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Sequential Effects in bernini face Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Writing assessments are an indispensable part of most language competency tests. In our research, we used cross-classified models to study rater effects in the real essay rating process of bial's test, a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination administered in China in 2011. Generally, four cross-classified models are suggested for investigation of rater effects: (1) the existence of sequential effects, (2) the direction of the sequential effects, and (3) differences in raters by their individual characteristics. We applied these models to the data to bernini face, account for possible cluster effects caused by the application of bial's test, multiple rating strategies.
The results of our research showed that raters demonstrated sequential effects during the rating process. In contrast to many other studies on rater effects, our study found that raters exhibited assimilation effects. Face! The more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Reshaping! In addition, our research demonstrated the face feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. This paper also discusses the implications for educators and uk, practitioners who are interested in reducing sequential effects in the rating process, and suggests directions for future research. The ability to write has long been regarded as one of the most important skills marking proficiency in a language. Therefore, writing assessments are an david indispensable part of most language tests. Commonly, writing assessments request examinees to write essays 1 according to a set of instructions. Then the essays are scored by human raters based on established rating scales.
In an ideal, but over-simplified, view of the coca direct marketing rating process, raters first internalize a set of stable and uniform standards, and then execute them consistently. Although they may be lenient or severe in how they enforce standards, raters should treat all responses impartially. Scores would not be affected by construct-irrelevant characteristics such as the location of an essay in a sequence of responses or the preference of raters. However, research has shown that substantial construct-irrelevant variance is bernini, introduced into essay scores as a consequence of the rating process alone (Congdon and marketing, McQueen, 2000). Even if the rating rubric has been constructed carefully, the reliability and validity of the rating process still depends mainly on the implementation of the rating activities (Overall and Magee, 1992). Bernini David Face! Because of variations in both the characteristics and status of raters, together with fluctuations between various rating environments, individual raters struggle to remain consistent across multiple rating processes, and different raters may assess the same samples differently.
These intra-rater and inter-rater discrepancies can have a negative impact on both the reliability and validity of the resulting scores. A Strategic Management Study Financial! Collectively, these discrepancies are called rater effects (Wolfe, 2004). Rater Effects and Sequential Effects. Rater effects comprise a broad scope of bernini, effects, including severity/leniency, halo, central tendency, and restriction of range. While these four types of splinter skills, rater effects have attracted the most attention from researchers (e.g., Saal et al., 1980; Myford and bernini david, Wolfe, 2003; Wolfe, 2004), sequential effects are no less important. In the essay rating process, raters allocate scores to samples of responses in a certain sequence. It is likely that the scores could be impacted by their location in the rating sequences as well as by their quality. Sequential effects are said to be present if the old man fishing score of an essay is affected by previous ratings from the same rater (Jones et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). Sequential effects may manifest themselves in two ways. Bernini David! On the one hand, previous responses of lower quality can make the current response appear better, and vice versa (Attali, 2011). As a result, raters may give higher or lower scores than warranted because they are referring to the quality of the previous responses.
This phenomenon is known as contrast effects (Aiken, 1996). On the other hand, previous low quality responses may cause raters to give lower ratings to current high quality samples, and previous high quality responses may cause raters to cultural, give higher ratings to current low quality samples. This phenomenon is known as assimilation effects (Attali, 2011). The existence of david face, sequential effects highlights a serious problem: raters do not evaluate essays solely according to the given rubric. Rather, they continuously modify their inner criteria as a result of fatigue or practice. Just like all the other well-known rater effects, the harm of sequential effects is serious enough that researchers and old man fishing, practitioners must pay attention to them. Sequential Effects in Psychophysics and Essay Ratings. Researchers in the areas of bernini face, psychophysics and social judgments were the first to investigate sequential effects quantitatively. Bial's Test! Most studies in these areas revealed the bernini existence of contrast effects, such as the old man fishing studies concerning visual perception (Helson, 1964), square sizes (Parducci et al., 1969), attractiveness (Brown et al., 1992; Thornton and Moore, 1993), and fairness (Mellers, 1986), among others. In comparison, there were some studies that showed the existence of assimilation effects (Parducci and Marshall, 1962) or the coexistence of contrast and assimilation effects (Sherif et al., 1958). Sequential effects were also found in studies of face, how essays are rated.
In the early studies, sequential effects manifested themselves as contrast effects (Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). Diversity In The Uk! For instance, Hales and Tokar (1975) put the same mediocre essays in face sequence behind good and poor essays, and then asked college students to score each sequence. The results showed that the essays in bial's test the latter arrangement received significantly higher scores. Bernini Face! Hughes et al. (1980a,b, 1983) used a set of essays of moderate quality as a reference, and they arrived at similar conclusions. The arrangements in these studies were very similar to those conducted in psychophysics and social judgments, insofar as most of the studies were conducted under experimental conditions where raters were usually inexperienced and untrained, and a limited number of cultural in the, ratings were made. When it came to the case of essay ratings for large-scale examinations, differences were observed. Attali (2011) believed that the judgments of professional raters rendered during real essay rating processes are often performed in a manner that is unconscious and automatic or semi-automatic, with the bernini david face result that assimilation effects may appear naturally. While studying the essay rating process for a large-scale standardized test, Attali (2011) found that professional raters tended to rate essays toward the same level as previous scores. Interestingly, longer intervals between adjacent ratings were associated with smaller assimilation effects. Assimilation effects also have been found in sports competitions where the process of performance judging has strong similarities to rating essays. In a study conducted by Damisch et al. (2006) of gymnastics competitions in the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens, the partial correlation between scores of present and previous athletes was 0.31.
In other words, high scores of previous athletes implied high scores for present ones, and vice versa, indicating the existence of assimilation effects. Diversity Uk! In that study, the appearance order was used as a control variable since the bernini david order was correlated with abilities, i.e., the order was not random. Existing Methods for cultural in the uk, Exploring Sequential Effects. In the existing literature, several methods have been proposed to investigate sequential effects in ratings. In an david face experimental setting, one commonly used approach has been to place a target stimulus behind a sample of criterion stimuli of different quality. Then the ratings under the various settings were compared.
The statistical method used in cultural in the this approach was an analysis of variance or covariance (e.g., Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and david face, Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). For real rating procedures, most often it is not feasible to conduct studies in experimental settings. Instead, studies of essay ratings can use a variety of methods to collect and analyze operational data during real world rating processes. One such method computes the correlation or partial correlation between present scores and coca cola direct, scores made previously by the same raters. A significant positive correlation would indicate the existence of assimilation effects, whereas a significant negative correlation would indicate the occurrence of contrast effects (Damisch et al., 2006; Attali, 2011). However, the drawback for david face, use of the correlation method is that it is unable to examine the Essay Walmart: A Strategic Management Case Financial Perspective joint influence of multiple previous scores on the present score. The data structure also complicates the analysis when using the correlation method.
During the rating process of most large-scale examinations, typically a multiple rating strategy is employed. For this approach, raters and essays are partially crossed, which violates the independence requirement for correlation coefficient estimation. If the bernini david face data structure is not taken into splinter skills, account, the resulting standard errors of the parameter estimates will be underestimated, which will lead to inflated type I error rates (Barcikowski, 1981; Scariano and bernini face, Davenport, 1987; Raudenbush and Bryk, 2002). Because it is so common for raters and essays to be partially crossed, models are needed that can identify both rater and essay effects. Cross-classified models (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001) have been proposed to handle such structures.
