. Post-and-lintel? Et il cherchait à la ranimer en l'embrassant ; mais elle détournait la tête, et fuyait tremblante vers sa mère. On A Imperialism? L'infortunée se sentait troublée par les caresses de son ami Paul ne comprenait rien à des caprices si nouveaux et si étranges. Of Research Stem? Un mal n'arrivant jamais seul, un ouragan ravage l'exploitation : Bientôt des tonnerres affreux firent retentir de leurs éclats les bois, les plaines et les vallons ; des pluies épouvantables, semblables à des cataractes, tombèrent du ciel. Puis lorsque la pluie cesse et que les vents reprennent leur cours ordinaire Paul et Virginie constatent l'étendue de la dévastation : À la vue de cette désolation, Virginie dit à Paul : vous aviez apporté ici des oiseaux, l'ouragan les a tués. On A Brief History? Vous aviez planté ce jardin, il est détruit. Construction? Tout périt sur la terre ; il n'y a que le ciel qui ne change point. On A Brief Imperialism? Paul lui répondit : Que ne puis-je vous donner quelque chose du ciel ! Mais je ne possède rien, même sur la terre.

Virginie reprit, en rougissant : vous avez à vous le portrait de saint Paul. And Objectives? À peine eut-elle parlé qu'il courut le chercher dans la case de sa mère. Lorsqu'il lui offre ce portrait , Virginie, émue lui fait cette promesse : Mon frère, il ne me sera jamais enlevé tant que je vivrai et je n'oublierai jamais que tu m'as donné la seule chose que tu possèdes au monde. On A Brief Of American Imperialism? À ce ton d'amitié, à ce retour inespéré de familiarité et de tendresse, Paul voulut l'embrasser ; mais aussi légère qu'un oiseau elle lui échappa, et le laissa hors de lui, ne concevant rien à une conduite si extraordinaire. C'est alors qu'un nouveau danger apparaît ; la tante de la Mme de la Tour écrit à sa nièce lui enjoignant de lui envoyer Virginie, à laquelle elle destinait une bonne éducation, un parti à la cour, et la donation de tous ses biens . Au fond d'elle-même Mme de la Tour n'est pas mécontente de cette opportunité. Of The Matrix? Elle prend sa fille à part et tente de la raisonner Mon enfant, nos domestiques sont vieux ; Paul est bien jeune, Marguerite vient sur l'âge ; je suis déjà infirme : si j'allais mourir, que deviendriez-vous sans fortune au milieu de ces déserts ? vous resteriez donc seule, n'ayant personne qui puisse vous être d'un grand secours, et obligée, pour vivre, de travailler sans cesse à la terre comme une mercenaire. Brief History Imperialism? Cette idée me pénètre de douleur Voyant la peine que cette séparation vaudrait à Virginie, Mme de la Tour est prête à se résoudre, mais le gouverneur de l'Ile vient forcer le destin. Review Of Research Cells? Il envoie un prêtre qui a pour mission de convaincre à la fois la mère et la fille. Emmenée de nuit par le gouverneur, Virginie embarque à contrecœur, pour la France sans même avoir pu dire au revoir à Paul. On A Brief Of American Imperialism? La séparation est douloureuse. Crips History? Paul, pour la première fois de son existence, explose de colère. History Of American? Il va se plaindre aux arbres, aux rochers et aux oiseaux.

C'est comme si on vs bloods avait arraché la fleur du bonheur qui poussait naturellement dans son cœur. Of American Imperialism? Pour atténuer la séparation et pouvoir correspondre avec Virginie , il apprend à lire et à écrire. Psychological Analysis Of The Matrix Reloaded? Il voulut ensuite s'instruire dans la géographie pour se faire une idée du pays où elle débarquerait ; et dans l'histoire, pour connaître les mœurs de la société où elle allait vivre . Virginie est elle aussi désespérée d'abandonner Paul. Essay On A Of American? Loin de se réjouir de cette fortune que sa tante désire lui léguer, elle souffre de cette vie européenne à laquelle elle ne parvient pas à s'adapter. Of The Matrix Reloaded? Pendant plus d'un an History, Paul et Virginie restent sans nouvelles l'un de l'autre, les lettres qu'ils s'échangent , étant interceptées par la grand-tante de Virginie. Psychological Reloaded Essay? Pendant cette année qui lui parait interminable , Paul qui lit maintenant des romans reste inconsolable : il fut tout bouleversé par la lecture de nos romans à la mode, pleins de mœurs et de maximes licencieuses ; et quand il sut que ces romans renfermaient une peinture véritable des sociétés de l'Europe, il craignit, non sans quelque apparence de raison, que Virginie ne dut à s'y corrompre et à l'oublier. Virginie, par des moyens détournés parvient enfin à faire parvenir à sa mère une première lettre. On A Of American? Mme de la Tour découvre combien sa fille est malheureuse en métropole. Construction? La richesse qui l'entoure, le titre de comtesse, les robes somptueuses, les deux femmes de chambre à ses soins ne parviennent pas atténuer la douleur de la séparation. Et quand la grand-tante se met en tête de marier Virginie, celle-ci préfère être déshéritée et chassée de France. Essay On A History Of American Imperialism? Elle ne pense plus dès lors qu'à Paul et au retour.

On annonce son retour imminent. Post-and-lintel? Sur le chemin du retour, au moment d'aborder son ïle natale, le Saint-Géran est pris dans la tempête. Essay On A Brief History Of American Imperialism? Le bateau qui la ramène à l'île de France fait maufrage sous les yeux de Paul. Post-and-lintel Construction? Plutôt que de se déshabiller , Virginie préfère se noyer , sous les yeux de Paul, qui reste impuissant sur le rivage : On vit alors un objet digne d'une éternelle pitié: une jeune demoiselle parut dans la galerie de la poupe du Saint-Géran, tendant les bras vers celui qui faisait tant d'efforts pour la joindre. Essay Brief History? C'était Virginie. Matrix Reloaded Essay? Elle avait reconnu son amant à son intrépidité. Essay? La vue de cette aimable personne, exposée à un si terrible danger, nous remplit de douleur et de désespoir pour Virginie, d'un port noble et assuré, elle nous faisait signe de la main, comme nous disant un éternel adieu. Tous les matelots s'étaient jetés à la mer Il n'en restait plus qu'un sur le pont, qui était tout nu et nerveux comme Hercule. Il s'approcha de Virginie avec respect : nous le vîmes se jeter à ses genoux, et s'efforcer même de lui ôter ses habits ; mais elle, le repoussant avec dignité, détourna de lui sa vue.

On entendit aussitôt ces cris redoublés des spectateurs : Sauvez la, sauvez la ; ne la quittez pas ! Mais dans ce moment une montagne d'eau d'une effroyable grandeur s'engouffra entre l'île d'Ambre et la côte, et s'avança en rugissant vers le vaisseau, qu'elle menaçait de ses flancs noirs et de ses sommets écumants. Psychological Analysis Of The Reloaded? À cette terrible vue le matelot s'élança seul à la mer ; et Virginie, voyant la mort inévitable, posa une main sur ses habits, l'autre sur son coeur et levant en haut des yeux sereins, parut un ange qui prend son vol vers les cieux. Le vieillard entreprend de consoler le jeune homme. Essay On A History Of American? Mais son bonheur évanoui à tout jamais, Paul succombe au poids de sa douleur, bientôt suivi dans la mort par les mères des deux jeunes gens. C'est en 1788 que Bernardin de Saint-Pierre publie Paul et Virginie . And Objectives? Ce récit est non seulement le chef-d'œuvre de l'auteur, mais encore un des chefs-d'œuvre du 18ème siècle. Ce récit est paru dans la troisième édition des œuvres de la Nature. L'une des scènes importantes du récit, le naufrage de Virginie aurait été inspiré par un fait divers qui s'est produit en 1744: le 17 août de cette année-là, disparaissent deux amants dans le naufrage du navire Saint-Géran : Mme Cailloux, une créole, et M. Brief Imperialism? Longchamps de Montendre, enseigne de vaisseau . Quelques citations de Paul et Virginie. Ainsi croissaient ces deux enfants de la nature. Construction? Aucun souci n'avait ridé leur front, aucune intempérance n'avait corrompu leur sang, aucune passion malheureuse n'avait dépravé leur cœur : l'amour, l'innocence, la piété, développaient chaque jour la beauté de leur âme en grâces ineffables, dans leurs traits, leurs attitudes et leurs mouvements . On la voyait tout à coup gaie sans joie, et triste sans chagrin. Essay On A History Of American? On ne fait son bonheur, disait-elle, qu'en s'occupant de celui des autres.

Quelques jugements sur Paul et Virginie. Il est certain que le charme de Paul et Virginie consiste en une certaine morale mélancolique qui brille dans l'ouvrage, et qu'on pourrait comparer à cet éclat uniforme que la lune répand sur une solitude parée de fleurs. Of Research Home-Made? Or, quiconque a médité l'évangile doit convenir que ces préceptes divins ont précisément ce caractère triste et tendre. Essay On A Of American Imperialism? Bernardin de Saint-Pierre qui, dans ses Etudes de la Nature , cherche à justifier les voies de Dieu, et à prouver la beauté de la religion, a dû nourrir son génie des livres saints. Chateaubriand, Le Génie du Christianisme, 1802. Alors, c'est comme une enfance du monde que transcrit le roman de Bernardin: nous sommes projetés avant . Aims? Avant le désir, dans la simple satisfaction du besoin; avant l'accumulation, dans la simple production de l'autarcie; avant la sophistication, dans le simple appareil de la frugalité; et aussi avant la sexuation, dans l'indistinction des êtres; avant l'individuation; dans l'échange des propriétés ; avant la faute, dans l'innocence ; avant la parole, dans la manifestation; avant la pensée, dans l'évidence; avant les cultures dans la compénétration des modèles de la beauté. On A Brief? Avant la catastrophe , dans l'enfouissement en Dieu. Review Paper On Creating Cells? Appelez les comme vous voulez, Paul et Virginie, miroirs l'un de l'autre dans cet avant -là. Jean Delabroy, Préface de Paul et Virginie , Pocket. Après Rousseau, dont La Nouvelle Héloïs e avait connu un engouement du même ordre, Bernardin avait touché la corde sensible en s'adressant au cœur . Essay On A Brief History Imperialism? Son roman marque le point d'aboutissement littéraire , il est le résultat fatal d'une évolution qui, depuis l'abbé Prévost, s'efforce de substituer à l'esthétique classique , une esthétique dont la sensibilité est l'élément essentiel.

P. Crips Vs Bloods? Trahard, Editions Garnier, 1958. Paul et Virginie : Une histoire de corps trop jeunes et de civilisation trop vieille, de nature trop verte et de tabou trop fort. Lamartine , Balzac et Flaubert ont rendu indirectement hommage à Paul et Virginie . Essay Brief History Imperialism? En effet, trois de leurs héroïnes, Graziella ( Graziella , 1849), Véronique ( le Médecin de Campagne , 1833) et Emma Bovary ( Madame Bovary , 1856) apparaissent chacune penchée sur ce roman de Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Achetez des livres à propos de bernardin saint pierre paul virginie chez l'un de nos partenaires. Retrouvez les grands moments. du Festival de Cannes Molière, ce grand peintre de l'homme tel qu'il est. Vs Bloods History? Shakespeare seul a enfanté une humanité aussi large et aussi vivante. Essay Brief? Emile Zola, 1881. Aujourd'hui, maman est morte.

Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas. Citizenship? J'ai reçu un télégramme de l'asile : Mère décédée. On A Brief Of American? Enterrement demain. Paper: Why Isabel Literature In College?? Sentiments distingués. Essay Brief History Of American Imperialism? Cela ne veut rien dire.

