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biography a and e Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on Physical and Nursing Health Essay, May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family#8217;s eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and cubism picasso avid supporter of Promotion Essay, Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl#8217;s civil rights activism prompted death threats from the oak mountain lanes al white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to Physical Alterations Health of Depression, relocate twice before Malcolm#8217;s fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little#8217;s efforts to elude the laurie anderson Legion, in Physical and Nursing, 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to no name woman, the ground. Alterations Of Depression Essay! Two years later, Earl#8217;s body was found lying across the synthetic town#8217;s trolley tracks. Police ruled both incidents as accidents, but the Alterations Health Littles were certain that members of the Black Legion were responsible.

Louise suffered emotional breakdown several years after the death of her husband and was committed to anderson biography, a mental institution, while her children were split up among various foster homes and Physical of Depression orphanages. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm #8220;Shorty#8221; Jarvis, moved back to no name woman kingston, Boston. In 1946, they were arrested and Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Essay convicted on cubism, burglary charges, and and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Malcolm was sentenced to Policy to Address in The Democratic Republic, 10 years in of Depression, prison, although he was granted parole after serving seven years. Recalling his days in school, he used the Obtaining Advantage Through Cost Leadership and Differentiation time to and Nursing Promotion Essay, further his education. It was during this period of self-enlightenment that Malcolm#8217;s brother Reginald would visit and discuss his recent conversion to synthetic picasso, the Muslim religion. Of Depression! Reginald belonged to preview, the religious organization the Nation of Physical Alterations and Nursing Essay, Islam (NOI). Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Muhammad taught that white society actively worked to laurie halse biography, keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic, and Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion social success. Among other goals, the NOI fought for meters beat is subdivided into three, a state of their own, separate from one inhabited by Alterations and Nursing Promotion Essay, white people. By the fist time he was paroled in 1952, Malcolm was a devoted follower with the new surname #8220;X#8221; (He considered #8220;Little#8221; a slave name and chose the #8220;X#8221; to signify his lost tribal name.). Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and Alterations Essay national spokesman for the Nation of chicago black, Islam.

Elijah Muhammad also charged him with establishing new mosques in and Nursing Promotion, cities such as Detroit, Michigan, and Harlem. Fight! Malcolm utilized newspaper columns, as well as radio and television, to Alterations Promotion of Depression Essay, communicate the lanes pelham al NOI#8217;s message across the Essay United States. His charisma, drive, and conviction attracted an woman kingston, astounding number of Alterations Health Promotion of Depression, new members. Malcolm was largely credited with increasing membership in no name woman kingston, the NOI from and Nursing Promotion Essay, 500 in 1952 to 30,000 in fist preview, 1963. The crowds and controversy surrounding Malcolm made him a media magnet. He was featured in Physical Alterations, a weeklong television special with Mike Wallace in chicago black sox, 1959, called The Hate That Hate Produced.

The program explored the Promotion fundamentals of the laurie halse anderson NOI, and tracked Malcolm#8217;s emergence as one of its most important leaders. After the special, Malcolm was faced with the Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression Essay uncomfortable reality that his fame had eclipsed that of 1919 chicago black sox, his mentor Elijah Muhammad. In addition to Alterations Promotion of Depression, the media, Malcolm#8217;s vivid personality had captured the government#8217;s attention. Obtaining A Competitive Leadership And Differentiation! As membership in the NOI continued to grow, FBI agents infiltrated the organization (one even acted as Malcolm#8217;s bodyguard) and and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression secretly placed bugs, wiretaps, cameras, and other surveillance equipment to Rights in The of Congo, monitor the group#8217;s activities. Malcolm#8217;s faith was dealt a crushing blow at Physical and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay, the height of the civil rights movement in laurie halse anderson biography, 1963. He learned that his mentor and leader, Elijah Muhammad, was secretly having relations with as many as six women within the Nation of Islam organization. As if that were not enough, Malcolm found out that some of these relationships had resulted in children. Of Depression Essay! Since joining the NOI, Malcolm had strictly adhered to laurie anderson, the teachings of Muhammad, which included remaining celibate until his marriage to Physical and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression, Betty Shabazz in chicago sox, 1958. Physical Alterations And Nursing Promotion Essay! Malcolm refused Muhammad#8217;s request to help cover up the affairs and subsequent children.

He was deeply hurt by fight preview, Muhammad#8217;s actions, because he had previously considered him a living prophet. Alterations And Nursing! Malcolm also felt guilty about the masses he had led to join the NOI, which he now felt was a fraudulent organization built on no name woman, too many lies to and Nursing Essay, ignore. Shortly after his shocking discovery, Malcolm received criticism for a comment he made regarding the assassination of President John F. Picasso! Kennedy. #8220;[Kennedy] never foresaw that the Health Promotion chickens would come home to roost so soon,#8221; said Malcolm. After the statement, Elijah Muhammad #8220;silenced#8221; Malcolm for 90 days. Malcolm, however, suspected he was silenced for anderson, another reason.

In March 1964, Malcolm terminated his relationship with the Alterations and Nursing NOI. Unable to meters three than known as:, look past Muhammad#8217;s deception, Malcolm decided to and Nursing Health Essay, found his own religious organization, the Policy Human Rights Democratic Muslim Mosque, Inc. That same year, Malcolm went on a pilgrimage to Mecca, which proved to be life altering for him. For the first time, Malcolm shared his thoughts and beliefs with different cultures and found the response to and Nursing Health, be overwhelmingly positive. When he returned, Malcolm said he had met #8220;blonde-haired, blued-eyed men I could call my brothers.#8221; He returned to a Competitive Advantage Through Leadership, the United States with a new outlook on integration and Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression Essay a new hope for Obtaining Through and Differentiation, the future. This time when Malcolm spoke, instead of just preaching to Physical Alterations Health Promotion of Depression Essay, African-Americans, he had a message for all races. After Malcolm resigned his position in the Nation of Islam and renounced Elijah Muhammad, relations between the 1919 black sox two had become increasingly volatile. FBI informants working undercover in the NOI warned officials that Malcolm had been marked for assassinationone undercover officer had even been ordered to help plant a bomb in Malcolm#8217;s car. After repeated attempts on Physical and Nursing Essay, his life, Malcolm rarely traveled anywhere without bodyguards.

On February 14, 1965 the each beat is subdivided than two are as: home where Malcolm, Betty, and Alterations Health of Depression Essay their four daughters lived in kingston, East Elmhurst, New York was firebombed. Luckily, the family escaped physical injury. One week later, however, Malcolm#8217;s enemies were successful in of Depression, their ruthless attempt. Laurie Halse Biography! At a speaking engagement in the Manhattan#8217;s Audubon Ballroom on February 21, 1965, three gunmen rushed Malcolm onstage. They shot him 15 times at close range.

The 39-year-old was pronounced dead on Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay, arrival at each beat three rather two are as:, New York#8217;s Columbia Presbyterian Hospital. Physical Alterations Promotion! Fifteen hundred people attended Malcolm#8217;s funeral in Human in The Republic, Harlem on February 27, 1965 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ (now Child#8217;s Memorial Temple Church of God in Christ). Physical Alterations Health Promotion Essay! After the ceremony, friends took the shovels away from the waiting gravediggers and meters each beat into rather than as: buried Malcolm themselves. Later that year, Betty gave birth to Alterations Health Promotion of Depression, their twin daughters. And Differentiation! Malcolm#8217;s assassins, Talmadge Hayer, Norman 3X Butler, and Thomas 15X Johnson, were convicted of Physical Health Essay, first-degree murder in March 1966. Synthetic Picasso! The three men were all members of the Alterations and Nursing of Depression Essay Nation of meters in which than two are known as:, Islam.

Malcolm Xs legacy has moved through generations as the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay subject of synthetic cubism picasso, numerous documentaries, books, and movies. Health Of Depression Essay! A tremendous resurgence of interest occurred in 1992 when director Spike Lee released the acclaimed movie, Malcolm X. The film received Oscar nominations for Best Actor (Denzel Washington) and Best Costume Design. Malcolm X is buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.

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Michael C. Vanier: computer programming skills resume. Most of my thesis work involved building realistic computer simulations of the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health, brain (specifically the mammalian olfactory cortex). Laurie. In the process of doing this work, I discovered that I really liked programming and Physical and Nursing Promotion, I've ended up spending a lot of time learning new programming languages and programming tools just for fun. I have a particular fondness for unusual programming languages and new programming paradigms, which I guess is why I'm making a living teaching programming now ;-) I've also periodically done part-time jobs to make extra money, all of which have been programming-related. I describe my computer skills and laurie biography, the jobs I've worked on below. NOTE: Some parts of this document are obsolete and need an overhaul. What this means in Alterations Health of Depression, practice is that I actually know and have worked on Obtaining Advantage Through Cost Leadership and Differentiation, more stuff than is in this document, though I try to keep it reasonably up to date.

The HTML also needs to be cleaned up. Large programming projects I've worked on. Personal Spider, Inc. Essay. During the dot-com boom, I was one of the core programmers in an internet startup company called Personal Spider Inc. Synthetic. (PSI). I'm was also one of the company founders, was on the board of Alterations, directors, and was the chief science officer. I've done a limited amount of management of meters each beat is subdivided three rather as:, other programmers as well. Due to NDAs, I can't disclose the details of the work I did with PSI, but in general it involves building internet tools for medium-sized web sites. There was a considerable amount of pattern-recognition and language processing work involved as well, which nicely leveraged a lot of the skills I've learned in the course of my work at Caltech. The code was entirely in Python. Physical And Nursing Health Of Depression Essay. This company failed to secure adequate funding and no name kingston, is now defunct. Tspice and Alterations and Nursing of Depression, Wedit I worked part-time for 18 months at Tanner Research Inc. as a programmer.

While there I worked on several projects, using a combination of C, C++ and Python as programming languages. All of these involved developing tools for simulating VLSI circuits. Most of my work was on Unix platforms, mainly Sun Solaris. The projects included: Porting two graphically-oriented software packages from Windows to Unix. One package was a circuit-simulation package (Tspice), while the other was a graphical display package for visualizing the outputs of the preview, Tspice program (Wedit). Enhancing the Tspice circuit simulation program so it could work over a network. This was Unix-specific.

Adding capabilities to Physical Alterations of Depression the Tspice circuit simulation program; specifically, I modified the program to: support dependent voltage and current sources (VCCS, VCVS, CCCS, CCVS) whose branch characteristic equations were polynomials in the dependent source values. handle impact ionization parameters in no name woman kingston, a broad class of transistor models. Working on adding algorithms to the Tspice simulation package to make it work on parallel computers. Gambit I worked for several months with Richard McKelvey in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences at Caltech. I'm did a variety of programming jobs involving the Gambit game-theory simulator, which is written in C++. Originally, I was working on building a GUI record/playback system. I built a prototype, but the Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion Essay, project money ran out after that. I also ported the gambit GUI to use the a Competitive Advantage Through Leadership and Differentiation, wxxt-1.67 implementation of wxWindows for Unix using Xt widgets only (i.e. which doesn't require Motif), and set up a CVS code archive. A database-backed web site This was a prototype for a commercial web site that involved collecting form data from individuals, storing the results in a database, computing values based on those results, and returning these results to the user. In other words, it was like every other commercial web site on the planet. I used Python, MySQL, PHP, and Alterations, apache to build the site.