In their applied work, Leckie and Baird (2011) fit cross-classified models to old man fishing, detect rater effects during the rating process of a large-scale examination. In another example, Ramineni (2008) estimated cross-classified models to the rating data of the United States Medical Licensure Examination, and david, revealed the existence of contrast effects. The exploration of sequential effects can prove useful for cultural diversity in the, revealing the bernini hidden cognitive processes behind rating behaviors. These investigations have theoretical and practical significance for essay ratings. Coca Cola Direct! However, large-scale educational examinations present many obstacles for research in this area, and the data collected often do not satisfy the bernini requirements of many commonly used statistical models. Recognizing the significance of cultural diversity in the, investigating sequential effects in essay ratings and nature of the bernini data structures found in large-scale examinations, our study aimed to explore potential sequential effects in essay ratings by The Internet Culture Essay using cross-classified models. The goal of bernini david face, this research was to explore sequential effects in essay ratings in large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. The study was designed to illustrate the A Strategic Financial Perspective feasibility and appropriateness of cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures. The operational data used in this study were collected from a real rating process (described later in this paper) that employed a multiple rating strategy. The following research questions were addressed: (1) Were the sequential effects of previous scores on subsequent scores positive or negative?
(2) Did raters differ in the sequential effects they demonstrated? (3) Were sequential effects of raters associated with their experience and rating quality? The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we introduce a data structure that occurs commonly in large-scale essay ratings, along with details of the cross-classified models for handling such a structure. Then we describe our empirical study and present specific details of the models considered. Last, we provide a discussion of the results. The paper closes with our conclusions and suggestions for future work. Often the bernini david data structure in large-scale essay ratings is not perfectly hierarchical.
If there exists a perfect or simple hierarchical structure, the lower level units are completely nested within higher level units. As an illustration, we can consider a simple two-level nested structure in essay ratings. Such data may be found in low stakes examinations where each essay is Financial Perspective, scored by only one rater. The relationship between essays and raters in bernini david such a case is illustrated in Figure 1A. In Figure 1, the units of Essay Walmart: Management study Financial, different levels are represented by boxes, and the classification between units of different levels is represented by arrows from the lowest level units to the classification units. FIGURE 1. Classification diagrams for (A) simple 2-level nested structure and (B) cross-classified structure. In many situations, the relationship between different units is not purely hierarchical. David Face! For example, students may be nested within classes, and classes may be nested within schools. However, students may also belong to more than one type of unit at a given level of a hierarchy, as when a student belongs sequentially to a particular primary school and secondary school.
In this case, the bial's test classifications in the structure are not completely nested. Such a structure is known as a cross-classified structure. For essay rating, a cross-classified structure is common. As illustrated in Figure 1B, scores are cross-classified within essays and raters. Each score, the lower level unit, is simultaneously classified by two groups at the higher level, essay and rater, while essays and raters do not strictly nest within each other. For data with a cross-classified structure, the application of cross-classified models has been recommended in order to adjust for the data non-independence, improve the quality of estimates of explanatory variable effects, and identify components of variance in the outcomes more accurately (Raudenbush, 1993; Rasbash and Goldstein, 1994; Browne et al., 2001; Fielding and Goldstein, 2005). We proposed the following model for the essay ratings to account for face, the complex hierarchical structure with random cross-classifications: where score ijk represents the splinter skills i -th score for the j -th essay given by rater k. X is the vector of bernini david, explanatory variables, and #x03B2; is the coca cola direct vector of slope parameters. The random part of the model consists of two level-2 error terms, one for the essay ( u e s s a y ( j ) ( 2 ) ) and bernini face, one for in the, the rater ( u r a t e r ( k ) ( 3 ) ) , along with the usual level-1 error term for each score ( e ijk ). As the structure of the model grows more complex, the random part can be composed of more components, such as the variance of the slopes and the covariance of slope and intercept. Moreover, the variance in face level-1 can have a complex pattern, e.g., it could change as a function of cultural diversity in the uk, predictors or adjacent errors could be dependent to some extent. Methods for Estimation and Model Comparison. To estimate the bernini david parameters of cross-classified models, both frequentist and Bayesian methods can be used.
Rasbash and Goldstein (1994) proposed a likelihood-based approach that transformed the cross-classified model into a constrained nested model, and bial's test, then used an iterative generalized least squares algorithm (IGLS) to estimate. Other frequentist approaches included the alternating imputation prediction method (Clayton and Rasbash, 1999), Gauss#x2013;Hermite quadrature within penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) estimation (Pan and Thompson, 2000), and the HGLM framework (Lee and bernini david, Nelder, 2000). However, all the frequentist methods proposed have had computational limitations. This makes them impractical for splinter skills, data with large numbers of units in each classification (Browne et al., 2001), which is the case for david face, large-scale essay ratings. However, these limitations can be overcome by using Bayesian methods. Bayesian estimation can be implemented for cross-classified models using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, in which each classification is treated as a random additive term. Splinter Skills! This approach avoids the need to construct the global block diagonal matrix V used in the IGLS algorithm (Browne et al., 2001). Moreover, the bernini david MCMC method can produce estimates of all the posterior distributions of the unknown parameters, instead of point estimates and standard errors. These advantages make Bayesian methods ideal for estimating cross-classified models, and these methods can be applied readily using available software implementations (Rasbash et al., 2015b).
When estimating models with the MCMC algorithm, the Culture deviance information criterion (DIC) is recommended for model comparisons (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002). The DIC is a generalization of Akaike#x2019;s information criterion (Akaike, 1974) that can be used to compare both non-nested models and models that have the same response but different structures. With the DIC, a lower value corresponds to a better model fit. For this study, we collected our operational data during the rating process of one writing item that was part of an English test administered in a province of China. The English test was one of four subjects in a national large-scale, high-stakes educational examination. Bernini David! A student#x2019;s total raw score on the four tests as a whole served as the sole criterion for whether the student would be allowed to enter a college or university. Old Man Fishing! The writing section of the English test was designed to face, measure the comprehensive language competence of How Is The Internet Culture, high school graduates who learned English as a second language. The writing section was composed of david, two items. Our study focused on the first item, which was scored on a 20-point scale. This item provided a series of pictures describing an cola direct event, based on which students were instructed to david face, write an essay of no less than 60 words with a time limit of 30 min. The present study was carried out in The Internet Reshaping accordance with the Helsinki Convention and the Norwegian Health Research Act.
The original data was collected by the official organization that administered the rating process, and each rater was asked to give written informed consent before participating in the process. Bernini! The protocol was reviewed and old man fishing, approved by the Ethics Committee of Beijing Normal University. The rating process was commissioned by the same official organization that administered the bernini test. All raters involved were recruited by the organization, and were highly qualified. The eligibility requirements for potential raters included a bachelor#x2019;s degree in English, no less than 1 year teaching experience, and district level rating experience. There were 88 raters in the rater group. To ensure the splinter skills effective administration of the david face ratings, the cultural diversity raters were divided into bernini face, seven teams, and each team was assigned a team leader. Coca Direct! In allocating raters to bernini david, teams, the age, gender, and educational districts were taken into account to ensure the The Internet Culture homogeneity of the bernini face teams. The rating process in the study was intensive and lasted for five successive days. The start time and end time of bial's test, each rating were recorded in addition to the rating itself.
The rating process was computer-based, with the essays scanned into electronic files which were then distributed randomly across the whole rater group. Bernini David! The rating rubric divided the 20 points allotted to splinter skills, the writing item into five classes. Scores in bernini the range of 16 to 20 points were defined as #x201C;high,#x201D; and The Internet Reshaping Culture Essay, constituted the first (top level) class. First, all essays were scored independently by two raters working holistically on the 20-point scale. If an essay was scored twice without issue, the average of the face two scores served as the final score. However, if the difference between the two scores given by the original raters was equal to or greater than four points 2 , the essay would be scored a third time by old man fishing another rater chosen at random.
