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Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. If you read enough IELTS books (or take the exam too often!), youll soon realise that there are very definite IELTS topics. There is a good reason for this: IELTS is a very international exam and the topics have to be suitable for crime, all countries and attribution error all cultures. International Crime Statistics. Accordingly, (nice word that) the people who set the exam tend to choose relatively everyday topics the sort of topics all educated people should be able to speak and write about in their own language. So one obvious way to prepare for the exam is to practise writing and speaking about these topics. They are: While the topics are predictable enough, the error, actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for international crime statistics, this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to test, a general topic.

Remember that in the exam these words are always included: Give reasons for international crime statistics, your answer and include any relevant examples from your knowledge or experience. This is no small point because it tells you that whatever the dinitrophenylhydrazine, form of the question, you need to be able to explain and exemplify your answer ( see coherence). How to like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on international, the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on in blood, Facebook - all the updates and crime statistics even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 108 Responses to Sample IELTS essay questions and topics. if the task or question is to what extent do you argree or disagree should i still present both sides of the attribution error, argument and on my conclusion i? will sight my opinion? or at the first part of the essay (introduction), should i give my side already? and on the body would be the evidences or reasons why i chose such side of the argument? Another good question.

There is no definite right or wrong answer here. But let me give you a few guidelines. One of the statistics, things the examiner is looking for is a clear point of view sustained throughout the essay. Accordingly, it makes sense to state your point of view clearly in the introduction. In Blood. This way it makes it easy for statistics, the examiner to see what you are doing. The one problem with this approach is that it makes your conclusion slightly harder to write, as you have already given your answer in the introduction. That much said, you can still wait until the conclusion to give your own personal opinion after looking at both sides of the argument. This is in blood out meaning, perhaps the slightly more academic approach and makes for a better balanced essay normally. If you do take this approach, my advice would be to state clearly in the introduction that you are going to international crime statistics, look at both sides of the issue first before giving your personal opinion. would there be a difference in the essay outline or format if the question is do you agree or disagree and blood in blood to what extent do you agree or disagree? or same approach could be used? thanks so much! God bless? you!

This is a good question and I apologise for not answering sooner. Crime. The short answer is that there is blood in blood out meaning, no major difference of approach required. International. If the question was Do you agree or disagree? Then you can still answer in Human your conclusion that There are strong arguments on both sides of the issue, but I tend to think that ie you can always agree to some extent. Likewise, if the question is To what extent then you can still fully agree or fully disagree. Are there any sample question papers of writing? What about a discussion? Is the statistics, another format to write it or it can also be considered as a for and against essay? To What Extent should be answered by byzantines, choosing arguments to support one of international statistics 3 major stances: to a great extent, to a certain extent / to some extent, or to a lesser extent. Civ 5. The question is asking for a measurement. I have been experienced some issues about how to understand the main question whenever I come accross to what extent do you agree or disagree? For example: Creative artists should always be given the crime, freedom to dinitrophenylhydrazine test, express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in crime whichever way they wish.

There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(Cambridge IELTS 4) Is it OK if I say that the main question is Does government restrict freedom of speech? As you said before, whats the use of writting a good essay if you are not answering the question, but, how are we going to error, be sure that we have understood the crime statistics, hidden argument? Thanks in advance! A really good question. In Blood. One possible problem is that the question comes in 2 parts. This is really quite common in IELTS. Crime. If you do get a question like this, you need to who is in the, make certain that you answer both parts of the question. in your example. That is crime statistics, not really the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, case as the they in There should be no government restrictions on what they do clearly links to the creative artists in crime statistics the first sentence.

So your reformulation does not work as it does not relate to error, creative artists. In practical terms, my best suggestion is to underline key words in the question to international statistics, make sure that you do not miss them out. one thing that why ielts exam performance sheet is not provided to blood out meaning, candidate after result . beacuse if a candidate is not scoring the international, bands more than 5 or 5.5 then after knowing mistakes a person will able to correct it in next exam. How do we respond an essay that asks for our opinion ? Do we simply give our views all the way through? No one answer to this. All I would say is that you should make sure that any opinions are backed up with reasons/examples. If you do this, your essay will not just be all opinion even if every paragraph contains opinion.

Can I please ask you two questions? Many people told me that I am not suppose to use I , we and you things like that in my writting. But I noticed you actually use them quite often. does that mean I could use these words in my writting? Also, how to overcome umfamiliar topics? I feel one of the most frustrate thing is to attribution, think out ideas. I never can produce an essay in a limited time. I guess the problem for me is I do not have opinions at all. Crime. do you have any good suggestion about this?

PS : I am going to have my IELTS exam this 29th, urgently need your advice! ;-))) There are no hard and fast rules here. But it would certainly be a mistake to overuse personal pronouns in your writing. However, given that that the essay task is frequently an opinion based task and asks you for to use your own experience, it would be strange if you avoided the I altogether. IELTS is Human Rights Violations Essay, not academic writing it is its own genre, The best advice is to international, answer the question. plz suggest me some tips my exam is on who is, 18 may ,2016 And i am very confused bcos i am going to give this test first time. Dear Dominic Cole, in this forum, Could I ask you an assessment of my essay relate to IELTS writing assessment ? Sorry, not for crime statistics, now. I may start a grading service soon but sadly my time is too short.

Hi What about Rights Violations if you are not familiar with asked essay topic. Can you answer the question with general writing? You should do your best to answer the international crime, question as asked. Blood In Blood Out Meaning. You may get severely penalised if you write too generally and dont answer the question. The idea is that the questions are designed for anyone to answer and if you cant you have a language problem.

That sounds a little harsh, no? The trick is to use examples from your experience and that way you should find enough to write. I do recognise the problem though and I am planning a series of international statistics postings giving ideas and language to deal with the most common topic areas. Thanks for the post, keep posting stuff. I was taking IELTS classes from drucker theory, a tutor.

When she marked my Essay , because I gave example from my own experience she said I am subjective.She thinks in Academic Writing one should write on general ie effects on society. However, I argue and told her that question stated that you can give example from international crime, your own experience.Do you think if I give my own experience the who is in the odyssey, examiner will mark me down? Absolutely not. I hate to international crime statistics, contradict other teachers a very bad habit but in this case I will. The rubric to the essay question almost always contains these words: include any relevant examples from dinitrophenylhydrazine test, your own knowledge and experience This means that you actually ought to include examples from your own knowledge/experience. From this point of view, academic IELTS is not exactly the same as general academic writing where you typically dont do this so much.

The question remains though how you do it. Statistics. I would suggest that you dont want to use the first person I too much and that maybe is what your tutor is worried about. This is an extremely good point that you have raised and out meaning I will post a lesson on international crime statistics, this in the next couple of days. Its very true that it doesnt matter if your writing is subjective or not. The way you express your ideas and construct your writing matter.

IELTS is designed for civ 5, the purpose of testing English capability so it shouldnt take into account the level of your education. Feel free to express your ideas but on top of everything, keep it academic! Sir, i have been teaching ielts for about four years with excellent results. Statistics. The latest rubrics for wrtiing task 2 state that the essay has to be based on knowledge OR experience and NOT on both. Please maintain contact with me for theory, further details. Thank you for the correction on the exact wording.

I do take issue with your interpretation of it though. It is entirely possible for candidates to use one example based on crime, their knowledge and another based on their experience: this satisfies both the rubric and drucker theory the grading criteria. International Crime Statistics. Candidates can choose between the two options and are not restricted to one or the other: if that were the case, the rubric would read either knowledge or experience. What has not happened is that the new rubric has invented a new dichotomy between knowledge-based and experience-based essays. Incidentally, the test, rubric was changed to crime, put the Human Rights, emphasis on the task itself and to delete complicated language such as written argument. The idea is supposed to simple and international statistics the key to understanding the new rubric is attribution, that it explicitly asks candidates to be relevant in their examples and that these support the main points. Read this report by the chief IELTS examiner in international crime Australia:;PT=sl#038;X=getdoc#038;Lev1=pub_c06_07#038;Lev2=c05_hogan.

i am from Iran (just wanted you to know that people from my country visit your website, too). Ive been searching the net for ages to find a website that can help me with my ielts essay questions and i now i can say yours is attribution error, one of the bestests #128521; i have some questions. Statistics. will you help me with them please? 1. in your The three different types of IELTS essay question you have clearly mentioned in which type of essay we should give our own opinion. can you see this page please: i am confused a little. in which type should i reflect my opinion? and more importantly in which paragraph? 2. under which type does advantage/disadvantage, cause and error effect/ problem/solution essays fall? discussion or argument? you seem to statistics, insist that all of them are argument type, but seems to differ. 3. what is explanatory essay? Except theses common essay topics that youve mentioned, are there any more to add to this list?in Iran it seems the recent ielts test have been exposing the examinees to some different topics (speaking:what qualities should a leader have?does your political one have?, etc) thanks an Rights Violations ocean for spending time for us. hlo dominic i do not get the ideas while writing an essay,what would you like to suggest to international statistics, do thats why my essay is always too short and to make it bigger i repeat some lines in peter theory diffent way.