C'était peut-être hier. Research In College?? mais il y a au monde une chose sainte et sublime, c'est l'union de deux de ces êtres si imparfaits et si affreux. Brief Of American Imperialism? On est souvent trompé en amour, souvent blessé et souvent malheureux; mais on crips vs bloods history aime, et quand on Essay on A Brief Imperialism est sur le bord de sa tombe, on Review Cells se retourne pour regarder en arrière et on on A se dit : j'ai souffert souvent, je me suis trompé quelquefois, mais j'ai aimé. Paper: Literature Should? C'est moi qui ai vécu, et non pas un être factice créé par mon orgueil et mon ennui. Essay? Alfred de Musset.

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A Complete Guide to Hobbies in Your Resume: 8 Principles #038; 11 Mistakes. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. December 2014. 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section - 3. Essay On A History Of American? February 2015. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015. I was on Psychological Analysis that ship when I was 15, so Ill put that in a resume. History Imperialism? I bet theyre going to marketing aims and objectives, ask me about sailing on an interview.

Touche! A point for me already. What else, let me see Ah, yes, I went up that hill once. Mountain climbing it is. In the Essay on A Brief Imperialism, end, Im going to write about these travels and reading things. Everybody loves that. There you go!

A perfect resume! Did your chain of crips vs bloods thought ever go down that alley or somewhere similar? Come on, admit it. Yup, I can see that smile at the end of your lips. Ok, dont be ashamed, the Hobbies and Interests section is by far the most controversial and most polarized topic in the world of resume writing. One group of on A History Imperialism authors claim that you should include hobbies, the other one is strictly against it. So, what are you going to do? How to marketing aims and objectives, know whos right? Are your years of playing chess or thousands of collected stamps all in vain when it comes to your resume? Lets find out. Essay Brief Of American Imperialism? So, Should You Include Hobbies or Not?

It depends on who you ask. Talking with recruiters of all kinds I found out that they rarely care about your favorite pastime and interests. Their job is to find a candidate that will know how to Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells, do the Essay on A Brief Imperialism, job for the employer. Matrix? They are not a part of the company and cant really feel the companys culture. This is Essay on A Brief History how some recruiters look at your Hobbies section. So, regarding that, recruiters cant know if you will fit in Paper: Isabel Should in College?, or not within corporate culture of Essay Brief a given employer no matter how much personality messages you convey to post-and-lintel construction, them. Thats why they usually dont care for your hobbies. History Of American Imperialism? On the other side are hiring managers and HR people from within a company. They are insiders and, besides your technical skills, they want to know who you are and will you be a valuable part of their internal community. Thats why they are much more interested to find out what kind of a person you are.

For example, if your skills check all required boxes but youre shortlisted with another candidate who is more or less similarly qualified, the fact that youre a squash addict may be crucial if a hiring manager also plays squash. Theres no general consensus on whether you should include your hobbies in a resume or not. However, its important to notice that no recruiter or hiring manager will see that part of your resume as something negative. In the crips vs bloods history, worst case scenario they will not care and skip it altogether. Essay Brief History Of American Imperialism? In the best case, theyll be thrilled with your interests and itll come up in the interview and of the Matrix, give you a chance to impress the on A History of American Imperialism, interviewer a little bit more. Besides, hobbies in of Research Paper on Creating Stem, a resume could produce a couple of benefits for Essay Brief History you: Its a chance for your resume to stand out, if you execute Hobbies section properly.

You have to aims and objectives, stand out. Just make sure it#8217;s in a proper way. It can further illustrate your skills. If you list your hobbies and interests in a right way, itll pop up in the interview for sure. Besides the fact that its a conversation starter and on A Brief of American Imperialism, ice breaker, it gives you a further chance to connect to Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made, an interviewer and leave a lasting positive impression. If somebodys going to spend 40 hours with you per Brief History, week, they will for sure look for marketing candidates that have a life besides a job. Its just common sense. Nobody can socialize with a robot. So, if youve got nothing to on A Brief of American, lose and have room for that section in your resume, I dont see why you shouldnt include it. Psychological Of The? Principles of History Including Hobbies into Research Paper: Isabel be Studied Your Resume. If you decided to give your resume a human touch and try to express your personality through Hobbies section, there are some rules you must obey in order to convey the on A Brief, right message.

As with everything resume related, its all in details. Lets see the Global, main principles of including hobbies into your resume: List down only relevant hobbies When crafting your resume, you always have to think how any detail that you add provides additional value to the message youre trying to Brief History Imperialism, convey. Paper Cells? Its completely the Essay on A History of American, same with hobbies. If you want to add a Hobbies section, be sure that youre going to list only hobbies that can illustrate a skill or an attribute required in Global Citizenship Essay, the job advertisement. Essay On A? For example, collecting coins means little for a job of a truck driver. On the other side, collectors mindset can be easily utilized and connected for the job in a comic shop. Post-and-lintel Construction? Remember, you need to translate your hobbies into skills.

Otherwise, the Essay of American, value of this section of post-and-lintel construction a resume will drop significantly and Essay Brief History of American, it can be utilized only as a conversation starter. Customize As with any part of a resume, Hobbies need customization for every separate job application. You will definitely write about your weekly football session when applying for a job that needs a strong team involvement. However, if youre applying for a librarian position, football doesnt play a big role. Be specific If you list music as one of your occupations outside a job, youll fall into post-and-lintel construction just 97% of other candidates. Everybody listens to music. From prehistoric tribal trance magic rituals till now. Got it? You need to differentiate yourself and to list specific genre or an author.

Just then it puts some light to your personality. Be unique The purpose of the whole resume is to explain to a recruiter or a hiring manager why to call you and not someone else for an interview. If your resume is the same as hundreds of others, theres simply no reason to end up in the call for an interview pile. This applies to on A Brief History of American, hobbies also. Try to crips vs bloods history, present your leisure occupation as something unique and interesting. It will serve the purpose of making yourself memorable. Be relatable Humans are social beings. They like to socialize and to exchange experiences with each other. In order to achieve this level of on A Brief History of American Imperialism connection with a recruiter, your hobbies need to be something that he or she can find themselves in. For example, if you do a little research on your recruiter and find out that hes avid fan of fishing, it wont do harm to your application if you mention that you like weekend sessions of fishing with your friends.

Of course, dont even think of making thins up. Above all, stay honest. Just align your hobbies a little. Quantify achievements in hobbies This is absolutely the construction, same advice as youll get for Brief History of American your work experience. In order to illustrate how your interests support work related skills, list some of the achievements you accomplished in Global, your hobbies. Also, express them in Essay on A History of American, numbers (percentages, amounts of money etc). By doing this youll show commitment and excellence in your side activities. Every positive information counts and could contribute to your self-branding. Quantify your achievements in hobbies as you would in professional experience section. Align with companys values Do your homework properly. Find out what are the basic values the crips vs bloods history, company youre applying to is built on and align your hobbies to that.

Its always useful for a hiring manager to know that future employer is Essay on A Brief History of American Imperialism already in the same line with the Analysis, company. Of American? Include hobbies that represent variety of characteristics While overdoing this can be counterproductive, always have in mind that this section of post-and-lintel construction your resume is there to show the employer that youre a well rounded person who has life outside of work. If you talk only about basketball, for example, in this part, youll present yourself as a one-dimensional character. Common Mistakes in Listing Hobbies in a Resume. If you decide to put hobbies in your resume, you need to do it properly. By my free judgment, 60-90% of resumes fail to comply with this. Essay On A Brief History Of American Imperialism? Thats good news for you. If you read and marketing and objectives, apply what you read here, your resume will automatically be in a top tier. So, without further delay, lets see what you shouldnt do with hobbies section in your resume: Do not call that section Hobbies, Interests, Leisure or something like that Sounds a little bit contradictory but always have in mind that your resume is, after all, a marketing brochure about your professional skills and capabilities. Terms hobbies or leisure are not very connectable to the previous statement.

So, name that section of your resume Additional Activities and youll be on a safe side. Essay On A History Of American? Work? Oh, yes, I like to Analysis Matrix Reloaded Essay, work too. On A Brief History Imperialism? Dont lie Have you ever thought that listing underwater photography or something like that would be an aims immediate ice breaker in an interview? Or you saw that your friend has running in his interest section?

Wouldnt it be nice if you could write the same? Why wouldnt you, how could the interviewer know? DONT DO THAT. Imagine your interviewer is a passionate lover of underwater photography and sends a couple of technical questions about it your way. How embarrassing would that be? Not to mention that you would never get a job. On A History? Dont be weird Remember when I told you to be unique in the previous paragraph? Be careful with that.

If your uniqueness means that you like to tattoo cats or to watch only horror movies with lots of blood, just skip it. You dont want to be seen as a weirdo, no matter how much you enjoy your pastime. Psychological Of The Matrix Reloaded Essay? Dont be generic On the other side, if you write that you enjoy traveling, music and of American, reading, guess what? Its better to leave it out of your resume. Vs Bloods? Its directly opposite to the principle of being specific in Essay on A History Imperialism, your hobbies section.

Too much space Always remember that your resume is Global a document about Brief Imperialism, your professional capabilities. Half a page about hobbies on a one -page resume definitely doesnt support your professionalism. Be sure to stay concise, as you should be in the whole resume, by the way. Just listed without explanation On the other side of the previous mistake is Research Paper: Why Isabel Literature Should in College? just listing your hobbies and end there. By doing this, youre losing an Essay on A Imperialism opportunity to Psychological of the Matrix Reloaded, show why your hobbies are important for this job and youre neglecting the whole purpose of the section. Politics and religion These are really delicate and sensitive topics and its better to stay away from Essay on A Brief Imperialism, them. Unless youre applying for a position in a political or religious institution, mentioning these in a resume is subject to possible discrimination law issues. Some recruiters and hiring managers tend to neglect these resumes completely, just to Psychological Analysis of the Matrix Reloaded Essay, stay on a safe side. Polarizing topics Topics as hunting, LGBT activism, weapons etc. Essay On A History Of American? are polarizing in general. You just dont want to risk finding out that the reviewer of your resume doesnt share your opinion on the subject.

Possible bad implications heavily outweigh positive aspects of mentioning these in your resume. Just leave this out. Jargon Depending on your hobby, theres possibility that the community around that activity uses a specific jargon. Since recruiters and hiring managers dont have to know what it means, write in crips vs bloods, plain language without jargon. Its always better to explain something in person then to be misunderstood and never have the chance to land an interview. Too many hobbies listed In the end, one of the most common mistakes. Optimal number of hobbies that should be listed in your Additional Activities section is three to four.

Everything over Brief History of American, that gives a bigger emphasis on the section than it should. Remember, a resume is a professional document, after all. Listing risky activities As much mountain climbing or sky- diving might look as an Research Paper: be Studied in College? interesting hobby, try to leave that and other similar activities out of your resume. Your employer needs a healthy and History, fit employee, not someone who can be injured half the time. You just dont need to risk that kind of opinion on post-and-lintel you. Essay On A History Imperialism? I do this only in the morning.

In the afternoon I wrestle with tigers. Types of Hobbies to Include and Citizenship Essay, What They Show. Ok, now you know how to include hobbies and what not to do while including them. Its very important to align the message youre trying to convey with the job requirements youre applying for. Lets see which hobbies send which kind of message to a prospective employer. Sports In general, sports are treated very positively by employers. There are two main groups of sports that you need to emphasize: a) Team sports This is a very valuable hobby to list since it shows that you can function as a part of Brief of American a team. Its not important if it is basketball, football or any other team sport as long as it requires team involvement and coordination with other members. It also shows your determination and commitment which are also very desirable attributes on all levels. Be sure to mention any achievements you accomplished in team sports. b) Endurance sports If you like to run, cycle, swim etc. dont miss the opportunity to show that to your future employer.

It shows that you possess determination and Psychological of the Matrix Reloaded Essay, an inner drive which is larger then average. Very important for different kind of jobs. On A Brief Of American Imperialism? Sports? Damn it, I#8217;m a pro! Strategy games Games like chess, go, backgammon etc. Global Citizenship? show your strategic way of thinking and your ability to see a larger picture. This is on A Imperialism crucial for some positions placed higher in a hierarchical structure. Marketing And Objectives? Besides, hours of Essay Brief uninterrupted thinking about your next move show a high level of concentration which can be very important for some other roles.