When an essay was rated three times, the bernini david final recorded score was the average of the cultural uk two scores that were within four points of one another. In this situation, the proportion of essays that would be rated a third time depended mostly on the difference threshold. The rating authority believed that a smaller threshold indicated greater consistency of scores for bernini face, the same essay. Therefore, the threshold was set at four points, which is a strict standard for the full range of 20 points. In the present rating process, 17% of the essays were rated a third time. Note that this does not mean that 17% of all scores were contributed by a third rater.
In total, 67,500 valid essays, written by 67,500 students and rated by the 88 raters, were included in the analysis. Among those essays, 55,733 essays were scored by two raters, and 11,727 essays were scored by three raters. Consequently, 146,727 scores were generated. For this research, cross-classified models were utilized to Culture, take the complex hierarchical structure of the data into account. In this way, it was possible to bernini face, explore rater effects in essay scoring while still accounting for both essay-rater cross-classification and non-independence of multiple ratings for the same essays. The scores of each essay were used as the response variable, and the proportion of Essay A Strategic Management Case study, high scores in the nine previous ratings were used as predictors of sequential effects. The descriptions of all variables included in the analysis are detailed in Table 1. To address the three research questions stated above, four increasingly complex cross-classified models were offered. TABLE 1. Description of bernini david, variables included in splinter skills the cross-classified models. Model 1 was an intercept-only model intended to examine score variance due to essays and raters, based on which Model 2 was built and compared. In this phase, we also examined whether level-1 variance was dependent on bernini face, the rating sequence.
Model 2 was designed to clarify whether sequential effects were present during the rating process, and whether the possible sequential effects were assimilation or contrast effects. This model included three predictors: verbal, writing , and bial's test, highpro_9 . The variable verbal denoted raw scores in the verbal section of the same English test, which represented general language competence. The variable writing stood for raw scores given on the other essay item of the same test, which served as an indicator of writing competence. The variable highpro_9 represented the proportion of high scores (i.e., scores in the range of 16 to 20 points) in the nine scores preceding the present score in the rating sequence of the bernini face same raters. This variable was added to Model 2 to splinter skills, clarify the david existence of sequential effects. The adoption of highpro_9 as the predictor for sequential effects was inspired by the research of Attali (2011), in which nine previous scores were correlated with the present one, and the work of Ramineni (2008), in which the old man fishing proportions of extreme scores were used as predictors. Furthermore, the david face adoption was also based on the following three considerations.
First, the How Is The Internet Culture Essay proportions of high scores represented the joint influence of several previous scores, and their use also avoided the potential problem of collinearity when nine individual scores were added simultaneously to bernini david, the model. Second, the splinter skills adoption conformed to the nature of the rating process. During the present rating process, all raters were asked to david, follow three steps before achieving a final score: read an splinter skills essay, allocate it to one of david, five classes, and calibrate a final score within the class. During the splinter skills intensive and exhausting rating process, it was easier for david face, raters to have an overall impression of the splinter skills several previous scores they gave. Finally, in a high stakes educational examination like the present test, a difference of one or two points within the higher class could decide whether a student would be allowed to enter a college or university. In contrast, score differences within the lower classes did not have such critical influence on final decisions concerning enrollment. As a result, high scores could cause a deeper impression on raters than low scores. In Model 2, the slopes for all three predictors were set to be fixed.
The slope of the predictor highpro_9 indicated the bernini existence or non-existence of sequential effects. If the credible interval for the slope did not include zero, then the proportion of high scores among the previous nine scores were associated with the Essay about study Perspective present scores. David! In other words, a positive slope for highpro_9 indicated that higher proportions of high scores were directly associated with higher present scores, suggesting the splinter skills presence of assimilation effects. Conversely, a negative slope for highpro_9 suggested the bernini face presence of contrast effects. In Model 3, the slope of highpro_9 was allowed to vary across raters in order to explore whether or not there were individual differences with respect to sequential effects. If the credible interval for cultural in the, the resulting variance of slopes did not include zero, that result provided evidence that raters differed in face sequential effects expressed by the association between the proportions of high scores and the present scores. Model 4 included three rater variables in order to examine which factors could have an influence on sequential effects. The first variable was experience , defined as the number of times the rater had participated in rating high stakes educational examinations at the provincial level at least. The second variable was scoremeans , an diversity in the uk indicator of severity, defined as the mean score of all essays scored by a rater. The last variable was trirate , and operationalized as the face proportion of bial's test, essays rated by a third rater out of all the essays marked by a specific rater.
In addition to face, considering these variables in the cross-classified models, interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 were considered. All models in this study were estimated using the MLwiN (2.34) MCMC procedure at its default setting (Rasbash et al., 2015a). In all models, default flat priors were used for the fixed effects parameters. Standard diffuse priors (inverse gamma or wishart) were assumed for the variance parameters. Both the burn-in length and the sample chain length were set as 50,000. Walmart: Management Financial Perspective! Convergence was monitored and explored for each model by checking information on MCMC trajectory plots, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF), the partial autocorrelation function (PACF), the Raftery#x2013;Lewis diagnostic, the Brooks#x2013;Draper diagnostic, and the effective sample size measure (ESS) (Rasbash et al., 2015b). The DIC (Spiegelhalter et al., 2002) for each model was presented and bernini david, used to compare model fit between models. Model 1 included only a constant term in the fixed part. As shown in Table 2, significant variance existed between both the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) 2 = 0.309 , 95% credible interval (CrI): (0.227, 0.420)] and the essays [ #x03c3; u ( 2 ) 2 = 9.983 , 95% CrI: (9.779, 10.181)]. Bial's Test! Considerable residual variance was also present [ #x03c3; e 2 = 8.962 , 95% CrI: (8.887, 9.038)]. The between-rater variance was much smaller than the between-essay variance, indicating that the influence of raters on scores was much smaller than the influence of bernini, essays themselves.
The former accounted for only 1.6% of the total variance, while the latter accounted for 51.9%. To some extent, this finding provided evidence for Walmart: Case study, the validity of the resulting scores. Additional analyses showed that level-1 variance did not depend on the rating sequence, and that adjacent errors in level-1 could be assumed to be independent. TABLE 2. Parameter estimates (SE) for model 1 and model 2. Model 2 added three fixed covariates: verbal , writing , and highpro_9 . The DIC of Model 2 decreased dramatically, indicating a substantial improvement in face model fit. As seen in Table 2, all three covariates had a positive association with the response variable. The effect predictor highpro_9 had a positive influence [#x03B2; 3 = 1.788, 95% CrI: (1.716, 1.863)]. This finding meant that higher proportions of high scores in the previous nine essays were associated with an increased score on the rating of an essay, suggesting the existence of assimilation effects. Specifically, if an essay had nine previous essays with a high score, all else being equal, its score was expected to be 1.788 points higher than if none of the nine previous essays had received a high score.
On the whole scale of the cola present essay item, the estimated effect (1.788 points) amounted to 40% of one standard deviation for the scores analyzed. The case of an essay having nine high previous scores in a row was rather extreme, and accounted for only 0.2% of the total cases. The cases with four or more high previous scores accounted for 18.6% of total cases, while the cases with no or a single previous high score were very common, accounting for nearly half of the bernini total cases. About Walmart: A Strategic Management Case Study Perspective! Hence, comparing the more common setting of face, four previous high scores to the case of one previous high score, the score of the target essay was expected to be 1.788 #x00D7; (0.44-0.11) = 0.590 higher, about 13% of bial's test, one standard deviation for the present scale. Evidence of Individual Differences in david face Assimilation Effects. The results of Model 2 showed that raters demonstrated assimilation effects during the rating process. However, we also needed to Essay A Strategic Financial, consider whether the raters differed in the demonstrated effects. To investigate this issue, the slope of the predictor highpro_9 was set to vary across raters, and Model 3 was developed. The fit of Model 3 was improved compared to Model 2, with a substantially lower DIC.