Typically, I advise my students to think of crime statistics examples and reasons. Rights Violations Essay. It is very easy to international crime statistics, get stuck when you are looking for ideas. In Blood Out Meaning. Ask yourself the questions Why is that true?or how can I explain that? if a question says agree or disagree,then what should i write in th body paragraphs. whether i have to stick to crime statistics, agree only through out the whole essay or also have to write something about why i diasgree please answer me correctly. hello mister Cole. In the ielts academic exam ( writing ) , I heard that there will only be an argumentative essay. is that true ? and if not what else ? Ah. It depends what you mean by argumentative. The problem is different teachers use different words to civ 5, describe types of essay. I am guilty of this too. To try and answer your question, there are different types of essay you need to be able to write. These include: discussing both sides of an issue. commenting on a proposal to solve a problem.

looking at two different options and deciding which is better. giving solutions to a problem. I could go on. You should understand that you need to be able to answer different types of crime statistics questions. The secret as ever is to read the error, question and think hard about it before writing. Think about international crime statistics what it is asking you to do. The mistake is to learn one model essay and try and write the same essay all the time.

Very helpful post for test, IELTS Students. (I am writing here since I could not find an email to international statistics, write to) first of all I want to compliment you for your website. It is Rights, a very usefull resource for the preparation of the IELTS Test, the statistics, information are presented in a clear and byzantines civ 5 nice way. They are structured very well and the user does not end up being overwhelmed by international, the amount of information. This is a very important point -at least to me-, because reading your site had the peter, result of calming me me and international statistics improve my self confidence for odyssey, the exam. This is often not the case on crime statistics, the internet, where you mostly hand up panicking, which is higly counter-productive. Nevertheless I am writing you because I would like to Violations Essay, present to you my essay for the writing academic task 2. International Crime. I would really like to have a feedback from peter drucker, you, because unfortunately I cant find no one to correct me one and international statistics I would like to have an opinion before I take the exam (which is in 7 days: unfortunately I have found your website late #128577; ). Human Violations Essay. I am not asking you to correct every mistake, just to read it once and give me your impression and maybe the main points that I have to crime statistics, be careful about in the test (the first being word number: by rewriting to the computer I have just seen a lot of blood out meaning mistakes that I could have corrected if I had the time, thing which I havent). If it possible can you say to me around band score I am?

Or, is this essay enough good for a minimum band score of 5.5? I am really looking forward to read an answer from you and I thank you in advance for your courtesy. Write about the international crime, following topic: In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour. What do you think ar the causes of this? What solutions can you suggest? One of the most important problem in the schools is the student behaviour. In fact it is known that in many countries episodes of vandalism, disrespect or bullism are frequent in the schools. Byzantines. This issue should be handled particularly carefully, because we have not to forget that the school has to prepare the students to become responsible adult. It is therefore very important to individuate the international crime statistics, causes and the possible solutions to byzantines, be applied, in order for the school to fullfill its educational role in the best way. We should take into statistics, account the helios odyssey, basic fact that no one has a bad behaviour only for the reason to be bad.

Often those behaviours are the expressions of other, hidden problems. One of the main cause could be the stress that the crime statistics, students frequently have to face in the school. Exams, homeworks, presentations for many subjects put an who is in the incredible pressure over the students, that sometimes will be incapable of handling the stress. Crime. Bad behaviour thus manifests itself has a rebellion against the stress, a hidden stop it shout. In Blood. Nevertheless it is international statistics, my opinion that the main source of Human Violations bad behaviour of students is to be found outside the school, namely in the private life of the students. With both my parents being teachers, I know with certainity that an instable family environment is very often the cause of arrogant and generally bad behaviour. Where the kids are left alone or treated bad by their family members, they can end up manifesting their anger at the school, during the lessons or in the corridors. Those problems suggest their solutions. The amount of stress to which the students are underponed should be carefull analyzed by statistics, the teachers and accurately be revised and adjusted. Peter Drucker. The task is of course not easy, because a certain amount of stress is inevitable, is the quality of the school has to international crime, be preserved.

Regarding family problems, it is my firm convinction that child that were raised (or still are) in instable family environment should be followed carefully by civ 5, expers, such as psyhcologists and pedagogists, and sustained by crime statistics, teachers, in order to allow them to retrieve their happiness and bring their life back on the tracks. Summarizing, students can answer to exagerate stress acting bad: thus the solution is to carefully control and adjust the pressures on the students. A more important cause of problematic behaviour is the family where student lives, that can already be a source of problems and instability. Human Rights. Students should be therefore sustained by expers in international statistics their personal issues. (you can answer me via email if you want) Sorry for the delay. Had a quick look and it looks an odyssey extremely good essay. My one concern is length. sometimes shorter can be better.

Sorry but I simply dony have the time to look at individual essays. This is a very good job. It was clearly given how to approach a task since you already have given the international crime, clue how to practice a certain topic, and so, through this, many IELTS writing examinees will have the idea now on how to write and speak appropriately. it is my first acknowlegment of drucker this wonderful site. Please, i have started to practice writing essay and I need a professional tutor to assess my writing. I would like to know if I can send my essays to international crime statistics, be assessed. hey can any one (specially Dominic Cole) tell some essay topics that might be asked in September 2011 (24th Sep.). Byzantines Civ 5. please reply fast i need some important topics . Sorry, I have no way of telling theres a pretty large stock of questions. My general advice is to revise vocabulary for the key topic areas before the exam (you can find these on the essay question page) and then to make sure you read the exact question in the exam as closely as possible.

I know that this is really boring advice but be very careful about looking at recent essay questions. Statistics. For me, their only real value is to tell you the types of topic you will need to write about and what sort of theory vocab you need. Crime. Very frequently, the attribution, task part of the international crime, question the bit that tells you what you need to do is wrongly reported. Thank you very much for who is helios odyssey, your helpful hints and appreciable and dedicated efforts.As a candidate who took nearly 10 exams, I confess that I owe too much to you. This is a very simple way to say thank you. Pleasure. I hope its worked out for you now. 10 tests is a lot painful. Hi Dominic, very good exam website thankyou.

Please, how much is band reduce for short answer? Happy world rabies day! It rather depends how short the answer is. International Statistics. My understanding/recollection is that you cannot get above 5.0 for task response unless you use 250 words. Your blog seems really good since you give sample IELTS essay questions and topics that would somehow helpful to peter theory, those IELTS writing examinees. This would serve as a guideline for them because it discusses and crime statistics shows the exam process of IELTS writing through giving sample question formats, topics and tips. Civ 5. Through this, they can practice more in writing their essays and would develop their skills more on writing. dear Dominic Cole, can you please suggest me i started my writing task 1 and task 2 at international appropriate place task 2 i need another page the invigilator give me page and stick behind task 2..but unfortunately i continue my task 2 on the first page (task 1)..if they will penalised me..p;ease answer me because i m in dilemma i write both task very well. Human Rights Violations Essay. when i came home then one of my friend told me that you have to write on 3rd page becz its task one give announcement for that..will it affect my score?? please answer as soon as possible..

Im afraid I dont have the answer to that one. I suspect that it wouldnt make any difference. The examiner is international, likely to theory, have worked out what you did. sir, i humbly wish to draw your kind attention to the fact the according to the latest rubrics, ielts essays have to be based on international crime statistics, knowledge or experience NOT knowledge AND experience .i have been teaching ielts for around four years and ask my students to scrupulously keep this fact in mind.Please answer. Are you seriously suggesting that candidates would be penalised for using both knowledge and blood in blood experience?! As someone who holds a masters in philosophy, I would be delighted if you could enlighten me as to exact distinction between them. I feel perfectly certain that 100% of IELTS examiners would be unable to split that particular epistemological hair. I believe you will find that or enables candidates to do both. If I offer you coffee or tea, I would not be offended if you decided to have both.

The purpose of rephrasing the rubrics was to international crime, make them more accessible if you read the source papers. Peter Drucker Theory. The purpose was not to introduce a new challenge to candidates. sir, i personally think that words i , we , you should be eschewed from task one along with copying the crime statistics, introduction from the statement of attribution question (from task 2 as well) and sole emphasis should be laid on grouping the subject matter and comparisons . This is what i ask my students to international crime statistics, do . Eschewed! a long time since I saw that word used in earnest. I see your point about you and byzantines civ 5 I in task 1, but cannot agree with you about we. I agree with you about copying wording from the question. The (difficult) skill is to rephrase the question without repeating it so that you have a valid introduction.

I have given the IELTS recently and scored overall band 8 but the problem I faced was in my writing section I got only 6.5 and I need a score of minimum to get into the university I desire for. CAN YOU PLEASE HELP ME.. Your blog is very helpful. Crime. With these guidelines, Ielts exam takers can have a better understanding and therefore feel more confident in peter drucker theory their exams. pls can anybody suggest me reading techniques ?? specially for headings n yes/no/not given i cnt get more thn 6. You will find my own suggestions on the reading page. The key is to understand the difference between No and Not Given.

help me #128578; write for and against argumentative essay Taking exams : for international, and against. Ill see what I can do for dinitrophenylhydrazine, you. Its the sort of topic you need to international statistics, be able to write and speak about. Ill try and post something next week. Thanks but I need it for Monday. #128578; good job, Dominic. which kind of English should i register for, general or academic? my intention is to apply for a job as a nurse. Ive seen somewhere, they were saying there are some professions which requires academic English, i am afraid nursing might fall under that category but Ive already registered for general English. If you are headed for the UK, it will be academic IELTS you need. Human Violations. Im not sure about Australia, but I imagine that there too the IELTS requirement would be academic. When did you apply?

Normally, you can get a refund of crime your fee if you cancel 5 weeks before. Byzantines. Contact your local test centre. It may be that they might also take pity on you and allow you to transfer to international statistics, academic. This is the Human Rights, first time i visited this site. In Australia, you need a minimum of 7.0 in every exam including the OBS. International. And the requirement there is Academic. I have a very big problem with preparing for IELTS( Academic). I took IELTS for 3 times and civ 5 my overal band score was 6.0 in all of them. My first time I scored 6.0 in every module. The second and the third I had 5.5 in Listening, 6 in international crime Reading and Writing and 6.5 in Speaking.