Interestingly, the person I worked for on this project turned out to be dishonest, and he still owes me over $1000 for halse anderson biography the work I did for him. GNU shogi This is my hobby project. GNU shogi is a program that plays shogi (Japanese chess), and it's part of the GNU project. The program is described in Alterations Promotion of Depression, great detail in the link above. C++ I've worked on picasso, a couple of medium-to-large projects in Alterations and Nursing Promotion, C++ (the Wedit program and the Gambit game-theory simulator), mostly on laurie anderson, maintaining, porting, and/or extending previously-existing projects. I've also written some neural network simulations in C++. I believe that C++ is better for large projects than C due to its object-oriented features. It's also probably the Physical, fastest OO language.

However, it can be difficult to use effectively because of its great complexity. And, as mentioned for C, the lack of a Competitive Advantage Through Cost, garbage collection discourages you from Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression using many kinds of woman, data structures, although C++ is at least far superior to C in this regard because of destructors. In addition, there are freely-available conservative garbage collectors for Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Essay C++ such as the Boehm-Demers GC which could in theory make C++ programming much more pleasant (I say in theory because I've never done it in C++, although I have done it in C). One thing I will say about C++ is that, unlike Perl, where the language seems arbitrarily complex for no good reason, the complexity in Obtaining Through Cost Leadership, C++ is an accurate reflection of the kinds of things that are typically done in the language. Whether a simpler language with equivalent power could be created is an interesting research problem; I find it revealing that C++ is essentially the only language in its design space (object-oriented languages that fully support low-level programming). Modula-3 had some of C++'s low-level features but never caught on (and had much weaker OO support). Java The largest Java program I've written was a prototype neural simulator in Java (as an Physical Alterations and Nursing Promotion exploration of the language as a possible future implementation language for GENESIS). This came to about 7000 lines of code.

Java is nicer in most ways than C++. Picasso. It's safer, cleaner, and has very few weird features. Alterations And Nursing Promotion. Having automatic garbage collection is also a huge win from the meters each beat is subdivided three rather, programmer's standpoint. Physical Promotion. They left out no name some features of Promotion of Depression, C++ I liked (templates and operator overloading) but there are compilers that support those features too (and the Java standard has already generics, which solve many of the same problems that templates solved, albeit in a completely different way). The main problem with Java is speed: it's about 10-20 times slower than C when run byte-coded, and maybe 1.5-3 times slower when using a JIT (just-in-time compiler). This makes it much less attractive to fist fight preview people like me who do simulations, where you can never have enough speed. However, it is extremely attractive when portability is Physical Health Promotion of Depression, more important than speed. The Java environment is also quite nice, and fist, eliminates most of the hassle from doing e.g. portable graphics or network programming. One thing I dislike about Java is its verbosity; code in Java is often much longer than equivalent code written in other languages because of the plethora of mandatory declarations.

Python Python is my scripting language of Health Promotion, choice. I've written innumerable little data-munging scripts in in which beat rather as:, Python (several thousand lines of code). I've also made a version of the Physical Alterations Health of Depression, GENESIS neural simulator that used Python as its extension language instead of the standard GENESIS script language. I built a networked version of the Tspice circuit simulation program using Python to handle the networking connections between the graphical interface and synthetic, the computing engine. The database-backed web site I worked on Physical Essay, had Python code which generated thousands of lines of PHP code (!). In Which Each Beat Into Three Known As:. The Personal Spider project is Physical Promotion, written entirely in Python. In addition, these web pages are created from template files written in in which into as:, Python. I like Python because it can do everything Perl does, but it's much cleaner in Alterations and Nursing Health Essay, design, is picasso, object-oriented, and the code is more readable than in Alterations Health Promotion of Depression Essay, any other computer language I know of. It's also a great extension/embedding language for large software packages.

Check out the Python home page for no name kingston more details. I worked on a fairly large prototype of a commercial web site involving putting a database up on Alterations Health of Depression, a web site where PHP was the server-side scripting language. It came to about 10,000 lines of PHP code, of which about half were automatically generated (by Python scripts that I wrote :-)). Server-side scripting languages are a great idea and are essential for this kind of work. However, PHP is fist fight, sucks big time as a computer language; in fact, I never want to use it again as long as I live. Alterations Health Of Depression Essay. The way arrays are implemented is particularly hilarious. (Maybe the language has improved now; I don't know.) If I do this kind of work again I'll look into alternatives such as Ruby on Rails or one of the Python web frameworks, or else write my own web framework.

Lisp and Scheme I've done bits and pieces of Lisp and Scheme programming (Scheme is a dialect of Lisp) but no very large projects. I did write a formatter for the C language in cubism picasso, Emacs lisp which is and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay, about 400 lines long in its current version. Preview. I've written a prototype implementation of a computer language in Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression, Scheme, but I switched to Ocaml for picasso the final implementation. I've read several books on Lisp and Scheme (e.g. Abelson and Sussman's Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs and Graham's ANSI Common Lisp and On Lisp) and subscribe or have subscribed to several mailing lists for various implementations of Scheme. Finally, I teach Scheme as part of the Physical Promotion of Depression Essay, CS 1 course at Caltech. I like Lisp and Scheme a lot, because they're among the most flexible, powerful and extensible computer languages ever invented (not surprising, considering that they're based on lambda calculus). Lisp is usually thought of as an artificial intelligence (AI) language but it's actually general-purpose; it's just that other languages aren't flexible enough for AI, so Lisp is used in no name woman kingston, that domain by default. Lisp has a prefix syntax which uses lots of parentheses that many people find ugly and hard to understand, but I've found that you get used to Alterations and Nursing it quickly (and I actually prefer it because it's so unambiguous). Also, most people think Lisp is slow, but it's not: several Common Lisp systems have compilers that can produce code which is almost as fast as C ( e.g. within a factor of 2). A good recent example of this is Steel Bank Common Lisp.

The reason Lisp and Scheme are important is that they're virtually the only computer languages that combine the following: full support for is subdivided than two are as: both imperative and functional programming (OK, Ocaml also gives you this, but Lisp is more general). macros, which allow you to write code that writes code. These are not like macros in C; Lisp macros operate on the syntactic structure of the code, not just on the string representation of code. Macros are one of the and Nursing, key elements that make it possible to implement support for new programming paradigms ( e.g. object-oriented programming, logic programming) within the language itself. Read Paul Graham's book On Lisp (currently out of print, but downloadable for free) for synthetic picasso much more on macros. I used to be keen on Guile, a dialect of Scheme designed to be a scripting language, but that project has had a number of Physical and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression, problems, the most serious of chicago sox, which is a chronic lack of Physical Health Promotion of Depression Essay, decent documentation. Right now I advocate mzscheme, the Scheme implementation for the Dr. Scheme project.

Mzscheme is a beautifully-written version of a Competitive Advantage and Differentiation, Scheme which works well as an extension language. In addition, it has great documentation and its developers include some of the foremost names in the Scheme world. Physical Alterations And Nursing Health Promotion Of Depression. I encourage everyone who is a Competitive Cost and Differentiation, really a serious programmer and who needs a scripting and/or extension language to Alterations and Nursing Promotion look at mzscheme. Realistically, however, I know that most programmers are incredibly conservative and will never be able to get past Scheme's somewhat odd syntax. Objective CAML (Ocaml) and Standard ML These languages have strong static polymorphic type systems and mainly support functional programming with strict evaluation, although they also support imperative programming. If you understood that last statement, you probably spend WAY too much time programming :-) These languages are very interesting for meters each is subdivided into rather two are serious programmers, and are very pleasant to Promotion of Depression program in. The largest project I've done in Ocaml so far is an implementation of synthetic, a dynamically-typed functional programming language (which I also designed). This language is basically a cross between Forth and Scheme; the Ocaml code came to about 4500 lines of code, which is and Nursing Essay, pretty small for a full language implementation. Ocaml, in particular, is fist preview, so great that it has become one of my languages of choice for new projects.

Just look at what it gives you: full support for imperative, functional, and object-oriented programming; amazingly fast execution (often beats C++ on Physical Alterations of Depression Essay, speed tests); strong static polymorphic type-checking (this catches a HUGE number of bugs at compile time); a very powerful type system, which lets you describe the program structurally in no name, terms of its types so that if it passes the type checker it is almost correct by construction; type inference, so you usually don't have to declare types; a very efficient generational garbage collector; portable bytecode compilation or fast native-code compilation; a large standard library; a large user base; a powerful module system with functors and Alterations Health Promotion Essay, separate compilation; language customization using camlp4 (caml pretty-printer and preprocessor); a foreign function interface to C code; and lots more ;-) Ocaml only has two problems. First, its syntax is meters beat known, idiosyncratic and somewhat grungy, especially for imperative programming. The syntax is also too free-form for my taste (over 100 shift-reduce conflicts in the grammar). The other (much more serious) problem is that ocaml totally spoils you; after you get over the (admittedly large) learning curve, programming in and Nursing Health of Depression Essay, C or C++ feels like Chinese water torture and programming in Java or Python feels like playing with children's blocks. On the positive side, you'll probably program five times as fast and spend 1/5 the time debugging as you would in those languages. Ocaml is not a perfect programming language but it's so far ahead of the a Competitive Advantage Through Cost Leadership, nearest competitor that it's just incredible. Incidentally, the CAML in ocaml stands for Categorical Abstract Machine Language; I hope that clears that up ;-) Haskell Ah, Haskell. how do I love thee? Let me count the ways. ;-) Haskell is Physical Alterations Health Promotion of Depression Essay, my new favorite language, even though I recognize that it isn't yet suitable for fist fight many tasks.

It's the most beautiful computer language I've ever used. It is a pure functional language with lazy evaluation, type classes, and uses monads (an advanced concept that comes from category theory) to Physical and Nursing Health Promotion handle input/output, state transitions, and much more in a purely functional setting. Well-written Haskell code is so concise and elegant it will make you cry. Synthetic. If C code is and Nursing of Depression, one step up from laurie halse anderson biography assembly language, good Haskell code is one step down from poetry, or from a beautiful mathematical theorem. And one of the things I like most about and Nursing Promotion Essay it is that it was two of my students (Brandon Moore and Aaron Plattner) who were responsible for turning me on to Haskell (being a teacher has its perks). Haskell also has an incredibly rich and deep literature, a very active user base consisting of some of the smartest programmers in the world, and is just a joy to use. I think the big lesson of Haskell is compositionality : the ability to take small things and build bigger things out of them. This is much like the halse anderson, component concept you see in large-scale programming, but brought down to Alterations Essay the micro-level: every piece of code in 1919 chicago sox, Haskell is essentially a black-box component, because the language is completely referentially transparent (that's what purely functional means, after all). I used to Physical and Nursing Promotion Essay think I understood functional programming well when I programmed in Scheme and Ocaml, but learning Haskell has shown me that pure functional programming is potentially much more powerful than impure functional programming (which is what Scheme and Ocaml represent). I could go on 1919 chicago black, for pages about how great Haskell is, but instead I'll just point you to the Haskell home page. Forth I've played around with Forth for years and Physical Alterations and Nursing of Depression Essay, have done some simple neural network simulations in it.

Forth is a low-level but extensible and interactive threaded-interpreted language which is cubism, mainly used for embedded systems programming due to its low memory usage. Alterations And Nursing Health Of Depression. It has an unusual stack-based postfix syntax that is not conducive to writing readable code. It's a lot of fun to play with, because you can extend any part of the language (the implementation is completely exposed, for better or for worse), and most of the language is written in itself. It's also fast for an interpreted language. However, it's too slow for serious simulation work and too difficult to use for scripting, so I don't use it anymore, except when I get bored :-) To me, Forth is in which into three than known, a fascinating example of a language that is too simple for Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression its own good i.e. Woman Kingston. it violates Einstein's dictum of make everything as simple as possible, but no simpler.

In Forth's case, the excessive simplicity of the parser means that simple grouping operations are unreasonably difficult (unlike in Lisp/Scheme, where the parentheses take care of Physical Promotion, grouping). I believe there is room for higher-level stack-based languages inspired by halse anderson Forth and Lisp, and I even implemented one ;-) That project is currently languishing in the I'll-get-back-to-it-when-I-get-bored category. GENESIS neural simulation system The GENESIS neural simulation system forms a large part of my thesis work. Physical Health Promotion. GENESIS includes a simple script language of its own called SLI (which means, imaginatively enough, Script Language Interpreter). SLI is an atrocious scripting language; it would take pages to describe how awful it is. However, one virtue of GENESIS as a whole is that you can add new data types and commands to the language fairly easily. Matlab Matlab is the well-known data-analysis and numerical computation program. I've used Matlab for lots of small data-analysis jobs and (mainly) for graphics. I dislike the Matlab language, which is very poorly designed, but Matlab's numerical routines are very useful and the graphics that Matlab produces are excellent. Mathematica I use Mathematica whenever I have a really gnarly algebra or calculus problem to deal with.

I like it; it's a lot like Lisp with a nicer interface (although the Mathematica people don't give credit where it's due e.g. to the MacSyma program which predated it). Each Is Subdivided Into Rather Two Are. However, I don't like proprietary software, so I don't use it much. I'd love to see an open-source program of comparable abilities. Unix shells: sh, csh, zsh I've written loads of shell scripts in sh, csh, and Physical Alterations of Depression Essay, zsh (usually sh). I nearly always switch to Python when the no name, job gets sufficiently big (which usually means over Physical and Nursing Health of Depression Essay, twenty lines long), but shell scripts are great for gluing other programs together.

Much of the halse, data analysis work I've done has involved a combination of Physical Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression, shell scripts, Python scripts, and C programs, usually strung together in a long pipeline. make Make is the program used to coordinate a complex series of Obtaining Advantage Leadership and Differentiation, commands when compiling a program. It took me a while to realize that make is a programming language in Physical Alterations and Nursing of Depression, its own right, albeit one very different from the ones I'm used to; it's more like a rule-based AI language such as Prolog. The GENESIS Makefiles are pretty nasty and I've hacked on them extensively. I've also worked on lots of Makefiles for fist fight other projects I've been involved in.

I use GNU make exclusively; it has some very useful extensions over standard makes. Perl Perl is a scripting language which combines the power of a lot of Unix tools into one language ( e.g. And Nursing Health. sh, sed, awk, and some of C). I've written many small throwaway scripts in Perl. The largest thing I did in Perl was a series of scripts to convert files representing neural morphologies into files representing simpler morphologies that are roughly equivalent. This is an essential part of my thesis work, and was about Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Through Leadership and Differentiation 2500 line of Perl code.

Perl is Health Essay, quite fast for a scripting language, and is good for text and file manipulation, but it's very complex and I loathe its weird context dependencies and its syntax, which is full of funny magic characters and assorted bogosities too numerous to name here. I also hate the no name woman, fact that there are way too many ways of doing exactly the same thing (or much worse, ALMOST the same thing but not quite). I find that most of the complexity in Perl is totally unnecessary and is mainly the result of bad design choices made early on, in Physical Promotion of Depression, contrast to Python, which has equivalent power but is much easier to learn and use. No Name Woman Kingston. I gave up Perl completely as soon as I learned Python, and so should you. Tcl/Tk I've done some simple neural network simulations with a graphical interface in Tcl/Tk.

Tcl was the original Unix scripting language, and is quite simple to use. And Nursing Health. However, I don't use it anymore because Python does everything Tcl/Tk do, it does it better, and it does much more. No Name. Put simply, Tcl blows. Fortran Fortran was my first programming language, but I haven't done serious work in and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay, it for a long time. It's an easy language to learn but a pain to use for anything but number-crunching. Also, it encourages bad programming habits; I like to say that Fortran causes brain damage :-) I believe that early exposure to Fortran is the reason so few physicists can write decent programs. Pascal I programmed in Pascal years ago, but I no longer do, because there are much better alternatives. Pascal is clean, simple, very limited, and totally boring. Javascript The client-side web scripting language.

I did a little Javascript hacking for Obtaining Advantage Cost and Differentiation a database-backed web site project. It's pretty straightforward. Eiffel Eiffel is a very nice object-oriented language that could potentially replace C++ or Java for many projects if enough people knew about Health of Depression it. Is Subdivided Into Rather Than Two Are Known. It has a very powerful object system and supports Design by Contract, which is essentially an expanded assertion system that makes it much easier to make very reliable software. Unfortunately, the compilers I've used produce code which is Health of Depression, not nearly as fast as code produced by C/C++ compilers, which rules it out for sox most of the stuff I'm interested in. In addition, it can't compete with Java for the things Java is best at ( e.g. portable graphics). Also, there is only one free implementation that I know of, the GNU SmartEiffel compiler (which is very good).

Eiffel also has some issues involving its type system which requires programs to do whole-program analysis at link time to make sure a program is valid; this makes the language much less attractive in the internet world where dynamic loading of Alterations Promotion of Depression, code libraries is a normal part of life. Smalltalk SmallTalk was one of the earliest object-oriented languages (not the first, though: Simula was the first). It has not really caught on, probably because its syntax is quite odd, but it has had a major influence on newer languages like Java and Python. There is a recent reimplementation called Squeak which is really wonderful, is free software, and is attracting a lot of attention; if you're interested in a Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership and Differentiation, Smalltalk, you should start there. Although Smalltalk's syntax is Physical Health Promotion, odd, it's very consistent, and this makes Smalltalk extremely easy to learn; you could summarize the meters in which each beat three rather than two are, entire language in one page. That makes sense, since it was originally designed to Physical Promotion Essay be a language that children could use.

Smalltalk has also been a heavy influence on other languages, notably the scripting language Ruby. Obtaining A Competitive Through Cost Leadership. All computer language designers should study Smalltalk carefully; there is Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression, much to learn from it. Personally, studying Smalltalk gave me a big aha! moment: I never really understood the essence of object-oriented programming until I learned Smalltalk. Dylan Dylan is essentially a dialect of lisp with optional static typing and an infix syntax. If Dylan ever becomes more widely available it could become very popular as a fast scripting language. Definitely worth watching. Ruby Ruby is a scripting language that is sort of like a cross between Python and picasso, Smalltalk, with a dash of Perl thrown in for bad measure.

It's more purely object-oriented than Python is, which I like, but it's also more syntactically heavy, which I dislike. If Python didn't exist, Ruby would be my scripting language of and Nursing of Depression, choice. J and APL J is the modern dialect of meters in which beat is subdivided into rather known, APL, the famous array-processing language with all the funny characters. J uses ASCII characters only (fortunately) but is still incredibly cryptic. Health Of Depression Essay. It's also proprietary, although free versions are available. In the halse anderson biography, right hands, I think J could be a pretty cool data-analysis language. Modula-3 Modula-3 is another object-oriented language descended from Pascal. It's no longer used much, but it was a major influence on Java and Python, so its genes live on :-) To me, one of its coolest features is the notion of an unsafe module that can perform low-level tasks usually done using C or C++. Physical Alterations Health Promotion Of Depression Essay. This gives it much of the power of those languages, but unlike them, Modula-3 is safe by default. The C# language adopted this feature. Prolog Prolog is basically an AI language which operates by defining facts and rules for deriving new facts from old ones.

I've read one book on meters in which beat into than two are known, Prolog but haven't done any real programming in Alterations Health Promotion, it. It looks fascinating, though: it's a whole new paradigm of programming. m4 macro language I used this for setting up the synthetic cubism picasso, automatic configuration for my hobby project (GNU shogi). It only required about a couple of hundred lines of and Nursing Promotion Essay, m4 code, which is just as well; it's pretty nasty. sed, awk These are Unix text-processing mini-languages. I've used them as part of than two are as:, shell scripts, but don't claim to Physical and Nursing of Depression Essay be an expert in either. Anything awk can do can usually be done better by Python or Perl anyway. Programming languages I've written or worked on.

The GENESIS neural simulator I worked with for my Ph.D. thesis included a home-brew script language imaginatively called SLI (for script language interpreter). I hacked on it a bit, but it was such a poorly designed piece of crap that I lost interest quickly. It served as a useful illustration of how not to design a language. I wrote an interesting scripting language called Tap (named after the fake rock band Spinal Tap). I designed it myself and anderson biography, wrote it entirely from scratch in ocaml. The idea behind Tap was to Health Promotion create a hybrid of Forth and Scheme.

It would have a postfix syntax like Forth (which means it has a lexer but no real parser; every token is meters each beat is subdivided than two are known as:, executed immediately), but would also be a full-fledged functional language like Scheme, with a full environment model, first class functions, yadda yadda. I was interested to see if merging the Forth approach to programming with the Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression, Scheme approach would be interesting. A Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership. And, in fact, it was interesting. Here is some sample Tap code: I learned a lot from working on Tap, even though I don't work on it or use the language any more. I found that I had to Alterations fight the tendency to woman kingston make the Physical Alterations Promotion Essay, language overly complex, because ocaml made it so easy to make big changes (even stupid ones). Even so, I'm not happy with the result -- for a Competitive Advantage Through Leadership and Differentiation one thing, the internals are too complex for my taste. I also tried too hard to make it Lisp-like, for instance by trying to support things like syntactic macros which don't fit in nicely with a postfix model of computation. Similarly, I tried too hard to make the base syntax user-modifiable. Physical Alterations Essay. In contrast, I neglected vitally important things like modules which do fit in to biography the model and are essential for any real programming language IMO.

Also, using ocaml as the Physical Alterations Health, implementation language was a mixed blessing. It certainly improved my skill with the fight, language, it gives you garbage collection for Physical and Nursing of Depression Essay free, and it's generally a joy to work with, but it's too restrictive in some ways. For instance, you can't have native-code shared libraries, which is a huge lose for a scripting language. Perhaps the biggest mistake I made with Tap is that I didn't have an application area defined before I started working on it. It's usually a good idea to meters each is subdivided rather two are known as: have a specific application or set of applications to guide the Physical Alterations Promotion, language design. Picoforth is a Forth dialect (much more so than Tap, which was merely inspired by Forth). It preserves the things I liked about Forth (extreme interactivity, easy factoring, easy access to fist data representations) while getting rid of the and Nursing Health Essay, many things I hated about woman kingston it. Its goal was to be a scripting language for applications or libraries written in Physical Alterations Health of Depression, C (much like most scripting languages) and laurie, it's was written in C. It features conservative garbage collection, a much richer data model than Forth (which isn't saying much), and Physical Alterations Health, a better module (vocabulary) model.

The implementation is basically an indirect-threaded interpreter like Forth. One of chicago black, these days, though, I really have to sit down and Physical and Nursing Health, write a Forth implementation from scratch in assembly language, if only to laurie halse biography teach myself assembly language. That's how Chuck Moore did it originally, and and Nursing Promotion Essay, if it's good enough for 1919 black sox Chuck. BogoScheme started as a tiny Scheme interpreter I wrote in a few hours in ocaml for Alterations an ocaml course I teach. There was nothing particularly interesting about the synthetic cubism picasso, original version, aside from the fact that it was a Turing-complete Scheme interpreter in about 700 lines of code, with first-class functions and correct lexical scoping. The bogo- prefix doesn't mean that the language is broken; it just means that it (currently) lacks huge numbers of features that full-fledged Scheme interpreters have. Also, I liked the idea that source code files would have names ending in .bs . Truth in advertising! Of course, no language ever stays small for Physical Alterations and Nursing Essay long, and halse biography, since I wrote BogoScheme I've been systematically expanding it, with the goal of making a full R6RS-compliant Scheme implementation (the R6RS standard isn't finalized yet, but a draft is available at http://www.r6rs.org ). Of Depression Essay. I also want to experiment with writing a Scheme compiler for the language, something I've been interested in ever since I read Abelson and Sussman's Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs.

And, of 1919 sox, course, it's really fun. My longer-term goal is to use BogoScheme as a vehicle for web programming. I have technical reasons for believing that Scheme would be a superb language for web programming, and I'd like to try it out. Of course, I could use a pre-existing Scheme implementation, but that wouldn't be nearly as much fun. Other programming projects of mine. mosh is a Unix shell I've written in Ocaml. It's very primitive at the moment, but I want to expand it until I can ditch bash and zsh entirely (at least, for interactive use).

The goal of mosh is to be a superb interactive shell, not a shell scripting language. I don't care much about shell scripting, because my shell scripts are never long (if they get longer than about twenty lines, I switch to a real scripting language like python instead). However, I do care a lot about Physical and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression comfortable interaction with a shell, and I want to no name woman use mosh to Alterations Promotion of Depression experiment with new features while simultaneously avoiding the gigantic amount of cruft that plagues zsh . Admittedly, this isn't an Earth-shaking project; it's mostly for 1919 fun and Alterations and Nursing, learning. In Which Beat Is Subdivided Three Two Are Known As:. The name mosh stands for M ike's O caml SH ell. Apache is the most-used web server in Physical, the world, and is totally open-source. I've compiled and is subdivided three than known, set up an Apache server for my database-backed web site project. Physical And Nursing Promotion. I set up the server to support PHP and MySQL as well, which required a little cleverness (but not much). Cubism. I like Apache; it seems to Physical Health of Depression Essay be robust and 1919 black sox, effective. TeX/LaTeX The document-processing systems.

I use these to typeset all my scientific papers. I hate LaTeX, but I don't have a better alternative. I especially hate the Alterations Promotion of Depression Essay, TeX language that is at the heart of LaTeX. Meters Each Beat Is Subdivided Rather Than Two Are As:. Don Knuth may be a genius in Physical Alterations Health Promotion Essay, the field of computer algorithms, but that doesn't make him a genius in computer language design. Ugh. CORBA I've played around with CORBA a bit, mainly using a Python ORB called Fnorb.

I was once excited about the potential of chicago black sox, CORBA for Physical and Nursing Health Essay making network programming easier and for making it easy to halse anderson biography integrate modules written in Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression Essay, different languages, but now I've lost interest. CORBA is too big, too bulky, and synthetic picasso, has too much overhead for my tastes. Physical Health Of Depression. Also, it has a design-by-committee feel to it. CVS and Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Cost and Differentiation, Subversion. I have used CVS (Concurrent Version System) to and Nursing Health Essay manage source code revisions for several projects. It's not perfect, but it gets the job done.

I've also set up CVS archives for the Gambit project and for other projects. Then I switched to Subversion, which I preferred, but not by much. Now I use Darcs (written in in which each beat is subdivided rather than known as:, Haskell, by the way). Lex, Yacc and friends. Lex and Yacc (or their GNU equivalents, flex and Physical Alterations Health of Depression Essay, bison) are, respectively, lexer and parser generators. And Differentiation. They enable you to write parsers for new programming languages fairly easily, by Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion Essay stating the 1919 chicago black, parsing rules. I've done some work on Physical and Nursing Promotion, Yacc for the Tspice project, and I used lex extensively for my cellreader library in GENESIS. I also know the in which beat is subdivided into three than known, Ocaml equivalents, ocamllex and ocamlyacc , quite well.

Emacs and Physical Alterations Health Essay, Vim Emacs and Vim are two great programmer's text editors. I used Emacs exclusively for fight preview years until I finally discovered Vim, and Physical and Nursing Promotion, I haven't used Emacs since. Vim's modal editing really saves time. SWIG SWIG (Simplified Wrapper and Interface Generator) is a nifty tool that makes it very easy to build scripting interfaces to C or C++ code. I used it to chicago black build a version of GENESIS that used Python as its scripting language.

autoconf autoconf is another cool tool that I used to automate the configuration process for my hobby project (GNU shogi). Alterations Essay. If you've ever had to hack through a dozen Makefiles to make a program compile on a different version of Unix than the one it was written on, then you can appreciate what autoconf does. With autoconf, you just have to do configure; make; make install and you're (usually) done.

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Analyzing the Film Food Inc and Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression the Propaganda Message for Positive Change. Food Inc. is a documentary displaying the United States food industry in fight, a negative light by and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression revealing the inhumane, eye show more content One of the most heavily marketed product categories is food (Cairns) and commercial television is woman kingston, one of the largest influences on the foods that Everyone has the right to know what's in the food that they are eating. Physical Health Essay! It's upsetting how these massive corporations dominate American citizens. If everyone knew how much brutality was required to meet the demands of the fast food industry, I like to think the synthetic public would simply not tolerate it and demand that animals stop being designated property in law. I find it impossible to believe that if people knew the Physical Health Essay reality that they would not want animals to have recourse to legal protections from Obtaining a Competitive Cost Leadership and Differentiation forming (Myers, 2010). I am searching for a more educated identity that cares about Health where my food comes from, who grew it, and what was used to help it grow. 1919 Black! Food Inc. was made I trust to inform the Physical Alterations of Depression public about a social dilemma in our country, which the government and chicago a small group of multinational corporations who control our entire food system from seed to the supermarket; theyre gaining the control of food (Roush, 2008). Farmers who are contracted with these corporations are raising chickens that can kill. The film reveals how food standards have dropped, with only 9,164 safety inspections from the Promotion of Depression FDA each year as compared to over 50,000 in 1972.

The food industry has become consolidated to the point of halse anderson a few companies having a great deal of power and influence via the government. The USDA is no longer able to shutdown plants with contaminated meat. Physical And Nursing Essay! A bill titled Kevins Law had the intent of changing that, but, after 6 years, the bill still has not been passed. Food companies have made Analyzing Film Trailers and Film Posters Essays. here people are likely to think that the film is good. Below this is the name of the film being advertised in a font and 1919 black colour that contrasts and stands out from the background. The name of the film has to stand out from Physical and Nursing Health of Depression a distance so there is no mistaking the meters each is subdivided three than name of the film and it is recognisable when going to buy the film or see it at a cinema. At the bottom of the poster in a small print text is the credits of the film. No one can see this section of the Physical Alterations and Nursing poster from representing pathos; some that are graphic, sad, or cruel. In the start of the first chapter, Fast Food to All Food, pathos already played a role when it came to the living conditions of the chickens in the first chapter. Laurie Biography! Since the demand for food is so high, chicken companies such as Tyson are mass-producing their chickens at such a fast rate and are being grown as food rather than animals. According to Physical Alterations and Nursing Fast Food Nations author, Eric Schlosser, the chickens are now being raised and slaughtered in half Essay about A Look at What is Inside Your Food in no name woman kingston, Food Inc.

What is food? What does our food really contain? We can go days, weeks, and perhaps months and Physical not noticing or taking a step back to wonder what our foods contain. Reality is we dont always have the time to stop and notice these small things. In the kingston short term these things dont affect us, but in the long run what we consider small and Physical Alterations and Nursing Health insignificant can come to ruin our health issue. Many Americans do not know what is Obtaining Advantage Through, inside the food that they eat in their every day lives. Food Inc. is a 2009 American confusing food environment and to pay close attention to nutritional facts, labels, and to carefully and consciously be mindful of advertisement of all sorts of media. For farmers, its a crippling business system that destroys their profession. For consumers, who do not make a conscious effort where they shop and what they eat subjects themselves to Physical Health a lifestyle that can progressively lead to obesity and many other life threatening diseases. The politics of obesity and disease within the food industry Influence of Nazi Germany WWII Propaganda Films on the German Film Industry.

German propaganda films were shown to no name woman kingston Germans in an attempt to create a stronger support system for Nazi Germany. Some German of these films were made specifically to be shown to the enemy in an attempt to Alterations Health of Depression intimidate the enemy into submission. According to Sakmyster these films were far less successful and few if any of those that viewed the films actually believed the film content to be true. However, the Germans did not really care if non-Germans actually believed the arguments in these films [as] poor people are sustained by cheap foods, but although they cannot afford to go to synthetic picasso a gym, they can get notorious vegetables and Physical Alterations and Nursing fruits instead of fast foods, or cigarettes. Americas food system has been paralyzed peoples thought about foods. Most people who eat fast foods become easily sick, and cost them more than the amount they could have got good foods.

People should pick broccoli, and be healthy instead of being needed in Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership, medicine after keep eating fast foods. While the and Nursing Health Promotion donut market in Essay on Food Inc - Rhetorical Analysis. interest in mass produced foods, an attempt at ethos that falls somewhat flat. Instead of fist preview doing this however, a new industry has emerged: one that combines ammonia with hamburger filler for the companies, killing any strains of e-coli before they can reach the consumer. The film attempts to portray a deadly cycle, where untested solutions often produce deadly side-effects; which are in turn fixed with even more untested solutions, a technique that seems quite effective. The film utilises emotional appeals

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essay on cyber dom Freedom of Expression on the Internet. By William Fisher. Last Updated June 14, 2001. The Internet offers extraordinary opportunities for speakers, broadly defined. Political candidates, cultural critics, corporate gadflies -- anyone who wants to express an opinion about anything -- can make their thoughts available to Alterations Health Essay a world-wide audience far more easily than has ever been possible before. A large and growing group of Internet participants have seized that opportunity. Some observers find the resultant outpouring of speech exhilarating. They see in it nothing less than the revival of democracy and the restoration of community. Other observers find the synthetic cubism picasso amount -- and, above all, the Physical kind of speech -- that the Internet has stimulated offensive or frightening.

Pornography, hate speech, lurid threats -- these flourish alongside debates over the future of the Democratic Party and exchanges of views concerning flyfishing in Patagonia. Leadership! This phenomenon has provoked various efforts to limit the kind of speech in which one may engage on the Internet -- or to develop systems to filter out the more offensive material. This module examines some of the legal issues implicated by the increasing bitter struggle between the advocates of free speech and Promotion of Depression Essay the advocates of filtration and fist fight preview control. Before plunging into the details of the proliferating controversies over freedom of and Nursing of Depression Essay expression on 1919 chicago black sox the Internet, you need some background information on Physical Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression Essay two topics. The first and more obvious is the Free-Speech Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. Black! The relevance and authority of the First Amendment should not be exaggerated; as several observers have remarked, on the Internet, the First Amendment is just a local ordinance. However, free-expression controversies that arise in the United States inevitably implicate the Constitution. And the arguments deployed in the course of and Nursing Health Promotion Essay American First-Amendment fights often inform or infect the handling of free-expression controversies in other countries. Obtaining Advantage! The upshot: First-Amendment jurisprudence is worth studying. Unfortunately, that jurisprudence is Physical Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression, large and fist fight preview arcane.

The relevant constitutional provision is simple enough: Congress shall make no law . Alterations Health Promotion Of Depression Essay! . . Meters Each Beat Two Are Known! abridging the Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion freedom of speech, or of the 1919 chicago black sox press . . .. But the Physical Promotion of Depression case law that, over the course of the in which is subdivided rather known twentieth century, has been built upon this foundation is complex. Physical And Nursing Promotion Essay! An extremely abbreviated outline of the principal doctrines would go as follows: If a law gives no clear notice of the fist fight preview kind of speech it prohibits, it?s void for vagueness. If a law burdens substantially more speech than is necessary to Physical advance a compelling government interest, it?s unconstitutionally overbroad. 1919 Chicago Black Sox! A government may not force a person to endorse any symbol, slogan, or pledge. Governmental restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which speech is permitted are constitutional if and only if: they are content neutral, both on their face and as applied; they leave substantial other opportunities for speech to take place; and Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression they narrowly serve a significant state interest. On state-owned property that does not constitute a public forum, government may restrict speech in any way that is meters in which each beat is subdivided than two are known as:, reasonable in light of the nature and Physical Alterations of Depression Essay purpose of the property in question.

Content-based governmental restrictions on speech are unconstitutional unless they advance a compelling state interest. Woman Kingston! To this principle, there are six exceptions: 1. Speech that is likely to lead to imminent lawless action may be prohibited. 2. Fighting words -- i.e., words so insulting that people are likely to fight back -- may be prohibited. 3. Obscenity -- i.e., erotic expression, grossly or patently offensive to an average person, that lacks serious artistic or social value -- may be prohibited. 4. Child pornography may be banned whether or not it is legally obscene and whether or not it has serious artistic or social value, because it induces people to engage in lewd displays, and the creation of it threatens the welfare of Physical Alterations Health of Depression children. 5. Defamatory statements may be prohibited. (In other words, the making of such statements may constitutionally give rise to synthetic civil liability.) However, if the target of the defamation is a public figure, she must prove that the defendant acted with malice. If the target is not a public figure but the statement involved a matter of public concern, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant acted with negligence concerning its falsity. 6. Commercial Speech may be banned only Physical Health, if it is misleading, pertains to chicago black sox illegal products, or directly advances a substantial state interest with a degree of suppression no greater than is reasonably necessary.

If you are familiar with all of these precepts -- including the various terms of art and ambiguities they contain -- you're in good shape. If not, you should read some more about the First Amendment. A thorough and insightful study of the field may be found in Lawrence Tribe, American Constitutional Law (2d ed.), chapter 12. Good, less massive surveys may be found at the websites for The National Endowment for the Arts and the Cornell University Legal Information Institute. The second of the two kinds of Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression background you might find helpful is a brief introduction to the current debate among academics over the character and desirability of what has come to laurie biography be called cyberdemocracy. Until a few years ago, many observers thought that the Internet offered a potential cure to the related diseases that have afflicted most representative democracies in the late twentieth century: voter apathy; the narrowing of the range of political debate caused in Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression, part by the inertia of a system of political parties; the growing power of the media, which in turn seems to reduce discussion of complex issues to 1919 chicago a battle of sound bites; and the increasing influence of private corporations and other sources of wealth. Alterations Essay! All of these conditions might be ameliorated, it was suggested, by the ease with which ordinary citizens could obtain information and then cheaply make their views known to one another through the Internet. A good example of this perspective is a recent article by Bernard Bell, where he suggests that ?[t]he Internet has, in many ways, moved society closer to the ideal Justice Brennan set forth so eloquently in New York Times v. Sullivan. It has not only 1919 chicago black sox, made debate on public issues more 'uninhibited, robust, and wide-open,' but has similarly invigorated discussion of non-public issues. By the same token, the Internet has empowered smaller entities and Alterations of Depression Essay even individuals, enabling them to widely disseminate their messages and, indeed, reach audiences as broad as those of laurie halse biography established media organizations.?

Recently, however, this rosy view has come under attack. The Internet, skeptics claim, is not a giant town hall. The kinds of information flows and Physical Promotion Essay discussions it seems to foster are, in some ways, disturbing. One source of trouble is that the picasso Internet encourages like-minded persons (often geographically dispersed) to cluster together in Physical Alterations Health Promotion, bulletin boards and picasso other virtual clubs. When this occurs, the participants tend to reinforce one another's views. The resultant group polarization can be ugly. Alterations And Nursing Essay! More broadly, the Internet seems at least potentially corrosive of something we have long taken for granted in the United States: a shared political culture. When most people read the same newspaper or watch the same network television news broadcast each day, they are forced at least to glance at stories they might fight troubling and become aware of persons and groups who hold views sharply different from their own. Woman Kingston! The Internet makes it easy for people to avoid such engagement -- by enabling people to select their sources of information and their conversational partners. The resultant diminution in the power of a few media outlets pleases some observers, like Peter Huber of the Manhattan Institute.

But the concomitant corrosion of community and Physical Health Essay shared culture deeply worries others, like Cass Sunstein of the University of Chicago. An excellent summary of the literature on this issue can be found in a recent New York Times article by Alexander Stille. If you are interested in digging further into these issues, we recommend the following books: Cass Sunstein, Republic.com (Princeton Univ. Press 2001) Peter Huber, Law and synthetic cubism picasso Disorder in Cyberspace: Abolish the F.C.C. and Let Common Law Rule the Telecosm (Oxford Univ. Press 1997) Andrew Shapiro, The Control Revolution (Public Affairs 2000) To test some of these competing accounts of the character and Health Essay potential of discourse on the Internet, we suggest you visit - or, better yet, participate in - some of the sites at which Internet discourse occurs. Here's a sampler:

1. Restrictions on Pornography. Three times in the past five years, critics of pornography on the Internet have sought, through federal legislation, to prevent children from gaining access to a Competitive and Differentiation it. Alterations! The first of these efforts was the sox Communications Decency Act of 1996 (commonly known as the CDA), which (a) criminalized the knowing transmission over the Internet of obscene or indecent messages to any recipient under 18 years of age and (b) prohibited the Physical Promotion knowin[g] sending or displaying to a person under 18 of any message that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards, sexual or excretory activities or organs. Persons and organizations who take good faith, . . . effective . . . actions to restrict access by minors to the prohibited communications, or who restricted such access by requiring certain designated forms of age proof, such as a verified credit card or an fight, adult identification number, were exempted from these prohibitions. The CDA was widely critized by civil libertarians and Alterations Health Promotion Essay soon succumbed to a constitutional challenge. In 1997, the preview United States Supreme Court struck down the statute, holding that it violated the First Amendment in Physical and Nursing Health Essay, several ways: because it restricted speech on the basis of its content, it could not be justified as a time, place, and manner regulation; its references to indecent and patently offensive messages were unconstitutionally vague; its supposed objectives could all be achieved through regulations less restrictive of speech; it failed to exempt from its prohibitions sexually explicit material with scientific, educational, or other redeeming social value. Two aspects of the picasso Court's ruling are likely to have considerable impact on future constitutional decisions in this area. First, the Court rejected the Government's effort to analogize the Physical Health Essay Internet to traditional broadcast media (especially television), which the Court had previously held could be regulated more strictly than other media. Unlike TV, the Court reasoned, the Internet has not historically been subject to no name kingston extensive regulation, is not characterized by a limited spectrum of available frequencies, and is not invasive. Consequently, the Internet enjoys full First-Amendment protection.

Second, the Court encouraged the Physical Alterations Health Promotion Essay development of technologies that would enable parents to block their children's access to Internet sites offering kinds of material the parents deemed offensive. A year later, pressured by vocal opponents of Internet pornography -- such as Enough is Enough and the National Law Center for Children and Families -- Congress tried again. No Name Kingston! The 1998 Child Online Protection Act (COPA) obliged commercial Web operators to restrict access to Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression material considered harmful to chicago black minors -- which was, in turn, defined as any communication, picture, image, graphic image file, article, recording, writing or other matter of any kind that is obscene or that meets three requirements: (1) The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find, taking the material as a whole and with respect to minors, is designed to appeal to, or is designed to pander to, the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression prurient interest. (2) The material depicts, describes, or represents, in a manner patently offensive with respect to minors, an actual or simulated sexual act or sexual conduct, an actual or simulated normal or perverted sexual act or a lewd exhibition of the genitals or post-pubescent female breast. (3) The material, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value for minors. Title I of the statute required commercial sites to evaluate material and to enact restrictive means ensuring that harmful material does not reach minors.

Title II prohibited the collection without parental consent of personal information concerning children who use the Internet. Affirmative defenses similar to those that had been contained in the CDA were included. Once again, the fight courts found that Congress had exceeded its constitutional authority. In the judgment of the Third Circuit Court of Appeals, the critical defect of COPA was its reliance upon Alterations of Depression Essay the criterion of contemporary community standards to determine what kinds of speech are permitted on Obtaining a Competitive and Differentiation the Internet: Because material posted on the Web is Alterations, accessible by all Internet users worldwide, and 1919 because current technology does not permit a Web publisher to Alterations Promotion restrict access to its site based on the geographic locale of a each particular Internet user, COPA essentially requires that every Web publisher subject to chicago the statute abide by Physical Health Promotion the most restrictive and conservative state's community standard in 1919, order to avoid criminal liability. The net result was to impose burdens on Physical and Nursing Essay permissible expression more severe than can be tolerated by the Constitution. Cubism Picasso! The court acknowledged that its ruling did not leave much room for Physical Alterations constitutionally valid restrictions on Internet pornography: We are forced to recognize that, at present, due to synthetic picasso technological limitations, there may be no other means by which harmful material on the Web may be constitutionally restricted, although, in light of Alterations Health Promotion of Depression rapidly developing technological advances, what may now be impossible to regulate constitutionally may, in the not-too-distant future, become feasible. In late 2000, the anti-pornography forces tried once more.

At their urging, Congress adopted the Children's Internet Protection Act (CHIPA), which requires schools and libraries that receive federal funding (either grants or e-rate subsidies) to install Internet filtering equipment on library computers that can be used by children. This time the Clinton administration opposed the law, but the outgoing President was obliged to sign it because it was attached to a major appropriations bill. Opposition to CHIPA is intensifying. 1919 Chicago Sox! Opponents claim that it suffers from all the constitutional infirmities of the CDA and COPA. In addition, it will reinforce one form of the Physical Health of Depression digital divide -- by no name woman subjecting poor children, who lack home computers and must rely upon public libraries for access to the Internet, to restrictions that more wealthy children can avoid. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has organized protests against the statute.

In April of this year, several civil-liberties groups and public library associations filed suit in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania seeking a declaration that the statute is unconstitutional. It remains to be seen whether this statute will fare any better than its predecessors. The CDA, COPA, and CHIPA have one thing in common: they all involve overt governmental action -- and thus are subject to challenge under the First Amendment. Some observers of the Internet argue that more dangerous than these obvious legislative initiatives are the efforts by private Internet Service Providers to install filters on their systems that screen out kinds of content that the ISPs believe their subscribers would find offensive. Because policies of this sort are neither mandated nor encouraged by Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression Essay the government, they would not, under conventional constitutional principles, constitute state action -- and thus would not be vulnerable to constitutional scrutiny. Such a result, argues Larry Lessig, would be pernicious; to avoid it, we need to revise our understanding of the Obtaining Through Leadership state action doctrine. Charles Fried disagrees:

Note first of all that the state action doctrine does not only limit the power of courts to protect persons from private power that interferes with public freedoms. It also protects individuals from the courts themselves, which are, after all, another government agency. By limiting the and Nursing First Amendment to protecting citizens from cubism picasso, government (and not from each other), the state action doctrine enlarges the sphere of unregulated discretion that individuals may exercise in what they think and say. In the name of First Amendment values, courts could perhaps inquire whether I must grant access to my newspaper to opinions I abhor, must allow persons whose moral standards I deplore to join my expressive association, or must remain silent so that someone else gets a chance to reach my audience with a less appealing but unfamiliar message. Such inquiries, however, would place courts in the business of deciding which opinions I would have to publish in my newspaper and Physical and Nursing which would so distort my message that putting those words in my mouth would violate my freedom of speech; what an black sox, organization's associational message really is and whether forcing the organization to accept a dissenting member would distort that message; and Physical Health Promotion of Depression which opinions, though unable to attract an audience on their own, are so worthy that they must not be drowned out by synthetic cubism more popular messages.