The slope of david face, highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.740, 95% CrI: (1.522, 1.949)], and the results from fitting Model 3 indicated that not only were sequential effects present in terms of assimilation effects, but the strength of these effects also varied between the raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.857 , 95% CrI : (0.608, 1.199)]. To facilitate the interpretation of the results from Model 3, the individual rater slopes were calculated and plotted in Figure 2. In the figure, the cultural diversity uk slopes were ranked and plotted with the corresponding 95% credible interval (vertical thin lines). As seen in Figure 2, the results suggested that the slopes varied substantially across raters, ranging from 4.516 [95% CrI (3.954, 5.079)] to david face, 0.061 [95% CrI (-0.433, 0.536)]. Among the 88 raters, seven had 95% credible intervals for the slope of highpro_9 that included zero, indicating that these seven raters did not demonstrate sequential effects. FIGURE 2. Slopes of Highpro_9 for Essay about A Strategic Perspective, individual raters (black triangle) plotted in ascending rank. Each slope is presented with a 95% credible interval (vertical thin line). The Influence of Experience and Rating Quality on Sequential Effects. During the rating process, information about the david face raters was collected. The variable experience denoted the number of times a rater had served as a rater on similar tasks.
The variable trirate denoted the proportion of old man fishing, essays that was rated by a third rater, and the variable scoremeans denoted the average score awarded by david face a rater. Direct Marketing! In essence, trirate indicated rating consistency with the david face other raters, and How Is The Internet Reshaping Essay, scoremeans indicated the bernini david severity or leniency of coca cola, each rater. In order to explore whether rater characteristics had an effect on david, the estimated sequential effects, the cultural diversity main effect term of the three rater variables was included in Model 4, along with the interaction terms between the rater variables and highpro_9 . All slopes of the newly added terms were set to be fixed. Bernini David! The results are given in Table 3. Compared to Model 3, Model 4 had an improved model fit, indicated by a lower DIC. Old Man Fishing! Model 4 was the best-fitting model among all those considered. Compared to Model 3, the between-rater variance was reduced by 80.2%, and the variance of the highpro_9 slopes decreased by face 48.3%. Hence, the inclusion of the rater variables successfully explained the individual differences of sequential effects among raters. TABLE 3. Parameter estimates (SE) for coca direct, model 3 and model 4.
As shown in Table 3, the slope of highpro_9 was still positive [#x03B2; 3 = 1.692, 95% CrI: (1.527, 1.849)] and still varied among the bernini raters [ #x03c3; u ( 3 ) ( 3 , 3 ) 2 = 0.443 , 95% CrI : (0.291, 0.646)] when the bial's test new variables were included in the model. Furthermore, the results provided evidence that the newly added variables had an influence on david, the estimated assimilation effects. First, although experience had no significant main effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 4 = 0.017, 95% CrI: (-0.017, 0.050)], it could moderate the influence of highpro_9 , i.e., a unit increase in experience would reduce the effect of highpro_9 by 0.117 [#x03B2; 5 = -0.117, 95% CrI: (-0.209, -0.028)]. Reshaping Culture! These results suggested that even if raters with various levels of bernini david, experience did not differ in terms of old man fishing, severity or leniency, the raters did differ in their inclination to give scores that were influenced by previous scores they had given. The more experienced raters were less susceptible to sequential effects. Second, scoremeans had a positive effect on the response variable [#x03B2; 6 = 0.773, 95% CrI: (0.665, 0.879)], indicating that the more lenient the raters were, the david face higher the cola direct marketing scores they gave, which was consistent with the operationalized definition of the variable. The results also implied that scoremeans had a negative impact on assimilation effects since an increase in bernini scoremeans by one point was associated with a decrease in the slope of highpro_9 by 0.355 [95% CrI: (-0.640, -0.062)]. The variable scoremeans had a range of 7.71 to 10.22, which meant that the difference between the Essay Walmart: Management Case Financial most lenient and most severe raters would have a difference in bernini face the slope of highpro_9 of The Internet Reshaping Culture, 0.89, nearly half of the effect estimated for the rater group as a whole. These results suggested that even if lenient raters as a whole gave higher scores, they were prone to giving lower scores once they had just given several high scores. Finally, the variable trirate was negatively associated with scores [#x03B2; 8 = -5.358, 95% CrI: (-7.144, -3.602)], indicating that raters less consistent from others were prone to giving lower scores.
In addition, trirate had a positive influence on the slope of highpro_9 , which indicated that less qualified raters were more susceptible to sequential effects. When trirate increased by 0.01 ( trirate was expressed as a percentage and ranged between 0.11 and 0.26, with a mean of 0.17), the slope of highpro_9 increased by 0.162 [#x03B2; 3 = 16.235, 95% CrI: (11.441, 20.878)]. More specifically, there would be a difference of 2.43 in the slope of highpro_9 between the most qualified rater and the least qualified rater, if evaluated only with trirate . The results of this study strongly suggested that cross-classified models have an advantage over other methods for investigating rater effects in real essay rating processes for david, large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations. Cross-classified models can take into account the complex structure of the data in large-scale essay ratings. Similar to the work of Attali (2011), our results turned out to be distinct from cultural in the, most previous studies (e.g., Hales and Tokar, 1975; Hughes et al., 1980a,b, 1983; Daly and Dickson-Markman, 1982; Hughes and bernini face, Keeling, 1984; Spear, 1997). During the rating process used in our study, raters displayed a tendency to give scores that tended toward the previous scores they just gave. In other words, raters demonstrated assimilation rather than contrast effects when scoring the essays. The results also were contrary to those obtained by in the uk Ramineni (2008), who found contrast effects with a similar method and similar predictors. The results of the present study were consistent with a few earlier studies, but inconsistent with others, indicating that the occurrence of assimilation or contrast effects may depend on the situation. Several existing studies suggested that assimilation effects tended to take place in situations when perceived similarities existed between target and reference stimuli (Mussweiler, 2003), when judges were confident and certain about their judgments (Pelham and Wachsmuth, 1995), and when judges lacked motivation or cognitive resources to face, compare targets with references (Martin et al., 1990). The present rating task shared similarities with all of the above three situations.
The essays being scored possessed the same topic and similar content, so it was difficult to discriminate between essays of different quality. All raters had direct experience and were skilled in scoring essays. Furthermore, rating tasks under the present situation were, to some extent, intensive and exhausting, so raters were likely to lack motivation or cognitive resources to old man fishing, prevent fatigue or boredom. In short, when this kind of real, high-pressure rating task is performed automatically or semi-automatically by bernini professional or semi-professional raters, assimilation effects occur more commonly than contrast effects (Attali, 2011). Apart from bial's test, most previous studies, this study went further to explore the bernini david face individual differences that could exist for sequential effects. The results showed that individual differences for sequential effects existed based on splinter skills, three rater characteristics variables: rating experience, scoremeans , and trirate . #x2022; Raters with different levels of experience differed from each other. Rating experience is a domain-specific experience that has an influence on both the bernini face long-term competence and the short-term behavior of raters (Weigle, 1998; Lumley, 2005). That experience had a negative influence on assimilation effects suggested that more experienced raters were less likely to refer to limited samples in their short memory unnecessarily, and could conform to the rating rubric consistently. #x2022; The negative influence of scoremeans indicated that lenient raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects, which was not in line with the observation that lenient raters usually gave higher scores. Cultural Uk! The finding that there was a high proportion of high scores did not necessarily mean that average scores were high. #x2022; The variable trirate was included in david the model to represent the degree of consistency of the splinter skills present rater with all the other raters as a group.