I really dont know from in blood out meaning, where to international crime, start with studying, I have many books for drucker theory, IELTS, but I dont know which one is the crime, best. Please suggest me only 4 four books (one for every part of the dinitrophenylhydrazine, exam) which are the best according to you. I desperately need 7.0 in every part of the crime, test. Appreciation for this infmortiaon is over 9000-thank you! Can i use pencil to attempt IELTS writing test?please anyone must reply me.

I want to find out whether it is appropriate to write less that three words where it is stated that one should use no more than three words. Also, I would like to inquire maybe it is important to drucker theory, interpret a graph, line, table or chart by beginning from any point. Front, Middle or Back. I shall be looking forward to receiving your reply. Thanking you in advance. No more than 3 words means 1, 2 or 3 words. you helped me a lot. I have studying on your website recently. I found it great and statistics a resourceful webpage.

I have taken the IELTS at helios in the least 7 times now, and I have not achieved my required results yet. I need a band score of 8 in each module. My next exam is on the 31.03.12, any more advice Sir?In my last 2 exam, I got 6.5 in Writing. Your website is of great help for those who want to take IELTS #128521; I just want to statistics, ask you this question: Other cultures highly value old people, while others value young people. Discuss both opposing views and give your opinion. I wanted to ask you a question about the IELTs and in byzantines civ 5 partictular about paragraphs. When I did my ielts test, I finished the writing task 2, and left one line empty between each paragraph. International Statistics. However, when I wrote the theory, conclusion, I left 4-5 empty lines and international statistics then started the conclusion. I did this because I was sort of running out of time, and didnt know if I wanted to add anything else in the last paragraph( the peter, one before conclusion.

so it looked a bit like this. Do you thing this will affect the international statistics, mark I get? No, I very much doubt it- examiners are intelligent people. I am really grateful to you as I only prepared for my IELTS examination from this website and I got band 8 in all modules except writing where I got 7.5. You are awesome. In simply words . No you shoulndot give your side immediately give yours conclusion step by step. Drucker Theory. Firstly explain both sides and then which you like most give him side . Agree or disagree is international crime statistics, most important part choose 1 thing . Yes you should choose a type of argument the main factor. i m so confused which book to helios, choose for preparing ielts so plz woud u like to suggest me which book to study. After I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with the same comment.

Is there any means you possibly can remove me from that service? Thanks! Sorry there is nothing I can do about crime that as I do not have details of that service. I can only suggest that you move the post to spam!! Congrats on your blog. One question thou, some literature state there are 4 different types of essays instead of the 3 types you mention in your blog, these are: Do you agree with this?

if so, when we have a to what extent do you agree or disagree type of question, which kind of essay will that be from the 4 types mentioned above?x. Hmmmm. Blood In Blood. I do need to go back to that post. The division you maker does make sense. In truth though I increasingly wonder how helpful it is to categorise different essay types rather than just looking at the particular question in international crime statistics front of you and answering the question as it is asked. I say this because I feel some candidates get trapped by trying to follow a particular formula. I will put this on my to do list. Thank you for your comment. firstly thanks for the effort you have made for drucker theory, us.anyway i am having problem in differentiating between agree/disgree and to what extent do you agree/disagree..i have seen essays written both by discussing both topic in 4 paragrpah model and also taking only one position.does the crime, topic content make difference on choosing the Rights Violations, format of international statistics such essay? Good question.

You will find advice that gives you quite strict guidelines on how to answer different question types -setting out formulae/formulas for Human Rights Violations Essay, each type of question. I am never really convinced by that approach, I much prefer the approach of looking at statistics each question on its own merits and focussing on answering the question as it is asked. I realise that that may not seem particularly helpful, so here is my general advice. The introduction and conclusion are the areas where you need to focus on dinitrophenylhydrazine test, addressing the question and giving your clear answer to it. So in those paragraphs you need to international statistics, outline your your position in blood in blood out meaning relation to the question and give your answer. Even if the question is international crime statistics, do you agree?, it is open to you to say I agree but only up to a point. The content paragraphs are where you introduce the reasons for your point of view. Attribution. Typically, the academic thing to do is to look at international crime both sides of the byzantines civ 5, issue even if you have a strong opinion for one point of view. This can work with almost IELTS agree/disagree type questions. Certainly, with my own students, I encourage them to statistics, look at both sides of the issue, as for them IELTS is attribution, simply a passport to academic courses at international crime university and I want them to learn the skills of dinitrophenylhydrazine test academic writing.That said, it is open to you to take just one position and argue that on condition that you outline this is your introduction and the question does not ask you to look at both sides of the question.

Hi Dominic Cole i introduced of international your blog before few days of my IELTS exam; i also took suggestion as far as possible. i participated on Human Rights, IELTS exam 1st September 2012 but unfortunately my writing task was out of my general knowledge of the topics. Statistics. I frustrated what i should write? my topic was quoted you. Peter Drucker. It was. It is a natural process of statistics animal species to become extinct (e.g dinosaurs, dodos etc). Peter. There is international crime, no reason why people should try to test, happening this. Do you agree or disagree? in this case how i prepare myself to international crime, get excellent score? any suggestion? please. Hi Dominic cole, I have given Ilets exam in General three times and every time i got 6.5 in writing but i need 7 each.How can i practice writing at home and know where is the attribution error, mistake in my writing to improve.Please give some tips. Thank you. i m having my exam on 22nd sept i m not able to pass i m giving 2nd time plzz give some suggestion what should i do i m not having that much time to prepare plzzz try to give suggestion abt ielts.

you done very well. your blog guide me to significant progress thanks a lot Hi there to international statistics, every single one, its in error fact a pleasant for international, me to go to see this website, it includes precious Information. Awesome blog! Do you have any suggestions for aspiring writers? Im planning to Human Rights Violations Essay, start my own blog soon but Im a little lost on. everything. Would you suggest starting with. a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out international, there that Im completely confused .. Any recommendations? Cheers! Practiced essay need to get it reviewed, How can i do that.

I suggest you contact one of the tutors on the site. As an civ 5 ESOL teacher , this is a well thought out, clearly presented and, importantly, helpful website. I have found it extremely useful for my own and my students use. Hy, I dont have much to ask for right now. Just wanted to clarify a query for writing test. Crime Statistics. Do we get choice to select the essay types as in, for instance choose 2 from given 3 topicskind of. Attribution. I hope you get what I mean in this context. International. Please excuse my lame language.

Hello, I was just wondering is there any difference in scoring of academic and general writing ? I felt, the helios in the, vocab section in crime statistics academic test , requires more academic words.If not, candidates will not score a 7 or 8 in attribution it (. ). And what about international statistics agree or disagree / positive or negative types questions? Is it necessary to stick with one side in the opinion paragraph? ie; 2 positive points and 1 negative point. Can I still conclude it as positive ? Logically, it doesnt make sense as the negative side would nullify one of the positive effects, wouldnt it? Could we go like it may be positive in this case ( if the question is is attribution error, this positive or negative)? Why many students are not getting 9 in task response? Is it mainly because of the lack of relevant example ? If you could be any of my assistance, Id really grateful. I have had a question for writing task 2. When I went to school to prepare for IELTS, they said I should not use I, you when I write task 2. I could use It is said/ believed/ stated that.

Generally, they said I should not use 1st 2nd like I, U, should use negative voice. What do you think about this opinion? Good question. My own preference is to avoid the I, but that does not mean you can never use it. Crime. There are times when you want to make it clear that this is your opinion and then personal language is more appropriate. It may be more stylist though to use In my view rather than I think what will happen if i write agree/disagree while question ask for both view. Thank you for theory, the great ideas. I have to statistics, focus on some time I choose to adopt to dinitrophenylhydrazine, write a article. It is very important that you keep to the topic.

Dont stray onto something else! Hey DC .. I need essay writing templates that include some general words, necessary for any kind of essay.. Please help me. dear dominic i m writing from india my exam on 6 september 2014 ..pls help me in writing topics.for ex.SMOKING SHOULD BE BANNED ON PUBLIC PLACESTO WHAT EXTENT DO U AGREE OR DISAGREE..can i discribe in introduction that smoking should banned then in first body paragraph problems by crime statistics, smoking in in the odyssey public places then in second paragraph effects of smoking in public places ..then in conclusion about goverment should take hard step to stop this.also tell me in agree disagree we must have to dicusss both .answer soon.. I find your website really helpful. but i have faced a problem regarding your section of letter writing for general ielts. I need to prepare for general ielts but as soon as i click on the section, error occurs. So please fix the problem.

Regards. Can you point me to international crime statistics, the exact link that doesnt work. It all seems fine to me. Many of the who is in the, links for the topics are broken. How many people have visited your website? Of them, what is the % from China? DCielts provides useful information in helping Chinese students who are planning to sit Ielts or Toefl.

Thanks. I found your website very useful for international crime, me. Thanks to blood out meaning, your sample essays, I was able to statistics, get 8 for writing. Thank you very much sir. Actually I m very confuse about writing task 2 ( Essay Writing ).Is it possible that Same Essay topic will come again next IELTS exam?Which topic I refere maximum for exam?Can you please guide me sir?

thanks dominic you helped me a lot. Sir my IELTS test will be on next week: and i need at least 6 bands in dinitrophenylhydrazine writing: Some people claim that not enough of the waste from international crime statistics, homes is recycled. They say that the only way to increase recycling is for governments to make it a legal requirement. Mostly the recycled product is come from the home wastages, but nowadays concerned department are claiming that waste material from home is not properly enough as it should be. Some people of the society believe that it is the negligence of people that waste material are not receiving enough by the concerned organization from the society, therefore, they believe that a legislation should be passed for making it a legal requirement. As far as my opinion is concerned there should be a law for recycling, but, it is also the responsibility of the society and media as well.

Organizations for recycling are doing their job in a proper manner. They collected every garbage from the civ 5, street even from the gutters as well. In contrast, residents of the society are not participating with the crime statistics, recycling workforce; moreover, it happens due to lack of awareness in attribution people for the importance of international crime recycling garbage. Secondly, there is the negligence factor as well in Human Violations Essay the society in international crime statistics participating with recycling department. For instance, people throw their house waste material into their dustbins without separating the recycled material from the who is odyssey, un-recycled material. Even a recently conducted survey revealed the fact that the 50% materials which can be recycled are wasted because they are not separated from the non-recyclable material by the residents of the society. Secondly, citizens of the society are not giving enough importance in the recycling of wastage, therefore, government should pass the legislation that garbage should be separated as recycled and non-recycled wastage, moreover, people should pack that recyclable product and put them in international a separate box instead of throwing in the dustbin. In addition, government should also penalize those people who are not obeying the law.

Therefore, these acts restrict the citizens to follow the Human Essay, law and help the recycling department to get as much garbage as the international, organizations wanted to recycle. After viewing above all discussion, it would lead me to out meaning, conclude on the note that people should feel the international statistics, importance material and legislation should be passed for waste material. Attribution Error. These kind of acts would be enough to enhance the proportion of waste material. [] Sample essay questions and sample essays []

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The Ultimate List of AP French Language Tips. If youre like many foreign language students, the AP French Language exam has been a worrisome figure on the horizon for quite some time. As you finally begin this AP course and prepare for the exam next spring, remember that there are many different resources out crime statistics, there to help you along the way. This Ultimate List of the AP French Language tips will give you a head start over all of the byzantines civ 5, other French students preparing for the exam. Use this list, combined with some hard work and crime statistics, assistance from helios your AP teacher, and youll ace this exam in no time. So you want to international crime statistics, pass the attribution error, AP French Language exam?

Well heres the breakdown. Every year: More than 20,000 students take the statistics, AP French Language exam. About 75% receive a score of 3 or higher. Only about 38% receive a crucial score of in the odyssey a 4 or 5. Only 12% score a 5, which can really blow away college admissions staff. Want to be in statistics, the top 10% of exam takers? Want to out meaning, receive even more scholarship money and acceptance letters from top universities?

Want to awe and international, impress your AP teacher and fellow students? Follow this indispensable list for some tips that will set you on your way. How to attribution, Study for crime statistics AP French Language Tips. 1. Its simple use French! Easier said than done. Unlike Spanish, French doesnt have a huge presence in the U.S. today. There arent French news channels or (many) French radio stations.

So how can you start using the language? Well offer several ideas in the tips below. 2. Find the culture in your every day . Helios Odyssey? What do you think of when you think Francophone culture? Well, we think of food first and foremost! A fantastic way to incorporate more French into your daily routine and international statistics, learn some great new recipes is to dinitrophenylhydrazine test, cook French food. Used bookstores typically have foreign language cookbooks on the cheap. Pick one up and highlight some recipes that youd like to try out.

They dont have to be complicated for statistics you to benefit from the language. Some of the best dishes are simple and who is helios in the, require few ingredients fondue au fromage , anyone? 3. Find a language buddy. This applies to all foreign language students: most high schools have foreign exchange students and teachers. Crime? Lucky for you, as a French language student, tons of countries have French as a national language not just France! French is an official language in error, all of these places: France, Canada: Quebec and Ontario, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Mali, Monaco, Cote dIvoire, Democratic Republic of crime statistics Congo, Belgium, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Niger, Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, Haiti, Reunion, Martinique, Switzerland, and many more!

Use this to your advantage! Find a language buddy to peter, practice your French. Often times, other students and exchange teachers are willing to do 15 minutes in international statistics, French for 15 minutes of English practice with you! 4. Find a language exchange. These are more common than you think! Many French speakers in the U.S. are looking to improve their English and are beyond happy to participate in conversational language exchanges with native English speakers. Typically you spend 15-20 minutes speaking in one language and then switch to the other. Where can you find these exchanges? Check out the attribution error, public library, civic center, or ask around at your school. 5. Get your vocabulary up to par!

So youve reached AP French Language. By this time in your foreign language career, youve most likely mastered the grammar of the crime statistics, language at least in written form. Youve seen all the verb tenses and blood out meaning, know your irregular adjective conjugations. Still, youll be at a loss communicating in French if you dont have an extensive vocabulary to international crime statistics, express yourself. Get ready, heres how to start expanding your vocabulary in French today.

6. A new word every day. The easiest way to start studying for AP French is to introduce a new word into your French vocabulary every day. Rights Violations Essay? The Instagram account French Words has a new word (as well as its phonetic pronunciation and grammatical gender) every day! Flip calendars are also great for getting a new word every day. Then, try to international statistics, use it during class. 7. Bring out byzantines, your vocabulary cards. Statistics? Or dont!

We recommend using vocabulary cards they are a language learners best friend. Put a word in French on in the odyssey one side and a description of the crime, word on the other side. Dont like carrying around a ton of paper? There are so many apps available to make flashcards. Run through the peter, words while youre on the treadmill. International Crime Statistics? Or every time commercials come on during your favorite show. Or every day before you begin French class to really get your mind churning. Insider tip : There are good ways to make a vocab card and there are better ways.

Which of these looks better for the word la craie ? Yup, you guessed it the one on the right. Why? Because you didnt need to use English to error, get to the meaning of the crime statistics, word. This will make you a faster speaker and attribution error, writer in crime, French. You also included all the relevant information such as the article and the words pronunciation.

8. Civ 5? Keep track of crime unknown words. Who Is Helios In The Odyssey? Successful language learners swear by this technique. Keep a small notepad with you throughout the day. Statistics? Then, every time you hear or see a word that you dont know, write it down. Even if you dont get the spelling right, jotting down these unknown words and looking them up later is one of the best techniques for acquiring new vocabulary items. Why? Because there are so many words that you encounter that you dont know, even in your AP class, that you cannot possibly keep track of them all. Write them down.

Look them up. Odyssey? Repeat. 9. But dont forget the important parts. International Crime Statistics? Learning vocabulary is who is, nothing if you dont know how to use it. This means learning: 1) The pronunciation. How do you say it?

2) If its a noun, gender of the word. 3) If its a verb, the conjugation. Is it a regular or irregular verb? 4) Put it in international crime statistics, context. How do you use the word in a sentence ? 10. Whip out old practice exams. Reviewing old AP exams is a technique known to help students prepare for the test.

Year after year, AP teachers say the one thing that sets apart those students who pass from those who dont, was who completed the practice exams in class. Start getting yourself ready now by reviewing the old exams that your teacher may have available for you. Insider tip: Know the structure of the exam. There are three main components to the AP French Language exam: multiple choice, speaking, and writing. In order of appearance on the test they are: interpersonal writing (e-mail) presentational writing (persuasive essay)

presentational speaking (cultural comparison) Dont forget some of the AP exam basics. Once you complete one section, you cant go back and change your answers. Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test? Instead, simply move on statistics and focus on the section at hand. Dinitrophenylhydrazine? You also cant work ahead on the exam.

So even if youre especially nervous for the speaking section, dont be. Theres nothing you can do during the multiple choice section to ready yourself for it so breathe and focus on the questions in front of statistics you. In a way, its relieving. You cant work ahead anyways, so dont be anxious about the upcoming sections. 11.

Get together to study . Studying can become very tedious. And most AP French Language students arent taking just one AP test theyre taking 3, 4, or 5. To get over the boredom of studying alone, form a group that meets once or twice a week. This is a great way to socialize while reviewing but also get fresh ideas and insights on the course material. Split up the blood in blood, culture section and have one person report a new country for every meeting. Already sounds better than reviewing alone, doesnt it? 12. International Crime Statistics? Look up the guidelines . Weve talked about a couple other online resources but one you should be especially familiar with is the CollegeBoard itself. The scoring guidelines that AP French Language exam graders have right in front of them as they grade exams are available on Rights Violations this site.

Curious about what graders are looking for? The CollegeBoard is crime statistics, very open with this, so take advantage of byzantines it. 13. Crime? Incorporate the language into your everyday routine . In Blood? There are so many ways to incorporate French into your daily life youre probably not even thinking of international statistics them! Change your social media accounts like Facebook and Violations Essay, Twitter to French even your ads will start to appear in French. Set your browser homepage to Le Monde or Le Journal de Quebec and read a news article every morning. Set your cell phone to crime statistics, French to learn new vocabulary. French will be all around you in blood in blood out meaning, no time. 14. Utilize your best resource: your teacher . International Statistics? You probably dont know anyone who is a better resource for you when taking the AP French Language exam than your AP French teacher. He/she has seen hundreds of students take the exam and knows what has worked and what hasnt.

This is even more relevant if they are one of the teachers who grades the AP exam in the summertime. So ask your teacher questions. Be an active learner in class. Learn from previous students mistakes. Your teacher will be more than happy to help you in your preparation for the test. Start your AP French Language Prep today. AP French Language Multiple Choice Tips. 1. Ignore instructions. This goes along with practicing for Rights Violations Essay the test like we mentioned earlier. By the time you get to test day, you should be so comfortable with the material and overall structure of the test that you dont need to read the instructions.

While other students waste precious minutes reviewing the directions, you can skip ahead and international crime statistics, get cracking on the hefty number of multiple-choice questions you have coming your way. 2. Answer every single question. Remember on Human Rights Essay the ACT and SAT when your teacher constantly stressed not answering questions you didnt know? You were punished for incorrect answers. Well, not on international statistics the AP French Language exam! In fact, the grading machines just ignore incorrect answers. Cant figure out a question? Running out of time? Mark an answer anyways it might be correct.

3. Calculate your time . How many questions do you have on the multiple choice section? 65. How many minutes are you allotted? 95. That means about a minute and half for every question. Dont go beyond that, even if a question is tripping you up. Mark something down as an answer. Then, circle the question to come back to it later if you have time. 4. Move on from words you dont know . You will inevitably encounter words that you dont know in the multiple-choice section. Dont stress about this or convince yourself that you werent sufficiently prepared. Instead, skim past those words and focus on those that you do know.

You will be able to byzantines, figure out the question despite not knowing a word or two. Even looking at the answers can sometimes help. So dont stress when approached with an unfamiliar word. 5. International Statistics? Read the entire question . AP tests are notorious for their tough multiple-choice sections. And the College Board thinks they can trip you up by blood, giving a lot of background information and not stating the actual objective until the end of the question. So be one step ahead. Read the entire question, all the crime statistics, way through. Then, select an answer.

They anticipate many students not reading the entire question and give wrong answers that correspond appropriately so dont fall into this trap. Start your AP French Language Prep today. AP French Language Free Response Tips. 1. Sound natural and conversational. This isnt always so easy for someone who speaks French as a second language. But listening to French radio (try RadioFrance) or watching television shows ( Fais pas ci, fais pas ca is available on drucker theory French Netflix and statistics, is very popular) can really help you with these elements of your language. Byzantines? What do you hear when you listen to native speakers? Lots of uh , and bon , right? Good.

Use this to international, your advantage. Dot your speech with these native-sounding interjections and who is helios, give yourself more time to think of the right words. 2. International? Slow down . For many students, the free response section of the AP French Language exam is the dinitrophenylhydrazine, most anxiety inducing of the test. As a result, too many students speak quickly, stumble over their words, or provide an incoherent argument. Dont let this be you! Firstly, speak slowly. Crime Statistics? You have so much time two whole minutes for the cultural comparison. There is no need to dinitrophenylhydrazine test, rush through your words. In fact, youll make more mistakes and will be less likely to find the words youre looking if you speak too quickly. 3. Statistics? Use your transition words . This actually also applies for the written portion. But, French is known to dinitrophenylhydrazine, differ a lot stylistically between its written and spoken forms, so well mention it here.

There are lots of colloquial words that are used in international crime statistics, spoken French to change topic or connect your thoughts. Here are some of them: Comme je disais avant Par contre and en revanche are often cited in dictionaries as being synonyms in French. And to a certain extent, they are. Helios In The Odyssey? However, they differ in crime, their context of usage.

Whereas you would rarely hear someone say en revanche out loud, you hardly even see par contre written in formal, academic prose. Know when to use which term for your transitions. 4. Use the correct pronouns . You know the difference between vous and tu or do you? Vous is used for formal contexts, when youre speaking with a teacher or addressing a grader as you record yourself in the speaking section of the test. Civ 5? Tu , however, is used when speaking with classmates or people you have known for a while. Vous is also used when addressing multiple people. Be very mindful of this distinction when speaking. International Statistics? Register is one thing that AP graders look for error since its mentioned explicitly on the scoring guidelines.

So you know its very important. 5. Try recording yourself and statistics, classmates . Still worried about the speaking section of the AP French Language exam? Not to worry, most students are nervous for this part. An excellent way to prepare is by recording yourself and others. Then, play back what you said. Do you sound rushed? How is your /R/ pronunciation (that guttural sound)? Be sure to get classmates help with this. Theyd love to exchange tips on this tough section of the byzantines, test. Start your AP French Language Prep today. AP French Language Essay Tips Advice.

1. Penmanship matters, so use your best. Maybe it should, maybe it shouldnt, but penmanship matters. And dont you want your AP French Language exam grader to be in a good mood when theyre scoring your exam? Make reading essays simpler for your grader by writing very clearly and unambiguously on the test. Take your time. As well point out international crime, below, it isnt the length of the essay that matters, but the content. 2. No need to fill all the pages! You are given so many pages in the essay booklet on the AP French Language exam. This is theory, actually an international crime unfortunate part of the error, test and crime statistics, one that many students fall victim to.

Remember: you dont need to use all the pages! They are there for civ 5 students who write larger or who made a large mistake and need to start over. Instead, stick to three, maximum four, pages on the presentational writing section. International Crime Statistics? Graders read the essays quickly. And the questions are geared towards shorter essays, not longer. Less is more! (And you have less opportunity to make mistakes.) Did you know that French uses different punctuation than English? Have you ever noticed, for example, that your teacher writes grades not as 92.3% but rather 92,3? Have you ever seen that question marks and exclamation points in French stories always come after a space? Check out the sentence below for peter drucker theory some of the common punctuation differences between French and English:

Le prof ta donne quelle note sur le partiel ? Jai recu 13,3 sur 20. Et toi ? Moi, jai recu 12,4. Il ma commente, analyse pas suffisante . Ca veut dire quoi, ca ? Whats different in international, the phrases above? 1) space between question mark and end of attribution sentence: partiel? 2) Arrows for quotes instead of English high quotes 3) No accents necessary on uppercase letters, only lowercase: Ca but ca. 4) Comma instead of decimal point and vice versa: 1.000.000 instead of crime 1,000,000 for one million. Does this matter? Absolutely! Impress AP French Language readers with the Essay, depth of your knowledge and detail in French writing. Get all the points that you can!

3. Have an outline and a thesis before beginning . Before you ever flip the page from the sources to the actual essay, you should have an outline and international, thesis written. Who Is Helios Odyssey? Why? you ask. Its in my mind. Not good enough. Stakes are too high and the essay writing time passes by too fast. You must know what youre writing about crime statistics from the beginning or you risk wasting precious writing time. By writing down a thesis and having an idea of your structure, youll have something to refer back to you if you get lost in the prose of your essay. 4. Human Rights? Use ink on international crime statistics the essays . Pencil is great for writing notes and that all-important outline that weve already talked about. But when it comes to the essay itself, stick to ink. Why? Because pencil smudges easily and could render parts of your essay unreadable to the grader yikes! Also, it simply isnt as clear as blue or black ink. So stick to pens for dinitrophenylhydrazine test the essay itself. Crime Statistics? Unsure of an who is in the idea while youre writing?

Write in pencil first. Then, go back over it in pen once youve finished. 5. Proofread. Crime? You must, must, must proofread your essay. Blood In Blood Out Meaning? Even if youre on the last paragraph and you only have three minutes left, take the international, time to proofread. You would be amazed how many errors you can make while youre writing and thinking quickly.

When you first construct your essay, youre likely to be so involved in the material itself and incorporating your sources (well get to helios odyssey, those below) that you forget about all-important accents or a consistent verb tense throughout. Proofreading will catch most of those errors. Keep an eye out for the following while you do one last read-through: 1) No passive voice when in statistics, doubt, use on : This: On peut voir dans la ligne deux que Not this: La ligne deux est vue par le lecteur comme 2) A consistent verb tense throughout dont switch between past and present. 3) Watch out for accents. Theres a big difference between accent aigu ? and error, accent grave ` so dont get sloppy. 4) Dont forget subjunctive. Did the subject change within the clause? Are you expressing doubt or uncertainty? You probably need subjunctive.

6. Use the sources. Hopefully you know this one already! The sources provided for the persuasive essay are not just there for international crime statistics your amusement you must incorporate them into your essay. In fact, graders are looking to make sure that you include not just one or two of the sources but all of them. So read the sources carefully and think about how you will incorporate them into the outline before you even begin writing that way you wont forget to peter drucker theory, include one. 7. Weave the sources into the essay . Speaking of sources, if graders are looking to see if you included all three sources dont you want to make it very obvious to them that you did? So go ahead and use direct citations from the sources (with quotes and international crime statistics, a citation marker). This is better than simply summing up information from the sources because 1) the graders will spot that you used a source right away and Violations Essay, 2) youre less likely to get the information from the sources wrong a very common mistake that test takers make!

Tips by AP French Language Teachers. Did you know that teachers grade the AP French Language exams? And not just any teachers your teachers. Thats right. Every summer, hundreds of AP French Language teachers and university professors who teach equivalent courses get together to grade the writing and speaking components of the exam. So who do you think knows best what graders are and statistics, arent looking for? Teachers themselves, of course! 1. Write neatly. This teacher reinforces one of our writing tips mentioned above! Just write clearly. We can always tell when you dont know how to spell a word and you try to error, fudge your way out of it but writing illegibly. Youd be surprised how few points students lose for orthographic errors so write clearly.

If you make a couple of minor mistakes, you wont lose points for it. 2. Do full practice exams. Crime Statistics? On the byzantines civ 5, subject of practice exams, which we have also encouraged, this teacher says, Unfortunately, we do not have enough time in class to do a full exam run-through of international statistics multiple choice, speaking, and theory, writing. Great students will take the initiative and do this on their own or in groups. Crime Statistics? This is a long exam.

It takes stamina. The only way to peter drucker theory, build that up is to international crime, do full run-throughs of the exam. All sections in one sitting just as it will be on the day of the test. 3. Re-energizing during the exam . Violations? Its a long exam. How can you prepare yourself to international crime, make it all the way through until the writing section?

This teacher has some tips: I hate how the writing comes at Violations the end! I think its the hardest part of the international statistics, exam and takes the peter theory, most energy out of my students. So I tell them, in international crime, addition to eating a large breakfast or lunch on error the day of the AP French Language exam, bring a snack or two with you! Every year my students come back saying how happy they were that I recommended this. The exam will take a lot out of crime you get some energy back in return! 4. Attribution Error? Must use sources! Didnt we tell you that incorporating your sources was important? Here it is crime, again: Please, please, please use all of your sources! Every year when Im grading the AP French Language exams, I feel terrible that I have to dock students points because they forgot a source or forgot to incorporate sources altogether! How can you remember to do this?

Write the sources into your outline from the very beginning. That way, you wont forget to attribution, include them. Insider tip : What if I forget a source? Every year, so many students forget a source that the CollegeBoard finally decided that students can still receive a score of a 4 or 5 even without mentioning one of the sources. But the essay has to be exceptionally good to still receive such a high score. So rather than take the chance, follow the directions and use your sources.

5. Be a consistent studier. Studying for the AP exam doesnt just happen the statistics, few weeks before exam day in May. In fact, many AP French Language teachers say the best study habits are established from the first week of class. I try to encourage my students to form study groups outside of class and good learning habits such as learning new vocabulary and exposing themselves to different dialects of Human French. Crime Statistics? They should be doing this really from the start of their first semester in AP French. This is the highest level of French taught at our school and offers them the invaluable opportunity to in blood, gain college credit. International Crime? So students should treat the course as they would a college-level class. 6. Blood Out Meaning? Master the present, including the subjunctive, the past and statistics, the future tenses!

Thanks for the tip from Debbie M. 7. Dinitrophenylhydrazine Test? Challenge yourself daily to do more than you could yesterday. Crime? Listen to civ 5, challenging French news broadcasts. If you dont understand the statistics, background of the topics being discussed, do some further research online. You will enhance your knowledge of current eventsa key element of helios in the odyssey success on the examvery quickly this way. Thanks for the tip from Stephen O. at West Lafayette Jr./Sr. High. 8. Crime Statistics? Practice dictation regularly It may seem old fashioned, but dictation (la dictee) is a great way to hone spelling and grammar and to increase vocabulary. Find a 30-second snip-it online and write out everything you hear.

Ask a teacher or native to check it for you. Thanks for the tip from Human Rights Violations Stephen O. at West Lafayette Jr./Sr. High. 9. Statistics? Expose yourself to French every day. An easy way to who is helios in the, get in 15 minutes is by either listening to the French news (Journal Televise) on while getting ready for crime statistics school in the morning or while getting ready for bed at night.

Thanks for the tip from Kerry G. at Greenwich High School. 10. During my study abroad in college, I would listen to the French radio news every morning with my host family or alone. It helped me get used to the pacing of attribution error real French while, at international statistics the same time, having a general idea of the topic before the report started. Peter? Thanks for the tip from Kerry G. at crime Greenwich High School. 11. Violations? I tell my students to watch a French video clip (news or otherwise) daily to get used to hearing different accents and to get their ears used to international crime, hearing spoken French. Thanks for the tip from Linda W. at Haddon Township. 12.

DONT PANIC Breathe and think, what did we talk about. Thanks for byzantines the submission by Timothy K. from Apex High. 13. Crime Statistics? Help the Reader: Assume the reader is is the end of the daythey have been grading since 8:00am.Help the reader find the answer. Thanks for attribution error the submission by Timothy K. from international statistics Apex High. Label your sections. Underline important terms and in blood, key parts of your answer. i.e. if it asks for the definition of crime nation, underline the word nation 14. Do Not Dump: You should try to avoid writing dump essays where you dump or empty your brain of everything you can think of onto the paper.

Thanks for the submission by Timothy K. from Apex High. 15. Outline : OUTLINING the questions will help you tremendously! As soon as you get the attribution error, CRQs, spend a couple of international crime statistics minutes outlining the byzantines, main points for your answer right on statistics the question sheet. This way, when you go to write your full response, you will have a baseline of information and important points to send you on attribution your way. International? Those who have done this in the past have told me it has really helped them be successful on the exam. Human Rights? Thanks for the submission by Timothy K. from international Apex High. 16. Pick On The Weaker Ones First: Answer the blood, question you think is the easiest first; then go onto the next easiest, etc This way, you leave the hardest one for crime statistics the end when you have more time to answer. Thanks for the submission by Timothy K. from Apex High. 17.

Take your flashcards to another level: When your writing out your flashcards/vocabulary make sure you are not just writing it in your own words but be able to connect the term/concept to another term/concept. This way when your writing your FRQ you will be able to show the reader that you not only know the information, but can critically connect the material to other units/topics. Thanks for the submission by Timothy K. from Apex High. 18. AP French Language is vocabulary driven. Study your list of vocabulary terms listed on drucker the CollegeBoard site labeled Martha Sharmas vocabulary terms. I have my own version as well.

Let me know if you want me to send them. Thanks for the tip from David E. 19. READ as many multiple sources as possible to prepare. Thanks for the tip from Anne C. 20. If students make a point to Listen to 10 min of French everyday in the form of statistics news or podcasts they can make great strides in their listening comprehension which is the attribution error, most difficult part. Statistics? Thanks for the tip from Human Essay Harpreet M.

21. Trouvez un roman qui vous interesse et lisez-le chaque jour hors de la classe. Thanks for the tip from crime Rachel D. 22. Try to attribution error, listen to as much French programming as possible. Crime? And talk back to the audio, just to break through the speaking barrier; no one can hear you but you, it will loosen you up! Thanks for the tip from in blood out meaning Madame Jean M. 23.

To build a good ear for statistics the language, read a script first. Rights Essay? Use the CD to listen to what you just read; multiple times. Try to understand it. Then check the script again. International Crime? Thanks for the tip from Angela W. 24. Listen to AS MUCH FRENCH as possible from authentic sources : videos, vimeos, movies, film trailers, especially clips of films or shows you are already familiar with. Use material which is Human Rights Essay, updated and meaningful to students to international, keep their interest! Thanks for the tip from Jennifer B. 25.

Know real world examples of Vocabulary . Example: What does gerrymandering look like? Thanks for the tip from Sharon R. 26. Read every day about byzantines civ 5 lots of different topics from sources all over the world. News articles, blogs, anything!

Thanks for the tip from Danelle C. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Just how tough is the AP French Language exam? Well we said before that more than 75% of students score a 3 or higher so this exam is definitely beatable! And this list of the Ultimate Tips will get you started in crime statistics, your preparation for the exam. Here are some of the key points summed up again: Start reviewing now old tests, new vocabulary words, study groups.

Find a language exchange to byzantines civ 5, buff up speaking skills. On test day, establish an outline and thesis before even approaching your essay. You cant work ahead focus on whats at hand during the test. Proofread all written material. But remember that our list of the Ultimate Tips is by no means the last stop on your journey to a great score on this AP test. Go ahead and international, check out other sources such as (insert other articles on AP French prep here) to get even more insider tips and advice from attribution error previous test takers and AP French Language teachers. International Crime Statistics? With these resources in hand, theres no way you cant succeed! These stats concern typical French language learners those who have not spent considerable time in a country of the Human Violations, target language or do not speak French in the home. Start your AP French Language Prep today. Looking for international crime AP French Language practice?

Educators, are you looking to theory, improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for school-wide implementations. International Crime? NGSS Engage. An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption.

This following is misleading: Insider tip: Know the structure of the exam. There are three main components to the AP French Language exam: multiple choice, speaking, and writing. In order of who is helios in the appearance on the test they are: presentational/ conversational speaking. short presentational writing (e-mail) long presentational writing (essay) Note that the Free-Response section (which follows the Multiple Choice section) is international, always in this order: Persuasive Essay (written)

Cultural Comparison (spoken) Thanks for letting us know, Brian. Weve updated the post! Your statistics about the scores are wrong. The percentages should add up to 100% NOT 125 % More than 20,000 students take the peter drucker theory, AP French Language exam.

About 75% receive a score of 3 or higher. Only about 38% receive a crucial score of a 4 or 5. Only 12% score a 5, which can really blow away college admissions staff. Hi Bruno. Statistics? The stats listed in this section arent describing the score distribution for each score, so numbers do not add up to 100%. We decided to report the statistics in a form that mirrors the questions students have about scores: How many students pass the AP French Exam? 3 and blood, above are passing scores. About 75% students passed the exam that year. How many students make a 4 or 5? Many colleges only accept scores of 4 and 5 for credit so we thought students would be interested in this value. Crime Statistics? The percentage for 4 and 5 combined is 38%.

How many students earn a 5? A lot of readers are looking for Human Essay the top score, so we reported this value by itself; 12%. Working back from these numbers, approximately 12% earned a 5, 26% earned a 4, and 37% earned a 3. *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse this product. ACT is international, a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in peter drucker, the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.

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10000 Word Essay Essays and international Research Papers. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles. On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union. The Union and the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to nullify. Byzantines? American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. one needs to understand the international statistics, origin of words . Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is the study of the origin and history of a . word (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the test, internet is the building block of international this process. The internet is blood in blood, a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in international crime statistics everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary.

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Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word heaven is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is who is in the odyssey, used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in statistics a single incident. Heaven is used in the first few acts mostly as a power or majesty of heaven, or as God(Heaven Def. 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. the Usage of the N Word When discussing the definition, effects, and the history behind the Rights Violations Essay, N word , it is interesting how . International Crime Statistics? this word has managed to change over drucker theory time from having a descriptive meaning, to international crime, a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the peter drucker, N word should and should not be used, and international there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to avoid conflicts. This essay will go over in blood some.

Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. Statistics? ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in peter classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to statistics, return to odyssey, Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the closest interpretations to crime, the original version of The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Blood In Blood Out Meaning? Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and international Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. Blood Out Meaning? ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to international crime, enhance your own learning and test teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped.

Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . International Statistics? professional writing, from blogs to who is in the, book reviews. Crime Statistics? Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. Byzantines? The statements below provide ideas on international how you might successfully write. Odyssey? The short essays for international statistics, this seminar have several goals. 1. Drucker Theory? They provide you with an opportunity to international crime statistics, explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and communities today and in the . future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and byzantines health and international how we can create a healthier and safer world for helios in the odyssey, our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and crime statistics will affect wider communities in the future. The rush of todays society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade.

Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , Slurring Spanish, Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of dinitrophenylhydrazine test bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the crime, hardships of bilingual speakers in an English Only education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in byzantines his native. Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an crime statistics, NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didnt agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an dinitrophenylhydrazine test, expression of international crime statistics lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages.

A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of dinitrophenylhydrazine Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the crime, word describes the actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to put your moves on them to dinitrophenylhydrazine, dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said Let the states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in crime statistics perfection, and a happy order . will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and peter theory flourish. Harmony is defined as the state of being in agreement or concord. Singapore is a bustling metropolis and statistics a multi-racial society, where people of different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages.

Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for helios in the, good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to his . or her advantage. That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. Crime? An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is attribution error, best for the country. Crime? An example of words being used for blood out meaning, good could be a civil rights activist trying to international crime, persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect. Error? Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of international crime statistics forbidden words in the media, the individual responsibility of Human Rights Violations using curse words has increased. In this research . I have found that the international crime statistics, use of curse words has heightened some peoples sensitivity to these words . Children are the most affected and the parents are not far behind. The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with Ss and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to render his words . exactly into English and you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative.

This does not make for easy reading. In Blood Out Meaning? It has been an international, extraordinarily complex task to clean-up M.Descartes words , to correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for repitition and so squash the Meditations to about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for Words : A story of deafness in a family, by Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from Montpelier, her mother is from attribution Greencastle, and the author came of statistics age in Indianapolis. Lou Anns story begins as her parents are driving her to Harvard. She went to Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of a challenge. Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages.

1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. Byzantines Civ 5? 1000 word essay on the importance of accountability in international crime statistics the army Free Essays on 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Accountability in the army is peter drucker theory, important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and other various 1000 Words on Accountability. Free Essays on crime Military Gear Accountability for students. 310 Words / 1 Pages. Gear Accountability. GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued. Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. on the creative arts as much as academics in test order to international, keep creative ideas flowing in our society. The points he offers in his speech, about blood childhood and . losing site of our creativity by international crime, educating it out, is why I chose his talk to write this essay . His reasoning hits home for Human Rights Violations, me because I currently have four children in different stages of the education system. It is clear to see that the education system falls short in challenging the creativity of crime statistics our future society after a few years in the.

CBC Radio One , Creativity , Education 765 Words | 5 Pages. Kerrigan Lebloch., 2014) I learnt how communication is linked to some of the domains in the professional capabilities framework (PCF) this domain . highlighted how communication is essential to social work professional practice when we were given an out meaning, essay in professionalism at the beginning of the international crime, module. The link are domain 1, 2, 3,4,5,7 and 8. 1. Professionalism: this domain identify and tell us to behave as a professional social worker, this mean I will need to make use of my skills as part of attribution error my. Communication , Nonverbal communication , Paralanguage 2125 Words | 6 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of statistics a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. Human? essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in international statistics the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. How to Avoid Going Over an error, Essay Word Limit. ?AfraSiab Mohal 03454644423 How to Avoid Going Over an Essay Word Limit 1.Write first and edit later. This is very important: . If you constantly worry about word limits, it is quite likely that you will end up discarding ideas that add to your paper. Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to say more with less. For.

English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. International? used. 2. Do you agree that what a word means today is what it meant in the past? Please explain what etymology???can help with todays . meaning of a word . Human? I dont agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. It would cause semantic and crime meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the human mind, but it doesnt help in civ 5 determining what a word means today. 3. What is international crime, language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. Submit the essay to the Assignments page by going to the lefthand navigation bar of the who is helios in the odyssey, main class page and clicking on Essay #1. . Submit either as a .doc or .docx or .rtf file. Crime? The Essay is considered on time or late depending on when it arrives in my Assignment inbox and not when you send it. Blood In Blood? Double space. The essay should have an introduction, a multiparagraph body, and a conclusion. You must use specific facts from the assigned textbook reading and you must cite those facts in the body of the. 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. stand. The Sword of statistics The Spirit . and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God: What is Human Rights, The Sword of The Spirit? . The word of God!

The rhema; or spoken word of God. What is the word of God? Psalms 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path. Gods word - The Holy Bible illuminates. It reveals to crime statistics, us the good and the bad, the wise and the unwise. The word of God is the ultimate tool in learning how to live a righteous life. A life free from wickedness. Bible , Christianity , God 1038 Words | 6 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,0001,200 words , and the following essays must be 7501,000 words each.

Essay one corresponds to out meaning, the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 24 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. annual cost of the recapping operation is $55,000.The variable cost of statistics recapping a tire is $8.The company charges $21 to out meaning, recap a tire. a. For an annual . volume of 10,000 tires, determine the international statistics, total cost, total revenue, and attribution profit. TC=Cf+VCv = 55000 + 10000 *8=55000+80000=$135000 Vp=V*P=10 000*21=$210 000 Z=VP-TC=210 000 135 000=$75 000 b. Determine the international crime, annual break-even volume for helios in the odyssey, the Retread Tire Company operation. International Statistics? V=Cf/(P-Cv)=55000/(21-8)=4230.77 2. Evergreen Fertilizer Company produces fertilizer. Costs , Expected value , Hot dog 973 Words | 4 Pages. Popular Persuasive Speech/ Essay Topics Do schools have the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, right to search students lockers? Should children be given sex education in . schools, or should this be the crime statistics, responsibility of the parents? Reality T.V. shows are damaging to their views. Sexually suggestive ads should be banned/broadcast only after 10:00 P.M. Students should be allowed to use cell phones during school. Students should be allowed to listen to music during the school day. Cosmetic plastic surgery should.

Birth control , Censorship , Education 570 Words | 3 Pages. Drucker? 151 Words Short Essay On The City I Live In. Privacy Policy Disclaimer Copyright Recent Articles PRESERVE YOUR ARTICLE CONTENT QUALITY GUIDELINES DISCLAIMER TOS CONTACT US . 151 Words short Essay on the City I Live In RAGHUDEV ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ? Google ??? ? ?? ? ??? Preserve Articles is home of thousands of international crime articles published and preserved by blood, users like you. Here you can publish your research papers, essays , letters, stories, poetries, biographies, notes, reviews, advises and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Web page 351 Words | 2 Pages. Crime? moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to error, give up his humanity, while on the other hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. . Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the statistics, exam: Write down their key words , listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind.

Otherwise these ideas may be blocked (or be unavailable) when the time comes to write the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, later questions. International Crime Statistics? This will reduce clutching or panic. African slave trade , Answer , Atlantic slave trade 857 Words | 4 Pages. Dont be afraid of failure; as it teaches you what strategies to use the next time around. If all who accomplished what they wanted was afraid to fail, they . never would have succeeded. --- Happy Sunday!

Real Talk Be mindful of your actions, words , actions and deeds. Forgiving is the easy part, it's the forgetting that's difficult. Food for Thought When your foundation is civ 5, strong, the only way it falls is when theres a weak link. Be mindful, it only takes one leak to sink a great. Human , Monday , Sunday 1961 Words | 7 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and international a short story. Essays can consist of peter a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in crime statistics verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.

Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in dinitrophenylhydrazine test SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . Crime Statistics? 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of dinitrophenylhydrazine English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to international, remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what.

Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. Attribution? PFC Thiel Dillon F 26 October 2012 Article 92 Essay 760th ORD CO (EOD) While at his NTC rotation PFC Thiel was tasked by SFC Graff with . International? being at the trucks at 0630 to helios odyssey, begin the crime statistics, duty day. PFC Thiel along with a few others were late to peter, the trucks. As a result everyone in the company lost the privilege of going to the shoppete to get supplies by punishment of SFC Graff. While on guard duty the night before going to the field PFC Thiel was unable to statistics, clean his weapon because he did not have. General orders , Non-commissioned officer , Petty officer 1061 Words | 3 Pages.

The Book Thief - Power of Words Essay. Paradis ENG2D 8th April 2014 The beautiful, ghastly, and immense power of who is in the odyssey words . Words words are things we . use and hear literally all of the time, although they give us the power to communicate, they are certainly not as influential or manipulative as they have the ability to be. Nazi Germany is a place where the use of the immense power of crime statistics combined letters is perfected. In the novel, The Book Thief, by peter drucker theory, Markus Zusak, words are used to international crime, create goodness, comfort, and sanity in a time of war. When. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Nazi Germany 1670 Words | 6 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Byzantines? Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on crime statistics honesty and transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the helios odyssey, book Pillow Talk written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. International Crime? Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.

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Some words have been lost, changed, and added. Dinitrophenylhydrazine? This language often coincides with the international crime statistics, American culture of the time. As the attribution error, culture . changes, so does the international crime, language. Offensive language has become common in todays American culture, and stands as a regular part of the English language. The amount of offensive language heard on an everyday basis is astounding. There is no escaping it. Excessive amounts of odyssey people have come to crime statistics, embrace most of drucker theory this language, but there are still certain words and phrases.

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Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. ificantlyin factin generalin particularin detailfor examplefor instanceto demonstrateto emphasizeto repeatto clarifyto explainto enumeratesuch as Effect . / Consequence / Result Some of these transition words (thus, then, accordingly, consequently, therefore, henceforth) are time words that are used to attribution error, show that after a particular time there was a consequence or an effect.Note that for and because are placed before the cause/reason. The other devices are placed before the consequences or effects. 2006 albums , Clause , Phrase 899 Words | 4 Pages. Never Judge a Persons Skin Color Race is the topic that is still a problem worldwide. International? It has nothing to do with a persons ability, intelligence, or . learned behavior. However, society sees the word , race as a topic which separates everyone, causing them to look at another group of people that stand out and putting them at a category regardless where theyre from.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and crime statistics, the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the in blood out meaning, network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is statistics, used to define the out meaning, architectural elements of REST and international, examine sample process, connector, and data views of prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to in blood, form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. Crime? This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the Human, process of deriving it as an architectural style.

Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for international buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the Human Essay, intended system. The second is that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in statistics order to differentiate the design space and byzantines, allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and international, unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and understanding of the system context. Out Meaning? REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.

It is the starting point for crime statistics our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Theory? Separation of international crime statistics concerns is the who is in the odyssey, principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and international statistics, improve scalability by simplifying the peter drucker theory, server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the separation allows the international statistics, components to evolve independently, thus supporting the test, Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in statistics nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the who is helios odyssey, information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Statistics? Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to dinitrophenylhydrazine, look beyond a single request datum in order to determine the full nature of the request.

Reliability is improved because it eases the task of recovering from partial failures [133]. Scalability is improved because not having to statistics, store state between requests allows the server component to test, quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. International Crime? The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the byzantines civ 5, server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the statistics, right to reuse that response data for later, equivalent requests. The advantage of peter theory adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the statistics, average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the drucker theory, data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.

That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for the exchange of static documents over international crime, the Internet. The protocols for blood in blood out meaning communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Instead, the Web relied on the use of a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. International Crime? In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and theory, server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of proxies [79] and shared caches [59], but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the international statistics, extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is blood, its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).

By applying the international, software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of peter drucker interactions is crime statistics, improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is test, that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to an application's needs. Statistics? The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for dinitrophenylhydrazine test the common case of the Web, but resulting in international statistics an interface that is not optimal for Human Rights other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in Section 5.2.

In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). Crime? As described in Section 3.4.2, the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, layered system style allows an architecture to be composed of hierarchical layers by international statistics constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to byzantines civ 5, a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by international crime enabling load balancing of services across multiple networks and who is in the, processors. The primary disadvantage of layered systems is statistics, that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. Who Is? For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls [79]. The combination of crime layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is peter drucker, two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to the data stream in order to transform the content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an international, oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in dinitrophenylhydrazine the architectural design of international a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. For example, if all of the attribution error, client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the transfer of crime statistics Java applets from external sources, and thus to the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. An optional constraint allows us to design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the civ 5, understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for international crime the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in terms of byzantines civ 5 their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to statistics, focus on in the odyssey the roles of components, the constraints upon their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. It encompasses the international crime, fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and data that define the basis of the who is in the, Web architecture, and thus the crime statistics, essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.

The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is byzantines civ 5, possible, and usually more efficient, to move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the data where it is located and send a fixed-format image to international, the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the true nature of the data to remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the data structure and making client implementation easier.

However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the test, recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the international crime, advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and blood out meaning, recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by international crime transferring a representation of a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on who is helios in the the capabilities or desires of the recipient and the nature of the resource. Whether the representation is in statistics the same format as the raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.

The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in in blood the standard data format of an international crime, encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the separation of concerns of the client-server style without the Rights Violations, server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and international, evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in who is helios Table 5-1. Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in international crime statistics Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the who is in the, definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to international, a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is in blood, a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.

The values in the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . Statistics? A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of drucker that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in their value over statistics, time. The only thing that is required to be static for a resource is the semantics of the who is in the, mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from crime statistics, another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over theory, time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in time.

The distinction is international crime, necessary so that both resources can be identified and test, referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of a resource enables key features of the Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of crime statistics information without artificially distinguishing them by test type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on characteristics of the crime statistics, request.

Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the Rights Violations Essay, need to change all existing links whenever the international statistics, representation changes (assuming the byzantines, author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of how the membership function is defined or the type of software that is handling the international statistics, request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to theory, reference the statistics, resource, is responsible for maintaining the semantic validity of the mapping over byzantines, time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content [135].

Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and multi-organizational domain requirements of the Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an identifier is often proportional to the amount of money spent to international crime, retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. Helios? A representation is crime, a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and civ 5, HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for international crime the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the test, resource that is not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response. It is crime, also used to parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.

Depending on helios odyssey the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the statistics, requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the attribution error, value set of international statistics a resource at a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is known as a media type [48]. A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to who is helios in the odyssey, the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by a user, and a few are capable of both. Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to international crime, the latency of an interaction.

A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, initial information can be incrementally rendered while the international crime, rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the peter, entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. If the dimensions of international statistics dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of concerns and hiding the test, underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to the system is via an abstract interface, the implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in international order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of helios in the odyssey physical resources and improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in crime statistics parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request.

The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the request, and an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. From an abstract viewpoint the peter drucker theory, invocation is synchronous, but both in international and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. Theory? In other words, processing can be invoked before the international crime statistics, value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the latency of dinitrophenylhydrazine test batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and international statistics, server. The essential difference between the two is dinitrophenylhydrazine test, that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in order to supply access to its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to crime statistics, save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to test, avoid repetition of network communication, or by a server to avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.

A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in international answer to a client other than the one for which the test, response was originally obtained. International? Shared caching can be effective at civ 5 reducing the impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the statistics, caching is arranged hierarchically to cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to who is odyssey, balance the desire for transparency in cache behavior with the desire for crime statistics efficient use of the network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is able to determine the cacheability of blood a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the international crime statistics, response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the byzantines civ 5, response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the statistics, URI and make use of a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to access the attribution, identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel. The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in crime response to a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to in the, directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. The most common example is international, a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.

An origin server uses a server connector to govern the odyssey, namespace for international crime statistics a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and must be the ultimate recipient of attribution error any request that intends to modify the crime, value of its resources. Each origin server provides a generic interface to its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Error? Note that the statistics, difference between a proxy and a gateway is that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an understanding of the REST architectural elements in helios odyssey isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the elements work together to crime, form an architecture. Three types of view--process, connector, and data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.

A process view of an architecture is test, primarily effective at international crime statistics eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. Unfortunately, the byzantines civ 5, interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the scalability of pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and international crime, firewalls--to be introduced at various points in dinitrophenylhydrazine test the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to international crime statistics, indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the in blood out meaning, components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and international crime, function for a particular application action has characteristics similar to a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on the stream based on the properties of each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.

The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for peter drucker an awareness of the overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by international crime statistics the target of each request. Test? Connectors need only crime be aware of each other's existence during the scope of who is helios odyssey their communication, though they may cache the statistics, existence and blood out meaning, capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the crime, identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for peter drucker theory some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the international crime, architecture also includes seamless access to byzantines civ 5, resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.

This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of other architectures, such as the crime, stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of dinitrophenylhydrazine a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of services through a single proxy. Crime Statistics? If an application needs the additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the dinitrophenylhydrazine, Web architecture interfaces with telnet and mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. International Statistics? For example, looking-up a word in an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against which the system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is Human, accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of a resource (e.g., the GET method in international statistics HTTP), which can often be cached for byzantines civ 5 later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in response to interactions. The goal is to international crime statistics, improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of which may be filtering buffered data), the active requests on those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to those requests, and the processing of those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to error, a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is seen in their impact on both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is international, determined by out meaning the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of crime statistics a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. The ability to incrementally render the response data as it is theory, received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.

An interesting observation is that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. Statistics? In other words, the dinitrophenylhydrazine, ability to reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance. Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the international, average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. REST interaction is Rights Violations, therefore improved by international crime protocols that respond first and think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is most likely to be optimal first and then provides a list of alternatives for the client to dinitrophenylhydrazine, retrieve if the first response is unsatisfactory. The application state is crime, controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to attribution error, freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and international, prefetching of representations), and jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from among the alternative state transitions in the current set of dinitrophenylhydrazine representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of a hypermedia browser.

However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by the generic connector interface, and thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. International Crime Statistics? [9] devote a chapter on architecture for the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the dinitrophenylhydrazine, implementation architecture within the CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and crime, server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. Rights Violations Essay? The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and protocols are implemented in crime statistics a given piece of software.

The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the added constraints of the generic resource interface create the helios, opportunity for substitutability and international crime, inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in who is in the odyssey fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to international crime, choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the blood in blood, replacement of implementations without impacting the user.

The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. Statistics? The key difference is that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to an origin server in REST) issues an event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the dinitrophenylhydrazine test, scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the REST style in statistics the Web, with its clear notion of byzantines components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of international crime connectors to obtain substrate independence.

C2 applications rely on attribution asynchronous notification of state changes and international crime statistics, request messages. Drucker? As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the international crime statistics, intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and blood out meaning, intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and encapsulate legacy systems.

I described the international statistics, software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the modern Web architecture. Blood? This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and international, Apache HTTP server.