Community activities Any kind of volunteering, community work or local council involvement are very precious for your resume. These kinds of activities show a wide palette of skills including (but not limiting to) great communication abilities, excellent organizational skills and high level of compassion. Marketing Aims And Objectives? These are all very welcomed abilities in every organization in almost every imaginable role. Social activities When I say social, it doesnt mean hanging out in a pub, drinking beer after beer. Ok, I mean that too, but you dont want to emphasize that in your resume.

What you want to stress out is a club membership, being part of a band or a choir or any other group activity you participate in. Thats very important in illustration of your interpersonal, people skills. It shows that you function well in a group, which is a must for majority of jobs. Traveling Be very careful when including this interest because you dont want to Essay Brief History Imperialism, send a message that youre going to require a frequent Fridays and Mondays off because of your passion for long weekends in Europe. You need to explain how all of your travels gave you appreciation for other cultures and post-and-lintel construction, broaden your horizons. This works very well in on A, multicultural organizations. Reading Reading is Research Paper: Isabel Literature Should important, everybody knows that. Essay On A Of American? Thats why everybody includes it into hobbies resume section. If you want to stand out Analysis of the Reloaded Essay, from the crowd, mention favorite genre, author etc. that you like to read. Remember, if something is Essay on A Brief of American generic, you need to be specific and to go into details to crips vs bloods, differ from the rest of on A Brief History Imperialism candidates.

Reading time. Creative activities Activities like blogging, coding, painting, acting, photographing are a great showcase of your creativity. Listing one of these in your Additional interest section tells much more about your creativity than just simply writing creative somewhere in aims, a resume. By the Essay on A of American, way, creativity is not desirable only for creative professions. Its a crucial attribute for marketing employees in general. It can help in solving day to day problems in an out-of-the-box way. Unusual Listing unusual hobbies or activities you participate in could be a great way to stand out from the sea of other candidates. Just be sure not to write something weird which will induce recruiters negative feelings. After you decided to include hobbies into your resume and which ones you are going to include, its time to deal with formatting of this part of your resume.

Remember, all is in Essay on A History, details. Thats why you should be careful with listing your hobbies. Simply naming your interest in a bulleted list or, God forbid, a sentence wont do it. Remember, your Additional activities section is there to support everything previously told in your resume. So, instead of just listing it, provide some details which will illustrate skills desired for the position. For example, blogging is post-and-lintel fine but you should expand on that and Essay History Imperialism, write something like successfully blogging for Review Home-Made 3 years with a special emphasis on social media promotion of my blog which resulted in xxx newsletter subscribers, yyy Facebook likes and zzz Twitter followers. As in work experience section, everything is in achievements and History Imperialism, documented success of Paper: Allende’s be Studied in College? your activities. We mentioned before that the final decision whether you should include hobbies into on A History of American your resume or not is on marketing aims you, after reading all data presented here. On A Brief History? However, there are some categories of applicants that need to include hobbies more than others. On the other side, there are candidates whose hobbies absolutely dont have a place in their resumes. Lets see both categories.

Graduates and undergraduates When youve got no real work experience, every bit of information could be critical for your application. In that light, listing hobbies in Why in College?, your resume could be make it or break it for that internship or a job. Be sure to follow aforementioned rules. Applicants for a job directly related to their hobbies For example, if you blog frequently about on A History of American Imperialism, current events in politics and youre applying for Citizenship Essay a role of a journalist in a daily newspaper, this hobby could be even more important than your work experience. Applicants without proper experience Same as with graduates, if youre lacking experience, any information could be crucial.

That includes hobbies as well. Who doesnt need it: Very experienced applicants If youve got enormous experience related to Essay Brief of American Imperialism, the job you applied for, listing hobbies may seem unprofessional in Why Isabel in College?, a highly professional resume. Imperialism? Executives and aims, other high management roles If youre applying for Imperialism such an important function, leave hobbies out. It is important to Research Isabel Literature Should be Studied in College?, be seen as a human being, but not even close as its to be seen as a perfect manager for that role.

Hobby? I don#8217;t need a hobby. Applicants whos resumes are too long If your resume is longer than two pages (there are exceptions, read about them in this comprehensive article on resume length), you definitely need to trim it down. Hobbies are the least important part of on A History Imperialism a resume, so guess whos leaving the party? Applicants without hobbies Dont lie. I repeat, dont lie. If you dont have a hobby or some activity other than your work in Psychological, which youre investing a significant part of of American your time, ditch hobbies out of your resume. Not having hobbies listed is not a big deal, getting caught in a lie during the interview is. Now youve got all the Essay, relevant information on including hobbies into your resume. Always have in mind that you most probably wont land an interview based on hobbies alone, but dont neglect them if youve got relevant info to share with recruiters. It wont do you any harm, thats for sure.

However, its always better to prove that youre a team player by listing regular weekend football match with your friends then to Essay Brief of American Imperialism, simply write team player in your skills or some other section. If youre short on Global Essay space on your resume, dont think twice, hobbies are going down first. Nevertheless, if youve got the space and a relevant activity to show, be sure to list it as it will present you as a well-rounded human being, rather then robotic employee. Thats something of value. Give me your thoughts on hobbies in a resume. What are your experiences? Do you list them in your resume? If youre a recruiter or a hiring manager, how much do you take notice of hobbies in a resume?

Comments section is right below. Good luck with your job search! If you liked this post, sign up for Essay Brief Imperialism Epic CV Newsletter to receive articles like this one right into your inbox . Post-and-lintel Construction? 24 Crucial Tips for Essay History Imperialism Work Experience Resume Section. Famous Last Words of marketing and objectives a Resume: References Available upon Request. Danger! Danger!

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donald kuspit essays Now, this paper is coming from a number of different points of view, or trying to address a number of different issues. First, I think it's high time to re-evaluate twentieth-century art in a serious way. It's been scholarly done to death, so to say, everything's been analyzed. There are lots of books on Kandinsky, and people associated with him; his influence has been widely acknowledged. He's a truly famous, major figure. In my humble opinion, ultimately more of a revolutionary than Picasso.

André Breton, who was not known for Essay, kindness, praised Kandinsky, I'm quoting Breton, as one of the most exceptional, greatest revolutionaries of vision, which I think is quite an extraordinary statement. I'm not sure that people have fully gotten the whole of why he's so exceptional. Now, one of the crips history, things that I think is going on in Kandinsky's art, and in On the Spiritual in Art , is an effort to deal with an issue that was raised in Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind , which was published just about a century earlier. Phänomenologie des Geistes , it's sometimes called, phenomenology of mind, sometimes spirit, there are various translations in Essay on A Brief English, phenomenology of consciousness. Paper: Isabel Should Be Studied? And Hegel, if you read it very carefully, reaches a curious point. He goes from sense experience, okay, very particular sense experience, to pure ideational spiritual experience, and he argues that the climax of spiritual activity#151;let's use that word#151;is the Essay Brief History of American, spirit knowing itself and coming and becoming itself. On Creating Stem Cells? And then suddenly, having said that, he flips right back into sense experience, and he says the spirit knows itself most through sense experiences. So we have the Essay History of American Imperialism, idea of spiritualized sensing, so to say, implicit in Hegel, the whole thing starts over post-and-lintel, again, and I think Kandinsky is trying to address that moment.

Now, I think there's something else that's very important that's going on today. I'm very interested in maintaining what I call the History of American Imperialism, spiritual impulse in art, and I frankly think it's disappearing. For me the debate in art is symbolized by the difference between say Gerhard Richter and Anselm Kiefer. I found it a wonderful relief to see Kiefer's recent show at Gagosian Chelsea. I found it a wonderful antidote in relief from the post-and-lintel construction, show by Richter which is on A History Imperialism, now at the Museum of Modern Art, which is now in San Francisco. Construction? You can buy a book [ Richter 858 ] for on A Brief, one hundred and twenty five dollars, it has an Global Citizenship aluminum sleeve on it, it's the ultimate hype of an Brief of American Imperialism artist.

There are eight reproductions in it, two texts by prominent artists. It's a very slick production. I've written about both of these people. For me Richter is the ultimate in Research Paper: Why Isabel Allende’s Literature Should in College? the spiritless, cynical artist. I have a piece at where I wrote a lot, which is called Gerhard Richter D.O.A. It didn't make me many friends, but I'm getting too old to worry about that.

Then I have another piece on Essay on A of American Imperialism called The Spirit of Gray which is on Kiefer. The subtext was the last ripple of the German Wave, Deutsche Velle, as it was called when it happened. Anyway, Richter is vs bloods, spiritless, Kiefer is spiritual, and one of the last holdouts. The last show was dealing with the Kabala, with an interesting text on it by Harold Bloom. It was sensationally well received. You may be aware#151;if you're not, I'll make you#151;that Richter has sharply attacked Kiefer as too pretentious, too much into the sublime, among other things, okay. Essay On A Brief Of American Imperialism? I think that's a mistake, so that's one thing I want to address. The other thing I think that's happening, and that Kandinsky stands right in the middle of, is of Research Home-Made Stem Cells, that we're at a moment of a paradigm change, as it's called, it's been going on for a while in the history of art. I believe that the idea of fine art is dead or dying. The idea of fine art which emerged in the eighteenth century, symbolized by Essay History of American Imperialism Kant's aesthetics#151;and there was no concept of aesthetics in traditional philosophy#151;and then by the discourses by Reynolds, that that's on the way out, it's going.

I think art is becoming very ideological, and it's less interested in mediating this special experience called the aesthetic, which you can get outside of art but which is intensified and more concentrated within the, so to construction say, closed circle of discourse which is art. So I think Kandinsky is bringing together the spiritual idea of art with the aesthetic idea of art, or let's say the spiritual impulse, and trying to unite them. Okay, so these are some of the things I'm going to do. And I'm going to show works which you're probably familiar with, and I will talk a little bit about them and say things I'm sure you're familiar with from Kandinsky. But then what I want to do is to shift it a bit, perhaps in terms that may be a little too general, but it's hard not to be general in Brief History of American the context of such a talk, is shift it a bit and try to talk about just exactly what is meant by the spiritual impulse keeping the spiritual alive. I also have to say that there's a subjective motivation behind this talk. As one gets older, one becomes aware of sickness and death. One becomes aware of what Buddha was aware of Research Paper: Why Allende’s Literature, when he left the closed garden of his pleasures and went out in the world and saw a sick person, a dead body, and he couldn't believe these things existed. That began his spiritual pursuit of enlightenment, and you might say the sub-question, as it were, of this talk is, Can art still offer spiritual enlightenment as Kandinsky thought it once did, or was capable of doing? You may disagree with that, you may not do it. I remind you that Kandinsky, along with Malevich and Mondrian, were all spiritual artists by their own testimony.

This has been forgotten. On A Brief? Nobody takes their writing seriously. A while back Hilton Kramer said, Oh, it's all just about formal innovation, and impulse, and spontaneity. But it's more complicated. The issue is whether it is still possible to re-present, represent, spiritual impulse without the traditional iconography, that's what they were trying to address. So without further ado, I'll begin. It is almost a century since Kandinsky, Wassily Kandinsky wrote On the Spiritual in Art . Why reconsider it now?

It was written, published in 1912 by Piper-Verlag, and there are a number of essays related to marketing it done in 1910, 1911. Essay? Not simply because of historical reasons#151;not simply because it was time to take a fresh look at a text that had profound influence on twentieth-century art#151;and some people regard it as the climax of symbolist thinking in art#151;but because art faces the same problem now, at Psychological Matrix Essay least in my opinion, that it did then: namely, how to generate and of American Imperialism articulate what Kandinsky called . . . the all-important spark of inner life, or, as he also called it, . . . of innernecessity. As he said, It is the core of spiritual experience. The problem is even greater today, in my opinion, than it was in Kandinsky's day: what he meant by the spiritual was self-evident to his audience. Today it is post-and-lintel construction, not so self evident. For Kandinsky's audience, and for Kandinsky, its meaning was anchored in Essay on A History of American religious tradition. Matrix Reloaded Essay? Today there is no religious tradition to sustain it. Thus, when Kandinsky described how he came to on A History the idea of the spiritual in art#151;when he said he realized that the sensations of colors on the palette could be spiritual experiences, and that's right out of Hegel, as Kandinsky said#151;he described how he felt as though he was taking a stroll within a picture, that he was surrounded on all sides by painting, whenever he entered a church.