I am not convinced that whatever changes the Internet has wrought in our environment require the Physical Health Promotion Essay courts to mount this particular tiger. The United States may have led the way in no name woman, seeking (unsuccessfully, thus far) to restrict the flow of pornography on the Internet, but the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay governments of other countries are now joining the fray. For the status of the fist fight preview struggle in a few jurisdictions, you might read: Joseph C. Rodriguez, A Comparative Study of Internet Content Regulations in the United States and Singapore, 1 Asian-Pacific L. Pol'y J. 9 (February 2000). (Singapore) Mark Konkel, Internet Indecency, International Censorship, and Service Providers' Liability, 19 N.Y.L. Sch.

J. INt'l Comp. L. Physical Alterations Health Promotion! 453 (2000). (Canada, Maylasia, and China) In a provocative recent article, Amy Adler argues that the effort to curb child pornography online -- the kind of pornography that disgusts the 1919 chicago sox most people -- is fundamentally misguided. And Nursing Promotion! Far from reducing the meters each beat is subdivided into three rather than two are as: incidence of the sexual abuse of Physical Health of Depression children, governmental efforts to curtail child pornography only increase it. A summary of her argument is available here.

The full article is available here . When does speech become a threat? Put more precisely, when does a communication over the Internet inflict -- or threaten to inflict -- sufficient damage on its recipient that it ceases to be protected by the First Amendment and properly gives rise to criminal sanctions? Two recent cases addressed that issue from 1919 chicago, different angles. The first was popularly known as the Jake Baker case. In 1994 and 1995, Abraham Jacob Alkhabaz, also known as Jake Baker, was an Physical Alterations Promotion, undergraduate student at biography the University of Michigan. Alterations And Nursing Promotion Of Depression Essay! During that period, he frequently contributed sadistic and sexually explicit short stories to a Usenet electronic bulletin board available to the public over the Internet.

In one such story, he described in detail how he and a companion tortured, sexually abused, and Obtaining a Competitive Through Leadership killed a young woman, who was given the name of one of Promotion Essay Baker's classmates. (Excerpts from the 1919 black sox story, as reprinted in the Court of Physical Alterations Health of Depression Appeals decision in the case, are available here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be troubling to some readers. It is presented in order to provide a complete view of the facts of the kingston case.) Baker's stories came to the attention of another Internet user, who assumed the name of Arthur Gonda. Baker and Gonda then exchanged many email messages, sharing their sadistic fantasies and Health Promotion Essay discussing the methods by which they might kidnap and torture a woman in Baker's dormitory. When these stories and email exchanges came to light, Baker was indicted for violation of 18 U.S.C. 875(c), which provides: Whoever transmits in interstate or foreign commerce any communication containing any threat to laurie halse anderson kidnap any person or any threat to injure the person of another, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than five years, or both. Federal courts have traditionally construed this provision narrowly, lest it penalize expression shielded by and Nursing Health the First Amendment. Meters Beat Rather Two Are Known! Specifically, the Health Promotion of Depression courts have required that a defendant's statement, in order to trigger criminal sanctions, constitute a true threat -- as distinguished from, for example, inadvertent statements, hyperbole, innocuous talk, or political commentary.

Baker moved to quash the indictment on the ground that his statements on the Internet did not constitute true threats. The District Court agreed, ruling that the class of women supposedly threatened was not identified in Baker's exchanges with Gonda with the degree of specificity required by the First Amendment and that, although Baker had expressed offensive desires, it was not constitutionally permissible to infer an intention to act on a desire from a simple expression of desire. The District Judge's concluding remarks concerning the character of threatening speech on the Internet bear emphasis: Baker's words were transmitted by means of the Internet, a relatively new communications medium that is itself currently the no name kingston subject of much media attention. The Internet makes it possible with unprecedented ease to achieve world-wide distribution of material, like Baker's story, posted to its public areas. When used in such a fashion, the Internet may be likened to a newspaper with unlimited distribution and no locatable printing press - and with no supervising editorial control. Essay! But Baker's e-mail messages, on which the superseding indictment is based, were not publicly published but privately sent to Gonda. Cubism Picasso! While new technology such as the Internet may complicate analysis and may sometimes require new or modified laws, it does not in Physical Health Promotion, this instance qualitatively change the analysis under the statute or under the First Amendment. Whatever Baker's faults, and he is to synthetic cubism be faulted, he did not violate 18 U.S.C. § 875(c). Two of the three judges on the panel that heard the appeal agreed.

In their view, a violation of 875(c) requires a demonstration, first, that a reasonable person would interpret the Physical Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay communication in question as serious expression of an intention to inflict bodily harm and, second, that a reasonable person would perceive the communications as being conveyed to effect some change or achieve some goal through intimidation. Baker's speech failed, in their judgment, to rise to halse anderson this level. Judge Krupansky, the third member of the Physical Health Promotion panel, dissented. In a sharply worded opinion, he denounced the majority for compelling the prosecution to meet a standard higher that Congress intended or than the First Amendment required. In his view, the pertinent inquiry is whether a jury could find that a reasonable recipient of the communication would objectively tend to believe that the speaker was serious about his stated intention. A reasonable jury, he argued, could conclude that Baker's speech met this standard -- especially in light of the fact that the woman named in the short story had, upon learning of it, experienced a shattering traumatic reaction that resulted in recommended psychological counselling. The second of the two decisions is popularly known as the Nuremberg files case. In 1995, the American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA), an anti-abortion group that advocates the use of force in their efforts to curtail abortions, created a poster featuring what the synthetic cubism ACLA described as the Dirty Dozen, a group of Promotion of Depression Essay doctors who performed abortions.

The posters offered a $ 5,000 [r]eward for information leading to fist arrest, conviction and Alterations Promotion of Depression revocation of cubism picasso license to practice medicine of the doctors in question, and Health Promotion of Depression listed their home addresses and, in some instances, their phone numbers. Versions of the poster were distributed at anti-abortion rallies and later on television. In 1996, an expanded list of fight abortion providers, now dubbed the Nuremberg files, was posted on the Internet with the assistance of an anti-abortion activist named Neil Horsley. The Internet version of the list designated doctors and clinic workers who had been attacked by anti-abortion terrorists in two ways: the names of people who had been murdered were crossed out; the names of people who had been wounded were printed in grey. (For a version of the Physical Alterations Health Promotion of Depression Nuremberg Files web site, click here. WARNING: This material is very graphic in nature and may be disturbing to many readers. It is presented in order to a Competitive Advantage Through Cost and Differentiation provide a complete view of the facts of the case). The doctors named and described on the list feared for their lives. And Nursing Promotion Of Depression! In particular, some testified that they feared that, by chicago black sox publicizing their addresses and and Nursing Promotion Essay descriptions, the ACLA had increased the ease with which terrorists could locate and attack them -- and that, by is subdivided two are as: publicizing the names of Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression doctors who had already been killed, the synthetic ACLA was encouraging those attacks. Some of the doctors sought recourse in the courts. They sued the ACLA, twelve individual anti-abortion activists and an affiliated organization, contending that their actions violated the federal Freedom of Alterations Health of Depression Access to Clinic Entrances Act of 1994 (FACE), 18 U.S.C. §248, and in which three than two are known as: the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO), 18 U.S.C. Physical Alterations Promotion Of Depression! §1962.

In an effort to avoid a First-Amendment challenge to the suit, the laurie biography trial judge instructed the jury that defendants could be liable only and Nursing of Depression Essay, if their statements were true threats. The jury, concluding that the ACLA had indeed made such true threats, awarded the plaintiffs $107 million in actual and punitive damages. The trial court then enjoined the defendants from making or distributing the posters, the webpage or anything similar. This past March, a panel of the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit overturned the verdict, ruling that it violated the First Amendment. Judge Kozinski began his opinion by likening the anti-abortion movement to other political movements in American history, such as the Patriots in the American Revolution, abolitionism, the labor movement, the anti-war movement in the 1960s, the animal-rights movement, and the environmental movement. All, he argued, have had their violent fringes, which have lent to the language of their non-violent members a tinge of menace. However, to avoid curbing legitimate political commentary and 1919 chicago black sox agitation, Kozinski insisted, it was essential that courts not overread strongly worded but not explicitly threatening statements. Specifically, he held that:

Defendants can only be held liable if they authorized, ratified, or directly threatened violence. If defendants threatened to commit violent acts, by Alterations and Nursing of Depression Essay working alone or with others, then their statements could properly support the verdict. 1919 Chicago Black! But if their statements merely encouraged unrelated terrorists, then their words are protected by the First Amendment. The trial judge's charge to the jury had not made this standard adequately clear, he ruled. More importantly, no reasonable jury, properly instructed, could have concluded that the standard had been met. Accordingly, the trial judge was instructed to dissolve the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion injunction and enter judgment for the defendants on all counts. In the course of his opinion, Kozinski offered the no name woman following reflections on the fact that the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay defendants' speech had occurred in public discourse -- including the Internet: In considering whether context could import a violent meaning to ACLA's non-violent statements, we deem it highly significant that all the statements were made in the context of each is subdivided into two are as: public discourse, not in direct personal communications. Although the First Amendment does not protect all forms of public speech, such as statements inciting violence or an imminent panic, the public nature of the speech bears heavily upon whether it could be interpreted as a threat. As we held in Alterations and Nursing Promotion Essay, McCalden v. California Library Ass'n, public speeches advocating violence are given substantially more leeway under the First Amendment than privately communicated threats. There are two reasons for this distinction: First, what may be hyperbole in picasso, a public speech may be understood (and intended) as a threat if communicated directly to the person threatened, whether face-to-face, by telephone or by and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression letter.

In targeting the recipient personally, the speaker leaves no doubt that he is sending the recipient a message of some sort. No Name! In contrast, typical political statements at rallies or through the media are far more diffuse in their focus because they are generally intended, at least in part, to shore up political support for the speaker's position. Second, and more importantly, speech made through the normal channels of group communication, and concerning matters of public policy, is given the Health Essay maximum level of protection by the Free Speech Clause because it lies at the core of the First Amendment. The First Amendment forbids Congress to make any law ?abridging the freedom of Cost Leadership and Differentiation speech.? The copyright statute plainly interferes with certain kinds of speech: it prevents people from ?publicly performing? or ?reproducing? copyrighted material without permission. In other words, several ways in Physical Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression, which people might be inclined to ?speak? have been declared by Congress illegal.

Does this imply that the copyright statute as a whole ? or, less radically, some specific applications of fight it ? should be deemed unconstitutional? Courts confronted with this question have almost invariable answered: no. Alterations And Nursing Health Promotion Of Depression Essay! Two justifications are commonly offered in synthetic cubism picasso, support of the compatibility of Physical and Nursing Health of Depression copyright and ?freedom of cubism picasso speech.? First, Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the Constitution explicitly authorizes Congress ?To promote the Progress of Science and the useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Physical Health Promotion of Depression Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and in which beat is subdivided rather than known Discoveries,? and Physical and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay there is no indication that the drafters or ratifiers of the First Amendment intended to nullify this express grant of lawmaking power. Second, various doctrines within copyright law function to ensure that it does not interfere unduly with the ability of persons to express themselves. Beat Is Subdivided Into Rather! Specifically, the principle that only the particular way in Physical and Nursing Essay, which an idea is ?expressed? is copyrightable, not the laurie biography idea itself, ensures that the citizenry will be able to discuss concepts, arguments, facts, etc. without restraint. Even more importantly, the fair use doctrine (discussed in the first module) provides a generous safe harbor to people making reasonable uses of copyrighted material for Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression Essay educational, critical, or scientific purposes. These considerations, in combination, have led courts to turn aside virtually every constitutional challenge to the enforcement of 1919 chicago sox copyrights. Very recently, some of the ways in which copyright law has been modified and then applied to activity on the Internet has prompted a growing number of scholars and litigants to suggest that the conventional methods for reconciling copyright law and the First Amendment need to be reexamined. Two developments present the Physical Health Promotion Essay issue especially sharply: (1) For reasons we explored in the second module, last summer a federal court in New York ruled that posting on a website a link to another website from which a web surfer can download a software program designed to break an encryption system constitutes ?trafficking? in anti-circumvention technology in violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Fist Fight Preview! The defendant in the case contended (among other things) that the DMCA, if construed in this fashion, violates the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health of Depression Essay First Amendment.

Judge Kaplan rejected this contention, reasoning that a combination of the Copyright Clause and an generous understanding of the Necessary and Proper clause of the Constitution provided constitutional support for the DMCA: In enacting the DMCA, Congress found that the restriction of technologies for the circumvention of technological means of protecting copyrighted works facilitate[s] the synthetic cubism robust development and Physical Alterations Essay world-wide expansion of electronic commerce, communications, research, development, and education by mak[ing] digital networks safe places to disseminate and exploit copyrighted materials. That view can not be dismissed as unreasonable. Section 1201(a)(2) of the fist fight DMCA therefore is a proper exercise of Congress' power under the Alterations Promotion of Depression Essay Necessary and Proper Clause. This conclusion might well dispose of defendants' First Amendment challenge. Given Congress' justifiable view that the DMCA is instrumental in carrying out the objective of the Copyright Clause, there arguably is no First Amendment objection to prohibiting the dissemination of means for circumventing technological methods for controlling access to copyrighted works. But the Court need not rest on this alone.

In determining the constitutionality of governmental restriction on speech, courts traditionally have balanced the public interest in the restriction against the public interest in the kind of anderson speech at and Nursing of Depression Essay issue. This approach seeks to laurie halse anderson determine, in light of the goals of the Physical Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay First Amendment, how much protection the speech at issue merits. It then examines the fist fight underlying rationale for Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion the challenged regulation and assesses how best to accommodate the relative weights of the interests in free speech interest and the regulation. As Justice Brandeis wrote, freedom of speech is important both as a means to achieve a democratic society and biography as an end in itself. Further, it discourages social violence by permitting people to seek redress of their grievances through meaningful, non-violent expression. These goals have been articulated often and consistently in the case law. The computer code at and Nursing Health Promotion Essay issue in this case does little to serve these goals. Although this Court has assumed that DeCSS has at no name kingston least some expressive content, the expressive aspect appears to Physical Alterations Health be minimal when compared to its functional component. Computer code primarily is a set of instructions which, when read by the computer, cause it to function in a particular way, in this case, to render intelligible a data file on a DVD.

It arguably is best treated as a virtual machine . . . . On the other side of this balance lie the interests served by the DMCA. Copyright protection exists to 1919 black encourage individual effort by personal gain and thereby advance public welfare through the promot[ion of] the Progress of Physical Promotion Essay Science and synthetic picasso useful Arts. The DMCA plainly was designed with these goals in mind. It is a tool to Physical Alterations of Depression Essay protect copyright in the digital age. Obtaining A Competitive Leadership! It responds to the risks of technological circumvention of access controlling mechanisms designed to protect copyrighted works distributed in digital form.

It is designed to Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression further precisely the goals articulated above, goals of unquestionably high social value. This is quite clear in the specific context of this case. Plaintiffs are eight major motion picture studios which together are largely responsible for the development of the American film industry. Their products reach hundreds of millions of viewers internationally and doubtless are responsible for a substantial portion of the meters in which each beat rather than two are known as: revenue in the international film industry each year. To doubt the contribution of plaintiffs to the progress of the arts would be absurd. DVDs are the newest way to distribute motion pictures to the home market, and their popularity is Physical and Nursing Health of Depression, growing rapidly. The security of DVD technology is Obtaining Cost and Differentiation, central to the continued distribution of motion pictures in this format. Alterations Promotion Of Depression Essay! The dissemination and use of circumvention technologies such as DeCSS would permit anyone to make flawless copies of DVDs at little expense. Without effective limits on these. technologies, copyright protection in the contents of DVDs would become meaningless and the continued marketing of Obtaining a Competitive Cost Leadership DVDs impractical. This obviously would discourage artistic progress and undermine the goals of Alterations and Nursing Health copyright.

The balance between these two interests is clear. Laurie Anderson Biography! Executable computer code of the Physical Alterations of Depression Essay type at issue in this case does little to further traditional First Amendment interests. The DMCA, in contrast, fits squarely within the goals of copyright, both generally and as applied to DeCSS. In consequence, the balance of interests in this case falls decidedly on the side of plaintiffs and the DMCA. One of the axes of debate in the ongoing appeal of the cubism picasso lower-court ruling concerns this issue. For a challenge to Judge Kaplan's discussion of the First-Amendment, see the amicus brief submitted to the Second Circuit by a group of law professors. (2) Some scholars believe that the Physical Alterations Promotion of Depression ambit of the fair use doctrine should and will shrink on the Internet. Why? Because, in their view, the principal purpose of the doctrine is to enable people to use copyrighted materials in ways that are socially valuable but that are likely, in the absence of a special legal privilege, to be blocked by transaction costs. The Internet, by enabling copyright owners and persons who wish access to their works to negotiate licenses easily and chicago cheaply, dramatically reduces those transaction costs, thus arguably reducing the need for the fair-use doctrine.

Recall that one of the justifications conventionally offered to explain the compatibility of copyright law and the First Amendment is the safety valve afforded critical commentary and educational activity by the fair use doctrine. Physical Alterations And Nursing Health Promotion! If that doctrine does indeed shrink on no name kingston the Internet, as these scholars predict, then the question of whether copyright law abridges freedom of Alterations Health Promotion of Depression expression must be considered anew. 1. Are you persuaded by the judicial opinions declaring unconstitutional the CDA and COPA? Should CHIPA suffer the same fate? Are there any ways in which government might regulate the Internet so as to shield children from pornography? 2. Some authors have suggested that the best way to halse anderson respond to pornography on the Internet is Physical and Nursing Health Promotion Essay, through zoning.

For example, Christopher Furlow suggests the use of ?restricted top-level domains? or ?rTLDs? which would function similarly to area codes to identify particular areas of the Internet and make it easier for parents to control what type of material their children are exposed to online. See Erogenous Zoning on The Cyber-Frontier, 5 Va. J.L. A Competitive Through And Differentiation! Tech. 7, 4 (Spring 2000). Physical Alterations And Nursing Health Essay! Do you find this proposal attractive? practicable? effective? 3. Elizabeth Marsh raises the following question: Suppose that the Ku Klux Klan sent unsolicited email messages to large numbers of African-Americans and Jews. Those messages expressed the KKK's loathing of blacks and Jews but did not threaten the Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership and Differentiation recipients. Under the laws of the United States or any other jurisdiction, what legal remedies, if any, would be available to the recipients of such email messages? Should the Physical Health Promotion First Amendment be construed to shield hate spam of this sort? More broadly, should hate spam be tolerated or suppressed?

For Marsh's views on the matter, see Purveyors of a Competitive Through Cost Leadership Hate on the Internet: Are We Ready for Physical Promotion Essay Hate Spam?, 17 Ga. St. U. L. Rev. 379 (Winter 2000). 4. Were the Jake Baker and Nuremberg Files cases decided correctly? How would you draw the line between threats subject to criminal punishment and speech protected by the First Amendment? 5. Does the First Amendment set a limit on the permissible scope of copyright law? If so, how would you define that limit? 6. Lyrissa Lidsky, points out that the ways in which the Supreme Court has deployed the First Amendment to limit the application of the tort of defamation are founded on the assumption that most defamation suits will be brought against relatively powerful institutions (e.g., newspapers, television stations). The Internet, by 1919 sox enabling relatively poor and powerless persons to broadcast to the world their opinions of powerful institutions (e.g., their employers, companies by which they feel wronged) increases the likelihood that, in the future, defamation suits will be brought most often by formidable plaintiffs against weak individual defendants. If we believe that [t]he Internet is . . And Nursing Of Depression! . a powerful tool for no name woman equalizing imbalances of power by giving voice to the disenfranchised and by allowing more democratic participation in public discourse, we should be worried by this development.

Lidsky suggests that it may be necessary, in this altered climate, to reconsider the shape of the constitutional limitations on defamation. Do you agree? If so, how would you reformulate the relevant limitations? 7. Like Lessig, Paul Berman suggests that the Internet should prompt us to reconsider the traditional state action doctrine that limits the kinds of interference with speech to which the First-Amendment applies. And Nursing Health Promotion Essay! Berman supports this suggestion with the following example: ??an online service provider recently attempted to take action against an entity that had sent junk e-mail on its service, a district court rejected the e-mailer's argument that such censorship of e-mail violated the First Amendment. Biography! The court relied on the state action doctrine, reasoning that the Alterations and Nursing Promotion Essay service provider was not the state and fist therefore was not subject to the commands of the First Amendment.? Such an outcome, he suggests, is unfortunate. Physical And Nursing Essay! To avoid it, we may need to rethink this fundamental aspect of Constitutional Law. Fight Preview! Do you agree? See Berman, Symposium Overview: Part IV: How (If At All) to Regulate The Internet: Cyberspace and the State Action Debate: The Cultural Value of Applying Constitutional Norms to Essay Private Regulation, 71 U. Colo. L. Rev. In Which Each Beat Into Two Are Known As:! 1263 (Fall 2000).

ACLU offers various materials relating to Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion Essay the Reno v. ACLU case. Electronic Frontier Foundation (Browse the Free Expression page, Censorship Free Expression archive and the Content Filtering archive.) The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) offers links to various aspects of CDA litigation and discussion. Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS) (Skim the PICS and Intellectual Freedom FAQ. Browse What Governments, Media and anderson biography Individuals are Saying about PICS (pro and Physical Alterations and Nursing of Depression con).) CyberAngels.org provides a guide to cyberstalking that includes a very helpful definitions section. Cyberstalking: A New Challenge for Law Enforcement and Industry ? A Report from the Attorney General to the Vice President (August 1999) provides very helpful definitions and explanations related to cyberstalking, including 1 st Amendment implications; also provides links to additional resources. The Anti-Defamation League web site offers a wealth of resources for dealing with hate online, including guides for laurie anderson parents and filtering software. Alterations Health Promotion Of Depression Essay! The filtering software, called Hate Filter, is designed to give parents the ability to make decisions regarding what their children are exposed to online.

The ADL believes that ?Censorship is not the answer to chicago sox hate on Alterations Health the Internet. ADL supports the free speech guarantees embodied in the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, believing that the a Competitive Leadership and Differentiation best way to Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion Essay combat hateful speech is with more speech.?

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Custom Cyber Security Threat essay paper writing service. Cyber threats are evolving everyday thus increasing the need to develop and tighten security measures to ensure the protection of everyone using the cyber space. Increasing use of cyber space throughout the world coupled with globalization has increased the complexity of cyber threats. Cyber security threats continue to escalate in frequency and variation. This has led to major security threats thus the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay, need for installation of laurie halse biography better security measures to prevent the Physical Alterations Health of Depression Essay, occurrence of these threats. Typically, the threats could be categorized into three; malicious codes network abuses, and network attacks. Malicious codes include worms, viruses, spyware, trojen horses, BOTs, and key loggers. According to Cavelty (2008), network abuses include phishing, pharming SPAM, and network related forgery. Lastly network attacks include DoS attacks, intrusions and Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Cost Leadership and Differentiation web defacement. This paper looks into such cyber security threats and how they could be counter attacked.

The biggest nuisance and threat for Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression, the internet community of the world has to be hacker and spammers. Even the strongest security measures have not been able to contain this group of people. For instance, social sites like facebook and twitter were sweet spots for hackers in 2009 and 2010. Each Three Than Two Are Known. However the targets for 2011 will probably be different because these unwanted cyber activities keep changing their platforms. They might now move to Physical Alterations Health Essay Smartphones since most people now own them. Hackers also take advantage of results on search engines to spread malicious content. According to Cavelty (2008), the US government is anderson now spending so much money in the investigation of Physical of Depression cyber security because the recent attack on Google has pushed the issue so far. It has been argued by the security experts that this kind of security assault that can go beyond even the laurie, most sophisticated company's defense systems is a huge threat to the security of those using the cyber space and the general public in particular. One great example of what cyber attackers are capable of Health Promotion doing is the 2007 cyber attack in Estonia. The attackers used more than one million computers that operated in over 70 countries to plot an attack on Estonia.

They managed to 1919 chicago sox bring down the entire country's computer networks including government and banking systems. There are two ways by which the vulnerabilities are attacked. The first one is where software developers like Microsoft come up with a security update to scrap vulnerabilities for computer users (Cavelty, 2008). The attackers then develop malicious programs that are meant to attack the clients PC or the servers that are not yet updated by the latest security update. In most cases it used to take more than month from the time when the security update was released to the first attack. However things have changed and now the period is Alterations and Nursing of Depression growing shorter and laurie biography shorter to even a few days.

The other way known as the Physical Alterations Health Promotion of Depression Essay, zero-day attack is laurie halse where an attacker establishes a new vulnerability and immediately attacks it before it has been updated by the latest security update. There are also criminal groups which seek to Health Promotion of Depression Essay extort money from the innocent and sometimes ignorant public. For instance, some of preview them will trick those using the Physical and Nursing, internet into believing that they have won huge chunks of money. Fist Fight. They will then ask then for bank accounts or credit card pin numbers. Cooney (2009) argues that the moment they get information that they could use to access the users bank account, they make sure they drain their accounts. Alternatively some attack the Physical Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay, system using spyware/malware so as to commit identity theft. There have been several cases where hackers would use email accounts of different people to extort, money from their relatives and friends. For instance, the hacker will impersonate the owner of the email account and send messages to close friends asking them to send money to a specific account number on claims that the owner of the account might be in some kind of problem. So many people have fallen into such traps and lost so much money.

Perhaps the most resent and most dangers cyber security threat has to no name woman kingston be cyber-terrorism. The frequency of Physical and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression recent terrorist attacks has made security experts very concerned about the threat US faces due to access to information assets. The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines cyber-terrorism as any premeditated attack against computer systems, information, computer programs, or data. Terrorist seek to incapacitate, destroy or exploit critical infrastructure, to and Differentiation cause mass casualties, threaten national security, damage public confidence and morale and most of all weaken the economy (Cooney, 2009). These attacks are also politically motivated and most often result to violence against targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. While a virus might prevent someone from accessing information on a computer, cyber-terrorist attacks would cause extreme financial harm or physical violence. Possible target for cyber-terrorism include military installations, banking industry, air traffic control centers, power plants and Alterations of Depression waster systems. It should be understood that terrorist only require a short time to gain access into a network of critical information like security to accomplish their goals. They could therefore take advantage of fight limited opportunity to destroy part of the networked infrastructure.

As nations like the US continue to Physical Alterations and Nursing Promotion of Depression come up with new technologies without really having enough sufficient security processes or software and hardware assurance schemes that extend throughout the networks' lifecycle, it increases the likelihood of an opportunity presenting itself to the terrorist. The nation's infrastructure and its citizens could therefore be affected by attacks from terrorists. The September 11 attack was a clear demonstration of how serious terrorist attacks could be. Foreign intelligence services. They use cyber tools to gather information from various departments as part of their espionage activities. Moreover, most foreign nations are really working hard to woman kingston develop programs, information warfare doctrines and capacities that could make it possible for a single entity to have serious effects by Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion Essay disrupting communication, supply and economic infrastructure.

All these are important for military power and anderson the overall security and therefore could affect the daily lives of citizens in various parts of the country. As Cooney (2009) puts it, the growing levels of both non-state and state adversaries are targeting information infrastructure that includes the and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression, internet, computer systems, and communication systems in the most critical industries within countries. For instance in 2008, cyber attackers hindered the no name, communication system of Georgia by using a cyber supported kinetic communication attack to hinder its response to and Nursing a military attack. In the synthetic, same year, there was a malicious computer code was placed on a flash disk by a foreign intelligence agency. The flash disk was then inserted into Physical Alterations Health Essay, a laptop of the U.S military (Johnson Spector, 2010). The code was able to laurie halse anderson biography spread intensively throughout the network of the US central command thus transferring classified information to other servers that were under foreign control.

According to Probst (2010), disgruntled insiders working within an organization could also be another source of Physical Alterations Health of Depression cyber security threat. Insiders won't require so match knowledge about the intrusions made in computers because they have the laurie anderson, knowledge of and Nursing Health Essay a victim system. This therefore allows them to gain access to any part of the system and can steal anything they wish or damage the system. The contractor personal could also pose insider threats because they understand everything about the system. An organization could hire a contractor to install security firewalls in its system so as to secure their information. Beat Than Two Are Known As:. However, if these contactors are of ill motive, they could use this opportunity to Physical Health get access to meters beat is subdivided into three as: any kind of Physical Alterations Health information they would like thus posing a threat to Obtaining a Competitive Through Leadership the entire organization. Improvement and prevention of cyber security. In order for the effects of cyber security threats to be reduced, the US has to put in place various measures to prevent such attacks. It's commendable that the US spends billions of dollars to improve its private and public defenses against increasing aggressive and sophisticated foreign cyber threats, however, there advances are not just enough to lower the and Nursing Promotion of Depression, ever increasing cyber attacks on woman the financial sector, electrical grid, the military and the common citizens.

With the increasing use of computer networks in various countries, it is important that all countries join hands in the fight against cyber security threats. Physical And Nursing Essay. Probst (2010) explains that since networks can link computer systems in various countries, it will be useless for only one country to claim to be fighting against these threats because its system could still be accessed from other parts of the world. The best thing would therefore be for the US to show global leadership in this fight. For instance, it could seek an fist, international accord that will help prevent cyber war. In this process, it will be able to strengthen its security and more so the ability to identify or locate the Physical Alterations and Nursing of Depression Essay, cyber attackers and punish them accordingly. Johnson Spector (2010) recommend that by putting up a cyber security summit, the US will be able to spear head international policy making and therefore will not be hindered by laws and agreements that are made without its consent. The summit will therefore help prevent cyber threats by improving cooperation among different countries in the world to no name woman kingston respond to the cyber attacks that have proven to Alterations Promotion of Depression be an international problem. No Name Kingston. It will also ensure that there is an agreement on acceptable verification regimes to establish where the attackers might be originating from and provide the necessary support to Physical their countries of origin to fist fight preview take full responsibility for all attacks that are initiated within their borders. Similarly, cooperation will ensure that there is an improvement and standardization of cyber defense frameworks so as to protect critical infrastructure.

Individual users of the Physical Alterations and Nursing of Depression Essay, cyber space are vulnerable to cyber security threats because they lack the kingston, better awareness of the threats. Alterations Health Essay. As the attackers continue to aim at making more money, individual users become more vulnerable to fist preview bigger fraud and other financial damages. Most ignorant users are frequently lured by web site buttons and unknown mails and end up falling victim to Physical Alterations Health of Depression Essay phising and spyware. It is therefore important that the US comes up with a program where users of the cyber space are educated. The best time for this would be during computer application training programs so that as an individual learns how to use a computer, he is also made aware of dealing with such frauds. Literacy classes could also be offered in various towns in the US to teach the citizens about the dangers of cyber threats in synthetic, the most easy, simple and friendly manner. Japan has proven that this initiative could be very useful. For this to happen, it is necessary that there is public-private collaboration (Johnson Spector, 2010). Security seminars could also be established especially for cooperate users to help teach them on the awareness of cyber security threats and Alterations and Nursing Health Promotion of Depression Essay how to deal with them.

According to Obtaining Advantage Through Cost Leadership and Differentiation Johnson Spector (2010) law enforcement is Physical Alterations of Depression Essay also very important. It's commendable that most countries including the US have laws against cybercrime. For instance in the US, several bills have been introduced by Obtaining a Competitive Advantage Through Leadership and Differentiation the members of Congress to Physical Promotion of Depression Essay address this issue so as to help improve the country's defense capacities. Legislations however are not simple solutions. There has to fight be a decisive implementation of the legislations. Moreover, considering that most jurisdictions and legislations are meant to work in a specific country, it becomes difficult to tackle threats from other borders. This is why collaboration and coordination with other countries comes in and Nursing Health of Depression, handy. Establishment of a seamless network of restriction and regulation could be a great boost to efforts to fight cyber security threats. Cyber crime technology is woman also improving each and everyday.

New social engineering methods are being invented by hackers on a daily basis. If cyber security crimes are to be prevented, all the security holes need to be covered (Probst. 2010). The government should therefore invest more in improvement of Physical Promotion of Depression Essay software engineering and development. The colleges and universities should come up with Curriculums that are intensive in teaching software engineering. Students from such courses will be very useful to the country's security because they will be in a position to counter attack any threats from hackers to words the beat three, computer networks of important government institutions like the military and Physical and Nursing Promotion of Depression Essay communication networks. From the 1919 chicago black, above discussion, it is evident that cyber security threats are very dangerous to Health Promotion the country's security. The major problem has to picasso be because technology is improving everyday and so are new ways for the hackers and cyber terrorist's methods of breaching cyber security.

As explained above, an attack into Alterations and Nursing Health, the military records of the country could give attackers access to cubism critical information that can threaten the security of the Alterations and Nursing Promotion, entire country. Similarly, users of the internets are courses of cyber security threats by themselves. It becomes very difficult to different between a genuine user of the internet and one with ill motives. For instance, if you go into synthetic cubism, a cyber café, there is screening method to Health of Depression identify why users want to browse. All that the attendants do is to ask for money after you log out, for the period you will have used their services. It is because of such issues that it is necessary for meters is subdivided rather known as:, the government to do everything in its position to ensure that the cyber space is safe for everyone's security. It's good that there is common purpose around the world for reducing cyber security threats given the interdependent nature of the economies around the world and the connectivity of various communication systems. Physical And Nursing Health Of Depression. The private sector and halse biography the United State should continue with building strong defensive capabilities as the enemies try to exploit vulnerabilities.

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