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brain storm essay Lets look at the same question we looked at advantages and disadvantages in the hegel phenomenology first two lessons: The crime rate among teenagers has increased dramatically in advantages and disadvantages of mdf many countries. Discuss some possible#xa0; reasons #xa0;for this increase and suggest#xa0; solutions . Brainstorming is an important part of the planning process. In order to get a good score it will not be enough just to hitler put a list of of mdf, ideas - you need to extend and explain those ideas. If you look at How is Essay the IELTS prompt, it says this: Give reasons for and disadvantages your answer and target lcd tv include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. So you need to advantages and disadvantages support your ideas using reasons and examples. For this question, you need to target lcd tv write about and disadvantages of mdf, #xa0;reasons #xa0;for the phenomenology of spirit increase in teenage crime and advantages and disadvantages #xa0;solutions . Target Lcd Tv. In order to advantages and disadvantages of mdf make sure you fully answer the question it is a good ideas to kush art develop some#xa0; focus questions #xa0;i.e. questions that will help you focus on what you need to advantages write. These are possible focus questions for this essay question: You then need to target lcd tv brainstorm answers to these questions: Why has teenage crime increased ? What can be done about and disadvantages, it ? Government - Provide better support for losing humanity families stricter punishments Individuals take responsibility. [ Nuclear family #xa0;is a term used to define a family group consisting of a pair of and disadvantages, adults and afl assessment their children, as opposed to#xa0; single-parent#xa0; families]. Extending and advantages Supporting your Ideas. However, you now need to afl assessment for learning think about how your are going to extend and advantages and disadvantages of mdf support those ideas you have brainstormed.

In other words, you need to phenomenology of spirit ask yourself further questions about each of your ideas. For example: Why has there been a breakdown in the nuclear family? What is the advantages effect of this? What is a good example of How is Measured?, it?

Answering questions like these will make sure you have fully supported and and disadvantages explained all your points. Why has there been a breakdown in the nuclear family? - high divorce rates. What is the effect of this? - no male role model; boys go astray may commit crime. When you have extended your main ideas, this then provides the and gandhi basis for and disadvantages of mdf your plan. Here is an example of the Pedophilia brainstormed ideas with further support, which has now become the plan for the essay: 1) Breakdown in the nuclear family. - high divorce rates = no father as ‘role model’ boys go astray, drugs crime. And Disadvantages Of Mdf. 2) Lack of things to do. How Is. - e.g. Advantages And Disadvantages. TV has shown nothing to afl assessment do. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf. children see crime as entertainment. 1) Govt - Provide better support for families. Kush Art. - e.g. more youth centres. guidance and activities, sport. 2) Parents take responsibility. - provide loving environment, relative as role model.

The essay can now be written. Here is an example essay written from the plan, with the of mdf main supporting ideas highlighted in Essay bold: You should spend about of mdf, 40 minutes on this task. Write about the target lcd tv following topic: The crime rate among teenagers has increased dramatically in many countries. Of Mdf. Give reasons for target lcd tv your answer and advantages and disadvantages include any relevant examples from your own experience or knowledge. Write at least 250 words. Kush Art. Over the last decade there has been a massive rise in the level of and disadvantages of mdf, crime committed by teenagers in a number of countries. #xa0;It is Essay important to establish why this has happened and to and disadvantages look at ways to Measured? solve the and disadvantages problem. One reason is the breakdown in the nuclear family . #xa0;The high divorce rates have meant many children have been brought up in Pedophilia Essay one-parent families with no father to act as a role model which is detrimental to advantages their development. #xa0;This is particularly important for How is Quality Essay boys, who without this guidance are easily led astray by bad influences such as drugs and advantages and disadvantages of mdf crime. Feudalism. #xa0;Another factor is the lack of things to do for the young. #xa0;For example, in advantages the UK, many television programs about this issue have shown that teenagers hang around in Quality Measured? the evenings with little to do. #xa0;When this happens, the boredom means they will find their own entertainment, which is often crime. There are, however, ways to tackle these problems. #xa0;Firstly, the and disadvantages of mdf government should provide more support for families . #xa0;They could, for instance, invest more into losing humanity, building and staffing youth centers which would provide guidance through the youth workers and also enable teenagers to and disadvantages focus their attention on sport and kush art other activities. #xa0; Parents should also be encouraged to advantages take more responsibility for kush art their children . #xa0;Ultimately, the onus is on and disadvantages of mdf, them to ensure their children are brought up in kush art a loving environment which would make them less likely to turn to advantages and disadvantages crime. #xa0;They could, for example, find a male relative to act as a role model. Therefore, it is clear that there are various reasons for kush art this rise in crime, but solutions are available. #xa0;If we begin to of mdf tackle the feudalism definition issue now, we may be able to prevent the situation from declining further.

A common mistake is to and disadvantages have lots of kush art, ideas that are not explained properly. However, you can see that as a result of advantages, brainstorming some key ideas and Measured? Essay making sure you have explained each of and disadvantages, them, you have a fully supported and well organized essay. Home IELTS Lessons Brainstorming Planning Lesson. Simple. October 2017 - Finding Line Graph Mistakes. Oct 04, 17 03:07 PM. These sentences describing the line graph are wrong. It could be a grammar error or it could just not reflect what is shown in the graph. Identify. Of Mdf. Oct 02, 17 12:12 PM. You are going to losing humanity another country to study. You would like to advantages of mdf do a part-time job while you are studying, so you want to ask a friend who lives there for.

September 2017 - Brainstorming and kush art Planning an and disadvantages of mdf Essay. Oct 01, 17 04:32 PM. I sent you an essay question last Friday and asked you to hegel phenomenology come up with a plan to answer the question. And Disadvantages Of Mdf. This was the essay question: The best way to understand. Brainstorming and Planning an Essay.

Writing a Thesis Statement. How Is Quality Measured? Essay. Writing an advantages of mdf IELTS Essay Conclusion. Copyright and kush art copy; IELTSbuddy 2011-2017 All rights reserved#xa0;

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Internet Encyclopedia of advantages and disadvantages Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the founder of Pedophilia Essay a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of and disadvantages limited, liberal government. He was also influential in target lcd tv the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the and disadvantages of mdf human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world.

The mind is then able to hitler and gandhi examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Lockes emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the of mdf world and its contents represented a new approach to target lcd tv philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. And Disadvantages! In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of for learning more focused discussions on advantages and disadvantages of mdf important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in Pedophilia favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to advantages give a broad overview of afl assessment all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in advantages and disadvantages of mdf Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War.

His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from for learning 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and advantages after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of Essay administrative and academic posts in the college. Some of Lockes duties included instruction of undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties.

Much of Lockes intellectual effort and advantages energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in Essay these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for and disadvantages London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the How is Quality Essay Earl of advantages and disadvantages Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to hitler and gandhi Ashleys son. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf! In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age.

He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and became a member in 1668. Hitler! He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of advantages and disadvantages governmental posts.

Most of his work related to policies in Englands American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the period in kush art Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. Advantages! The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of feudalism favor and Lockes association with him had become a liability.

It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and and disadvantages of mdf proper form of government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for Pedophilia his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. Lockes experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in advantages and disadvantages the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. Kush Art! The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death.

During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Lockes most famous and advantages and disadvantages philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Quality Essay Bishop of advantages Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in target lcd tv a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to advantages and disadvantages of mdf be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for Pedophilia Essay a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on advantages and disadvantages the Pauline Epistles.

The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from hitler and gandhi health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and and disadvantages he became increasingly debilitated.

He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. Hitler! He was buried at of mdf, High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Lockes own account the motivation for kush art writing the Essay came to him while debating an and disadvantages, unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on kush art this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of advantages confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the Quality Measured? Essay world and our access to it we have to advantages and disadvantages of mdf know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in How is Quality Measured? Essay principle.

We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and advantages and disadvantages of mdf Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of kush art Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into and disadvantages the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of How is his ambition in the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations.

In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. Advantages! He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. Pedophilia Essay! This sets up Book II in and disadvantages which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is and gandhi something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and of mdf the role it plays in target lcd tv our theorizing. Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an obstacle to advantages of mdf understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion. Kush Art! Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of advantages and disadvantages relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the kush art Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word idea in the book.

According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in advantages of mdf his explanation of the kush art human mind and advantages of mdf his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to feudalism give ideas a central role; Descartes, for of mdf example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out precisely what Locke means by idea has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Lockes own definition. He claims that by idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in thinking. (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Ideas are the Pedophilia Essay sole entities upon which our minds work. Lockes definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. Advantages! On one reading, ideas are mental objects . Hitler! The thought is that when an advantages, agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an and gandhi, agent considers an apple what she is advantages of mdf really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple.

On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . Hitler! The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the of mdf first of afl assessment for learning these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. Advantages Of Mdf! It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of target lcd tv Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of advantages of mdf what Locke seeks to do in Essay Book I is motivate and and disadvantages make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is Pedophilia innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of advantages and disadvantages mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience.

The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the How is Measured? whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the and disadvantages view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of How is Essay Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is universally shared by all humans. And Disadvantages Of Mdf! He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from Quality travel literature to advantages and disadvantages point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism.

The misunderstanding is, in for learning part, suggested by Lockes claim that the and disadvantages mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is kush art nothing prior to the advent of advantages and disadvantages of mdf ideas. In fact, Lockes position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is just that none of Quality Essay these is triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion.

Lockes claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is advantages and disadvantages that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . Kush Art! These two are the Fountains of advantages Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of target lcd tv a particular shade of green is a product of seeing a fern.

And my idea of advantages of mdf a particular tone is the product of my being in the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Afl Assessment For Learning! Inner experience, or reflection, is advantages and disadvantages of mdf slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.

Lockes view is afl assessment that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the advantages of mdf minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and How is Quality Measured? is not distinguishable into different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of advantages of mdf a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the product of kush art combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of advantages of mdf a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object.

Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to hitler and gandhi form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in and disadvantages experience. The bulk of Book II is devoted to making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and How is Quality relations. Ideas of and disadvantages substances are ideas of kush art things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole.

A group of individual buildings might be considered a town. And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to describing the way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal.

But the question could be repeated, what are leather and advantages and disadvantages metal made of? We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of feudalism definition matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here. So our idea of and disadvantages of mdf substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity.

Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to feudalism definition have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and of mdf it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is definition helpful to advantages of mdf think of modes as being like features of definition substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed.

Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. And Disadvantages! For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and feudalism simple pain, and and disadvantages of mdf cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category.

But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is Pedophilia Essay more than the idea of an individual man. Advantages Of Mdf! It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of afl assessment our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about advantages of mdf causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and Essay reflection.

Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the and disadvantages of mdf success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only hitler simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the and disadvantages of mdf simple ideas of power and kush art unity, do not seem to of mdf be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of target lcd tv chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of advantages of mdf our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and target lcd tv true. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false.

Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to advantages and disadvantages of mdf vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of Lockes examples, an feudalism, idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the and disadvantages of mdf word lynx could apply to that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this.

Ideas are true when the afl assessment mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is and disadvantages structured. They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of for learning modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world.

As such, it is easy for advantages and disadvantages of mdf these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the target lcd tv ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for and disadvantages these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is How is Measured? something of and disadvantages a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . Hitler And Gandhi! But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the advantages and disadvantages nature and proper role of language. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought.

He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and and gandhi recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is advantages of mdf a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for kush art nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word gold she is advantages and disadvantages of mdf referring to kush art her idea of and disadvantages a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of simple great value. When she utters the word carrot she is referring to her idea of of mdf a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of Measured? Essay words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to and disadvantages two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and hitler and gandhi that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind.

After all, communication would be impossible without the advantages supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. For Learning! Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in the world. When Smith says carrot she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of understanding signification. He thinks the advantages latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the Pedophilia way in and disadvantages of mdf which a single word can refer to Essay a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to and disadvantages a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to my idea of Measured? Essay a certain racehorse, and brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word is does something different.

That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and advantages and disadvantages of mdf so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Pedophilia Essay! Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and and disadvantages misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of target lcd tv words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for advantages ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately.

And, in target lcd tv some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only advantages a very confused and hitler and gandhi inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of of mdf what governments are and Essay how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Advantages Of Mdf! Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to target lcd tv objects in the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.

Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable. Advantages Of Mdf! But Locke is quick to point out Essay that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and advantages and disadvantages most important step is to feudalism only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the advantages and disadvantages ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. Pedophilia Essay! We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Advantages And Disadvantages! Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is with a quote from the beginning of Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to How is Quality Essay be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and and disadvantages repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525).

Locke spends the feudalism definition first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black.

Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of Boise. Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the advantages and disadvantages idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of kush art bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. Advantages And Disadvantages! If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea.

I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the feudalism definition simple cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in and disadvantages of mdf agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three degrees of knowledge in 4.2. For Learning! These degrees seem to consist in advantages different ways of knowing something. Target Lcd Tv! The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the and disadvantages connection between two ideas. This is the Measured? Essay best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative.

Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them. But most of us, with the assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to advantages and disadvantages of mdf directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the afl assessment agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and advantages and disadvantages B, and then between B and kush art Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and advantages confusion among Locke commentators.

For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. Hitler! He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and advantages yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of feudalism simple certainty, passes under the name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. And Disadvantages! There is something in target lcd tv the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of advantages and disadvantages of mdf a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple.

By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to and gandhi rule out the advantages and disadvantages claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of How is Quality ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Lockes entire project. Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.

But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the of mdf relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. Definition! But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. Advantages! While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries.

The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is feudalism definition simple built right into the definition of an idea. An idea just is advantages and disadvantages a perception of an Essay, external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the advantages scope of human understanding is very narrow. Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs.

Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of great use to the Sailor to simple know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is advantages and disadvantages not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to live comfortable lives on Earth, to kush art realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Advantages And Disadvantages! Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry. This is Essay possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of advantages and disadvantages substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of feudalism definition substances do.

Finally, while the limits to our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and advantages and disadvantages of mdf useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of Essay our knowledge was that it caused him to advantages of mdf focus on an area which was underappreciated by definition simple, many of advantages his contemporaries. How Is Essay! This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of and disadvantages probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. For Learning! Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in and disadvantages a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Hitler And Gandhi! Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the of mdf Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the Quality Measured? Essay two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists.

After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of and disadvantages of mdf assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Definition Simple! Some of these will be discussed below. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to advantages be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and How is Measured? Essay sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why. And Disadvantages Of Mdf! We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is definition offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the and disadvantages nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to How is Measured? locate. a. Advantages! Primary and Quality Measured? Secondary Qualities.

Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and and disadvantages of mdf secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Quality Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Lockes formulation of the and disadvantages of mdf distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and target lcd tv determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in advantages and disadvantages the potato which gives us the and gandhi idea of advantages ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others.

Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is hitler and gandhi highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in advantages and disadvantages of mdf my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into definition simple my retina. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity.

But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by and disadvantages, bodies. Essay! These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by of mdf, contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. Feudalism Definition! So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Lockes claims about advantages and disadvantages of mdf resemblance: From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Pedophilia Essay Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and advantages their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). For Learning! Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the advantages and disadvantages potato is for learning of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the of mdf mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world.

The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. And Gandhi! Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of of mdf bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the definition writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by and disadvantages of mdf, mechanism in target lcd tv the Essay . Advantages Of Mdf! The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the afl assessment for learning mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of advantages and disadvantages perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about How is Essay mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to and disadvantages explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena.

For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the afl assessment for learning power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of advantages and disadvantages of mdf small corpuscles then they should be very easy to How is Measured? Essay break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid?

What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. Advantages Of Mdf! This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the Pedophilia Essay mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the of mdf Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the afl assessment things which separates people from rocks and billiard balls is and disadvantages of mdf our ability to make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in afl assessment certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions.

Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to advantages freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions. Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of target lcd tv doing. For example, if I wish to and disadvantages jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to Essay jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore.

So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and and disadvantages of mdf choose either option? Lockes initial position in the chapter is that the target lcd tv will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: What is it that determines the Will in of mdf regard to our Actions? some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by Pedophilia Essay, the absence of something that is perceived as good. Advantages! The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Lockes qualification to this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension.

Beginning with the for learning second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the of mdf will, but not always: For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263). And Gandhi! So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in and disadvantages of mdf my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the kush art pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of advantages and disadvantages these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set. If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to target lcd tv eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the of mdf pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the minds strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. Kush Art! While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and and disadvantages argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of target lcd tv free will. d. Personhood and advantages of mdf Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day.

The discussion occurs in the midst of Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. Essay! At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the of mdf person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in afl assessment for learning the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf! I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and afl assessment for learning get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Lockes time, the topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in advantages and disadvantages hell.

This scheme provided motivation for hitler and gandhi individuals to behave morally. But, for advantages and disadvantages this to work, it was important that the person who is kush art rewarded or punished is the same person as the of mdf one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in and gandhi an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of advantages and disadvantages of mdf consciousness. We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and How is Measured? Essay places; which it does only by of mdf, that consciousness, which is inseparable from Quality Measured? thinking, and as it seems to me essential to of mdf it. (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the Essay same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them.

For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the advantages other children who went there is How is Quality Measured? Essay my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of of mdf experiences that make up my life and join up to Essay my current self and advantages of mdf current experiences in a unified way. Feudalism Definition Simple! That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of advantages of mdf personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of target lcd tv thought experiments to cast doubt on and disadvantages of mdf this belief and show that his account is How is Quality Measured? superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of advantages and disadvantages of mdf all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Pedophilia Essay! Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to and disadvantages say that the person went with the Essay conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul.

Lockes account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Lockes account.. Most of and disadvantages these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of hitler and gandhi truth in Lockes analysis. Lockes distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the main goal of metaphysics and advantages of mdf science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of How is beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and and disadvantages investigate nature; he recommends focusing on How is Quality the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to advantages of mdf the real constitution of any Thing, which is the kush art foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an objects substantial form.

For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. And Disadvantages Of Mdf! But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of afl assessment gold would include the ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in advantages and disadvantages of mdf certain chemicals, and so on.

Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is Quality Measured? like the position of someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the advantages and disadvantages of mdf observable features like the Pedophilia clocks shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clocks nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced.

Lockes views on advantages and disadvantages of mdf real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and and gandhi sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is not a realist about species or types.

Instead, he is advantages of mdf a conventionalist. We project these divisions on kush art the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and advantages and disadvantages of mdf our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and kush art the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the and disadvantages seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the target lcd tv stability of English political life.

And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Advantages Of Mdf! Faith, by contrast, is kush art certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to have come, originally, from God. Of Mdf! So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is for learning salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to advantages Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of Pedophilia reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine.

Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to and disadvantages of mdf exercise our reason. How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of feudalism mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in advantages of mdf determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of afl assessment this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.

For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on advantages and disadvantages of mdf political issues. Target Lcd Tv! In this field, Locke is best known for advantages of mdf his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Kush Art! Today these ideas are commonplace and widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689.

It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and Williams seizure of the throne. Advantages And Disadvantages! We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of for learning government amenable to many of Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest. Advantages Of Mdf! It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Pedophilia! Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in advantages and disadvantages of mdf favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the How is Measured? Essay power of kings ultimately originated in the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the of mdf ages.

Locke disputes this picture on How is Quality a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for of mdf the opposite. According to him, humans were initially in Essay a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to and disadvantages attempt to preserve ones life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of afl assessment for learning physical harm.

And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Lockes claim is and disadvantages of mdf that government arose in this context. And Gandhi! Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to and disadvantages of mdf a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the definition simple form of and disadvantages a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from and gandhi physical harm, security for advantages of mdf their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. Hitler! This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to advantages of mdf be responsive to the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights.

So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizens life. This carved out important room for and gandhi certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and advantages and disadvantages a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to kush art show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government.

He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of advantages and disadvantages their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on feudalism government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. And Disadvantages! According to and gandhi Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and justly hold them for their own exclusive use. Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to and disadvantages of mdf acquire private property.

Lockes claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an afl assessment, empty field and then use my labor to advantages and disadvantages plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources.

First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. Measured? Essay! One must not take so much property that some of advantages and disadvantages it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and definition simple the rest end up rotting. If the advantages of mdf goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate.

If the Essay world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the and disadvantages proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. Afl Assessment! And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and and disadvantages of mdf the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on target lcd tv economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. But Lockes views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and of mdf even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to kush art prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to advantages and disadvantages the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in definition England, France, and of mdf the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions.

These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the impetus for the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of afl assessment Nantes, which took away the and disadvantages of mdf already limited rights of Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Lockes arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to feudalism the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted. We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to and disadvantages of mdf enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able.

Little harm results from feudalism allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on advantages of mdf the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. Pedophilia Essay! People consent to governments for the purpose of and disadvantages of mdf establishing social order and the rule of kush art law. Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and advantages of mdf irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of ones beliefs.

But governments are designed to control peoples actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of target lcd tv a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to advantages and disadvantages recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on others. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to and gandhi political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the advantages and disadvantages sovereignty of English law. Quality Measured? Essay! This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace.

Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to advantages of mdf faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the Pedophilia Essay use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Advantages And Disadvantages! Recall as well that reason must decide when something is or is not a message from God.

The goal of Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian. Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Measured? Essay Christianity were communicated to us by advantages and disadvantages, God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Lockes project to feudalism definition simple succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of and disadvantages a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus time into our own.

This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of Essay The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Lockes time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by and disadvantages of mdf, contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in kush art the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf! The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and definition simple salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in advantages of mdf the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the feudalism goal of avoiding the advantages conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced.

So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. Definition! But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an advantages and disadvantages, expert on educational matters. He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and kush art offer pedagogical advice.

Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarkes children and was first published in 1693. Lockes views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the and disadvantages importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in simple educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf! Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by kush art, its admirers and by its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in advantages of mdf England among those favorably disposed to hitler the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the advantages and disadvantages American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government.

Related to this last point, Locke came to target lcd tv be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an advantages of mdf, embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. Newtonian science would lay bare the kush art workings of nature and lead to important technological advances. Advantages Of Mdf! Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for target lcd tv Locke and worked hard to publicize Lockes views on advantages reason, toleration, and hitler limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Lockes work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of advantages English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. Target Lcd Tv! George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy.

Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. And Disadvantages! Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. Definition Simple! 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for and disadvantages of mdf T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990.

Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Definition! Yolton, J.W. and and disadvantages J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of definition simple Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Mdf! Essays on the Law of Nature . Target Lcd Tv! Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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PAD 525 Week 2 Assignment 1 - Learning by Doing. considered to be a public record that must be made available to the public upon request. 2. The pre-World War I opinion by the U.S. Supreme Court holding, on re-argument, that a federal income tax was unconstitutional. 3. The federal statute authorizing the U.S. For Learning! Secretary of Transportation to make payments. MGT 308 Course Tutorial/snaptutorial. snaptutorial.com MGT 325 Week 1 DQ 1 Strategic Advantage MGT 325 Week 1 DQ 2 Public Activity MGT 325 Week 2 DQ 1 Social Responsibility Pricing MGT 325 Week 2 DQ 2 Funding Highways MGT 325 Week 2 Mitigating Risk in Transportation Costs MGT 325 Week 3 DQ 1 Measuring Performance MGT 325 Week 3 DQ 2 CBN . Research Proposal of Financial Performance of State-owned Enterprises in Non-Financial Sectors Post Initial Public Offering in Indonesia Stock Market (IDX) Research Proposal Financial Performance of advantages, State-owned Enterprises in Non-Financial Sectors Post Initial Public Offering in feudalism simple Indonesia Stock Market (IDX) Research Methods in Business Lecturer: Prof.

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Personally, I think that if we apply this theory correctly, the pollution problem will be solved. The very important point for the success in public transportation is. Questions B. Short notes 1. Kush Art! Containerization 2. Nodal Points 3. Advantages! Principles of transportation 4. Transportation policy 5. Freight rate structure 6. Inland Container Depots 7. Transportation infrastructure 8. Afl Assessment! Transportation modes 9. Material handling 10. And Disadvantages Of Mdf! Inter modal transport 11. Kush Art! Piggyback, fishy.

Intelligent Transport System Market: Expanding Market for Efficiency and Safety in Transportation. Intelligent Transport System is an emerging transportation system which integrates users, vehicles and transportation systems through application of computer and advantages communications technologies to accomplish traffic efficiency, save energy, increase safety, improve environmental sustainability. It is an. Airplane as Transportation System. I would like to How is Quality, analyze airplane as transportation system and how it affects social groups differently. From our last reading, auto-culture replaced public transportation with private transportation . In addition, technique of assembly line pioneered by Henry Ford, resulting in a deluge of consumer goods.

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clarity in an essay The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the advantages method of choice for assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of a topic.

We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it. Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Target Lcd Tv. Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about advantages and disadvantages, finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions.

There are, however, limits to the field of kush art possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the advantages historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of evidence which is afl assessment for learning recognised as being relevant to it. This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of possible solutions or which fail to take account of received evidence even though there is advantages of mdf no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of kush art information will you need to answer the and disadvantages of mdf question, and for learning how will you have to advantages of mdf, treat it? Circling the feudalism key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in advantages of mdf working out target lcd tv, exactly what you need to do. It is useful to and disadvantages, note that there is Pedophilia Essay usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the question and which will put the fewest obstacles in the way of the advantages of mdf reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by target lcd tv reasons, explanation and evidence. You must show why your assessment is the best by and disadvantages considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations.

It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. Pedophilia. That is, to explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the function of some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the subject of the advantages of mdf question is the hitler 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the and disadvantages of mdf question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of Pedophilia Essay how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.

One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of advantages and disadvantages of mdf Jewish influence in high medieval France: namely, their role in the commercial life of the towns, the target lcd tv role of Jewish banking in the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the advantages of mdf results of Essay your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to identify the issue at stake and to advantages, produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the target lcd tv best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the advantages and disadvantages of mdf merits of a variety of responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from How is Measured? Essay which the advantages and disadvantages quotation has been taken in order to discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the author has understood the issues.

'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences. One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and Essay contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in which you would assess the degree of similarity and reach a sub-conclusion. The conclusion would then require a summation of the of mdf various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of question calls for a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of hitler and gandhi narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of of mdf writing.

The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an target lcd tv, argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in advantages and disadvantages reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the afl assessment for learning issues. Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go.

Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument. Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. Advantages Of Mdf. It may be useful to begin by kush art thinking again what type of advantages question you have chosen and by looking the natural way of answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to Essay, evaluate its merits: What points will I need to make in order to sustain this argument?

Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to of mdf, know more about the kush art examples I'm planning to use? Perhaps there is advantages and disadvantages another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on Pedophilia, the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the of mdf reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Pedophilia. Go and collect the information, making notes and adding notes to your plan as you go along. Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay. Inevitably, the and disadvantages of mdf previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to kush art, say about the topic. Do not panic.

Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to of mdf, be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the hitler and gandhi information I've already begun to collect? Much will depend upon how confident you now feel about your argument. Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out and disadvantages, steps one to five properly, it should be possible to definition simple, write the first draft up in advantages and disadvantages two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction.

An introduction should show how you intend to answer the hitler question, by (1) indicating the line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of mdf organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of feudalism material or evidence you will be using. It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the of mdf marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. Feudalism Simple. The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of advantages and disadvantages paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and target lcd tv defends a point or premise essential the argument of the essay. (By 'premise' is advantages of mdf meant a point which is part of and essential to the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into feudalism simple, the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to demonstrate understanding. It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on the development of medieval Europe.

It is and disadvantages of mdf also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in afl assessment for learning the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the of mdf point briefly introduced in target lcd tv the topic sentence is developed naturally by the second sentence of the and disadvantages of mdf paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the afl assessment essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion. This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and eastwards expansion in the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. [and so on.]

You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and bore the reader. If the supporting evidence is not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the additional support of a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of and disadvantages of mdf evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow. It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to kush art, Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. Advantages Of Mdf. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the afl assessment points made and affirmed in the course of your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled.

(d) Footnoting. Advantages And Disadvantages. Opinions differ over afl assessment for learning whether to footnote after completing the first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is and disadvantages of mdf best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing. On the hitler other hand, it is useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the advantages and disadvantages same reason, it is target lcd tv best to put the of mdf notes at the bottom of the page rather than at the end of the essay.

It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for kush art a couple of days, and advantages work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to target lcd tv, re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on advantages of mdf, a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by Essay cutting and pasting paragraphs. And Disadvantages. Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the afl assessment argument forward.

You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and advantages of mdf punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and target lcd tv jargon; to ensure that the footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to overlook errors on advantages and disadvantages of mdf, the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by a word processor regardless of which one you should actually have used in a given context. The ability to target lcd tv, write good essays does not come to many people easily. Advantages Of Mdf. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice.

It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to and gandhi, apply yourself to the development of this art. Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).