He was a very smart man, very, very, introspective and knowledgeable about himself, and he said how he wanted to Paper Home-Made Stem Cells recapitulate, in Essay on A History part, the experience of walking through a Russian Orthodox Church, which is full of pastel colors, and anybody who's been in Russia, has gone to some of these churches, there's a wonderful group of them outside, right outside of Moscow, you'll know what he was talking about. It didn't matter whether it was a Russian Orthodox church or a Catholic church, as he said. The experience was the same whether it was in the Moscow churches or the Bavarian and Tyrolean chapels: it was an Psychological Analysis of the Matrix artistic experience of religion and a religious experience of art#151;a sense of the easy and Essay Brief of American Imperialism seamless merger of religious and artistic experience, their inevitable reciprocity. Post-and-lintel? The interiors of the churches and Essay on A History of American chapels that Kandinsky visited are brightly and intricately colored, as he was quick to appreciate, so that the excitement of color and of inner life converged. Color and feeling were inextricable: sense experience was spiritual experience and spiritual experience took sensuous form. That is, the external, visible phenomenon of color seemed to marketing aims and objectives be a spontaneous manifestation of the internal, invisible phenomenon of feeling. Feeling needed color to become consummate#151;and if you think of Matisse's remarks in his 1908 essay, same kind of thing, he talks about the fascination of color, the instant effect of it#151;feeling needed color to become consummate and color needed feeling to have inner meaning#151;to be more than a chemical matter of fact. Kandinsky insisted, as we know, that certain colors and certain emotions necessarily went together.

They were not simply arbitrarily or culturally associated but essentially connected, as he argued in Brief the chapter on the psychological working or emotional Effects of Color in On the Spiritual in Art . Now the public who read On the Spiritual in Art when it first appeared in 1911, and also the Blaue Reiter Almanac , the Blue Rider Almanac , when it appeared a year later#151;the second edition appeared in Paper: Why Isabel Allende’s Literature Should 1914, and that was the last edition, which he and Franz Marc, who was a close friend, edited together#151;thus understood what Kandinsky meant when he declared that their principal aim [was] to awaken [the] capacity for experiencing the spiritual in on A Brief History of American Imperialism material and in abstract phenomena. It was, to Global Essay repeat, a religious experience#151;an experience of inner life. Essay On A Of American? Church-going induced it, that is it forced one back on one's inner life, in marketing forgetfulness of the outer world#151;the world outside the sacred space of the on A History, church#151;and the picture is Research Paper: Why, a kind of sacred space for Kandinsky, and Kandinsky thought that abstract painting induced it, as well, if only because in entering an abstract painting one turned away from the external aspect of phenomena, as he said, toward what he called feelings of a finer nature. And he makes quite clear he's not speaking about ordinary feelings, for example the kind of feelings that Munch talked about, anger, anxiety, and so forth. He's talking of a different kind of feeling altogether that you . Essay Imperialism? . . he did not associate with what you might call natural existence.

What mattered for Kandinsky was what he called the mood , Stimmung, or spiritual atmosphere, his terms of the work, and he has a very interesting footnote deploring the fact that the word mood or Stimmung has become so banal and conventionalized, not its material or outward aspect. Review Of Research On Creating Home-Made Stem Cells? The work had to be seen with what he called spiritual eyes#151;eyes that could intuit innernecessity#151;not eyes that could see only physical material or outer necessity. When Kandinsky spoke of my tendency toward the hidden, the concealed, he was talking about his ability to see the spiritual concealed in the material#151;the unfamiliar emotional reality behind familiar material appearances. History Imperialism? As he famously wrote in a letter to Will Grohman, the great German scholar, in 1925, I want people to see finally what lies behind #151;that's Kandinsky's emphasis#151;my painting. On the Spiritual in Art begins with a long diatribe against post-and-lintel construction, what he called the long reign of materialism, the whole nightmare of the materialistic attitude, which has turned the on A Brief History of American Imperialism, life of the universe into an evil, purposeless game. Psychological Of The Matrix Essay? Another reason for reconsidering, and, as I hope to show, the necessity of re-affirming the spiritual in art, or the spiritual possibilities of art, if you want to put it more modestly, is that we have not only not awakened from the nightmare of the materialistic attitude in art as well as society, but materialism has become a plague, indeed, the reigning ideology in Essay on A History Imperialism both. Kandinsky thought that Impressionism was materialism's climactic statement in art, but then he never saw Pop art, which began the ascendancy, not to Psychological of the say dominance, of media-derived art, which is the Essay History Imperialism, situation we're in Paper: Why Isabel Allende’s Should today. The attitude of Pop art is so materialistic, however ironical its materialism is supposed to be, and I have my doubts about that, that it is Brief of American Imperialism, virtually impossible to find any spark of inner life in it.

One can make the same criticism of crips history, Warhol's Marilyn Monroe, and maybe the reality of Marilyn Monroe as well, who Billy Wilder said he was not sure if she was a human being or a synthetic creation, synthetic plastic, he said, as Redon made of Essay Brief History of American Imperialism, Manet. Redon, who wrote some rather brilliant criticism, said Manet's figures lacked soul#151;inner life is what he meant. There is of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells, certainly none in Andy Warhol's media mannequins, which is what he paints and on A of American what our celebrity society is saturated in. One of the reasons that Kandinsky was concerned with inner life is that it registers the pernicious emotional effects of outer materialistic life, affording a kind of critical perspective on materialism that becomes the Review Paper on Creating Home-Made, springboard for emotional transcendence of it. The inability of Pop art to convey inner life, which is a consequence of its materialistic disbelief in interiority, and especially spirituality, which is the deepest interiority, indicates that Pop art's irony is at best nominally critical. Irony in fact mocks belief, even as it spices up materialism, making it seem less banal, that is, populist, thus giving Pop art the look of Essay of American Imperialism, deviance characteristic of avant-garde art. I dwell on irony because it is opposed to spirituality, not to say incommensurate with it, and also its supposedly more knowing alternative#151;spiritual people are supposed to be naïve#151;and because irony has become the aims and objectives, ruling desideratum of contemporary art, if you're not ironical, you're not in, apparently redeeming its materialism.

This itself is on A Brief, ironical, for contemporary materialistic society and aims its media have discovered the advantage of being ironical about Essay on A Brief History Imperialism themselves, namely, it spares them the serious trouble of having to change. Aims And Objectives? This suggests that irony has become a form of frivolity. It is no longer the revolutionary debunking understanding it once claimed to be, for example, in Jasper Johns' American flag paintings, but an expression of Essay on A History Imperialism, frustration, of stalemate, I would say. For Kandinsky modern materialism was evident in construction the turbulent flood of Essay Brief History Imperialism, technological inventions that has poured forth, as he noted in Research Paper: Why Isabel Literature Should Whither the 'New' Art? which was published the same year as On the Essay Brief History, Spiritual in Art and Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Cells also the obsession with the accumulation of material blessings. We live in America and Brief of American Imperialism know what that's all about. But he never experienced, Kandinsky never experienced, the blind faith in post-and-lintel technology as the solution to all human problems nor the on A History of American Imperialism, wealth, however unequally distributed, of our business society (which as we clearly have realized from the recent corporate events is a swindle). It is possible to argue that in art, which is what we are concerned with, materialism has completely swept the field. People think of art in crips vs bloods completely materialistic terms, what does it cost, what is it going to bring on the market, and the joke is that the real galleries are the auction houses.

So that searching for the inner life of a work of History, art or expecting any art to Research Paper: Why Isabel Should in College? have spiritual significance is on A History, like searching for the proverbial rare needle in a haystack. There is usually no concealed, to think of Kandinsky's idea, spiritual point in Citizenship most contemporary art, nothing unexpected that would sting the spectator's spirit into self-awareness. To put this another way, there is little that is sublime#151;which was an idea that Kandinsky also used#151;about contemporary materialistic art, that is, little that would awaken the capacity for experiencing the spiritual. Materialism has increased exponentially in art and society since Kandinsky's day, as the Imperialism, business ideology of today makes clear. I think Warhol's idea that business art was the Paper:, most important art and Brief of American making money was business puts it on the line quite explicitly. As he said, he passed through this thing called art, whatever that was. Post-and-lintel Construction? Business materialism is evident in the eagerness for corporate sponsorship of art.

One may say corporate legitimation of art's significance#151;without a corporate sponsor, without commercial value, no historical and cultural value. Essay Imperialism? Business materialism is also evident in the implicit belief that the work of art is a commodity before it is anything else, part of the consumer society, normal enough. That is, its commodity identity is its primary identity, or to Review Paper put this another way, its marketplace value is Essay Brief Imperialism, its primary value. It seems more and more foolish and farcical to speak of a work of art's internal necessity when it seems designed to cater to, even ingratiate itself with external necessity. Construction? It is Essay on A Brief History, harder and harder to know what one is talking about when one does so. It is harder and harder to aims and objectives claim that a work of art can be a spiritual experience, however much such artists as Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman, I'm sure you know the difference here, insisted that one was missing the point of on A, their abstract art if one viewed it materially.

They were not mere technicians of color, to marketing and objectives use a term that has been applied to Rothko, but spiritual provocateurs. Ironically, marketing materialism has given art more visibility and Essay on A Brief of American prestige than it had when it served religion and Matrix Reloaded Essay the aristocracy. It is a two way street: business's enthusiastic endorsement of avant-garde art's professed autonomy is business's covert way of asserting its own autonomy, that is, its belief that, like art, it is answerable and responsible only to itself. By supporting art, business appropriates art's supposedly intrinsic value and claims to advanced consciousness. Ours is a business culture not a religious culture, and it is impossible to find spiritual significance in what Warhol called business art. I submit to you that Warhol's art is a celebration of business, which is in part why it sells. It is certainly a long way from the color mysticism of the interiors of the churches that Kandinsky visited and that his early abstract works struggled to emulate. Corporate headquarters are not churches, even though their decoration with works of art are attempts to give them spiritual significance. History Of American Imperialism? Warhol's Gold Marilyn Monroe , which I showed you before, 1962, is also irreconcilable with Kasimir Malevich's abstract icons, which he compared to spiritual experiences in a desert, the proverbial place to have them. In contrast, Warhol's work epitomizes the of Research Paper Home-Made Cells, business materialism of the crowd, it's what I call crowd art.

Ironically, Warhol's cynical attempt to turn the on A Brief History of American Imperialism, dead actress into a sacred presence#151;and she was very good business, like Elvis#151;reinforces her profaneness and spiritual insignificance. Gold is either filthy lucre, or, alchemically speaking, ultima materia, that is, the ultimate sacred substance, and Warhol's perverse fusion#151;and perversion is another major strategy in art, and irony is part of it in contemporary art#151;perverse fusion of its opposed meanings in the socio-cosmetic construction of Analysis of the Essay, Marilyn Monroe is the ultimate materialistic nihilism. Brief History Of American Imperialism? It is the construction, exemplary case of the confusion of values that occurs in a business society, and that Kandinsky fought against. What I am arguing is that the on A Brief Imperialism, spiritual crisis of the contemporary artist is greater than Kandinsky's. Kandinsky knew art was in spiritual crisis, whereas today's materialistic artist doesn't see any spiritual crisis. All that matters is materialistic success. I want to aims just call attention to something, interrupt myself. Earlier this week I received an announcement of new books from Prestel-Verlag, which is a German firm located in Munich, with offices also in New York, and Essay on A of American one of the construction, books is Brief History, called The Eclipse of Art: Tackling the Crisis in Art Today . It's written by Research Paper: Isabel Allende’s be Studied Julian Spalding, who is the former director of the Glasgow Museum and Essay Brief History of American Imperialism also the man who founded the Research Isabel Should be Studied, Ruskin Gallery, the St. Mungo Museum of Religious Art, [of] Religious Life and Art, and the Glasgow Gallery of Modern Art.

I have to say this struck a resonance with me because my next book, which will be out, Cambridge University Press, early next year, is of American, called The End of Art , and I'm taking this in a different way than he is. I'm arguing that we now are in a situation of post art, as I call it. Psychological Analysis Of The Matrix? That's a term that Alan Capro introduced earlier on, and I sort of run with it and do a variety of Imperialism, other things. Of The Essay? So there are a number of people, Spalding is Essay on A History Imperialism, one, I am another, and there are other people I can mention, who feel that something is wrong in the state of art today as there was in aims and objectives Denmark way back when. The spiritual crisis in art today is more comprehensive than it was in Kandinsky's time, all the more so because what Jacques Barzun called the modern religion of art#151;his Crest lectures many years ago, an absolutely brilliant book of lectures on art, written in the seventies, as I say, his lectures that he gave in Washington.

However private religion it was, and on A Brief History thus more of a cult, is defunct today, however much its vestige lives on in the Paper: Allende’s Literature Should in College?, pseudo-sacred space of the modern museum. I was recently reading about the new Dallas Museum, and apparently you have huge walls with a single work on it, like a sacred experience. Essay History Imperialism? I hope it works. Kandinsky could fall back on the religion of art, and contributed to its growth, but today it seems quaint and simplistic, which is why many contemporary scholars and interpreters ignore the Paper: Why Allende’s Literature, spiritual writings, as I said, of on A of American Imperialism, Kandinsky, Malevich, and Mondrian, regarding them as so much claptrap beside the point of the actual works they produced. The last religious works of Citizenship Essay, art#151;the so-called purist works, and this is my interpretation of them and one possible interpretation#151;that Clement Greenberg advocated and analyzed, have become history, marketplace as well as art history. On A Brief Imperialism? Even more crucially, Kandinsky's assumption that color#151;these are his terms#151;transmitted and translated emotion, that inner life had a necessary material medium, universally accessible and instantly expressive, has fallen by the wayside. The relentless materialization and mediafication#151;if I can invent a word#151;of art, which are accessories to Global Citizenship Essay its commodification, has stripped it of the sense of subjective presence so basic to Kandinsky's belief in spiritual experience, leaving us with what from Kandinsky's point of view is the Brief History of American, shell of art rather than its spiritual significance.

The point I am trying to make is that there is no longer anything hidden or concealed or behind art, as Kandinsky expected there to be. It is all up front: what you see is what you get, as has been famously said by Frank Stella as well as Andy Warhol. Stella, I think strips, along with Ellsworth Kelley, strips abstraction of its spiritual import, reduces it to what I call empirical abstraction, spectrum, or think of the Research Paper: Why Literature be Studied in College?, Spectrum Works of Kelley, for example. If what you see is what you get, then art has lost its internal necessity, that is, its subjective reason for being, and becomes completely objective or external. One no longer experiences it, but theorizes , theorizes about its material structure and social meaning. Think how much theory props up art today. I am in complete agreement with the famous art historian and museum director, Friedlander, who said that when theory rises up, creativity is on on A Brief of American the way down, at least for the artists, if not for the theorists. Paper: Isabel Literature Should In College?? In other words, belief in the spiritual has been completely uprooted and destroyed in Essay Brief History Imperialism most contemporary art. The idea of the spiritual as such has become meaningless in the art world, thus completing the process of the Review of Research on Creating Cells, despiritualization or demystification of Brief of American Imperialism, art that began with Cubism and climaxed in post-painterly abstraction, as Greenberg thinks. In a sense#151;and I'm going to Global Essay contradict myself, what I said before about Greenberg#151;Greenberg's theory of modernist painting is in Brief of American fact the final intellectual stage of the modern process of despiritualizing art, which in the last analysis is reduced entirely to the terms of its material medium.

Such materialistic reductionism, involving the complete objectification of Psychological Analysis Matrix, art#151;it is a case of what Whitehead called misplaced concreteness#151;is evident in Greenberg's assertion that the great masters of the past achieved their art by virtue of combinations of pigment whose real effectiveness was abstract, and their greatness is on A Brief, not owed to the spirituality with which they conceived the things they illustrated so much as it is to the success with which they ennobled raw matter to the point where it could function as art. Greenberg, Stella, and Warhol have more in common than one might imagine: they are all radical materialists. For them the spiritualist effect of marketing aims and objectives, art#151;the sense of spiritual intimacy it can achieve#151;is a case of misplaced materialism, that is, a naive misreading of art's physicality. For them the spiritual is an epiphenomenon of art's manipulation of matter, and as such a misapprehension of art. They ultimately want to eliminate the idea that there is Essay on A History of American, something spiritual about art as dishonesty. Honest art involves the attempt to master matter, including, for many artists, social matter. At best, to say that an Review Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem art is spiritual is simply a way of saying that its mastery of matter is successful, or at least convincing to the viewer. Essay On A History Of American? This makes the Review of Research on Creating Stem, artist a kind of chef who knows how to cook the material medium so that it is on A Brief History of American Imperialism, tasty and looks appealing, which gives it all the presence it will ever have and need to be credible#151;simply as art. The idea that the artist might invest his or her subjectivity in the material medium, which is Why Isabel Allende’s Should be Studied, what brings it alive#151;indeed, the idea that the artist might have a profound subjectivity, and to be an artist you have to be a certain kind of person, that is, experience the inner necessity of spiritual aspiration, and that the only person who can legitimately call himself or herself an artist is the person who experiences art as part of a personal spiritual process#151;this idea is discarded as absurd and beside the artistic point. Thus the apparently revolutionary materialistic conception of art is emotionally reactionary. There is another factor that makes art's situation today more difficult and desperate than it was in Essay Brief History of American Imperialism Kandinsky's day: the avant-garde has been conventionalized, not to say banalized.

This is marketing aims, more than a matter of institutionalization: it is a matter of Essay on A Brief of American, its bankruptcy. Global Essay? It has run out of creative steam#151;the age of artistic revolution and innovation is over#151;and become redundant, feeding on itself, and Brief of American not always to refine its principles and methods. A good part of what motivated Kandinsky was defiance of convention, as is evident in his pursuit of what he called unrestrained freedom#151;you recall he spoke of this in the essay On the Question of Form, which appeared in the Blaue Reiter Almanac . This begins, as he wrote, in the effort toward liberation from forms that have already reached their fulfillment, that is, liberation from old forms in Citizenship Essay the effort to create new and infinitely varied forms. Essay On A History Imperialism? It climaxes in a sense of what he called unbridled freedom fraught with active spirit#151;that is, feeling. The feeling that speaks aloud will sooner or later correctly guide the artist as well as the viewer. Psychological Reloaded Essay? I'll read that again: The feeling that speaks aloud will sooner or later correctly guide the artist as well as the viewer. Well, what do you do if there's no feeling there?

The problem is that what was once unripe new form has become overripe old form and no longer seems so infinitely varied, and what once seemed like emotional liberation#151;fresh and unique and revolutionary feeling#151;has now become stale and pro Essay Brief History of American, forma. The avant-garde has reached its fulfillment, to use Kandinsky's language, and become decadent. And I think we are in Review Paper on Creating Cells a time of decadence in art. The moment of unpredictability and improvisation that was so important to Kandinsky, and that he struggles to achieve in the abstract works produced under the auspices of On the Spiritual in Art #151;and I want to point out that the scholar Richard Stratton has noted that this has a unique place , this essay, in the history of avant-garde thinking, for Essay Brief History, Kandinsky's ideas were developed before the art that exemplifies them was made, that is, On the Spiritual in Art is prospective and prophetic rather than retrospective and rationalizing, as many artists statements are#151;that this moment of unpredictability and improvisation has passed and vanished, never to return. It is incidentally worth noting that the root word of Research Why Isabel Allende’s Should be Studied in College?, improvisation is, it means, not to foresee, which is not the same as accidental or spontaneous#151;which is the way Kandinsky's work is on A Brief of American Imperialism, usually understood#151;by chance or by impulse, and why improvisation is Analysis Matrix Reloaded, more enlivening than either#151;and Kandinsky's whole point is that art has to be inwardly alive, or it is not worth the creative trouble#151;since the results of chance and impulse can be foreseen, however not precisely predicted. As Franz Marc, Kandinsky's close friend and History of American Imperialism colleague, wrote in the preface to the second edition of the Blaue Reiter Almanac , as he wrote: With a divining rod we searched through the art of the construction, past and the present.

We showed only what was alive, and what was not touched by the tone of convention. Of American? The problem of feeling alive in a society you feel is inwardly dead is crucial for Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells, modern existence. We gave our ardent devotion to everything in art that was born out of itself, lived in on A History Imperialism itself, did not walk on Allende’s Literature be Studied crutches of habit. Essay On A Of American Imperialism? We pointed to each crack in the crust of and objectives, convention#151;it's marvelous, these sort of inspiring words#151;only because we hoped to find there an underlying force that would one day come to light. Essay On A Imperialism? . . . It has always been the great consolation of history that nature continuously thrusts up new forces through outlived rubbish. Well, nature itself seems like outlived rubbish in modernity, and especially post modernity. We are in a nature holocaust, as it's been called, an Psychological Matrix Essay environmental holocaust, in the midst of it, and no new spiritual forces have come to light in Essay History of American art. Avant-garde art has become habitual, a dead letter with little spiritual consequence, however materially refined. Question, are there works of Paper, art that are made today that do not walk on Essay Brief the crutches of avant-garde habit, that do not have the tone of crips vs bloods, avant-garde convention, that one can return to on A History of American Imperialism again and again as a resource of inner life? How many works of art made today require a second glance? There are no doubt works that seem emotionally powerful, and even deep, but rarely does one find a work in which the emotion and the medium seem one and the same. I am perhaps overstating my point, but the fact remains that the problem that motivated Kandinsky to write On the Spiritual in Allende’s Literature in College? Art has grown greater and seems unsolvable, and that his art#151;his idea of an improvisational art seems naïve and inadequate in the current sophisticated situation of art.

Kandinsky began Whither the 'New' Art? with a cynical statement from Essay on A Brief History Imperialism, a famous scientist, Rudolf Virchow. Review Of Research Paper Stem? Here's the statement:I have opened up thousands of corpses, but I never managed to see a soul. Kandinsky attacked Virchow's remark as an example of scientific and materialistic philistinism#151;in a sense, one might say Greenberg is the Essay History Imperialism, Virchow of art criticism and theory, just as the works of Stella and Warhol tend to Citizenship be Frankenstein monsters, that is, technologically animated corpses#151;but it raises the important question: if one opened up thousands of works of art made today, how many souls would one see? Behind this question lurks another one: what state would they be in, if they were there? One might ask, incidentally, how Kandinsky's improvisations, in practice, avoid the fate of Stella's and Warhol's works, and what does the radical unconventionality of Kandinsky's improvisations consist? If the core of scientific and materialistic philistinism consists in the power to Essay Imperialism measure and quantify, as has been argued, then Kandinsky's improvisations resist measure and of Research on Creating Stem Cells quantification, to the extent that they seem inherently unmeasurable and unquantifiable#151;altogether beyond scientific control and analysis.

You can't nail down their forms, this I'll quote: amorphousness. They come to suggest the immeasurable, that is, the Essay on A Brief of American, spiritual in contrast to the material. The ancients were terrified of the immeasurable#151;the uncontrollable beyond, as it were, which was rationalized as sublime#151;and their art, which has been the model for so much subsequent art, is about measure and the sense of control and mastery measure brings. In contrast, one might say that Kandinsky's improvisations deliberately construct the unmeasurable in Citizenship order to suggest the same sense of immeasurability that the churches and Essay History of American chapels he admired conveyed by way of color. He too uses color, which is Review of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made, experienced as unmeasurable, and thus suggests the immeasurable#151;the inherently unmeasurable, as it were. Color seems to transcend the environment in History of American Imperialism which it appears.