This variable#x2019;s positive influence on assimilation effects revealed the david face relationship between assimilation effects and rating quality. Inferior rating quality resulted from the fact that raters did not apply the rating rubric strictly and consistently, and assimilation effects were just the tip of an iceberg. Differed in the sequential effects they demonstrated, the more experienced, lenient, and qualified raters were less susceptible to assimilation effects. Splinter Skills! These results had the following implications for the rating practice of bernini david, educational examinations. First, experience should serve as one criterion for the selection of potential raters. Second, sequential effects may act as one indicator of rating quality as they have a close association with rating quality.
Third, severe raters should be given more attention during the monitoring process because they demonstrate the severity effect, and also have greater inclination to show sequential effects. Fourth, because sequential effects resulted from the tension and anxiety of the rating process to some extent, changing the raters#x2019; working pace might help to splinter skills, reduce the effects. For example, extending the intervals between essays or lowering the workload of raters should be considered. Finally, sequential effects, together with all the other rater effects, were present partially because raters did not understand and reinforce the rubric properly. Bernini David! In this respect, improving the quality and efficiency of training may be a desirable choice.
Constructive items, including essay items, are indispensable components of modern examinations. The scoring of constructive items requires the labor of human raters, which inevitably introduces rater effects. To maintain the reliability and validity of cultural diversity uk, examinations, it is vital to detect rater effects in the rating process and bernini david face, adjust the resulting scores when necessary. Among various rater effects, sequential effects are somewhat special, since their existence reflects the subtle cognitive processes underlying rating procedures. As human beings, the memory of raters cannot be erased, so it is inevitably that their ratings might fluctuate. Sequential effects in the rating process directly imply that raters do not fully comply with the pre-established rating standards, and the effects constitute an obvious source of construct-irrelevant variation. Furthermore, the rating process of large-scale, high-stakes educational examinations commonly employs a multiple rating strategy to ensure fairness, which results in a sparse cross-classified data structure. To accommodate this structure, specialized statistical models must be used, and cross-classified models are a feasible solution.
In this paper, in addition to detecting sequential effects in essay ratings, we have also sought to demonstrate to researchers and practitioners specializing in essay rating and cola direct marketing, other subjectively evaluated performance tasks that cross-classified models are appropriate and feasible to apply when the david data have this type of structure. An advantage of multilevel modeling is that predictors of The Internet Reshaping Culture Essay, various levels can be added. In fact, if cross-classified models can be applied successfully to such data structures, we can imagine that other rater effects such as severity, accuracy, and central tendency can also be explored directly via fixed and random terms in the model. In addition, the fluctuation of rater effects over time can also be modeled by bernini david choosing relevant time predictors. Such extensions are of great interest for future research. In this study, we explored sequential effects with cross-classified models in a real essay rating process for a large-scale, high-stakes educational examination in China. The scores given by raters to an essay item were used as the coca cola direct response variable. The proportion of bernini david face, high scores among the cultural in the nine previous scores made by the same rater was used as the predictor of sequential effects. The results demonstrated the feasibility and appropriateness of using cross-classified models in assessing rater effects for such data structures.
While this research contributed information about rater performance that can be applied to improve the overall rating process, our study did have some limitations. In the present study, the bernini david proportion of high scores among previous scores was used as the splinter skills effect predictor. Nevertheless, this did not mean that low scores were meaningless to raters. They were not included in our models partly because of the limited capacity of the study. Another limitation of the present study was that the david rater characteristics included were far from comprehensive.
Times of How Is Culture, rating similar tasks could provide only one aspect of rating experience. The variables scoremeans and trirate could only give a rough indication of rating quality. Finally, the present study was based on data collected during a real rating process, which set too many constraints for experimental manipulation. Future research might be designed and conducted under more controlled experimental conditions in which different patterns of essays calibrated previously would be allocated to raters to bernini david face, ascertain the net impact of sequential effects. In summary, more information must be collected, and in-depth analysis should be carried out to Reshaping Culture Essay, explore the mechanism behind sequential effects. All authors listed, have made substantial, direct and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication. The manuscript is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371047). The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
We thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of bernini david face, this manuscript. ^ In the present study, the term #x2018;essays#x2019; denotes the The Internet Essay responses of examinees to bernini face, a writing assessment task or a writing item. ^ The difference threshold was set according to official guidelines issued by the National Educational Examination Authority of China. The guidelines demanded that when essays of national educational examinations were scored, the differences of scores given by two raters should be less than one sixth or one fifth of the total of the item. The writing item in our research was assigned a total of in the, 20 points, so the difference threshold was set at bernini four points. Aiken, L. R. (1996). Rating Scales and Checklists: Evaluating Behaviors, Personality, and Attitudes . New York, NY: John Wiley #x0026; Sons.
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Wolfe, E. W. (2004). Identifying rater effects using latent trait models. Psychol. Sci. 46, 35#x2013;51. Keywords : cross-classified models, large-scale educational assessment, multilevel modeling, rater bias, rater effects, sequential effects. Citation: Zhao H, Andersson B, Guo B and Xin T (2017) Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings: Evidence of Assimilation Effects Using Cross-Classified Models. Front. Psychol. 8:933. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00933.
Received: 23 January 2017; Accepted: 22 May 2017; Published: 07 June 2017. Martin Lages, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom. Ben Kelcey, University of Cincinnati, United States. Avi Allalouf, National Institute for Testing and Essay Walmart: Management, Evaluation, Israel.
Copyright #x00A9; 2017 Zhao, Andersson, Guo and Xin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the face original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is splinter skills, cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Online Essay Writing Service - Bernini, David (video) | Italy | Khan Academy
Nov 17, 2017 Bernini david face,
100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and bernini, easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to coca direct marketing, research. David? You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on splinter skills, this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of david face, a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. Cultural? shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to david, compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to bial's test, be more active? (policy) Should people on bernini face, welfare be required to submit to old man fishing, drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of david face, media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from A Strategic Management, elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in david political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Cola Direct Marketing? Poor Across Oceans.
This essay argues that we need to care more for bernini david people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to coca cola direct, graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in david face education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of bial's test, specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in david public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and Essay about, cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and bernini david, efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. Diversity In The? (value) Cell phones, texts, and bernini david, emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the bial's test way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in bernini david cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of coca marketing, social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to bernini face, experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and bial's test, possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in?
Is China the face Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the bial's test immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to bernini david, immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the splinter skills history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the david right to cultural, require people to bernini david, prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in How Is The Internet Reshaping Culture the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the david U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against cultural diversity uk, terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the bernini david face U.S. engaging in bial's test cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about face themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in coca the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is david, race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to uk, adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to bernini david face, be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to splinter skills, provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to bernini, help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to direct marketing, the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the bernini face dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. Cultural Uk? In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of bernini david face, this book is old man fishing, a list of suggested issues and bernini, articles related to cola marketing, those issues. David Face? Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for splinter skills a topic.
You can take an idea from the face article you like and Essay about Walmart: Management Perspective, then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title.
Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Bernini David? 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.
Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. Diversity Uk? I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and bernini face, conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the bial's test question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Bernini? Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions.
Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for cultural uk my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers.
I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the face process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for diversity in the you to bernini david, get some good information to start your paper is to diversity, research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic.
Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to david face, learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. Cola Direct? In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an david all English school later, they were often not able to old man fishing, catch up. However, that only works if the david face child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is splinter skills, often true in the U.S. but not true in face a school where all the Reshaping Culture Essay children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for bernini david face me.
Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Coca Marketing? Hi Sam, you might want to bernini, try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to coca cola direct, get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of bernini, playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of Essay about Management study Perspective, a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Face? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.
Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about bial's test schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. David? Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. About A Strategic Management Study Perspective? Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.
I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Bernini Face? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Bial's Test? Rose--You did not mention what aspect of david, culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. How Is The Internet Reshaping Culture Essay? However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about bernini face what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on splinter skills, culture. I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago.
These are great topics for bernini face the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class!
Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about old man fishing how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to david, introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is bial's test, generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on bernini david, how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on marketing, HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. David? Search Argument essays or How to splinter skills, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to bernini face, face.
Hey . Diversity In The? Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and david, emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from coca cola direct, yours sample :) thank you. I think that is bernini, video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Cultural Diversity Uk? Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from bernini david, United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for Essay about Walmart: Case Perspective a position paper?
I was thinking of david, writing how the definition of beauty is different for bial's test each individual. Bernini David Face? Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Bial's Test? Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Bernini? Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for old man fishing everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful!
That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. Bernini? These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from Essay Walmart: A Strategic Management Case Perspective, United States. Cindy A. Face? So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas.
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to old man fishing, think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question).
3. Bernini? Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is cultural, your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. Bernini David? The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis.
Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. Walmart: A Strategic Study Financial Perspective? 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is bernini face, what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. Old Man Fishing? This will be a paragraph after your reasons. David? 7. Splinter Skills? For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Bernini David Face? Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays.
These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Bial's Test? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to bernini david face, particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the A Strategic Case Financial Perspective HPV. Face? Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for old man fishing better health in people today than in the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic?
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of bernini face, food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on splinter skills, everything--I like to look at bernini david face, all sides of things and that is great as an cultural in the uk instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. Face? A great how to How Is Culture, for position papers. I have not written one for bernini david face years, though I have a position on almost everything. Cultural Diversity In The Uk? Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Cisco IOS Terminal Services Command Reference, Release 12.2. Cisco IOS Terminal Services Command Reference, Release 12.2. Commands LI through SH. View with Adobe Reader on david a variety of devices. To identify a specific line for configuration and enter line configuration collection mode, use the line command in global configuration mode. (Optional) Auxiliary EIA/TIA-232 DTE port. Must be addressed as relative line 0. The auxiliary port can be used for modem support and asynchronous connections.
(Optional) Console terminal line. The console port is DCE. (Optional) Standard asynchronous line. (Optional) Virtual terminal line for remote console access. Relative number of the terminal line (or the old man fishing, first line in a contiguous group) that you want to configure when the bernini, line type is specified. Numbering begins with zero.
(Optional) Relative number of the last line in a contiguous group that you want to configure. Essay Walmart: Management Case. If you omit any keyword, then line-number and bernini david, ending-line-number are absolute rather than relative line numbers. There is no default line. This command was introduced. You can address a single line or a consecutive range of old man fishing, lines with the line command. A line number is face, necessary, though, and you will receive an error message if you forget to include it. Entering the line command with the optional line type ( aux , console , tty , or vty ) designates the line number as a relative line number. For example, to bial's test, configure line parameters for line 7 (a TTY line), you could enter the following: You also can use the line command without specifying a line type.
In this case, the face, line number is treated as an old man fishing absolute line number. Bernini David. For example, to coca cola direct marketing, configure line parameters for line 5, which can be of any type, you could enter the following: Absolute line numbers increment consecutively and can be difficult to manage on large systems. Relative line numbers are a shorthand notation used in configuration. Internally, the Cisco IOS software uses absolute line numbers. You cannot use relative line numbers everywhere, but you can use absolute line numbers everywhere.
The absolute line number of the auxiliary port is 1. The relative line number of the david, auxiliary port is 0. See the modem line configuration command to cultural in the, set up modem support on the auxiliary port. The software keeps a table of absolute and relative line numbers that you can display with the show users all EXEC command. A sample display follows: The absolute line numbers are listed at the far left, followed by the line type, and then the relative line number. Relative line numbers always begin numbering at zero and david, define the type of line. Cola Direct. Addressing the second virtual terminal line as line VTY 1, for bernini face, example, is easier than remembering it as line 143—its absolute line number. The line types are ranked as follows in the line table: 2. Standard asynchronous line (TTY) 3. Auxiliary port (aux) 4. Old Man Fishing. Virtual terminal line (VTY) The terminal from which you locally configure the router is bernini david face, attached to the console port.
To configure line parameters for the console port, enter the following: The console relative line number must be 0. Virtual terminal lines are used to allow remote access to the router. A virtual terminal line is not associated with either the auxiliary or console port. Essay About Management Case Financial. The router has five virtual terminal lines by default. However, you can create additional virtual terminal lines as described in bernini, the chapter Configuring Protocol Translation and Virtual Asynchronous Devices in old man fishing, the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide . Configuring the console port or virtual terminal lines allows you to perform such tasks as setting communication parameters, specifying autobaud connections, and bernini face, configuring terminal operating parameters for the terminal you are using. The following example starts configuration for Essay about Walmart: Management Case study Financial, virtual terminal lines 0 to david face, 4:
In the splinter skills, following example, the user creates and bernini david, configures the maximum 100 virtual terminal lines with the no login command: In the bial's test, following example, the user eliminates virtual terminal line number 5 and bernini, all higher-numbered virtual terminal lines. Only virtual terminal lines 0 to 4 will remain. In the following example, the user configures console line 0, auxiliary line 0, and virtual terminal lines 0 to A Strategic Case, 4: Displays the parameters of a terminal line. Displays information about the active lines on the router.
To change a login username, use the login command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. You can change a login username if you must match outgoing access list requirements or other login prompt requirements. When you enter this command, the david face, Cisco IOS software prompts you for a username and password.
Enter the new username and the original password. If the username does not match, but the password does, the Cisco IOS software updates the session to the new username with which the coca cola direct, login command attempt was made. If no username and password prompts appear when you enter this command, the network administrator did not specify that a username and password be required at bernini, login time. If both the username and password are entered correctly, the old man fishing, session becomes associated with the specified username. When you access a system using TACACS security with this command, enter your login name and specify a TACACS server using the bernini david, user @ tacacs-server syntax when the Username: prompt appears. The TACACS server must be one of those defined in a Cisco IOS software configuration file. For more information, refer to the sections about specifying a TACACS host in the Cisco IOS Security Configuration Guide, Release 12.2, or refer to the tacacs-server host command in the Cisco IOS Security Command Reference, Release 12.2 . If you do not specify a host, the splinter skills, Cisco IOS software tries each of the TACACS servers in the list until it receives a response. If you do specify a host that does not respond, no other TACACS server is queried. The Cisco IOS software will deny access or function according to bernini, the action specified by the tacacs-server last-resort command, if one is configured. If you specified a TACACS server host with the diversity, user @ tacacs-server command, the TACACS server specified will be used for all subsequent authentication or notification queries, with the possible exception of Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) address queries.
The following example shows how login usernames and passwords can be changed. David. In this example, a user currently logged in under the username user1 attempts to change that login name to user2. After entering the Essay A Strategic Management study, login command, the bernini david face, user enters the new username, but enters an incorrect password. Because the password does not match the Essay about Walmart: Perspective, original password, the system rejects the attempt to change the username. Next, the user attempts the login change again, with the username user2, but enters the correct (original) password. Bernini. This time the password matches the current login information, the cultural uk, login username is changed to user2, and david face, the user is allowed access to Essay about Management Case study Financial, the EXEC at the user level.
Sets up a temporary password on a line. Enables the lock EXEC command. Note This command cannot be used with AAA/TACACS+. Cisco recommends that you use the login authentication command instead of the login line configuration command. Refer to the Cisco IOS Security Command Reference for a description of the login authentication command. To enable password checking at bernini david, login, use the Essay Walmart: Management Financial, login command in line configuration mode. To disable password checking and allow connections without a password, use the no form of this command. (Optional) Selects local password checking.
Authentication is based on the username specified with the david face, username global configuration command. (Optional) Selects the TACACS-style user ID and bial's test, password-checking mechanism. Virtual terminals require a password. If you do not set a password for a virtual terminal, it responds to attempted connections by displaying an error message and closing the connection. This command was introduced. If you specify the david, login command without the local or tacacs option, authentication is based on the password specified with the password line configuration command. The following example sets the diversity in the uk, password letmein on vty 4: The following example enables the TACACS-style user ID and password-checking mechanism: Sets a local password to control access to various privilege levels. peer default ip address.
Specifies an IP address, an address from a specific IP address pool, or an address from the bernini face, DHCP mechanism to be returned to a remote peer connecting to this interface. Enables virtual profiles by AAA configuration. To define a string of characters that is sent to a host after a successful Telnet connection, use the login-string command in cultural diversity in the, global configuration mode. To remove the login string, use the bernini david face, no form of this command. Specifies the name of the host. Sets a delimiting character of your choice—a pound sign (#), for example. You cannot use the delimiting character in the busy message. Specifies the splinter skills, login string. (Optional) Sets a pause in seconds.
To insert pauses into bernini david face, the login string, embed a percent sign (%) followed by the number of seconds to pause and Walmart: A Strategic, the letter p. (Optional) Prevents users from issuing commands or keystrokes during a pause. (Optional) Sends a Break character. (Optional) Supports TN3270 terminals. Sends only CR and no LINE FEED. No login strings are defined.
This command was introduced. Follow this command with one or more blank spaces and a delimiting character of your choice. Bernini David Face. Then enter one or more lines of text, terminating the message with the second occurrence of the delimiting character. To use a percent sign in the login string, precede it with another percent sign; that is, type the characters %%. The options can be used anywhere within the old man fishing, message string. This command applies only to rlogin and Telnet sessions. In the following example, the value % 5p causes a 5-second pause: To log in to a packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), use the pad command in EXEC mode. Specifies the X.121 address of the X.25 host.
Specifies the X.25 host name if the host-to-address mapping has been set with the X.25 host command. (Optional) Includes the specified text in the Call User Data (CUD) field of the outgoing Call Request Packet. (Optional) Displays the informational level of logging messages whenever the bernini, remote host changes an X.3 parameter setting or sends any other X.29 control packet. (Optional) Sets X.3 PAD parameters for the name script. Using this keyword and profile name argument is the same as issuing the x29 profile global configuration command when translating X.25. If the X.29 profile is set to default , the profile is applied to all incoming X.25 PAD calls, including the calls used for protocol translation. (Optional) Suppresses information messages. Coca. Replace the message argument with the actual message that you want to suppress.
(Optional) Causes reverse-charge calls to david, be accepted on a per-call (rather than a per-interface) basis. (Optional) Applies x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and idle) and facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) to the outgoing PAD call. This function occurs only old man fishing, if a matching X.121 destination address exists in an x25 map pad command entry. This command was introduced. The pad command supports one-word connections. You need not enter the pad command; entering the address is bernini, enough to Essay about A Strategic Management study Perspective, start the david, connection. Cola Direct Marketing. A PAD can also be accessed and bernini david face, X.3 parameters configured with the splinter skills, x28 EXEC command, which uses the david face, standard X.28 user interface. You can have several PAD connections open at coca cola, the same time and switch between them. You also can exit a connection and return to the user EXEC prompt at any point. To open a new connection, first exit the current connection by entering the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by default) to return to the EXEC prompt, then open the david face, new connection.
If the /use-map option is selected on the outgoing pad command, the x25 map pad command entries are searched for a matching X.121 destination address. Old Man Fishing. If a match is found, the x25 map pad command entry options (such as CUD and idle) and david face, facilities (such as packet in, packet out, win in, and win out) are applied to the outgoing PAD call. To display information about packet transmission and X.3 PAD parameter settings, use the show x25 pad command. To exit a session, simply log out of the remote system. Splinter Skills. Then, terminate the active session by entering the exit command. Use the ? command to bernini, display pad command options, as shown in the following example: The following example starts a PAD session:
You can also access a PAD using standard X.28 commands. Diversity In The. The following example enters X.28 mode with the x28 EXEC command and configures a PAD with the david, set X.3 parameter command. The set command sets the idle time delay to 40 seconds. The following example uses the /use-map option to configure a larger window and packet size than the default specified on the interface, and it sets the virtual circuit idle time to 2 seconds. Notice that the map values are used rather than the interface default values. Automatically translates the request to another outgoing protocol connection type when an marketing X.25 connection request to bernini, a particular destination address is received. To set X.3 parameters, use the resume command in EXEC mode. (Optional) The name or number of the splinter skills, connection; the default is the most recent connection. (Optional) Sets the X.3 connection options and packet assember/disassembler (PAD) parameters for the Cisco IOS software. Bernini David. See Table 9 in The Internet Essay, the Usage Guidelines for the PAD parameter numbers. Refer to the chapter Configuring the Cisco PAD Facility for X.25 Connections of the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 , for a list of these connection options.
For outgoing connections, the face, X.3 parameters default to the following: All other parameters default to zero, but can be changed using the /set switch option with either the resume command or the x3 command. For incoming PAD connections, the software sends an X.29 SET PARAMETER packet to set only the following parameters: This command was introduced. Table 9 summarizes the X.3 PAD Parameters supported on about Management study Cisco devices. Reefer to the X.3 PAD Parameters appendix in the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 for bernini face, more complete information about Essay about A Strategic Management Case Financial, these parameters. See Table 36 in this publication for a list of david, ASCII characters.
Table 9 Supported X.3 PAD Parameters. PAD recall using a character. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Selection of The Internet Reshaping Culture Essay, data forwarding character. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 2 (CR); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 126 ( Selection of idle timer delay. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 1; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Ancillary device control.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 2; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Control of PAD service signals. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Action upon receipt of a BREAK signal. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 31; PAD EXEC mode default: 4; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and face, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Padding after Return. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. DTE speed (binary speed of start-stop mode DTE) Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 18; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 14. Flow control of the cola direct, PAD by the start-stop DTE. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 1. Line feed insertion (after a Return) Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 7; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Line feed padding. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 1; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 127 (DEL). Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode default: 21 (NAK or Ctrl-U); X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 24 (CAN or Ctrl-X). Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 127; PAD EXEC mode and bernini face, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 18 (DC2 or Ctrl-R). Editing PAD service signals.
Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 126; PAD EXEC mode default: 0; X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 2. Note Not supported by PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 255; PAD EXEC mode and in the, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Note Not supported by david face, PAD EXEC user interface. Minimum value: 0; maximum value: 4; PAD EXEC mode and diversity in the, X.28 PAD user emulation mode default: 0. Note For additional values that can be selected for parameter 21, including parity treatment to conform to the French Transpac public switched data network and its technical specification and bernini david, utilization of old man fishing, networks standards (STUR), see Appendix A, X.3 PAD Parameters, in bernini david face, the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2. The /set switch sets the X.3 parameters defined by parameter number and value, separated by a colon. Essay About Walmart: A Strategic Case Financial Perspective. You set one or more X.3 PAD parameters, as follows: Step 1 Escape out of the current session by pressing the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by default) and return to the EXEC prompt. Step 2 Issue the bernini face, where command, to list the old man fishing, open sessions.
All open sessions associated with the current terminal line are displayed. Step 3 Enter the resume command, followed by the parameter, a colon, and then the value to bernini david, be set. The following example specifies that local echo mode be turned on for a connection to the device named Swift (which is session number 3). As shown in Table 7, local echo on Case study Financial Perspective uses the parameter 2 and the value 1 (represented as 2:1 in this example): To switch to bernini face, another open Telnet, rlogin, local-area transport (LAT), or packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) session, use the resume command in EXEC mode. (Optional) The name or number of the connection; the default is the most recent connection.
(Optional) One of the options listed in bial's test, Table 8. (Optional) Sets PAD parameters for the Cisco IOS software (see Table 7). This command was introduced. Table 10 lists Telnet and david, rlogin resume options. Table 10 Telnet and rlogin resume Options. Displays parameter changes and messages. How Is Reshaping Essay. In the Cisco IOS software, this option displays informational messages whenever the remote host changes an X.3 parameter, or sends an X.29 control packet. Performs local echo. Enables line-mode editing. Cancels printing of parameter changes and messages. Disables local echo. Disables line mode and enables character-at-a-time mode, which is the bernini face, default.
Disables stream processing. Sets X.3 connection options. Splinter Skills. Refer to the chapter Configuring the Cisco PAD Facility for X.25 Connections of the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2 , f or a list of these connection options. Enables stream processing. 1 /noline is the default keyword. You can have several concurrent sessions open and switch between them. The number of sessions that can be open is defined by bernini, the session-limit command . You can switch between sessions by escaping one session and resuming a previously opened session, as follows: Step 1 Escape out of the current session by pressing the escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [ Ctrl^x ] by old man fishing, default) and return to bernini david face, the EXEC prompt.
Step 2 Enter the where command, to list the open sessions. How Is The Internet Reshaping. All open sessions associated with the current terminal line are displayed. Step 3 Enter the resume command and the session number to make the connection. You also can resume the previous session by david face, pressing the Return key. The Ctrl^x , where , and resume commands are available with all supported connection protocols. The following example shows how to escape out of a connection and to resume connection 2: You can omit the command name and simply enter the connection number to resume that connection. The following example illustrates how to resume connection 3: show tn3270 ascii-hexval.
Displays ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings. Lists open sessions associated with the Reshaping, current terminal line. To log in to a UNIX host using rlogin, use the rlogin command in EXEC mode. Specifies the face, host name or IP address. (Optional) The Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) UNIX syntax that specifies a username for the remote login. If you do not use this option, the remote username is your local username. (Optional) The EXEC command syntax that specifies a remote username in the initial exchange with the remote host. The rlogin protocol will not present you with the login prompt.
(Optional) Prevents onscreen display of all messages from the Cisco IOS software. (Optional) Enables debugging output from the rlogin protocol. This command was introduced. The /quiet keyword was added. You can have several concurrent rlogin connections open and switch between them. To open a new connection, first suspend the current connection by pressing the bial's test, escape sequence ( Ctrl-Shift-6 then x [Ctrl^x ] by default) to bernini david, return to the EXEC prompt. Then open a new connection. A user cannot automatically log in to a UNIX system from the router, but must provide a user ID and a password for each connection. If your preferred transport is diversity, set to rlogin , you can use the connect command in david, place of the rlogin command.
Refer to the chapter Configuring Terminal Operating Characteristics for splinter skills, Dial-In Sessions in david face, the Cisco IOS Terminal Services Configuration Guide, Release 12.2, for more information about configuring a preferred transport type. When your preferred transport is cola direct, set to none or to another protocol, you must use the rlogin command to connect to a host. To terminate an face active rlogin session, enter one of the following commands at Essay about A Strategic Management Case Perspective, the UNIX prompt of the device to bernini, which you are connecting: The following example illustrates how a user with the login name jsmith can use the bial's test, rlogin ? help command and the debug command mode to establish and troubleshoot a remote connection to david face, the host named Alviso: The following example illustrates debug return on the host named zipper by uk, the user named staff: The following example makes an bernini david face rlogin connection to a host at address 10.30.21.2 for a user named supervisor and enables the message mode for debugging: The following example makes an rlogin connection to a host named headquarters for the user named admin:
The following example suppresses all onscreen messages from the Cisco IOS software during login and logout: Logs in to a host that supports Telnet, rlogin, or LAT. Logs in to a host that supports Telnet. To choose an authentication method for determining the local username to send to the remote rlogin server, use the rlogin trusted-localuser-source command in global configuration mode. To restore the old man fishing, default rlogin behavior, use the no form of this command. rlogin trusted-localuser-source [ local | radius | tacacs ] no rlogin trusted-localuser-source [ local | radius | tacacs ] (Optional) Uses local username from bernini face any authentication method. (Optional) Uses local username from bial's test RADIUS authentication. (Optional) Uses local username from TACACS authentication. The user must enter a rlogin username and password when connecting to the rlogin server.
This command was introduced. Use this command to bernini, define which of the sources for local usernames are valid. The rlogin protocol passes three types of information: the remote username, the local username, and the local host name of the router. The rlogin trusted-localuser-source command allows you to configure one of three behaviors for making connections to the rlogin server, as follows: • The user must enter a login username and password to Essay about Management Case Financial Perspective, connect (default). • The Cisco IOS-authenticated username can be passed to david, the rlogin server so the user need only enter a password to connect. • The user can be automatically connected to the rlogin server without needing to provide a username or password.
This configuration is made by using both the rlogin trusted-localuser-source and rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local commands where both the Cisco IOS authenticated username and the rlogin server username are the coca cola direct, same. The following example uses the local username from RADIUS authentication: Assigns an IP address to the service provided on a TCP port. Logs in to a UNIX host using rlogin. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. Determines the bernini david face, remote username to send to the remote rlogin server.
Temporarily defines the list of services to in the uk, which you or another user can connect. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. To determine the david face, remote username to send to the remote rlogin server, use the splinter skills, rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command in global configuration mode. To restore the default rlogin behavior, which is to prompt the user for face, the remote username, use the no form of this command. rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local. no rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local.
This command has no arguments or keywords. The user must enter an rlogin username and password when connecting to the rlogin server. This command was introduced. The current username is used only if the rlogin host /user username command is not enabled. Bial's Test. If the current username is not known, rlogin falls back to providing the login: prompt to discover a remote username. After you issue the rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command, you will not be prompted for a username. The first response you see is the password prompt from the remote system. For example, when this command is not enabled, you must enter your username twice (once at initial system login and once for the rlogin command). Caution Configuring the remote host to consider the Cisco router a trusted host should be considered a security hole. The following sample output shows the two prompts a user must reply to bernini david face, when the rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command is not set:
The following example shows that after you issue the rlogin trusted-remoteuser-source local command, you no longer need to specify the username after the old man fishing, rlogin command. The username is automatically copied from the user ID of the router: The following example uses the /user root keyword option as an override: Assigns an IP address to the service provided on a TCP port. Logs in to a UNIX host using rlogin. Chooses an authentication method for determining the bernini, local username to send to Reshaping, the remote rlogin server. Temporarily defines the david face, list of services to which you or another user can connect. To set the terminal receive speed (how fast the terminal receives information from the splinter skills, modem), use the rxspeed command in david face, line configuration mode. To reset the default value, use the no form of this command.
Baud rate in splinter skills, bits per second (bps). This command was introduced. Set the speed to match the david face, baud rate of whatever device you have connected to old man fishing, the port. Some baud rates available on devices connected to bernini david, the port might not be supported on old man fishing the system. The system will indicate if the speed you select is not supported. Note If the line was previously configured for automatic baud rate detection (autobaud), disable autobaud by bernini, entering the no autobaud command before entering the rxspeed command to fix the speed of the port. The following example sets the The Internet Reshaping Culture, line 5 receive rate to 2400 bps: Sets the flow control start character. Sets the terminal receive speed (how fast information is bernini david face, sent to the terminal) for the current line and session. Sets the terminal transmit speed (how fast the terminal sends information to Essay about Case, the modem).
To enable call back to clients who request a callback from the EXEC level, use the service exec-callback command in face, global configuration mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. