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Getting Ahead — Staying Ahead: Helping America’s Workforce Succeed in the 21st Century. Business Roundtable launched The Springboard Project to address the challenges America’s workforce is there be life, facing with intensifying competition in an evolving global marketplace that values talent and innovation. Well before the recession, many Americans experienced stagnant earnings and job instability. Workers have been losing jobs due to domestic or international competition, new technologies and innovations, and dramatically increasing productivity. Values In The Raises By Ernest Hemingway Essay! The economic downturn has only could there on mars exacerbated the situation. Even as the recession ends and employment begins to increase, these changes will remain a way of life. All of us will continually be called upon to adapt to bonnys blues, various changes and there be life on mars, innovations and to renew or re-skill for the jobs of the future. The pace at clifford olson iii which we will need to continually embrace learning will only accelerate. Embracing the there be life, philosophy of lifelong learning will be the Massage Essay, springboard that enables American workers to remain relevant, get ahead and could there be life on mars, stay ahead, as labor markets and the economy develop in hamlet's ghost, ways we may not be able to could be life on mars, anticipate today. In essence, we all need to embrace lifelong learning as a continuous process. In 2008, Business Roundtable proposed a concept, “AMERICA 21: A 21st-Century Approach for Workers,” that outlined the features of a new workforce education and training system philosophy.

It was apparent to Essay, us that the current system simply was not designed for an economy that increasingly values and demands higher levels of education and skills. My colleagues and I recognize that a societywide commitment to creating accessible, affordable and there on mars, relevant lifelong education opportunities is required. For that reason, we reached out and Massage Lymphatic System, created a broader commission comprising some of could there on mars America’s best doers and thinkers — people with critical experience and knowledge in this area — including entrepreneurs, labor leaders, educators, governors, researchers, social networking experts and iii, foundation leaders. This report represents our combined conclusions and could be life, our unanimous recommendations for the urgent task ahead. Education is bonnys blues, our top national priority — and government, business, family and could, individual priorities need to reflect that.

Nothing short of our future and way of life is at stake. Chairman and bonnys blues, CEO, Accenture. Chairman, Business Roundtable Education, Innovation and Workforce Initiative. Chairman, The Springboard Project. Bill Green , Chairman and CEO, Accenture. Morton Bahr , President Emeritus, Communication Workers of America. Charlene Barshefsky , Senior International Partner, WilmerHale. Gordon Berlin , President, MDRC. Gregory Brown , President and Co-CEO, Motorola Inc.

Peter Cappelli , Professor of Management, University of Pennsylvania Wharton School. Louis Chenevert , President and CEO, United Technologies Corporation. David Dougherty , President and CEO, Convergys Corporation. Gary Forsee , President, University of Missouri. Jack Golodner , President Emeritus, Department for Professional Employees, AFL-CIO.

Sara Horowitz , Founder, Freelancers Union. Janice Bryant Howroyd , Founder and CEO, ACT-1 Group. Gerry Hudson , International Executive Vice President, Service Employees International Union. Jim Jacobs , President, Macomb Community College. Wes Jurey , President and CEO, Arlington, Texas Chamber of Commerce.

Alexandra Levit , President, Inspiration at Work. Robert Litan , Vice President, Research and Policy, Kauffman Foundation; Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution. John R. McKernan, Jr ., Former Governor of Maine and Chairman of the Board of Directors, Education Management Corporation. Gail Mellow , President, LaGuardia Community College. Janet Murguia , President and CEO, National Council of La Raza. Craig Newmark , Founder, Craigslist. Dinesh Paliwal , Chairman and CEO, Harman International Industries, Inc. Judith Rodin , President, Rockefeller Foundation. Paula Rooney , President, Dean College.

Peter Smith , Senior Vice President, Kaplan Higher Education. Bob Wise , Former Governor of West Virginia and could, President, Alliance for Excellent Education. Business Roundtable created The Springboard Project as an in The by Ernest Essay independent commission to explore how Americans can obtain knowledge and skills they need to compete and be life on mars, succeed in the global economy. The commission was charged with focusing on adults, from bonnys blues age 18 to whenever they choose to be life, leave the Values by Ernest Essay, workforce, and with developing specific recommendations that would: Encourage the building of relevant skills for could there be life today’s and tomorrow’s markets; Institutionalize lifelong learning as an individual and collective imperative; and Facilitate workers’ capacity to adapt to dislocation and evolving labor markets. The American workforce has reached a critical juncture; even when the unemployment rate declines, new jobs will require higher levels of Values in The Raises Essay education and could, skills than many of the jobs of the past. Our workforce increasingly finds itself lacking the skills and education demanded by the growing needs and challenges of today’s global marketplace. Our vision for a new approach to workforce education and training no longer accepts our nation’s abysmal completion rates of literary text example two- and be life, four-year degrees or the inadequate supply of nationally recognized workforce skill certifications and apprenticeships. These credentials matter — for hamlet's ghost personal earning potential, for be life companies that put a premium on innovation and talent, and for the overall competitiveness of our economy. As important as it is to earn degrees or workforce skills certifications, it is bonnys blues, not enough. There Be Life! Getting ahead and staying ahead also requires that we all become “learning workers” who continually improve and update existing skills and Sun Also Raises by Ernest Hemingway, who are willing to keep learning as new knowledge emerges and new skills are in demand.

Even in be life, the midst of a historically deep recession and Massage Essay, soaring unemployment, jobs go unfilled because of a mismatch between the skills and experience of job applicants and those in demand by employers. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 61 percent of U.S. employers said it was difficult to be life, find qualified workers to fill vacancies at their companies. i. It is workers themselves who suffer the most from this situation. Workers with the least education have been hit hardest by the current recession, as those with less than a high school diploma are three times as likely to be unemployed than those with a bachelor’s degree or more. ii. American workers are highly receptive to the message that lifelong learning is literary example, a must in today’s world, with 81 percent of those surveyed saying they are interested in taking training or courses outside the workplace. iii However they face obstacles that limit both participation and completion. Convenience, cost and time are the most problematic; 62 percent would be very likely to pursue training or education if they were offered greater flexibility such as classes offered year-round and at times that accommodate their work schedules. iv The growth of online courses and could there be life, virtual training is helping to meet that need. A significant number, 41 percent of literary text surveyed workers, are reluctant to invest the time because they are unsure about could there, what their jobs will require in the future.v They also are concerned whether programs are accredited, how they can find out if the degrees and certificates offered will be valued by employers, and why courses they have already taken often are not accepted by other schools. At the same time, the cost continues to increase faster than the rate of inflation. For more than 50 years, federal and state policies helped the virgil aeneid book 4, United States achieve the world’s highest postsecondary education participation rates by increasing access to higher education. It is on mars, now clear that enabling access is no longer sufficient; it must be paired with program completion and bonnys blues, a credential valued in the marketplace.

In addition to traditional associate and bachelor’s degrees, workforce skill certificates, certifications, and apprenticeships also can signal attainment of in-demand skills to employers and educators. However, unless they are nationally recognized and portable within an industry, students and could on mars, workers who earn them cannot be assured that they are worth the bonnys blues, investment. Federal and could there on mars, state governments currently collect volumes of data about labor market trends that are useful to economists and researchers. However, these pieces of data frequently are difficult for text students, workers and educators to access and use. Currently, students and could on mars, workers do not know how to find out which education and and the System, training programs have the best outcomes for on mars completion and employment. Educators also need better information on industry trends and job outlooks to more effectively match their programs to the needs of their students and olson, the realities of the marketplace. The Springboard Project recommends six goals to help our workforce succeed in the 21st-century marketplace. The first three goals include near-term recommendations to get better outcomes from the current system; the could there be life on mars, second three goals require a longer horizon and more fundamental changes. 1. Create Incentives to Values in The Raises Hemingway Essay, Build a Better-Educated and Trained Workforce . Increase postsecondary education and training attainment rates to meet market demand and could there be life on mars, provide personal opportunity by rewarding institutions and individuals. 2. Develop Nationally Recognized Workforce Certifications and Credentials. Empower students and workers by text, creating nationally portable workforce skill credentials that are credible to educators and valued by employers.

3. Communicate Timely and Consumer-Friendly Information to Workers . Provide valuable labor market and be life, related education information in ways that are easily accessible, understandable and timely. 4. Bring 21st-Century Innovation to Education and Training. Hamlet's Ghost! Reinvent the could there be life on mars, delivery systems of postsecondary education and training to get better and more costeffective outcomes for more people. 5. Unlock the Value of Community Colleges and Two-Year Institutions. Build on the untapped potential of Values in The Sun Also community colleges and two-year institutions to could be life on mars, encourage more people to embrace postsecondary education and to revitalize local economies. 6. Hamlet's Ghost! Foster Lifelong Learning. Could There! Encourage a new mindset that values lifelong learning as an essential priority for personal and hamlet's ghost, national success. Critical to success will be the continued involvement of every sector represented by The Springboard Project. We owe it to American workers to give them the tools they need to compete; we owe it to America’s future to encourage the creation of the workforce talent that can ensure our nation’s leadership in could there be life on mars, the global economy. The Springboard Project’s objective is clear: to maintain America’s leading role in literary text example, the global economy by creating a best-in-class workforce, empowered by a philosophy of could there be life lifelong learning and skills development.

Our focus is on students and workers, from age 18, when individuals are no longer required to participate in K–12 education, and continuing as long as they choose to work. At a time when rapid changes in the global economy mean skills and jobs must continually evolve, workforce education and training cannot be an Values Sun Also Raises by Ernest Hemingway intervention primarily related to unemployment. The need for be life a safety net for Americans who lose their jobs is clear. However, workers with dated skills need more — they need a springboard to a better future. We believe that learning must continue throughout our lives, long after degrees and System, other credentials have been earned, and that for this learning to be effective, it must be more closely aligned with work and could be life, the realities of the marketplace. In part, extending learning throughout our lives will have to be a personal responsibility taken on by all Americans. It will demand a change in expectations and literary text example, habits and an increased awareness of how critical continuing knowledge improvement is to everyone’s life today. This is particularly important for independent workers, who must navigate their way through everchanging market conditions without the support of an could be life on mars employer. Extending learning throughout our lives also will require profound changes in the way our broad array of postsecondary education institutions are organized and financed, their education is Massage and the Lymphatic System Essay, delivered, and their missions are achieved.

Perhaps most important, it will necessitate new approaches by business — working with educators and other partners — to help U.S. workers get the education and training they need to compete and succeed. And with an ever-growing abundance of there be life information available for job seekers, innovative “high-tech” and “high-touch” strategies are needed to in The by Ernest Essay, enable Americans to take advantage of the available resources. To better understand what is needed to get these changes underway, we analyzed data and respected studies, consulted with experts, and drew from the diverse experience of the could be life, members of The Springboard Project. We also commissioned an opinion research organization to Lymphatic, conduct The American Workforce Survey to help inform us about workers’ and employers’ current perceptions about education and be life, training. From all sources, it is clear that the need is urgent, the bonnys blues, issues are complex, and the list of what should and could there be life, could be done is long. We all, individually and collectively, must make tackling this issue our top national priority.

Who Is Today’s “American Worker”? As the global economy rapidly transforms, so do the nature of work and our definitions of the “American Worker.” Increasingly, workers can’t be defined by the color of Raises by Ernest Hemingway Essay their collars, whether blue, green or white, and the old categories become ever more irrelevant — such as our ever expanding “service sector,” which encompasses everything from a cashier to an accountant. American workers experience high job turnover compared to could be life on mars, other nations, holding down an average of hamlet's ghost 11 different jobs between the ages of 18 and 42. vi In those years, they will be employed 77 percent of the time, and it is increasingly likely that they will work for themselves. Could There Be Life! vii Some 30 percent of literary workers today are classified as independently employed. viii. Today’s workers most likely reside in a city or its environs (79 percent), in a home that they own (72 percent). ix They make an average of could be life on mars $35,381 a year. x Ninety-two percent of virgil book those over 25 have a high school diploma or equivalency, and 47 percent of American workers hold an associate degree or higher. Could There On Mars! xi. This is a challenging time for American workers. We are not just in the midst of a “great recession;” we also are experiencing a “great reset” into a new global economy that continues to become even more knowledge-based and demands ever-higher levels of skill and virgil aeneid book 4, education to drive innovation and productivity. Many people presume that when the economy fully recovers from the on mars, recession we will return to “the way we were” — but this is simply not the case. Olson! The breadth and level of could there be life on mars academic preparation needed to fill jobs is increasing, while the rate of change — as employees move from job to job and even industry to industry — is virgil aeneid book 4, escalating rapidly. Today, more than 80 percent of workers in the 18- to-42 age range have been with their companies fewer than five years. xii.

The changes are not limited to any single “collar” of worker. They are already influencing — and will largely transform — jobs in could on mars, areas such as construction, truck driving, automotive repair and maintenance, electrical and in The Raises by Ernest Hemingway Essay, environmental industries, food, agriculture, nursing, and service jobs of all kinds. For American workers, there is enormous uncertainty about where the economy is headed, and the anxiety is fueled daily by news about could there on mars, high unemployment and home foreclosure rates, the disappearance of jobs that had been a ticket into literary text the middle class, and the rising cost of college tuition. One thing is clear: The job prospects of could be life people with less education are much less promising than those with more education. xiii Societywide, the bonnys blues, correlation is direct and inescapable. Moreover, the more education and training a person has, the greater the chance he or she will earn more money. Could There Be Life! xiv.

Workforce education and training can no longer be viewed primarily in response to job loss. If American workers are going to get a fair shot at competing in the global marketplace, the United States needs an updated system of workforce training and education that encourages and rewards those who seek to better their employment opportunities. In his address to the joint session of aeneid book 4 Congress in February 2009, President Obama spotlighted this urgent need. “I ask every American,” he said, “to commit to at least one year or more of higher education or career training. This can be community college or a four-year school, vocational training, or an apprenticeship. But whatever the could, training may be, every American will need to get more than a high school diploma.” xv. According to The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, workers expressed a strong interest in pursuing additional education and training, but serious obstacles could make it difficult for them to respond to the President’s challenge. And the political, educational, social and cultural changes needed to aeneid 4, overcome these obstacles are daunting. It will take a national commitment to alter the ingrained attitudes, policies and programs that no longer produce the results that our workers and our country need.

Ten Facts and Trends Highlight the Challenge. 1. America’s Worker Advantage. American workers are the most productive in could there be life on mars, the world — a key factor in maintaining America’s leadership as the most innovative and productive economy in the world. In The! xvi But we are in on mars, danger of losing America’s “worker advantage,” as the people whose labor and talent drives American growth find themselves increasingly unprepared to meet the in The Hemingway, challenges of a transformed global work environment. 2. Could There Be Life! Disparity between Skills and literary text, Experience Available and could there, What Employers Need . Even in the midst of a historically deep recession, soaring unemployment and limited job creation, 61 percent of U.S. employers surveyed say it is difficult to find qualified workers to fill vacancies at their companies. xvii Major structural shifts in virgil aeneid book, the economy are creating a widening disparity between the skills and experience that workers have and those increasingly demanded by the workplace. Could There! Jobs in occupations that are predominately college level continue to grow at faster rates than middle- or lower-skill-level jobs. Values In The Raises! Forecasts of education demand through 2018 estimate that 63 percent of new and replacement jobs in the future will require some college or better, while 72 percent of could this subset will require a bachelor’s degree or better. xviii. 3. Widening Unemployment Gap. In November 2009, the unemployment rate for those with less than a high school diploma was three times higher than the rate for those with a bachelor’s degree or above — 15.0 percent compared to 4.9 percent. The gap in unemployment due to education has averaged 6.1 percent since 1992, though it has been exacerbated by the current recession, pushing it to bonnys blues, 10.0 percent in November 2009. xix As the global economy recovers and returns to long-term sustained growth, education will remain a key determinant of labor market success.

4. Losing Ground in World Competition. The United States is the only OECD country with a younger generation that has a lower level of high school or equivalent achievement than the older generation, xx and we rank second to could be life on mars, last — behind every OECD nation but Italy — in completion rates of four-year college equivalent education. Hamlet's Ghost! xxi When two-year programs are considered, the there on mars, United States still ranks in only 16th place. xxii The percentage of U.S. graduates remains frustratingly stagnant even while competitor nations boost their numbers in response to bonnys blues, the changing demands of the new economy. 5. Innovation is Global . Innovation is taking place in ever more regions of the globe as their investments in education are beginning to there be life, mature. xxiii According to a recent Goldman Sachs study, the global middle class will expand by 1 billion people by 2020 and 2 billion people by and the Essay, 2030. xxiv That global middle class will have the resources to leverage education and training to increasingly compete with American workers for the kinds of good-paying jobs we have long taken for granted in this country — but no longer can. 6. Business Values Talent. Businesses overwhelmingly identify the could be life, ability to attract and retain skilled staff as one of the key factors driving high performance. xxv According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report, however, an inadequately educated workforce is one of the top ten obstacles to doing business in the United States today. xxvi. 7. Job Obsolescence.

By 2016, many of today’s low-skilled jobs will simply disappear, with whole categories suffering major declines in bonnys blues, both absolute numbers and could there on mars, percentages. Bonnys Blues! Compared to 2006, there will be need for 131,000 fewer stock clerks, 118,000 fewer cashiers, and there on mars, 114,000 fewer hand packers. Virgil 4! xxvii In other cases, the job titles have remained the same, but the skill sets needed to work in those jobs have changed. Auto repair jobs are a case in point. Many jobs lost in could, the manufacturing sector are either not coming back or are transforming into high-skill jobs demanding an increased knowledge and skill base. 8. Inadequate Completion Rates. Literary Example! The U.S. There Be Life On Mars! economy and employment opportunities for our students and workers are hampered by inadequate transition and completion rates at the secondary and postsecondary levels. In The Raises Hemingway! Less than 20 percent of U.S. ninth graders graduate from high school and then enter and graduate from college within typical timeframes. xxviii. 9. Demand for there be life on mars Postsecondary Credentials. According to example, forecasts by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 71 percent of the jobs expected to there be life, show growth to 2016 will require postsecondary credentials. xxix After the recession, experts anticipate shortages of the high-skilled and Values in The Sun Also by Ernest Essay, educated employees that will be needed to fill huge projected increases in occupations such as registered nurses, teachers, computer software engineers, accountants and auditors, and business operations specialists. xxx The Georgetown University Center on Education and Workforce also forecasts significant increases in demand for postsecondary credentials. Could There Be Life! xxxi To meet the in The Sun Also Raises by Ernest, demand, the United States will need 3 million more associate degrees or higher than current trends in graduation rates forecast —a 10.6-percent increase in the number of could there on mars students graduating each year through 2018. Iii! xxxii. 10. Education Pays.

The payoff in personal earnings is clear. College graduates can expect to earn almost twice as much as their noncollege-educated competitors (1.9 times as much in 2008). xxxiii The payoff for the United States on on mars, the whole also is substantial. It is estimated that the fiscal return to every dollar that the federal government spends on higher education is literary text example, $7.46. Could Be Life On Mars! xxxiv It also is estimated that a 1 percent improvement in clifford, college graduation rates for associate and be life on mars, bachelor's degrees would produce a cumulative increase in hamlet's ghost, national income of $291 billion by 2030. xxxv. In sum, the consequences of inaction are serious. Could! If America’s education and training deficit is not reversed, we are likely to olson iii, see: Rising numbers of chronically unemployed and be life, underemployed Americans; Real wages not just stagnating but shriveling in the withering heat of world competition; America’s businesses, starved for educated and trained workers, becoming uncompetitive, forced to iii, look abroad or even move abroad for qualified employees; The United States losing its place as the economic leader of the could there, world.

American Workers’ Attitudes about Education and Training. There is a widespread perception among American workers that the United States is virgil book, suffering an “equal opportunity recession” that is just as threatening to be life, the job prospects of the highly educated as those with less education. xxxvii. No doubt, press accounts of layoffs of highly paid workers with college degrees and MBAs may have created a fundamental misunderstanding of the critical role education plays in job security. Clearly, one of the primary roles for business, government, unions — indeed all sectors of society — must be to correct this fundamental misperception and to get the message out through all available means that lifelong education is and the Essay, critical not just to our nation’s future, but to the future of every individual in today’s demanding and could be life on mars, evolving marketplace. That said, people are enormously receptive to the message when they hear it. According to literary, The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey: Eighty-one percent of workers are interested in education or training outside the could on mars, workplace, and 62 percent are interested in participating in or taking courses to gain a higher degree or credential in Hemingway, the next two years.

A large majority found the statement, “70 percent of new jobs that pay a family-supporting wage require education beyond high school” to be a “very convincing” reason to pursue education or training. Substantial majorities agreed with the statements, “The future economy will be more demanding; if I don’t keep skills up to date, someone will pass me by,” and “My salary won’t grow if I don’t make an effort to learn new skills or a better way of doing my job.” At the same time, however, Americans who want to further their education and training say they do not have adequate information to make decisions. They also face barriers that discourage and limit participation, according to The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey: Forty-one percent of workers surveyed are unsure of what skills will be required in the future and if training will pay off. Workers who seek continued education face a multitude of obstacles and barriers — including convenience, cost and customization — at each stage along their path. (For additional findings from The American Workforce Survey research, please see Appendix B.) Framing Our Recommendations. We are not the first commission to could there be life on mars, call attention to bonnys blues, the problem and potential solutions.

In fact, one of the members of The Springboard Project chaired a 1997 commission on lifelong learning; its recommendations remain relevant but unmet today. Could! We explored why there has not been more progress and clifford olson iii, what we could do to compel more action. Our vision for a new approach to workforce education and training no longer accepts our nation’s abysmal completion rates of could there two- and four-year degrees or the bonnys blues, inadequate supply of nationally recognized workforce skill certifications and apprenticeships. These credentials matter — for personal earning potential, for companies that put a premium on innovation and could there on mars, talent, and for the overall competitiveness of our economy. The need for better results has never been greater. Workers who lack credentials or evidence of the skills, knowledge and experience valued by employers will continue to have difficulty finding employment. And all workers will need to keep their skills up to date throughout their working lives. Our report focuses on incenting and enabling customer-focused, market-driven approaches that produce positive outcomes for bonnys blues American workers. To have the greatest short- and long-term impact, we propose six goals. There On Mars! The first three goals include near-term recommendations to get better outcomes from the current system; the example, second three goals require a longer horizon and more fundamental changes. PART II: GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

Goal #1: Create Incentives to Build a Better-Educated and Trained Workforce. Increase postsecondary education and there be life, training attainment rates to text, meet market demand and provide personal opportunity by rewarding institutions and individuals. Incentives for Institutions. For more than 50 years, federal and state policies helped the United States achieve the there be life on mars, world’s highest postsecondary education participation rates by increasing access to higher education. It is book 4, now clear that enabling access is could there be life, no longer sufficient; it must be paired with program completion and a credential valued in book 4, the marketplace. Current funding policies reward colleges based on the number of students enrolled. But what really matters is how many students actually complete their programs and how prepared they are to meet the could, demands of the marketplace.

Institutions have few reasons to significantly change their current practice or to address the obstacles of participation and completion that workers face. Education institutions need better, more meaningful incentives that will ensure that students secure a degree or credential. (Please see page 19 for promising strategies to Massage and the Lymphatic, improve completion rates). Similarly, community and technical colleges and job training programs that receive federal workforce training funds are accountable mostly for job placement. There! They, too, need new incentives that will help their students master the skills that the marketplace demands and attain recognizable credentials. Recommendation: Repurpose funding and strengthen accountability by providing incentives to increase completion rates of education and training programs that students and workers need for short- and long-term gainful employment. Federal and state policymakers should: Reward outcomes, such as what students actually learn, timely graduation and success in finding a job that provides a family-supporting wage. Incent job training programs to help workers earn recognized certifications for in-demand skills in hamlet's ghost, growing industries. Stagger performance-based funding payments across the fiscal year. Apply incentives and market outcome monitoring to federal education and could there, training funding focused on helping people enter the workforce, such as the Workforce Investment Act (WIA), Unemployment Assistance, Trade Readjustment Allowances/Trade Adjustment Assistance (TRA/TAA), and future reauthorization of higher education legislation. Financial incentives can be an Massage Lymphatic System effective motivator.

We are urging federal and state policymakers to redesign accountability systems and repurpose a small but significant portion of present funding to reward education institutions based on outcomes, including earnings and employment. For example, in Tennessee, public colleges and universities can earn up to 5.45 percent of their operating budgets based on performance measures that include retention, completion, and on mars, student and employer satisfaction. xxxviii. We recognize that incentives can backfire if accountability metrics are not carefully designed. They must ensure that incentives for completion are not reached by lowering standards for earning the credential or by limiting access and admitting only those students most likely to graduate. The program milestones that performance-based incentives and accountability systems recognize can vary, from aeneid interim credentials or one-year certificates, to the pursuit of additional training or education.

We also recognize that education and training institutions serve very different populations across the country. While standards for completion of credentials should be the same for all students, interim benchmarks can be tailored to could there be life on mars, account for local, regional and demographic disparities, as well as the historical performance of institutions. For underrepresented groups, both improved access and completion should be essential components of any performance-based incentive program. Washington State: New Performance Funding System xxxix. The State of olson Washington recently launched a new performance funding system for community and technical colleges called the Student Achievement Initiative. Its goal is to “raise the there on mars, knowledge and skills of the state’s residents” by increasing education attainment across the state. Hamlet's Ghost! Its four primary metrics that determine financial rewards for institutions are:

Building toward college-level skills (basic skills gains, passing precollege writing or math) First-year retention (earning 15 then 30 college level credits) Completing college-level math (passing math courses required for either technical or academic associate degrees) Completions (degrees, certificates, apprenticeship training) Washington’s program is too new to have evaluation results; it should be studied going forward as institutions begin to shift gears to earn performance funding. Providing incentive funding that is based on there be life on mars, employment, earnings and olson iii, wages outcomes for could there students depends on the availability of bonnys blues accurate information that links education and workforce data. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act requires states that accept state stabilization funds to connect these data systems. On Mars! To date, some 23 states have already taken this step, xl and Florida’s data system (see box) can serve as a model. The Florida Model: Linking Funding to clifford olson, Market Outcomes xli. As a leading example of an emerging trend, Florida has developed a simplified system that allows for the measurement of market outcomes. Through the use of a common numbering system among classes at all two- and four-year institutions and the creation of a data warehouse, Florida has a robust capability in place that ties education data to employment data. They do this by could, requiring all institutions receiving student financial aid under Title IV xlii of the federal Higher Education Act to Massage and the Essay, send their transcript information to a central location, where it is linked and compared to data collected by the unemployment insurance office.

The process, drawing on could there be life on mars, a centralized K–20 education data warehouse and employment data back to 1995, enables analysts to put together a complete and literary text, detailed picture of the return on the state’s education dollars. Security is key and complex. Could! The educational progress and employment of each K–20 xliii student is tracked by a unique, encrypted identifier. Meanwhile, unemployment information is protected by its own set of confidentiality standards and hamlet's ghost, can be accessed by there on mars, only a few programmers with special authority that are allowed to access it, and only on olson, a need to know basis. Publicizing aggregate outcome information — with privacy protections in place xlvi — will enable policymakers and the public to hold institutions accountable. It also will provide institutions with the data they need to improve their programs and to identify successful innovative strategies used by other institutions. If information is publicly available in user-friendly formats, current and potential students also can use the data to help decide which institutions best meet their needs and which have the best completion rates and labor market outcomes. For instance, returning veterans using the new GI Bill could use information tailored to their specific needs to help them choose and complete a program of study. Increasing the be life on mars, percentage of Americans with postsecondary degrees or credentials — while also increasing access for traditional college-aged students, working adults and displaced workers — will require active engagement from all accredited members of the Values Sun Also Raises by Ernest, education community.

The increasingly diverse education community includes public, private, and for-profit two- and four-year colleges; online providers; technical schools; union education and training programs; and apprenticeships. The system that we are proposing will attract individuals to could be life, the programs with the in The Raises by Ernest Essay, best long-term labor market outcomes and will therefore optimally allocate funds to be life, those programs. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that the greatest barriers to clifford iii, participating in education and could there be life, training were convenience, cost, customization and accreditation. Incentive funding and new accountability systems are intended to encourage institutions to create innovative programs that overcome barriers and lead to higher completion rates and better labor market outcomes. Sixty-two percent of Lymphatic System Essay workers said they would be “very likely” to pursue training if it offered flexible classroom hours or enrollment periods throughout the year and could attend around their schedules. Could Be Life! xlv To improve participation and completion rates, institutions are beginning to experiment with 24/7 scheduling of courses; options to earn course credits and degrees over shorter, more concentrated periods of literary time; weekly rather than semester-based enrollment; and other ways to meet the needs of students and workers. Transparency about Transfer of Credits. Course credits earned at one institution may not be accepted by the next, but frequently students have no idea that their course credits will not transfer. Policy solutions vary across states and institutions; some will accept credits from be life on mars any accredited provider, others have statewide articulation agreements, and yet others have agreements with specific schools or a process to review the course syllabus to ensure that it is comparable. What is critical is that the customer knows before taking the course whether the credits are transferable and hamlet's ghost, under what conditions.

Tuition is already expensive enough without requiring work to be repeated. Rewarding institutions for helping students, workers and our nation improve their international competitiveness is only part of the solution. Motivating individuals is could there on mars, also essential. Although the federal government contributes 10 percent to the average student’s college tuition (with $500 billion currently in Values in The Sun Also, outstanding student loan debt), this funding is tied to student outcomes only in be life on mars, a very limited number of cases. xlvi. We believe that increasing access through needs-based funding remains critical; however, it is hamlet's ghost, essential to move beyond just increasing access. Student success and completion are equally important goals for students as well as our higher education system.

Incentives can be used to reward students who complete their studies for bachelor’s or associate degrees, certificates, apprenticeships, and other programs that are valued in could, the marketplace. Recommendation: Modify financial aid to reward students who complete their education and training programs in a timely manner. Federal and state policymakers should: Reward students who complete postsecondary education and training programs in a timely way with a loan principle reduction, interest rate reduction, tax credit or cash payout. Federal and state policymakers should potentially provide a second tier financial reward for positive market outcomes, such as employment in a related field, a fellowship or matriculation in a higher level of postsecondary education within a reasonable time frame. An emerging body of rigorous evidence suggests that performance-based scholarship programs can increase college-going, credit completion and persistence in college. Hamlet's Ghost! Two recent studies (one in Canada and one in the state of Louisiana) found positive effects on credits earned and persistence from one semester to the next. The Canadian program, the Student Achievement and Retention Project (STAR), offered students a financial incentive that lasted two semesters xlvii . In Louisiana, MRDC, a nonprofit education and social policy research organization, evaluated an could on mars innovative performancebased scholarship program that also found increases in credits earned, courses completed and reenrollment (see box). xlviii.

In 2004 and hamlet's ghost, 2005, the nonprofit education research organization MDRC tested the effects of could on mars incentives — in bonnys blues, the form of supplemental financial aid — on academic persistence and success among low-income students in Louisiana. Called “Opening Doors,” the could there, program awarded students $2,000 over two semesters on the condition they were enrolled at least halftime and maintained better than a C average. Students received $250 when they enrolled, $250 if they were in good standing at midterm and $500 if they successfully passed their classes at hamlet's ghost the completion of the semester. Participating students were significantly more likely to persist in their studies and register for additional credits than the control group, earned 3.5 more credits overall, and were 11 percent more likely to earn a 2.0 GPA or higher. Even as Hurricane Katrina hit and campuses closed down, the students pursued classes online or at other campuses that opened the following spring.

Variations of this model are now being tried at could there be life on mars colleges in four states, with more than 4,500 students participating. Meanwhile, other private sector institutions are independently advancing this concept and hamlet's ghost, developing models to motivate students to graduate on be life on mars, time. For example, Discover Bank, Wells Fargo and SunTrust all provide substantial loan relief for college completion, either in the form of reduced interest rates, reduction in principal or even a direct deposit to the loan holder’s bank account. l. Education institutions, nonprofit organizations, businesses and other scholarship-granting institutions that provide support to virgil aeneid book, workers who do not qualify for federal funding can all also play a role in helping increase completion rates by following suit. We are not proposing additional government outlays at a time of rising deficits. Rather, these financial incentives for there students should be cost-neutral. Standard student loan rates would take into account the effect of incentives on student performance and ability to pay back loans. INCENTIVES FOR EMPLOYEES TO EARN ADDITIONAL CREDENTIALS.

Convergys — Bringing Jobs and Education to Employees. Convergys created a model that brings both jobs and education to bonnys blues, entry-level workers. Could On Mars! By combining its home agent program, in virgil aeneid book, which customer service representatives work from home, with its new online accredited college degree program, employees can work and could there on mars, complete a college education in bonnys blues, a virtual environment. Qualified applicants who previously were ineligible for on-site jobs as a result of geographic, scheduling or transportation constraints now meet hiring criteria. Could On Mars! And, once hired, employees can advance their education through the online degree and certificate program developed in close partnership with Bellevue University. The Bellevue program is bonnys blues, targeted to could there, full-time and part-time employees with a high school education or equivalency.

Convergys provides tuition reimbursement and works with Bellevue to identify additional financial assistance to minimize out-of-pocket expenses for employees. Providing its workforce with access to quality education not only helps Convergys as its internal talent continues to be a differentiator, but it also provides its employees with transferrable skills in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. li. United Technologies Corporation (UTC) Employee Scholar Program. To improve the talent of its workforce, UTC created a program that provides open and free access to education for all its employees. Sun Also By Ernest Essay! Last year, 15,197 UTC employees in 54 countries took advantage of the Employee Scholar Program (ESP), which covers the costs of accredited degree programs and provides paid time off for study. Could Be Life On Mars! It also offers a program for olson laid-off employees providing from could there be life one to four years of coverage following separation from the company. The investment is substantial: more than $780 million since the program’s inception in 1996.

UTC believes the investment in worker education is a net plus to its bottom line. Aeneid! lii. The Alliance for Employee Growth and Development, Inc. The Alliance is a primary education resource for union represented employees at ATT, Alcatel- Lucent, Avaya, OFS and the IBEW. Since its inception in 1986, it has provided services to more than 173,000 individuals through over could there, 14.5 million training hours. In the most recent fiscal year, 50 percent of the eligible individuals participated in more than 348,000 hours of book 4 Alliance training. The Alliance operates at the national, regional and local level to develop, deliver and evaluate its training programs. Training ranges from basic language and math skills training to could there be life, high-level technical certifications and degree programs through an array of training delivery options including on-site classrooms, virtual classrooms, hands-on technical training and olson iii, online self-paced courses. liii. PART II: GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS cont. Goal #2: Develop Nationally Recognized Workforce Certifications and on mars, Credentials. Empower students and workers by creating nationally portable workforce skill credentials that are credible to educators and valued by employers.

Millions of Americans pursue certifications, apprenticeships and other postsecondary training credentials in addition to, or as an alternative to, a traditional college degree. Presently, almost 700,000 different certificates, a growing type of postsecondary credential, are awarded each year. liv There are benefits to earning these credentials: Workers who complete certification programs earn on average $26,328 per book 4, year compared to an average of could be life $15,154 for those who only complete high school. lv. However, certificates and other credentials often have little or no value because they are not held to nationally or internationally accepted standards and are consequently not recognized by employers or education institutions. In addition, some credentials have diminished value because they are not portable or provide limited opportunities for Sun Also Hemingway Essay career growth. lvi As a result, workers are often unsure about the could there be life, value of a credential and are therefore not willing to invest the time, money or effort. Apprenticeships also offer a powerful path to market-relevant skills training, but they too suffer from a lack of uniformity and aeneid book 4, clarity.

Today, 250,000 employers and almost 450,000 apprentices benefit from more than 29,000 apprenticeship programs, mostly in there be life, high-growth industries that face critical shortages of skilled workers. Hamlet's Ghost! lvii Apprenticeships cover 1,000 occupations including pipefitters, electricians, child care development specialists and law-enforcement agents. Be Life On Mars! But while U.S. apprenticeships may use established curricula in their industry, they are not bound, as they are in many countries, by clifford olson iii, external industry standards, leaving potential employers uncertain as to their exact value. Recommendation: Create national standards for portable, “stackable” credentials for certificates, apprenticeships and pathways for earning credit at two- and could be life on mars, four-year programs. Businesses must take the lead in working with industry associations, unions, educators, nonprofit organizations and the U.S. Department of Labor to develop, regularly review and and the System, update national standards for credentialing programs. Educators need to provide academic credit for be life completing approved career and technical coursework, helping students to build career pathways.

Employers should include credential requirements in all job descriptions and should recognize and reward employees who complete programs and virgil 4, achieve additional credentials. The Department of Labor should collect and publish the standards in a user-friendly format online so that individuals can understand the demands of there be life on mars various occupations and industries. Unions and industry associations, including the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), are responding to the need for nationally recognized credentials. Text Example! They have created criteria that provide standardized, portable credentials that attest to an individual’s attainment of could there on mars critical competencies required by the industry. The NAM-Endorsed Skills Certification System provides a useful model on iii, which national certification standards could be developed. lviii. The Computer Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) exams provide another example of a standardized credential. These exams are offered for over a dozen vendor-neutral IT certifications in the United States and other countries.

Because the credentials are held to recognized standards, employers recognize their value, and over 1 million people have earned CompTIA certifications since their inception in could there, 1993. lix. Leading states are already creating “stackable” credentialing programs, which allow training to build within a career pathway. In The Raises By Ernest Essay! Ohio is developing a system of stackable certificates that provides a clear and accessible path for people who want to there on mars, advance their education and prepare themselves for satisfying and bonnys blues, productive careers. Individuals can earn a certificate and then receive college credit for that certificate, helping them complete a college degree. lx Stackable certificates certify that a worker has attained specific skills needed for the workplace and for postsecondary education. Could On Mars! A system of stackable certificates can connect pre-college academic work to Values Hemingway Essay, credit-bearing career and technical coursework that ultimately leads to a college degree. What about standards for on mars noncredit learning at community colleges? With a grant from The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the American Association of Values in The Hemingway Community Colleges is could there be life on mars, beginning the development of outcomes-based accountability metrics for community colleges.

States also are designing new performance-based metrics (see box on olson, Washington State on page 17). Currently, 1,152 two-year public colleges in the United States serve more than 11 million students — 6,596,356 in for-credit programs plus an estimated 5,000,000 in noncredit continuing education. There Be Life On Mars! lxi These students are enrolled in programs with different purposes: strengthening basic academic skills such as reading and math, earning an associate degree, gaining certification in an industry or discipline, or meeting the specific training needs of a partnering company. However, for students enrolled in clifford olson iii, noncredit courses, there is no standardized measurement of the direct educational and economic benefits of these courses. Data are not collected about the effectiveness of noncredit activities in training and be life on mars, workforce development or getting adults into courses where they can earn credits toward degrees or other valued credentials. Systematically evaluating the value of community colleges’ noncredit courses in workforce training will require, as a first step, developing national standards for noncredit activity that use universal classifications to text, count, assess and compare the outcomes. Could There Be Life! lxii. Goal #3: Communicate Timely and Consumer-Friendly Information to Workers. Provide valuable labor market and related education information in ways that are easily accessible, understandable and timely. Federal and state governments currently collect volumes of data about labor market trends that are useful to economists and and the Lymphatic, researchers.

However, these pieces of data frequently are difficult for students, workers and there, educators to access and use. Currently, students and workers do not know how to find out which education and virgil aeneid, training programs have the best outcomes for could there be life completion and employment. And The! The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 41 percent of could be life on mars workers are unsure of what skills will be required in the future and if training will pay off. lxiii. Educators also need better information on industry trends and job outlooks to more effectively match their programs to the needs of their students and the realities of the hamlet's ghost, marketplace. Educators report that the lack of complete information on workforce demand is one of their greatest stumbling blocks in developing relevant curricula.

To get an appreciation for how difficult it is for workers to find timely and valuable information, we asked a team of young, highly adept computer and Web-savvy professionals to conduct a simulated search for employment that included further education and training — using primarily governmentfunded Web sites. These are people with college educations and advanced degrees who know how to could be life on mars, parse a government database and synthesize libraries of disparate information. The report back from their mock job hunt was one of frustration and virgil, admiration for job seekers who persist through the misdirection, dead ends and out-of-date data. Workers need direct, easy, user-friendly ways of answering key questions, such as: Where can I find information about job opportunities?

Will I need to there on mars, move to find a good job? Which jobs have a future? What do they pay? Are there benefits? What skills and education are required? Where can I get the hamlet's ghost, training and education?

Can I meet the requirements online? Will employers value a credential from that institution? Can I transfer credits earned to another institution? How do I pay for it? What other services are available to help me with job placement? Recommendation: Create a consumer-based information system that provides and communicates timely local, regional, and national industry and occupation trends.

The U.S. Department of could there be life on mars Labor should use state-of-the-art communications to improve the accessibility and clarity of the information it collects and communicates, including national, regional, state, and local industry and occupation trends. Businesses should provide more detailed occupation information to state and federal statistical agencies. Federal policymakers should “connect the dots” by linking and streamlining information and programs across the Departments of literary Education, Labor and Commerce. Based on the mismatch in perceptions found through The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, students, workers, and educators need better information about the there, skills, knowledge, or education and training requirements they need. The U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) needs to improve the quality and accessibility of the information it provides from existing data sources. Aeneid Book 4! For instance, the most comprehensive program run by the BLS, the Quarterly Census of Employment and there be life on mars, Wages (QCEW), does not contain occupation level data and is not fully available online. lxiv. An easy way to make the QCEW more useful for individuals and educators includes businesses providing more detailed occupation information on each of their employees to olson, state labor market information agencies as part of their quarterly unemployment insurance reporting.

The BLS should then aggregate this additional occupation information through the QCEW. Could On Mars! Throughout this process, individual privacy protections should remain sacrosanct. For the supplemental occupation information to be most useful and bonnys blues, relevant, rapidly evolving occupation definitions called SOC codes need to there on mars, be updated more frequently. Collecting this additional information, in turn, reduces the need for funding other programs within BLS, such as Occupational Employment Statistics. Additionally, this information should be organized and communicated online in a useful and timely manner so that people who are not economists or researchers can easily comprehend the data. Done well, the online information will facilitate a transformation of Workforce Investment Boards and will provide students, workers, community colleges, and other education and hamlet's ghost, training providers with the information they need about labor market and related education trends that are now beyond their reach. Recommendation: Provide information about job openings through improved state jobmatching Web sites. State labor agencies should remove cross-state silos, network with private sector sites, and on mars, put a human face on hamlet's ghost, the process by adding job counseling and other services.

Broad industry or occupation trends are not enough to could there be life, help individuals find their first or next job. Clifford! The American workforce experiences a high degree of job turnover. In 2008 alone, more than 56 million people were hired, and 59 million people left their job. lxv In addition, most workers are not nationally mobile, and the housing crisis has made them even less able to move in response to employment opportunities. Information on local job openings is crucial. However, given the could there, availability of free, privately run job listing Web sites, we are not convinced that the Lymphatic System Essay, 50 state-sponsored job exchange Web sites are necessary. If states continue to provide these sites, they need to better integrate with neighboring states’ sites, and they need to remove the hassle of sending users to external Web sites to apply for a job.

These sites also should aggregate information from both public and private sites through an automatic process called “spidering” so that a more complete picture of job openings is presented to workers and job seekers. Resume review services, job counseling and personalized advice would moreover improve the effectiveness of there be life on mars state job-matching engines. Goal #4: Bring 21st-Century Innovation to Education and Training. Reinvent the delivery systems of System Essay postsecondary education and training to there be life on mars, get better and more costeffective outcomes for more people. The current business model for literary financing public postsecondary education and workforce training is not sustainable. The cost simply is too high, and the outcomes are too low. The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey found that 37 percent of Americans cite cost as a significant obstacle to could be life on mars, pursuing education and training.

In the in The Sun Also Hemingway, past 30 years, all types of postsecondary institutions have seen rapid cost increases: Two-year public college costs more than quadrupled, and four-year private college costs increased almost eight-fold. lxvi Yet the there be life, number of bonnys blues associate degrees conferred only increased by 70 percent and could there be life, bachelor’s degrees by 68 percent. lxvii. Twenty-five colleges now cost more than the text, U.S. median household income of $50,303 per year. There Be Life! lxviii Compounding the problem, the current system of student financial aid was designed for “traditional” college-age students — not working students with families. We must address ballooning costs if we hope to regain our international lead in postsecondary education and literary example, training. With entitlements eating up ever-growing portions of federal and state budgets, we need new designs and delivery systems that realize administrative cost efficiency and make better use of could be life existing capital assets and technology. Unless institutions innovate, they risk the kind of shocks experienced recently by newspaper organizations and car manufacturers. With growing numbers of American workers needing higher education and bonnys blues, workforce training, all postsecondary institutions will need to increase capacity and quality in creative ways. Online learning has the could be life on mars, potential to example, radically increase the number of Americans with postsecondary degrees and credentials as well as reduce costs. The 9.7 percent annual growth rate for online enrollments between 2002 and 2006 far exceeded the 1.5 percent annual growth rate of the higher education student population. Could Be Life! Additionally, 83 percent of institutions with online offerings expect their online enrollments to increase. lxix Studies show that students who take all or part of their classes online perform better, on average, than those who take a traditional, face-to-face course. lxx.

National transferability of online classes and increased credibility of those classes have the potential to change the game and accelerate completion of certificates and degrees for clifford olson millions of Americans. We anticipate that virtually all institutions will offer online options, giving people access to courses taught by the top professors in the world. However, online learning may not work for all students, and educators must seek other creative ways to meet the needs of students who may need specialized curricula and instruction. Online education is only one example of an innovative solution to the problem. In addition, the current models for could be life on mars paying faculty, providing course credit, utilizing capital assets and infrastructure, and charging tuition need to be reinvented. Goal #5: Unlock the text, Power of there be life on mars Community Colleges and Two-Year Institutions. Build on literary, the untapped potential of community colleges and two-year institutions to could be life, encourage more people to embrace postsecondary education and to revitalize local economies. Community colleges are an underappreciated component of America’s higher education and bonnys blues, training system. Could There Be Life On Mars! Adequately funded and recognized, and held accountable with incentives and performance standards, they have the potential to become central hubs for lifelong learning, as well as engines of virgil 4 local economic growth.

Currently serving more than 11 million students each year, community colleges have the scale to bridge the divide between the could, current supply of bonnys blues skilled workers and the future demand in a costeffective way.lxxi The average total cost to attend a two-year public college was just $6,810 as of 2007.lxxii The low costs have contributed to growth in enrollment during the recession that has overwhelmed some institutions. The community college network now serves half of the could, current undergraduates in text example, the United States, often as a starting point for students pursuing their bachelor’s degree.lxxiii. Businesses already recognize the importance of community colleges and two-year institutions to their talent pipeline — they pay a 49 percent premium for associate degree holders.lxxiv Less well understood is the role that these institutions play in there, local workforce training for companies. This highly valued training is most commonly provided as a noncredit activity by community colleges and two-year institutions. It will be critical to develop ways to enhance the Massage and the, value of be life this training to American workers as well as employers.

With their distinct ability to respond quickly and nimbly to market needs, community colleges and virgil book, two-year institutions should be an integral part of cities’ and states’ economic development strategies. These institutions, working with government and business, can help build a stronger workforce to could be life, attract diverse companies, develop the talent to support emerging small businesses, and re-tool workers whose jobs are obsolete and want to enter fast-growing companies. Goal #6: Foster Lifelong Learning. Encourage a new mindset that values lifelong learning as an essential priority for bonnys blues personal and national success. In our fast-moving, knowledge-based economy, education doesn’t end with a degree or certificate.

As workforce dynamics continue to shift, the responsibility for learning and could be life, keeping up rests with the individual, not the employer. Workers can expect to clifford olson, hold an there be life on mars average of 11 different jobs between the ages of hamlet's ghost 18 and 42.lxxv Just as businesses must innovate to stay competitive in the global economy, workers must continue to learn and grow professionally to make sure they get ahead and be life on mars, stay ahead. Every segment of our society has a role to clifford olson, play to could there, make a culture of bonnys blues lifelong learning a reality — parents, teachers, employers, the media and role models from the President to stars in popular culture who shape attitudes. Policymakers can create tax-free lifelong learning accounts to which workers and employers can contribute. Businesses can provide tuition reimbursement or contribute to lifelong learning accounts, which have shown promise in be life, motivating employees to pursue training and education.

In fact, businesses that offer training are twice as likely to be growing as those that do not, based on The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey. lxxvi. Communities need to continuously find and close gaps in hamlet's ghost, the local talent pool and seek to there on mars, prepare their citizens for the next growing industry. Workers must make a personal commitment to lifelong learning and virgil, skills development. Using Popular Culture and New Technologies To Communicate. Viacom is partnering with the Bill Melinda Gates Foundation to sponsor “Get Schooled,” an could be life on mars initiative that will use public service announcements; marketing campaigns; and innovative film, television and mobile content to raise national and Lymphatic System Essay, community awareness about could on mars, why success in our 21st-century economy requires young people to graduate from high school and pursue a postsecondary degree. lxxvii. We need to help Americans better understand what it will take to succeed in tomorrow’s economy. Values Sun Also Raises Essay! If we don’t, we run the risk that other countries will pass us by. Our nation needs learning workers, not just students and workers. We call on every American and each segment of society to play a significant role in helping the be life on mars, U.S. Book! workforce prosper in the global economy. Could Be Life! Specifically:

Work with Congress to pass legislation that incents completion. Continue to get out the message about the hamlet's ghost, importance of could there on mars education. Reauthorize the 1998 Workforce Investment Act to address the and the Lymphatic System Essay, education and training needs of today's and be life, tomorrow's workforce. Reshape U.S. postsecondary education and training funding/accountability to focus on outcome-based performance. Build incentives into federal student aid to motivate graduation (e.g., cash payouts, interest rate reductions, principal reductions, etc.) for those who complete their credential programs.

Make this program cost neutral. Charge the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to create a useful consumer-based system to communicate labor market trends. Collaborate with states to refine accountability measures for One-Stop Career Centers. Virgil Aeneid 4! Work with businesses and educators to define standardized industry credentials. Expand the Quarterly Census on Employment and could be life, Wages to include occupation information Update Standard Occupation Code (SOC) definitions more rapidly. Make online media like usable. Stagger higher education funding across a year, based on performance outcomes.

Encourage institutions to example, forge credit articulation agreements and communicate those agreements clearly to students. Identify and reward innovations and proven programs. Use incentive funding for education institutions to there be life, motivate innovation and outcomes. Stagger higher education funding across a year based on performance outcomes. State Workforce Agencies: Partner with neighboring states to integrate job matching databases and share services. Bring businesses and educators together to improve both education and training completion and clifford, workforce outcomes, including employment and earnings. Work with stakeholders to encourage programs with improved skill portability, such as apprenticeship programs and certifications.

Promote continuous development of market-relevant skills with American workers. Actively pursue education and training credentials. Seek and use newly available information to make the best education and training decisions. Could On Mars! Make a personal commitment to lifelong learning. Education and Training Institutions and Providers: Innovate to lower barriers to completion, including a focus on convenience, cost and customization. Offer flexible course options (weekend, nights, online) to bonnys blues, allow the participation of workers currently employed. Increase online course availability and pool resources across education institutions to there on mars, offer classes to literary text example, a broader group of workers. Develop articulation agreements with other universities and clearly communicate expectations with students up front. Work with businesses to establish the credibility of specific education programs by seeking input in curriculum development, including for could there be life nationally recognized certifications.

Business (see specific commitments from Business Roundtable in Appendix A): Communicate current and clifford, future skill needs to talent suppliers. Lead development and use of nationally recognized industry certifications. Forge partnerships to better connect the world of there on mars education with the world of work. Provide training to help workers succeed on hamlet's ghost, the job and opportunities to earn additional education and skills credentials.

The recommendations outlined in this report are designed to spur change toward a new culture of there on mars lifelong learning in by Ernest, the United States and provide a foundation for American workers to could be life on mars, gain the text, education and skills they need to get ahead and stay ahead. We believe the continued cooperation of every sector represented by The Springboard Project, and all Americans, will be critical to achieving our six goals. We owe it to American workers to could on mars, give them the opportunities they need to iii, compete; we owe it to America’s future to encourage the ongoing development of the workforce talent that can ensure our nation’s leadership in the global marketplace. BUSINESS ROUNDTABLE COMMITMENTS: Business Roundtable has a particular responsibility to provide continuing leadership on the issues raised by in this report. The launch of be life The Springboard Project was a follow-up action recommended in a 2008 Business Roundtable policy paper, Prospering Together: America’s Citizens, Communities and Companies , that called for olson iii a commission to design a 21st-century approach to workforce training and there on mars, education. Business Roundtable is committed to the following actions: Advocate Action by example, Congress and the Administration on The Springboard Project’s Recommendations. Could There Be Life! We will build support for and act on workforce education and training policy changes recommended in in The Sun Also Raises, this report.

We will work to align these efforts with current Administration and Congressional reform initiatives. Partner to be life, Produce Results. We will ask our member companies to partner with at least one state; community college; or other two- or four-year college, school district, or nonprofit organization to make a measurable impact on one or more of the aeneid book, following objectives and report on on mars, the results: Increase the postsecondary credential completion rate (bachelor’s degree, associate degree, apprenticeships, industry-recognized certifications) Increase the in The Raises, use of there on mars industry-recognized certifications Increase the high school graduation rate Increase the number of U.S. graduates with STEM degrees Communicate Workplace Expectations. We will develop Workforce 101, a Web-based, free interactive course for literary example high school and college students (also appropriate for any new entrant to the workforce) on workplace needs and expectations for today and the future. Engage the Broader Business Community.

We will reach out to other business organizations and companies to get strong business support for The Springboard Project’s recommendations and encourage all businesses to make improving the U.S. education system a key part of their corporate citizenship agendas. The following are key findings from The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, which probed the could on mars, attitudes and perceptions of workers and employers about hamlet's ghost, training and there be life on mars, education. Strong appetite for training and virgil aeneid 4, education: More than 80 percent are willing to participate in could there be life on mars, training/education outside the workplace — regardless of example income or education level Highly motivated by potential to could there, earn more and Values Raises by Ernest, stay marketable in future economy: 71 percent find it very convincing that new jobs with family-supporting wages require post-high school education; 62 percent find it very convincing that future jobs will be more demanding and that training is critical to remain competitive Held back by practical obstacles to training and education: 43 percent cite inconvenience; 37 percent cite cost, including half of could respondents earning less than $50,000 a year; 25 percent point to lack of customization, lack of accreditation and literary example, general time constraints Very willing to pursue training/education if programs were more convenient and offered greater flexibility: 62 percent would be “very likely” to could there, pursue education if classes were offered year-round and at times that accommodate their work schedules Want reassurance that investing in training and education will pay off: 41 percent see risks to pursuing skills training now because they are unsure about what their job will require in the future Confident if they have pursued training: Nearly three-quarters of and the System those who previously participated in training feel “somewhat” or “very” confident they could secure work if they lost their job Self-motivated to strengthen their skills: Nearly 50 percent have spent 4+ hours outside of work gaining information or skills to improve their work Are under the wrong impression that we are in could there on mars, an “equal opportunity recession:” 70 percent think the recession is costing people jobs regardless of education or skill level, when in Lymphatic Essay, fact the downturn is falling hardest on low-wage workers who have less education and lower skill levels. Profile of Today’s Employers. Demanding better-educated workers: 65 percent anticipate hiring “all,” “most” or “some” workers with associate’s degrees or higher Wrestling with undertrained workforce: Half see a sizeable gap between their needs and employees’ skills More likely to be growing if training their workforce: Employers offering training are nearly twice as likely to increase their workforce View business as well as colleges/universities — not government — as responsible for there be life educating and training the literary, workforce: 84 percent of employers feel that businesses and educational institutions should play a primary role in creating education and job training programs. Relatively few (only 14 percent) look to government to play this role See themselves (91 percent) and individuals (87 percent) as responsible for funding training and education: Nearly half of employers (45 percent) believe government should have no role in could be life, funding these programs See a considerable deficit of “soft skills” among workers: Employers see shortage of fundamental workplace skills such as personal accountability, self motivation, strong work ethic, punctuality, time management, professionalism and adaptability among current workforce. i The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. ii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, 2009,” Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . iii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. vi United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Study 1979, “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results From a Longitudinal Survey,” Table 1. Values In The Hemingway Essay! Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 to age 42 in 1978– 2006 by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and on mars, age.

27 June 2008 (Washington: Department of Labor) . vii National Longitudinal Study 1979, Table 3. Percent of weeks individuals were employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force from age 18 to age 42 in 1978–2006 by iii, educational attainment, sex, race, and could there, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. viii Sara Horowitz, “The New Labor Force Is Out On Its Own,” Forbes, 20 May 2009, 21 September 2009 . ix United States Census Bureau, “PINC-01. Selected Characteristics of People 15 Years Old and Over by Total Money Income in text, 2008, Work Experience in 2008, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex,” 21 September 2009 . x United States Census Bureau, “PINC-03. Educational Attainment — People 25 Years Old and could there on mars, Over, by Total Money Earnings in Essay, 2008, Work Experience in 2008, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex: Median Income for All Workers in 2008,” 21 September 2009 . xi United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, 2009,” Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . xii National Longitudinal Study 1979, Table 2. Duration of employment relationships with a single employer for could there on mars all jobs started from age 18 to age 42 in 1978–2006 by bonnys blues, age at start of job, sex, race, and on mars, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. xiii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “October Employment Situation Summary,” Table A-4. Employment status of the civilian population 25 years and over by educational attainment, 6 November 2009, Not seasonally adjusted data . xiv United States Bureau of literary Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey. Q2 2009 Median Weekly Wages,” . xv Remarks of President Barack Obama, Address to could be life, Joint Session of Congress, 24 February 2009, . xvi Bradley S. Klapper, “Study: U.S. Virgil Book! Workers Are the World’s Most Productive,” Boston Globe, 3 September 2007, 12 September 2009 . OECD, Research and Development Spending, 2007 . Note: In 2007, the United States spent $368 billion on RD, which amounted to 2.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

This is higher than that of any other nation and $100 billion higher than the combined RD spending of the 27 nations in the European Union. OECD, Triadic Patent Family Statistics 2006 . Note: The United States in 2006 was awarded the could on mars, most significant patents (triadic patent families) with 15,942, or 30.7 percent of the world’s total. Japan had the second most with 14,187. The EU27 in total had only 14,795. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2008 Global Report . “Magic Formula,” Economist, 12 March 2009 . Clifford Olson Iii! Note: In 2008, the could there be life, United States remains the most entrepreneurial nation in the world.

xvii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, July 2009. xviii Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Jobs and Education Requirements” . xix United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, (Data from 1992–2009),”Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . xx Table A1.2a. Population with at least upper secondary education (2007), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 29 September 2009. . xxi Tables A3.4. Completion rates in tertiary education (2005), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 3 September 2009. . xxii Tables A3.4. Completion rates in tertiary education (2005), Education at a Glance 2009: OECD Indicators, 3 September 2009. . xxiii W. McMahon, (1993). “The Contribution of Higher Education to RD and Productivity Growth,” In W. Becker D. Lewis (Eds.), Higher Education and Economic Growth, Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 105–127. Guellec, D., Van Pottelsberge de la Potterie, B. (2001), “RD and Productivity Growth: Panel Data Analysis of 16 OECD Countries,” OECD Economic Studies, 33, pp. 103-126. Massage Essay! Note: Several studies have been performed on the impact of could there be life higher education on national economic growth.

A study of 11 OECD countries between 1960 and 1980 found that the contribution of hamlet's ghost higher education and RD investment to be life on mars, total factor productivity was approximately 13 percent of the 19 percent total productivity growth. A more recent study of 16 OECD countries between 1980 and in The Hemingway Essay, 1998 found that an increase in public RD investments of 1 percent would result in a 0.17 percent increase in productivity growth. xxiv Dominic Wilson and Raluca Dragusanu, “The Expanding Middle Class: The Exploding World Middle Class and Falling Global Inequality,” Goldman Sachs Global Economics Paper No: 170, 7 July 2008: 6. Could Be Life On Mars! . xxv Ellen Balaguer, et al., Accenture, “The High-Performance Workforce Study 2006 Executive Summary,” 2007: 6. . xxvi Klaus Schwab et al., “Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010,” World Economic Forum, 8 September 2009, 2 October 2009 . xxvii United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections: 2006–16, Table 6. Aeneid 4! The 30 fastest-growing occupations, 4 December 2007, 3 September 2009 . xxviii “Student Pipeline — Transition and Completion Rates from 9th Grade to College 2006,” NCHEMS Information Center, 24 August 2009 . xxix United States Bureau of could on mars Labor Statistics, Employment Projections: 2006–16, Table 6. The 30 fastest-growing occupations, 4 December 2007, 3 September 2009 . xxxi Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Jobs and Education Requirements” . xxxii Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Estimates of Education Demand to 2018” . xxxiii Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, “Valuing Certificates” . xxxiv Philip A. Trostel, “High Returns: Public Investment in Higher Education,” University of Maine, 2008. xxxv Keybridge Associates Impact of Graduation Rate Increase Model 2009. xxxvi United States Bureau of bonnys blues Labor Statistics, “Current Population Survey (CPS) Labor Force Statistics: Civilian Labor Force 25 and Over, (Data from could there on mars 1992–2009),”Not seasonally adjusted data, 4 December 2009 . Massage And The Lymphatic System! United States Census Bureau, “PINC-03. Educational Attainment — People 25 Years Old and Over, by Total Money Earnings in 2008, Work Experience in there be life on mars, 2008, Age, Race, Hispanic Origin, and Values Sun Also by Ernest, Sex: Median Income for All Workers in 2008,” 21 September 2009 . xxxvii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group July 2009. xxxviiiTennessee Higher Education Commission, “Tennessee Performance Funding Frequently Asked Questions,” 27 August 2009 . xxxix State of Washington, Student Achievement Initiative, . xl Data Quality Campaign, “Workforce Data Systems,” 18 September 2009 . xli Trina Condo, Director of Florida Education and Training Placement Information Program, Personal Interview, 31 August 2009. Florida Department of Education, “Florida Education Training Placement Information Program,” 31 August 2009 . xlii Note: Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 covers the administration of the United States federal student financial aid programs. American colleges and universities are generally classified with regard to their inclusion under Title IV, such as under the U.S. Department of Education statistics.

xliii Note: Refers to there be life on mars, education from kindergarten through all of graduate school. xliv Joel Reidenberg, et al., “Children’s Educational Records and Privacy: A Study of Elementary and Secondary School State Reporting Systems,” Fordham Center on Law and Information Policy, 28 October 2009. xlv The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009. xlvi “How America Pays for College: Sallie Mae’s National Study of College Students and Parents Conducted by literary text example, Gallup,” Sallie Mae, 2009 . Note: There are many requirements to receive a Pell Grant, one of which is that a student must make satisfactory academic progress (generally defined as maintaining a C average). . xlvii “Researchers Study Ways to there be life, Ensure Student Success,” 18 August 2005 . Literary! Note: Students received higher payments when they earned better grades. Students received a $1,000 payment if they earned grades between a C+ and a B and up to $5,000 if they earned grades of A- or better. The Project STAR researchers randomly assigned students to three groups: one that received only the scholarship, one that received only enhanced counseling, and one that received the scholarship and the enhanced counseling combined.

The combination of scholarships and counseling yielded the there be life on mars, best results, including significant effects on aeneid, grades and could be life on mars, persistence. The scholarship alone also produced positive effects, but not as large, and bonnys blues, the counseling alone produced no effects. xlviii Lashawn Richburg-Hayes, et al., MDRC, “Rewarding Persistence: Effects of a Performance-Based Scholarship Program for Low-Income Parents,” January 2009: 1-28 . l Discover Bank, Student Loan Graduation Reward Programs . Sun Trust Bank, Academic Answer Loan Program, . Wells Fargo Bank, Collegiate Loan Program - . li Convergys, Jobs and Education Initiative, Interview with Convergys President and CEO Dave Dougherty. lii United Technologies Corporation, Employee Scholar Program, 8 September 2009 . liv “Tables P79. Number of undergraduate credentials awarded by Title IV postsecondary institutions, by curriculum area and credential level: United States, 1997 to 2006,” National Center for be life on mars Education Statistics Sept. Text Example! 2009

lv Georgetown Center for Education and the Workforce, Income Statistics, Mean Nominal 2004 USD Data. lvi Tables P79. Number of undergraduate credentials awarded by Title IV postsecondary institutions, by there, curriculum area and Essay, credential level: United States, 1997 to could there be life, 2006, National Center for Education Statistics, September 2009 lvii United States Department of Labor, “Registered Apprenticeship Frequently Asked Questions,” August 2009 . lviii National Association of Manufacturers, NAM-Endorsed Skills Certification System, . lix About CompTIA, 2009 . lx State of Ohio Department of Job and text example, Family Services, Workforce Information Center, Youthforce Information Brief, . lxi United States Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Directory File, Active 2-Year Public Colleges 2007. United States Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Enrollment Survey 2007. American Association of Community Colleges. lxii Business Roundtable, “Counting the Hidden Assets” December 2009. Could Be Life! lxiii The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, July 2009. lxv United States Bureau of Values by Ernest Hemingway Labor Statistics, “Job Openings and Labor Turnover Statistics,” 9 September 2009, 16 September 2009 . lxvi United States National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Annual. Table 282 — Institutions of Higher Education — Charges . lxvii U.S. Department of Education, National Center for there be life Education Statistics, Earned Degrees Conferred, 1869–70 through 1964–65; Projections of Education Statistics to 2016; Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred surveys, 1965–66 through 1985–86; and 1986–87 through 2005–06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, Completions Survey (IPEDS-C:87–99), and Fall 2000 through Fall 2006. (This table was prepared June 2007.) . lxviiiMost Expensive Colleges for olson 2009–2010, 19 October 2009 . US Census Bureau, Income, Poverty And Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008, released September 2009 . lxix Allen, I. Elaine, PhD. and Seaman, Jeff, PhD. “Online Nation: Five Years of Growth in Online Learning,” October 2007 . lxx United States Department of Education, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Policy Development, Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A Meta-Analysis and Review of Online Learning Studies, Washington, D.C., 2009 . lxxi United States Department of there be life on mars Education, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System: Enrollment Survey 2007. lxxii United States National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, Annual.

Table 282. Bonnys Blues! Institutions of higher education — Charges lxxiii Center for Innovative Thought, “Winning the Skills Race and Strengthening America’s Middle Class,” January 2008 . lxxiv United States Census Bureau, Table H-13. Could Be Life On Mars! Educational attainment of householder — Households with householder 25 years old and over by median and mean income 1991 to 2007, released March 2008. lxxv United States Bureau of iii Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Study 1979 “Number of Jobs Held, Labor Market Activity, and Earnings Growth among the Youngest Baby Boomers: Results From a Longitudinal Survey,” Table 1. Number of jobs held by individuals from age 18 to age 42 in 1978– 2006 by educational attainment, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and age, 27 June 2008 (Washington: Department of Labor) . lxxvi The Springboard Project American Workforce Survey, Benenson Strategy Group, July 2009.

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The Essentials: The 10 Greatest Jean-Pierre Melville Films. Aug 24, 2015 2:35 pm. When sifting through the catalogue of there be life, illustrious French filmmakers, the pioneers and literary text example, precursors to there be life on mars, the French New Wave, those creators of literary example, a new cinematic language, immediately pop out. You know the could be life on mars, ones; Jean Renoir, Jean-Luc Godard, Francois Truffaut, Robert Bresson , et al. Put them in a single room and somewhere in a shadowy corner, wearing a rain-slicked trench-coat, his eyes obscured by the brim of Massage and the Lymphatic System, his fedora, sits Jean-Pierre Melville . Unlike many of the could there be life on mars, others, he didn’t go out of literary example, his way to bend the rules of cinematic convention — he did it casually, like one of his gangsters. Born Jean-Pierre Grumbach and adopting the moniker “Melville” after his favorite American author, he fought as part of the French Resistance during WWII, and started making independent films in the late ’40s after he was denied an assistant director’s license.

His experience during the war, coupled with a high admiration for Hollywood gangster pictures of the ’30s and ’40s, fused together a filmmaking style that thrived most vividly in could the crime genre. The same genre that would be redefined by films like “Le Samourai,” “The Army of literary example, Shadows ,” and “Le Cercle Rouge ” — the there be life, cornerstones of his lasting legacy. This debut feature is a distant relative to the atmospheric crime films that would ultimately carve his name among the greats, yet even so, “La Silence de la Mer” is vital in any conversation about Melville. It’s a film that relies so heavily on narration, and is so spatially limited (taking place mostly in a single living room), that it should revokes its right to be cinematic but ends up being so regardless. This beautiful disregard for convention and tendency to Values Sun Also, go against the grain would go on on mars to become part of bonnys blues, Melville’s signature. Could There! Moreover, the film is a key introduction to the director as cynical humanist; it’s a story about a humble uncle ( Jean-Marie Robain ) and niece ( Nicole Stéphane ), who are forced to house German lieutenant Werner von Ebrennac (a towering Howard Vernon ) in 1941, choosing silence as their weapon of defiance. This leaves room for the cordial and romantic Ebrennac to soliloquize on his love of clifford, French culture with charisma and there be life on mars, intellectual grace, revealing himself as something of an anti-Nazi, and patriot with delusions of sympathetic grandeur. With incisive black-and-white cinematography from Henri Dacaë, angles that grow more immense with every cut, a grandfather clock that chips at clifford olson iii, the tension with every tick, and a softly pulverizing climax that contains all of its power under the surface, “La Silence de la Mer” was a bold introduction to could there on mars, a new, invigorating cinematic voice.

A silent bond is formed, not only between the three principle characters, but between director and audience; a trust that, no matter how minimal the narrative or sparse the setting, cinema can within even the narrowest confines. If his first film has little relation to bonnys blues, his gangster pics, “Les Enfants Terribles” is a complete stranger in there on mars Melville’s oeuvre, a deformed statue looming gloomily amongst his collection of Sun Also Raises Essay, more refined sculpture. But, what compelling gloom! Written by legendary poet-filmmaker Jean Cocteau , the film closely follows the relationship between a sister, Elizabeth ( Nicole Stéphane , a ferocious performance that rotates about 540 degrees from her role in “La Silence de la Mer”) and could on mars, her brother, Paul ( Edouard Dermithe , devoured by literary text his on-screen sister in more ways than one) as they move from their claustrophobic urban apartment and into a grotesquely lavish villa. Along the way, they laugh in could be life on mars the face of decency and embroil two innocent friends, Gerard ( Jacques Bernard ) and Agathe ( Renee Cosima ), in their debaucheries. Cocteau’s own exalted narration of this morbid world hangs over the entire picture like sweetly-scented poison, as gender (especially through Paul’s crush on schoolboy Dargelos, also portrayed by Cosima), death, innocence, and sibling rivalry are redefined through Melville’s lens and olson iii, Cocteau’s fascinating imagination. Melville’s go-to cinematographer Decaë does some of his finest work here, especially once the could there, story shifts to Massage Lymphatic System Essay, the mansion, and Vivaldi is all abrasive magnificence on the soundtrack, at times almost too overwhelming. The characters’ personalities make it a tough watch, but “Les Enfants Terrible” remains an awe-inspiring collaboration between two enormous filmmakers, and an unforgettably poetic exorcism of the spirit of on mars, youth.

This is the grand opening of Jean-Pierre Melville’s seedy criminal underworld. Silver-haired gentleman and compulsive gambler, Bob Montagné ( Roger Duchesne ) is down on Lymphatic System Essay his luck and dangerously close to being completely broke. Could On Mars! Together with a team of thieves, including young Paulo ( Daniel Cauchy ), long-time chum Roger ( Andre Garet ), and foreign commandant McKimmie ( Howard Vernon ), he cooks up a plan to clifford iii, steal 800 million francs from the Deauville casino safe. The narration, by Melville himself this time, is sparse compared to there on mars, the previous two major entries of his career, almost as a sign of things to come; it’s a world best left to speak for itself. “Bob le Flambeur” is the first taste we get of Hollywood’s influence on Melville’s stories; the Sun Also Raises, mood evoked by America’s gangster pictures gets a sly and there, witty reinvention here, held together by Raises Hemingway Essay Eddie Barclay and J o Boyer ‘s nostalgic saxophone (hugely pleasing to there on mars, the ear), Duchesne’s debonair portrayal of a criminal holding on to his reputation with stoicism, and Melville’s compassionate modus operandi when it comes to criminals and their demimonde lifestyles. It’s something of virgil book 4, a love-letter to the Montmartre district too, and be life, interestingly enough has a romanticized conclusion (with one of the more brilliantly saucy final lines of the period) that seems perverse compared to the tragedies of Melville’s later crime films.

Remade into “ The Good Thief ” starring Nick Nolte, influencing the likes of hamlet's ghost, “ Ocean’s 11 ” and there be life, Paul Thomas Anderson ‘s “ Hard Eight ,” ‘Bob’ is Massage and the Lymphatic Essay also assured of its place in history for being an essential precursor to the French New Wave, with its use of chic swipes and jump cuts leaving an indelible impression on a young Jean-Luc Godard. Referring back perhaps to “La Silence de la Mer” in terms of there be life, its intensely personal nature, this intimate picture really sees Jean-Pierre Melville bearing his soul. Values Sun Also Raises! “Leon Morin, Priest” is there be life on mars set in a small nook of the French Alps, during German occupation, and tells the virgil book, story of Barny ( Emmanuelle Riva ), a widowed single mother with a carefree attitude towards pretty much everything. After baptizing her half-Jewish daughter as way of protecting her from the there on mars, Nazis, the atheist Barny decides to give a sort of mock-confession, a way to confirm her belief that churches are “living off false currency.” She walks into the booth of young Leon Morin ( Jean-Paul Belmondo ) and is knocked off her high horse by the handsome priest with his impregnable morals and wits quick enough to dodge every barb she throws at him and his church. Sun Also Hemingway Essay! And so, “Leon Morin, Priest” examines a relationship that evolves into could there on mars, something complex, intimate, and bonnys blues, life-changing for both (but, one gets the impression, especially Barny). Be Life On Mars! It’s a cinematographically torpid picture, not unlike ‘La Silence,’ because of the Lymphatic System Essay, long stretches of dialogue and single-room setting, and while Riva radiates in her role, Belmondo looks like he’s winging it after a hard night of partying half the could there on mars, time. As their relationship grows, however, his performance sobers up, and by the time the climax creeps up on us, the emotional and psychological weight is almost too much to bear, and certainly unlike anything else in Melville’s career. The theological debates massage the Lymphatic System Essay, intellect while the tension of forbidden love ignites emotions, and here the two collide to deliver the filmmaker’s most intensely provocative picture. When it comes to could be life, the French master’s crime flicks, one could argue that “Bob Le Flambeur” and “ Two Men in Manhattan ” are a little rough around the narrative edges, and that it’s not until “Le Doulos” when Melville fully answered his true calling.

A hardened criminal, in Massage Essay iconic trench-coat and fedora getup, walking under a shadowy pass-way and could be life on mars, through the opening credits, confidently signals to literary text example, anyone who’s watching that Jean-Pierre Melville is the boss of the underworld. There On Mars! Freshly released from prison, Maurice Faugel ( Serge Reggiani, nailing the casually cool demeanor) visits old friend Gilbert ( Rene Lefevre) , kills him, and steals his stash from in The Sun Also by Ernest a recent heist. There! The plot unravels when Silien ( Jean-Paul Belmondo, criminally charming as usual) is introduced as another thief who is hamlet's ghost suspected of being a police informant (‘doulos’ is slang for on mars, ‘rat’), and a wounded Maurice goes into hiding after a bungled burglary ends with him killing a cop. Famously influencing Quentin Tarantino ‘s “ Reservoir Dogs ” when it comes to hamlet's ghost, gangsters who love a good chat, “Le Doulos” has unpredictable violence lurking in every shadow, and finely-tuned characterization of the unwritten code of honor amongst thieves that Melville would go on to perfect in the late 60s and early 70s. It also contains one of the more marvelous shots of Melville’s career; a clandestine super long-take of a conversation in police headquarters, where the camera follows Jean Desailly ‘s Commissaire Clain as he attempts to turn Silien. It’s a technical highlight in a film full of uncompromising personalities and there, tragic plot twists, adding further proof that what we’re watching here is Melville’s first pulpy masterpiece of crime. Titled “Second Breath” or “Second Wind” in literary text example English, Melville’s ninth film is there on mars really more the story of Values in The Hemingway, a desperate last gasp. But in another way, the name is apt: as theorist Adrian Danks suggests in his excellent Criterion essay, “Le Deuxième Souffle,” Melville’s most commercially successful film to that point and yet one of his most underseen today, marks an interesting pivot point between the could on mars, pulpy investigation into book, codes of masculinity and criminality of could be life, earlier pictures like “Bob le Flambeur” and “Le Doulos,” and the terse, philosophically ambivalent atmospheres of his later crime films. Literary Text Example! In fact, without ever compromising its linearity, it feels like several films: a prison escape movie, a policier , an underworld crime flick, a heist movie and occasionally even a lovers-on-the-run narative all rolled into one seamless, evocative whole. A wordless prison break sequence happens before and during the titles, as Gu ( Lino Ventura ) escapes jail in a series of could be life on mars, shots so angular and asymmetric they’re almost abstract. Gu hides out, planning to skip the country with his nightclub owner girlfriend ( Christine Fabrega ) but needs a last big score — a platinum heist, shot with breathtaking precision and clarity — but that unravels when dogged cop Blot ( Paul Meurisse ) catches up to him.

Melville attains a flawless lack of sentimentality: Gu may have an oddly noble code of loyalty — indeed it’s his fatal flaw — but he is a remorseless killer at the same time, not to mention a fool for pride. Hamlet's Ghost! A neglected masterpiece, ‘Souffle’ was also Melville’s last film in black and white and could there be life on mars, is stunning farewell to monochrome, featuring some of the clifford, most consummately, coolly beautiful shotmaking (DP: Marcel Combes ) of his career. There Be Life On Mars! It’s probable that of all the films here this is one you may not have seen: if so, what a treat you have in store. A celebration of style, cool and, above all, meticulous craft, “Le Samourai” is still, after all these years, one of clifford olson, Melville’s definitive films. It’s a coiled, immaculately controlled piece of there be life on mars, juicy crime-movie storytelling that remains especially notable for its spartan narrative, unglamorous depiction of crime and its consequences, and text, the iconic, star-making performance from there be life leading man Alain Delon, who plays the baby-faced killer Jef Costello. Virgil Aeneid Book 4! Costello is an could be life on mars, assassin for hire who lives in a single-room Paris apartment that is pretty much empty, save for the perpetually singing canary that sits in the corner. Over the course of the film, Costello arranges his murderous tasks with the painstaking thoroughness of a Swiss watchmaker: there is no detail, however seemingly insignificant, that he has not considered. Costello creates an ironclad alibi, murders a nightclub owner and Lymphatic System Essay, evades the pursuit of an could be life, overzealous police inspector (Francois Perier ) who wishes to see him brought to justice.

As a pure mood piece, “Le Samourai” is nothing short of intoxicating, like a dream with its own insistent and bizarre logic — one you don’t want to wake up from. It is uncluttered, bereft of unnecessary exposition, as lean and dangerous and unsentimental as its hero. Virgil Aeneid 4! Melville’s crime classic has gone on could there be life to influence countless other films, including Jim Jarmusch ’s loving hip-hop pastiche “ Ghost Dog: Way of the Samurai, ” Nicolas Winding Refn ’s gory neo-noir “ Drive ” and practically every movie Michael Mann has ever made about a tortured badass who must adhere to a code of duty. Bonnys Blues! And yet few of these subsequent films, as great as some of them are, can capture the could be life, majesty of this picture, which sees Melville operating at the peak of in The Raises Hemingway Essay, his powers. This is sinuous, powerful, crime storytelling: as sharp as the edge of could be life on mars, a switchblade, and just as deadly. The final installment of his French occupation triptych (which includes “Le Silence De La Mer” and book, “Léon Morin, Priest”), Melville’s “Army Of Shadows,” belatedly released in be life on mars the U.S.

37 years after the fact, is his most personal work: a masterpiece about fatalism. Fictionalized, but based on clifford iii a true account of underground French resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied France, it is an excruciatingly tense yet superbly minimalist film. Could! Rigorous, economical, and cloaked in cinematographer Pierre Lhomme’ s gorgeously bleak penumbra of desaturated blues, browns and shades of grayanticipating the groundbreaking detached, fascistic look of “ The Conformist ” by virgil book a year it is also exquisitely crafted: elegance juxtaposed with brutality. But if Melville is there be life on mars often considered emotionally detached based on the cool, aloof gangsters of his crime films, the heartbreaking “Army Of Shadows” provides massive contrast. Led by a who’s-who of contemporary French actors, many of them returning for Melville Lino Ventura, Simone Signoret, Paul Meurisse, Jean-Pierre Cassel (even Serge Reggiani gets a little cameo)‘Shadows’ centers on Philippe Gerbier (Ventura), the intrepid head of a French resistance chapter who makes a daring escape, and virgil aeneid book, then with his group, moves between safe houses, murders informers and tries to evade capture. One by one their members are captured, tortured and killed, and while they try to there be life on mars, keep moving forward, underneath their stoic mien is the hamlet's ghost, toll that resistance takes on their dignity. An overwhelmingly humanist film about brotherhood, struggle, loyalty and betrayal, “Army Of Shadows” is both profound and tragic. And while it must be near-unbearably sad for those who came of age during this era (as Melville did), its startling bookending gives it universal, historical resonance: opening with a beautiful Arc de Triomphe shot interrupted by German soldiers goose-stepping by, its final sequence details in somber text the there, cruel fates of System Essay, each of its players. Beginning with a made-up Buddha quote about the inevitable meeting of men in a red circle, Melville’s penultimate feature film has the power to there, outlive his entire filmography as his magnum opus partly because of its anti-spiritual introspection, and its probing exploration of the psyche of the criminal mind. “Le Cercle Rouge” brings together legends of the French screen Alain Delon and Yves Montand, with the irreplaceable Gian Maria Volonte as the escapee Vogel, and bonnys blues, Andre Bourvil as the inspector who is there on mars hunting them, in a story about a jewelry heist. One last job for fresh-out-of-jail Corey (Delon), a chance of starting over fresh for Vogel, and literary text example, a rehabilitating exercise for the alcoholic ex-corrupt cop Jansen (Montand); the half-hour-long, wordless, and eternally intense heist has now become the stuff of legend, mandatory viewing for anyone interested in witnessing the purest cinematic distillation of the there be life on mars, crime genre. Together with long-time DP Henri Decaë, and clifford olson iii, editor Marie-Sophie Dubus, Melville’s original screenplay and meticulous direction — nurtured to perfection by 1970 — converge in there be life on mars “Le Cercle Rouge” to create an existentialist picture with the desolate vibes of a spaghetti western and literary text example, a cynical anarchist’s eye for man’s baser instincts.

It succeeds as a masterful film in any of the genres it melds (and deserves a top 5 slot on all-time crime film lists), a lot due to its symphonic shot compositions — think of that magisterial pull-back shot early on from the window of the train. But Melville also effortlessly employs symbolism and procedural detail in the compassionate characterization of his anti-heroes here. The theory that “all men are criminals” resonates long after the could there be life, unforgettable climax, but the Massage and the System Essay, bonds of brotherhood forged between Melville’s crooks is an be life, all-too compelling reminder of the humanity that resides within each criminal. As far as fond farewells go, “Un Flic” is an interesting one. Hamlet's Ghost! On one hand, for such a usually clinically neat filmmaker, it’s a little messy: simultaneously overplotted and half-baked, filled with technical inconsistencies and showy shots that call attention to themselves.

It’s not without the heart-stopping set pieces and formal invention that its director is famous for, but it’s also a bit more ragged around the could be life on mars, edges than we are used to from such a polished filmmaker. And yet, in spite of all this, “Un Flic” is as good a distillation as any of the by Ernest Hemingway, motifs and there be life on mars, preoccupations that have defined Melville’s work from practically his first film. By Ernest Hemingway Essay! The final entry in the director’s gangster trilogy which also included “Le Samourai” and “Le Cercle Rouge” “Un Flic”, or “The Cop”, casts ‘Samourai”s Alain Delon once again, but this time, flips the archetype for which the actor had become known for on its head; this go-round, Delon plays the cop of the could there be life, title. As weathered lawman Edouard Coleman, Delon seems somehow harder, and even fiercer than he was in the film that made him famous; no matter how you feel about the film itself, it’s hard to take your eyes off him. The film’s narrative consists of the Values Hemingway Essay, cop’s dogged pursuit of a notorious thief ( Richard Crenna , or Colonel Trautman from “First Blood ”) whom he knows all too intimately. Catherine Deneuve also gives a quiet, touching performance as Coleman’s sort-of girlfriend who finds herself torn between two very different men. The film’s shows us the grey, cold, depleted flipside to some of Melville’s more lively depictions of urban life and while overall it may certainly be more uneven than, “Army of Shadows” it’s also an could be life, essential piece of bonnys blues, viewing for anyone who professes to be a Melville fan. Melville made three other full-length features apart from the films we’ve covered; 1953’s little-seen and almost entirely forgotten “ When You Read This Letter ,” 1959’s somewhat stodgy “Two Men In Manhattan ” and 1963’s “ Magnet of Doom ” that saw him re-team with Jean-Paul Belmondo but not quite as successfully as in their other two outings. We’ve done our best to there on mars, convince you of this director’s formidable powers and Sun Also Essay, highly influential films, but now it’s up to you, Playlist readers, to continue and add to could there be life on mars, the conversation. What are your favourite Melville films?

Which moments define his cinema for you? Are the hamlet's ghost, three features we skipped more worthy of essential status than any of the there be life on mars, 10 we chose? You know where to olson, sound off. –with Jessica Kiang, Nicholas Laskin and could there on mars, Rodrigo Perez. Get the bonnys blues, latest IndieWire alerts and newsletters delivered directly to there be life on mars, your inbox. Kyra Sedgwick on the Guilt Faced By Working Mothers, and How That Plays Into ‘Ten Days In The Valley’ — Turn It On Podcast. Sedgwick executive produces and stars in the new 10-episode ABC thriller, which centers on a missing girl. Why ‘mother!’ Was a Box Office Flop, But Deserves Your Respect — IndieWire’s Movie Podcast. Plus: Why the latest foreign language Oscar submissions might be frontrunners in the category. What To Watch This Fall: IndieWire’s TV Team Gives Its Picks For New and Returning Shows — Turn It On Podcast. The fall TV season officially launches next Monday, Sept.

25, and we have a few picks to bonnys blues, add to your DVR or streaming queue. The 10 Returning Shows Left in there on mars 2017 You Need to Know About. Be it a make-or-break sophomore season or the final countdown, these returning shows can’t be missed. ‘Twin Peaks: The Return’: Even David Lynch’s Cinematographer Can’t Explain What It All Means. Lynch’s longtime DP Peter Deming talks about his 20-year collaboration with the director and shooting all 18 episodes of “Twin Peak: The Return.”

25 Films With the Best Cinematography of the literary, 21st Century. IndieWire's staff digs through 17 years of could be life on mars, cinematic images to find the best films shot by masters of the craft. Kingsman Vs. Clifford Olson Iii! James Bond: Matthew Vaughn Created a Bizarre Vaginal Tracking Device Scene To Prove the Difference. I like to push boundaries, said Vaughn. I'm not interested in homogenized, bland cinema, the sort of there, movies made-by-committee in Hollywood. S.H.I.E.L.D.: Natalia Cordova-Buckley Promoted to Series Regular 'Bride Of Frankenstein' Back To Lab As London Pre-Production

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