It is materially the Research Should be Studied in College?, case even as it seems ungraspable and thus peculiarly immaterial, it can be separated from the object. Color is constitutive of space but because its appeal is entirely to the optic sense, leaving the haptic sense unengaged, to use Bernard Berenson's terms, it seems boundless and intangible. Essay? In a very important book called The Measure of Reality , scholar [and] intellectual historian Alfred W. Crosby has shown that the segmentation of space and time into measurable, self-contained modular units is the basis of Western scientific materialism. Kandinsky's improvisations achieve their spiritual effect by presenting unsegmented color, going altogether against the quantification of color which we find in Seurat, and thus seemingly spaceless and timeless color, that is, non-objective color. Such color is not firmly attached to Global Citizenship Essay or contained by objects, and in visual fact seems to on A Brief History of American float, that is in sense experience, seems to float free of them, to the extent of existing independently, becoming, as it were, an amorphous subjective gesture which can never be seen in perspective, that is, measured and fixed in its place, which is what perspective does. Kandinsky's rebellion against measure, order, quantification, number may look psychotic#151;utterly unrealistic and irrational#151;from a scientific materialistic point of view, which in fact is epitomized by the rational perspective construction of the traditional picture#151;but it opens up the Review of Research Paper on Creating, possibility of a new vision of vision. Indeed, his improvisations return to what I want to on A Imperialism call a prelapsarian vision of reality#151;reality with which one is in spontaneous spiritual harmony, so to say, that is, with which one has an inner relationship rather than a measurable materialistic and thus contrived relationship. It is the difference between the way reality appears when it is freely engaged#151;when it seems abstractly and spontaneously expressive#151;and the clear and distinct way it begins to appear as one brings it under control by measuring it.

I am suggesting that Kandinsky's improvisations, in overthrowing the quantified picture, are inherently more revolutionary than Cubism's quantifiable pictures, which still hold on to measure. Ironically, Kandinsky's improvisations show that one way of being modern is by rebelling against the modern vision of reality as measurable and quantifiable, that is, one way of making avant-garde progress is by regressing to a vision of reality that scientific materialism has discredited. The basic question that haunts On the Spiritual in Art is Psychological Analysis of the Reloaded Essay, what Kandinsky means by on A Brief of American spiritual experience. he keeps using this term. He never exactly defines it, beyond associating it with religion, and declaring it to be at Research Why Literature be Studied in College? the center of inner life. The German scholar Klaus Lankheit, who edited the Blaue Reiter edition, thinks that for Essay Brief of American, Kandinsky, spirituality refers to the subjective 'freedom' of creative man, and another German expert scholar, Wieland Schmied, thinks that Kandinsky wanted to raise the problem of the purpose of art, which is indeed a big problem today, by introducing the possibility of its spirituality. I think they are both correct, if incomplete, in their understanding of Essay, what Kandinsky meant by Essay of American the spiritual. As I hope to show, they miss what is fundamental to spirituality for him, and in general.

Nonetheless, Lankheit and Schmied make it clear that the crisis that led Kandinsky to attempt to create a modern spiritual art#151;an art that would unequivocally express a spiritual attitude#151;had two aspects. It was a crisis of creativity, that is, it involved the question as to just how much subjective freedom there is in creativity, how much it escapes from social codes, implying that if creativity is not completely free subjectively#151;if it is in any way bound by objective necessity#151;it is not really creativity. It was also a crisis that involved the question of the Paper: Why Isabel Literature be Studied in College?, purpose of art, particularly in a scientific, technological world, more particularly, in what art can contribute to human existence in contrast to what we know technology and on A science contribute. It was also a crisis that involved the question of the Citizenship Essay, purpose of Essay on A History, art, more particularly, of its necessity, especially in the modern materialistic world. In other words, Kandinsky's spiritual crisis involved self-doubt, and I've written another paper arguing that he had a kind of breakdown based on evidence in his letters and post-and-lintel construction other sources and Essay on A History of American internal evidence in On The Spiritual in Art and other writings. That is, doubts about his creativity, and, implicitly, originality, which correlated with his doubts about Research Allende’s be Studied his subjective or inner freedom, and also uncertainty about art's raison d'etre, it's reason for existing. The latter is in part an extension of Kandinsky's uncertainty about the purpose of his own art. Broadly speaking, Kandinsky's spiritual crisis was haunted by the unresolvable question of the on A Brief History of American, relationship of freedom and necessity in the creation and construction significance of art. Perhaps the immediate issue for Kandinsky was whether artistic creativity could hold its own against scientific and technological creativity#151;that is, materialistic creativity. They contributed a great deal to human welfare.

What did art contribute? Science understood the workings of nature, technological inventions facilitated human life. What did art understand? How facilitative of life are art's inventions? We know how life serves art, that is, how life finds its way into on A Brief of American, art. The desperate modern question is how art serves life, that is, what place art has in modern life.

These questions forced Kandinsky to Review Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells rethink the basis of creativity and Brief of American Imperialism the purpose of art. The problem for him was to give art a sense of creative purpose that would confirm that it was humanly transformative not simply socially routine, and, equally important, that it would make it convincing and compelling in marketing a materialistic world that was, as he repeatedly stated, indifferent to it except to the extent that it mimicked the materialism of its times. His desperate answer to all these questions was to conceive of art as the repository and refuge of the spirituality the material world repudiated and shunned. What both Lankheit and Schmied miss in their important interpretation of Kandinsky's insistence on the spirituality of art is the combative, polemical way in which Kandinsky presents his views. In fact, it's perhaps the most polemical text that I know of by a modern artist. I have always been struck by Essay Brief Imperialism the sheer force of will animating On the Spiritual in Art . The spiritual is a force to be reckoned with. For Kandinsky, the spiritual attitude exists in and through its opposition to the materialistic attitude#151;that is, exists dialectically#151;with which it is at Analysis Matrix Reloaded war, just as the Essay Brief of American Imperialism, internal necessity that informs, indeed, drives the spiritual attitude exists in and through its opposition to the external necessity that motivates the materialistic attitude. Spirituality comes into its own#151;becomes deeply meaningful and Review Paper Home-Made Stem Cells transformative of art and on A Brief History Imperialism life#151;only as resistance to and transcendence of materialism. Such resistance and transcendence are clearly religious in character. The ultimate religious ambition#151;the ambition realized by the saints, and I believe that Kandinsky thought he was a kind of saint, the holy man of modern art, or at least a prophet announcing his potential holiness#151;involves transcendental resistance to the everyday world in crips vs bloods order to enter a more extraordinary, higher world of experience#151;and I'll talk more about what that means in a moment#151;it is a world that seems fresher and more alive than the everyday world#151;a world that seems to Essay on A of American have been just created#151;just come into being.

Kandinsky's abstract improvisations are meant to be as otherworldly as traditional religious renderings of otherworldly beings and experience. They are meant to Global Citizenship Essay show the creative forces#151;the creative conflict between spirit and matter, light and darkness, as Kandinsky himself says, using the language of gnosticism#151;that brought the world into being, and Essay Brief History remain alive and active in the inner world. It as though Kandinsky has projected himself into the moment of origination, as Schmied says, and witnessed the creation of the world from the inside. What Schmied calls his cosmic landscapes are microcosms of primordial process#151;of the creative process, which inevitably involves the Citizenship Essay, processing of emotions, indeed, one's deepest emotions about existence. For Kandinsky, the Essay on A Brief of American, basic formal elements of art are otherworldly in and objectives import, however this-worldly their properties. Non-objectivity, then, means otherworldliness for him, and otherworldliness in the midst of this worldliness means recovering a sense of the freshness of being, which is Brief History Imperialism, embodied in the formal dynamics of the work of art. For Kandinsky, non-objective art is the Research Isabel Should be Studied in College?, only means of transcendence#151;the only means of transcendence#151;of the on A Brief History, objective, practical modern world. In other words, it has, and this is why art has a special place for him, it has a higher purpose than art that objectively reflects that world, or that takes objectivity and of Research Paper on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells practicality for on A Brief of American, granted. He's made a special place for art.

One might say that where modernity involves extending the construction, sway of the scientific objectivity that discovers and conveys material necessity, non-objective art affirms subjective freedom in defiance of it. The tone of lyric defiance in Kandinsky's writing#151;it is happily a long way from the pseudo-epic theories of conceptual artists#151;in and of itself suggests the transcendence inherent in subjective freedom. Thus, ironically, Kandinsky's non-objective art, which has been understood as a revolutionary modern art, is anti-modern in spirit. Clement Greenberg once said that abstract art reflected the Essay on A Brief Imperialism, materialistic positivism of modernity, but Kandinsky's abstract art refuses to Psychological of the Reloaded Essay do so, which is no doubt why Greenberg did not care for it. He did not believe in Essay Brief of American Imperialism the possibility of transcending the basic attitude of one's times. Greenberg accepted what Kandinsky called the harsh tyranny of the materialistic philosophy, even in art. For Greenberg, spirituality, as I said, was simply an effect of the manipulation of the material medium, the aims, result of complete submission to it rather than transcendental use of it. I am suggesting that the Essay on A Brief of American Imperialism, spiritual crisis motivating On the Spiritual in Art is at construction bottom a crisis of Brief, transcendence and ultimately of religious faith#151;faith in post-and-lintel the self's ability to transcend the Essay on A History of American, objectively material world through its own subjective creativity. Kandinsky had in effect come to doubt that art was a vehicle for creative transcendence#151;that it could transmit a sense of Analysis Matrix, transcendence of what it represented in the act of representing it, indicating the artist's spiritual superiority to it, that is, implying that the artist's creative subjectivity is more to on A Brief History the human point than materially given objective reality.

The artist's fundamental act of creativity consists in projecting his or her subjectivity, with all its problems, into objective reality#151;creating into it, to use D. Post-and-lintel? W. Winnicott's eloquent phrase#151;making it seem humanly meaningful as distinct from merely materially the case. Brief History? The appropriation of some aspect of objective reality as the temporary sensuous form for the artist's subjectivity imbues objective reality with a spiritual consequence it otherwise lacks. It was Kandinsky's spiritual crisis, involving doubt of his own creativity, as noted, generalized into the disturbing feeling that art had no purpose#151;this art that he had given up a promising career as a lawyer and professor to pursue, and that now seemed to be abandoning him#151;that led him to abandon the representation of objective reality for the direct presentation, as it were, of his subjectivity, which he had in effect lost contact with. In a sense, Kandinsky re-asserted art's divine right to creative transcendence in order to rediscover and renew his own subjectivity#151;to heal himself, as it were. To put this the Citizenship, other way round, he in effect subjectified art to regain faith in himself and his own creativity, giving art a sense of Essay on A, transcendental or spiritual purpose in Review the process. If crisis is understood in the sense in which Hippocratic medicine understands it, still used today, namely, as the critical moment when the outcome of an acute sickness is in suspense#151;when it is Essay on A Brief, about to change dramatically for the better or the Research Why Isabel Literature Should be Studied, worse#151;then we can say that Kandinsky emerged from the sickness of his own subjectivity with a new sense of his personal significance and on A creative power, that is, the crips vs bloods history, power to endure and transcend his objective situation in Essay on A Imperialism the material world. I am suggesting that Kandinsky experienced what Viktor Frankl, great psychoanalyst, calls an existential neurosis, that is, frustration of the will-to-meaning, indeed, a sense that human life, especially inner life, had become meaningless in Global Citizenship Essay the modern scientific-technological materialistic world#151;meaninglessness is associated with deep depression#151;and with it art, the keeper of inner life, as it were.

As Frankl says, such a crisis is Essay Brief of American Imperialism, spiritual#151;this is marketing and objectives, his own word#151;because it involves loss of belief in the possibility and Essay on A History even reality of spiritual experience, a kind of crips vs bloods history, paradox here. According to Frankl#151;and let's get down to of American Imperialism what spirituality means now#151;spirituality means freedom in Citizenship the face of Essay, three things: the instincts; inherited disposition#151;or your constitution, your genes, as we would say today#151;and the Paper Home-Made Cells, environment. Spiritual experience declares the freedom of the spirit in spite of nature, a distinction that William James also makes in The Varieties of Religious Experience . Brief History? To use Ernest Becker's words, the psychiatrist, spirituality involves the problem of personal freedom versus species determinism, or, as Silvano Arieti, a very great psychiatrist who wrote on schizophrenia, writes, spirituality means the attempt to increase [the] capacity for choice and to decrease determinism in every possible way, to move away from physical necessity and toward free will, which is a basic definition of health. In other words, spiritual or subjective freedom involves the transcendence of natural and social determinism, in whatever form they take. More broadly, spirituality involves the Essay, general experience of Essay Brief History of American, transcendence, that is, what Erich Fromm calls the X or mystical experience that is, as he says, the substratum of the religious attitude, as distinct from any particular religion. It involves the negation of the world and history and the self that is Global Essay, their expression, and, at the same time, the Essay Brief, liberation of the all-embracing love latent in the selfless self that survives the negation. The X experience, he says, is expressible only in poetic and visual symbols, and underlies or stands behind the most widely differing systems of history, [religious] orientation. He argues that they are various conceptualizations of the way to realize the X experience. However, transcendence, as he says#151;and I want to emphasize this#151;does not mean a movement toward a transcendent God#151;it has nothing to do with God#151;but refers rather to the transcendence of a narcissistic ego#151;which is an early determinism also#151;that is, to on A Brief History of American a goal within man himself. Global Citizenship Essay? That is, transcendence means inner liberation from authority, divine or human.

Spirituality separates human beings from animals, who find transcendence incomprehensible, indeed, unthinkable, for it is beyond the ken of their existence, which submits to the authority of instinct#151;it's deterministic. The less instinct rules one's existence, the more one feels able to Essay on A Imperialism transcend it, and enjoy the experience of Psychological Matrix Essay, transcendence in general. At its core, the feeling of transcendence involves the Essay Brief History Imperialism, experience of inseparability from the vs bloods, cosmos at large, and Essay on A Brief that's what Kandinsky is trying to give us, and Global Essay with that a renewal of integrity. David Bohm, an important physicist/philosopher you may know of, describes it in terms that seem especially appropriate to Essay on A Brief Kandinsky's art. They resemble those I have tried to Review of Research Home-Made use to understand it. He regards mystical experience as an on A attempt to reach the immeasurable#151;think back to what I said earlier#151;that is, it's a state of mind in which [one] ceases to sense a separation between [oneself] and Review Paper Home-Made Cells the whole of reality.

It is a state of mind in which one no longer feels determined and measured by ordinary reality. Freud regards this oceanic experience, as it's been called, regressive and narcissistic, which is accurate but misses the reason#151;indeed, necessity#151;for such narcissistic regression in Brief History a society that seems alien and indifferent, that is, lacking in crips history empathy. In such an emotionally unfacilitative world, which brings with it the threat of psychic disintegration and annihilation, oceanic experience, which is the moment of transcendence or cosmic merger implicit in what I want to call healthy narcissistic regression, affords a sense of Essay on A Brief of American, insular union with the whole of reality beyond one's immediate reality, one's everyday reality. Post-and-lintel? One is ordinarily forced to comply to it in order to materially survive. Oceanic experience also transports one beyond the Essay Brief History Imperialism, socially ugly world at large, and post-and-lintel construction the world is profoundly ugly. One tends, as a society, one tends to submit to it because one realizes that every attempt to revolutionize it is likely to end in failure, that is, the construction of what calls itself a new world order but that demands old-fashioned compliance. Thus mystical experience, which is Essay Brief History of American Imperialism, what Kandinsky's art wants to mediate, becomes an important way of remaining emotionally healthy in an emotionally unhealthy world. More particularly, it becomes the major means of Research Paper: Why Allende’s Should in College?, preserving, securing, and protecting the core self in defiance of an intimidating and Essay on A of American Imperialism debilitating social reality. It becomes a way of sustaining a sense of authenticity, to use an old fashioned word, or true selfhood, or at least keep from becoming inwardly contaminated by Psychological Analysis Essay one's compliant dealings with society. Essay On A Brief History Imperialism? It is also a way to avoid becoming one of society's scapegoats. The creativity of mysticism is a weapon and protest against society's destructive scapegoating#151;insidious sacrifice#151;of any creative individual it cannot find a collective use for, that is, misappropriate for post-and-lintel construction, its own glory, be it social or commercial, or both.

Kandinsky's early abstractions are attempts to convey the X or mystical experience, that is, to realize it through transcendence of the social determinism implicit in representation of the world. Essay On A Of American Imperialism? Initially he found suggestions of transcendence in nature. It is Global Essay, a familiar romantic discovery, involving the Imperialism, transformation of the inevitability implicit in nature#151;that inevitability we call instinct#151;into the sense of freedom called transcendence, ultimately freedom from, or transcendence of nature itself. In a sense, Kandinsky's early abstractions improvise spirituality out of instinctively felt sensations of Research Why Allende’s Literature Should be Studied in College?, nature, more particularly, out of Essay on A History of American, primordial sensations of naturally given colors#151;and he talks about Research Paper: Literature this to some extent. For Kandinsky, vivid color is not only a sign of natural vitality, but also evidence of eternal life, if you please, even a trace of it, for color is the earthly catalyst and carrier of the X experience, that is, it is the transcendence immanent in nature. Thus Kandinsky's improvisations are mystical experiences#151;more familiarly, perceptual epiphanies#151;of color. They pay homage to its transcendental power. Transcendental experience is there for Essay Brief History of American, the asking in even the most familiar color, if one knows how to aims ask. Kandinsky conveys this inherent transcendence by liberating color from confining line.

In his improvisations color is uncontainable and on A History infinitely expansive, indeed, an expanding, boundless cosmos of mystical experience. The basic question for Kandinsky is whether art is inherently transcendental#151;whether it conveys freedom from objectively given nature and vs bloods society#151;or whether it is determined by and as such a reiteration and reification of various aspects of them. His final conviction that art expresses the will to transcendence that differentiates human beings from animals has to do with his discovery of his own personal power of transcendence. Internal necessity means the discovery that there is something in Essay of American inner life that resists and transcends the external necessities of existence. Marc called these things conventions, and his and Kandinsky's deliberate pursuit of unconventionality signals their defiant assertion of Psychological of the Reloaded Essay, freedom from on A History of American Imperialism, external necessities or determinisms. Construction? Thus, Kandinsky's improvisations are in effect spiritual exercises, and I mean this in the sense in which Loyola used that term, that is, artistic exercises meant to generate a sense of personal freedom and transcendence. The issue today is that spiritual freedom seems more and more improvised, and Essay on A Brief History Imperialism as such uncertain and even untenable.

This is no doubt because it is Review Paper on Creating Home-Made, no longer anchored in religion, which has been discredited, bringing the idea of spiritual freedom into intellectual disrepute. But it is an Essay History Imperialism emotional matter, not an intellectual matter, and the question is whether contemporary artists have the emotional capacity that Kandinsky had#151;whether they are willing to go through the emotional struggle he went through. Like Kandinsky, the contemporary artist stands at the beginning of a new century, but it is Global Essay, a different century. Kandinsky's century is over, and on A History Imperialism the artist today no longer knows what it means to crips make it new, as Ezra Pound fanously said the twentieth-century artist should do. On A Brief? It is post-and-lintel construction, not even clear that he or she realizes, as Kandinsky did, that sometimes one can only make art new by returning to old ideas. Kandinsky's belief that the artist must live for the spirit the way, as he said, the divine martyrs and servants of humanity did, and through his art re-awaken spiritual life, seems absurd. The third chapter of On the Spiritual in Art is called Spiritual Revolution, but the Essay on A Brief, spiritual revolution of art that Kandinsky started#151;and I think, as I've said, he is much more of a revolutionary than Picasso ever thought of being#151;seems to have failed. It is Global Essay, doubtful that modern art ever made anyone spiritual#151;changed his or her lifestyle and attitude to a spiritual lifestyle and on A Brief History Imperialism attitude#151;however much one may continue to believe, as Kandinsky did, that art is one of the mightiest elements of the spiritual life, and as such is marketing aims and objectives, a major weapon against the modern sense of Essay History of American, insecurity, that is, a source of spiritual security. Nor is it clear that art is the best way of crips vs bloods history, discovering what Kandinsky called the internal truth about Essay on A of American oneself, which is what so called self-expression in art is about.

Perhaps the marketing aims and objectives, biggest problem facing artists today is that they no longer believe that art is an element of the spiritual life, let alone a mighty element#151;no longer believe that to make art is a spiritual activity, however much some may still believe that it can be a vehicle of the internal truth#151;that is, of the truth of the self. Essay Brief Of American? But one wonders how much their inner life involves the internal necessity that drove Kandinsky to make his art. I am suggesting that the future for a spiritual art looks bleak#151;although there are spiritual artists working today, I believe, truly spiritual work. Post-and-lintel? But then again, as Kandinsky and Marc demonstrate, only a few artists are needed to affirm its possibility, and Essay Brief of American Imperialism it was never meant for more than the happy few, despite Kandinsky's utopian, not to say delusional, belief that it would lead everybody out of the materialistic wilderness. The question today is where are the few artists who are ready and willing to reaffirm the spiritual, and, more crucially, who can convince us that their art does so#151;that it is marketing aims and objectives, a beacon of transcendence in dark materialistic times. How is an Essay on A Brief of American Imperialism artist to keep alive the idea of transcendence in a world in which it has become trivial, passé, incomprehensible?

Kandinsky had a messianic complex, behind which lurked a martyr complex#151;and this is quite demonstrable#151;but neither is any guarantee of transcendence today. It is a difficult task to think of transcendence, let alone assume the and objectives, reality of mystical experience, in a world that seems to have usurped and manipulated our subjectivity and whose deterministic hold on our lives seems more complete than ever. It is a world in which it is hard to gain a critical distance from the determinisms which shape our existence#151;to take a critical stand against the external forces that seem to determine even our inner lives. On A Of American? Every critical analysis of some determinism, personal or social#151;every effort to transcend it by analyzing its structure and of Research on Creating Home-Made Stem Cells effect, for such analysis affords transcendence when it is made out of internal necessity not simply out of intellectual curiosity, as Spinoza argued#151;quickly becomes another deterministic theory. Essay History Of American? I think it is more difficult than ever to be a spiritual artist, but in my opinion, it is the only kind of history, heroic artist that makes sense in threatening modern times, as Kandinsky makes clear.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. If you're reading this article, I assume you're an IB Student, who is getting ready to write their Extended Essay. If you're looking at Brief History Imperialism this as a potential future IB student, I recommend reading our other introductory IB articles first: What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? and Citizenship What is the IB Curriculum? What are IB Diploma Requirements?. IB students around the globe fear writing the Extended Essay. Brief History Of American. In this articles, I'll try to get you excited about writing your Extended Essay and Essay provide you with the resources to Essay on A Brief Imperialism, get an A. I'm a recipient of an IB Diploma, and I happened to Review of Research Paper Home-Made Stem Cells, receive an A on my IB Extended Essay. If you dont believe me, the proof is in the IBO pudding, If you're confused by what this report means, EE is short for Extended Essay, and Essay Brief English A1 is the subject that my Extended Essay topic coordinated with. In laymans terms, my IB Diploma was graded during May 2010, I wrote my Extended Essay in the English A1 category, and I received a grade A.

The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4,000 word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article). Construction. I'll explain exactly how the EE affects your diploma later in this article. For the Extended Essay, you choose a research question as a topic; this topic needs to Essay on A Brief History, be approved by IBO (which is not very difficult). You can do a typical research paper such as in construction this paper, or you conduct an experiment/solve a problem such as in on A Brief of American this paper. Construction. Most schools allow you to Essay Brief History Imperialism, pick your advisor (an IB teacher preferably at on Creating Stem your school, although you can also get access to one at another school through the Pamoja Education). I'll explain how to pick your IB EE advisor below. The IB Extended Essay must include a cover page, an abstract (one-page synopsis of your essay), a table of contents, the 4,000-word essay (which will range from 10-20 pages depending on whether your topic requires illustrations such as an experiment would), and a bibliography.

Your completed Extended Essay is History of American then sent to the IBO to on Creating Home-Made, be graded (I will go into more detail on grading below). What Should You Write About in Your Extended Essay? You can technically write about anything, so long as the on A Brief History of American, IBO approves it. Paper: Isabel Allende’s Literature Should Be Studied In College?. However, you should choose a topic that falls into one of the IB Course Categories, (such as Theatre, Film, Spanish, French, Math, Biology, etc.) which shouldnt be difficult because there are so many class subjects. Essay Of American Imperialism. Here is a range of sample topics with the attached extended essay: You can see from how varied the topics are that you have a lot of freedom when it comes to picking a topic. So, how do you pick when the options are limitless?

I will help you with that next: 6 Tips for Writing a Grade A Extended Essay. Tip #1: Write About Something You Enjoy Because You'll Be Spending a Lot of Psychological of the Essay Time on It. I love British theatre and ended up writing mine about a revolution in Essay on A Brief History of American post-WWII British theatre #theatrenerd. I really encourage anyone who pursues an Allende’s be Studied in College? IB Diploma to take the on A Imperialism, Extended Essay seriously. I ended up receiving a full-tuition merit scholarship to USCs School of Dramatic Arts program and in vs bloods history my interview for the scholarship, I spoke passionately about my Extended Essay. I genuinely think my Extended Essay helped me get my scholarship. How do you find a topic you are passionate about? Start by figuring out which classes you enjoy the most and on A History Imperialism why you enjoy them. Do you like Math because you like to problem solve?

Or do you enjoy English because you like to analyze texts? Once you have figured out a general subject area such as Physics, you should brainstorm more specific topics by Why Isabel Allende’s Should be Studied putting pen to paper. Essay Brief Of American Imperialism. What was your favorite chapter you learned in that class? Was it astrophysics or mechanics? What did you like about that specific chapter? Is there something you want to learn more about? I recommend spending an hour on this type of brainstorming. After doing this preliminary brainstorming make sure to choose: Tip #2: Chose a Topic That Is Not Too Broad, But Not Too Narrow. This is a fine line.

You need to write about something specific, but not so specific that you cant write 4,000 words on it . You cant write about Research Paper: Why Isabel Allende’s Literature be Studied WWII because that would be a book worth of material. You dont want to write about what type of soup prisoners of war received in POW camps because you probably cant come up with 4000 words on it. However, you could possibly write about how the conditions in History of American Imperialism German POW camps were directly affected by the Nazis successes and failures. This may be too obvious of a topic, but you get my point. If you're really stuck trying to find a not too broad or narrow topic, I recommend trying to brainstorm a topic that uses a comparison. Vs Bloods. If you refer back to the topics I mentioned above, you may notice that two use comparisons. I also used comparison in Essay Brief Imperialism my EE, comparing Harold Pinter's Party Time to John Osborne's Look Back in Anger in order to show a transition in British Theatre. Post-and-lintel. Topics with comparisons of on A Brief History 2-3 plays/books/diets/etc. Review On Creating Stem Cells. tend to be in the sweet spot of on A Brief of American not too narrow or broad because you can analyze each portion and after doing in-depth analysis on each, you compare and Why Isabel Should explain the significance of the comparison. The key here is that the comparison needs to be significant.

I compared two plays to show a transition in British Theatre. Comparisons are not the only way to get a grade A EE. Essay History Imperialism. If after brainstorming, you pick a non-comparison based topic and you are still unsure if a topic is and objectives too broad or narrow, spend 30 minutes doing some basic research and see how much material is out there. If there are over 1,000 books/articles/documentaries out there on the exact topic, it may be too broad. If there are only 2 books that have any connection to your topic, it may be too narrow.

If you are still unsure, ask your advisor! Speaking of advisors: Tip #3: Choose an Advisor Who Is Very Familiar With Your Topic and Who Seems Excited About It. If you are not certain of who you would like to be your advisor, I would start by creating a list of your top three choices. Next, create a list of pros and cons (I know this sounds tedious, but it really helps!). For example, Mr. Green is my favorite teacher, and we get along really well, but he teaches English, and I want to conduct an experiment to compare the efficiency of American Hybrid Cars to Foreign Hybrid Cars. History Of American Imperialism. Ms.

White teaches Physics, I had her a year ago, and vs bloods history she liked me. She could help me design my experiment. Essay Of American Imperialism. I am going to ask Ms. White! Do NOT just ask your favorite teacher to be your advisor. They may be a hindrance to you if they teach another subject. I would not suggest asking your Biology teacher to guide you in writing your English EE. EXCEPTION: If you have a teacher who is passionate and knowledgeable about your topic (as my English teacher was about my Theatre topic), you can ask that instructor. Consider all of Psychological Analysis Matrix Reloaded your options first before you do. There was no theatre teacher at my school, so I could not find a theatre-specific advisor, so I chose the next best thing. Some IB high schools require your IB Extended Essay advisor to Essay on A History of American Imperialism, sign an Agreement Form.

Make sure you ask your IB coordinator if there is any required paperwork. Global. IBO does not require any paperwork. If your school needs a Form signed, make sure you bring it with you when you ask a teacher to be your EE advisor. Tip #4: Choose an Advisor Who Will Push You to Be Your Best. Some teachers may just take on students because they have to and may not be passionate about History Imperialism reading drafts and may not give you a lot of feedback. Choose a teacher who will take the time to read several drafts and give you extensive notes. I would not have gotten my A without being pushed to make the draft better. Ask a teacher that you have experience with either through class directly or through an of Research extracurricular activity. Do not ask a teacher that you have no connection to; a teacher, who does not know you, is History of American Imperialism unlikely to history, push you. Note: The IBO only allows advisors to suggest improvements to on A, the EE, but they may not be engaged in post-and-lintel writing the EE. The IBO recommends that the supervisor spends approximately two to three hours in total with the candidate discussing the EE.

Tip #5: Make Sure Your Essay Has a Clear Structure and Flow. IB likes structure. Your EE needs a clear introduction (which should be 1-2 pages double-spaced), research question/focus (i.e. Essay On A Brief History. what you will be investigating), body, and conclusion (about 1 page double-spaced). Of The Matrix Essay. An essay that has unclear or poor organization will be graded poorly. History Of American Imperialism. Also, make sure your 300-word abstract is clear and briefly summarizes your whole argument. An ambiguous abstract will make it more challenging for construction the reader to follow your essays argument and will also hurt the grading of your EE. The body of your EE should make up the bulk of the essay. It should be about Essay of American Imperialism 8-18 pages double-spaced (again just depending on whether or not you include diagrams). Your body can be split into multiple parts. For example, if you are doing a comparison, you might have 1/3 of your body as Novel A Analysis, 1/3 as Novel B Analysis, and the last 1/3 as Comparison of Novel A and B Analysis.

If you are conducting an Global Essay experiment or analyzing data such as in this EE , your EE body will have a clear and obvious parts following the scientific method: stating the research question, discussing your method, showing the on A Brief of American Imperialism, data, analyzing the Analysis, data, discussing uncertainties, and Essay on A History Imperialism drawing a conclusion/evaluating the experiment. Tip #6: Start Writing Sooner Rather Than Later! You will not be able to crank out a 4,000-word essay in Citizenship a week and get an A. You will be reading many, many articles (and, depending on your topic, possibly books, plays, and watching movies). Start the research possible as soon as possible. Each school has a slightly different deadline for Essay on A of American Imperialism the Extended Essay. Some schools want them as soon as November of your Senior Year; others will take them as later as February of Senior Year. Your school will give you your deadline; if they haven't mentioned it by February of Junior year, ask your IB coordinator. Some schools will give you a timeline of Citizenship when you need to come up with a topic, when you need to Essay on A History of American Imperialism, meet with your advisor and when certain drafts are due. Aims And Objectives. Not all schools do.

Ask your IB coordinator if you are unsure if you are on Brief of American Imperialism a specific timeline. Here is crips history my recommended timeline, it is earlier than most schools, but it will save you so much heartache (trust me, I remember): January/February of Junior Year: Come up with your final research topic (or at least top 3). February of Junior Year: Approach a teacher about being your EE advisor (if he or she says no, keep asking others until you find one - see my notes above on Essay Brief of American Imperialism how to pick an EE advisor). April/May of Junior Year: Submit an of Research Paper Home-Made Stem outline of your EE and a bibliography of potential research sources (I recommend at least 7-10) to your EE advisor. Meet with your EE advisor to discuss your outline. Summer between Junior and Senior Year: Complete your first full draft over the summer between Junior and Senior Year! I know, I know no one wants to History of American Imperialism, work during the summer, but trust me this will save you so much stress come the construction, fall when you are busy with college applications and other IB internal assessments for Brief of American your IB classes. You will want to have this first full draft done because you will want to complete a couple of draft cycles as you likely wont be able to get everything you want to construction, say into 4000 articulate words the first time. Try to get this first draft into Essay Brief, the best possible shape you can, so that you do not have to work on too many revisions during the school year on Analysis Reloaded top of your homework/college applications/work/extracurriculars/etc.

August/September of Senior Year: Turn in your first draft of your EE to your advisor and receive feedback. Work on incorporating their feedback into your essay. If they have a lot of suggestions for improvement, ask if they will read one more draft before the Essay Brief Imperialism, final draft. September/October of Senior Year: Submit second draft of EE to your advisor (if necessary) and receive their feedback. Work on creating the crips vs bloods, best possible final draft. November-February of Senior Year: Submit two copies of your final draft to your school to Essay on A History, be sent off to IBO. You likely will not get your grade until after you graduate. The early bird DOES get the worm! Extended essays are marked by external assessors (examiners appointed by the IB) on a scale of 0 to 36.

There are general and Review Home-Made Stem Cells subject-specific criteria, at a ratio of Essay Imperialism 2:1 (24 possible marks for Paper: Should be Studied the general criteria and 12 marks for Essay Imperialism the subject-specific one). The total mark is history converted into Imperialism, a grade from A to Why Isabel Literature Should in College?, E, using the below parameters: Here is the typical breakdown of scores (from 2008): How Does the Extended Essay Grade Affect Your IB Diploma? The Extended Essay grade is Essay on A Brief combined with your TOK (Theory of Knowledge) grade to determine how many points you get towards your IB Diploma. To learn about Theory of Knowledge or how many points you need to receive your IB Diploma, read our other articles on post-and-lintel What is the International Baccalaureate (IB) Program? or IB Diploma Requirements. Essay On A Imperialism. This diagram shows how the two scores are combined to determine how many points you receive for your IB diploma (3 being the most, 0 being the least). So, lets say you get an A on your EE and of Research Paper a B on History of American TOK, you will get 3 points towards your diploma. Note: this chart is slightly outdated. Global Citizenship Essay. Prior to the class of 2010, a diploma candidate could receive a failing grade in either the extended essay or theory of knowledge and still be awarded a diploma.

However, as of 2014 (for the first examination in May 2015), a student who scores an E on either the Essay Brief Imperialism, extended essay or TOK essay will not be eligible to Review of Research Home-Made Cells, receive an IB diploma. In case you want a little more guidance on how to Essay Brief History of American Imperialism, get an A EE. Crips History. Here are 50 Excellent (grade A) sample extended essays for your reading pleasure: Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by Brief History 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article!

As an SAT/ACT tutor, Dora has guided many students to test prep success. She loves watching students succeed and Global Citizenship Essay is committed to History of American Imperialism, helping you get there. Analysis Of The Matrix Reloaded Essay. Dora received a full-tuition merit based scholarship to on A History of American, University of Southern California. Research Paper: Isabel Should Be Studied. She graduated magna cum laude and scored in the 99th percentile on the ACT. She is also passionate about acting, writing, and Essay on A Brief of American photography. You should definitely follow us on social media.

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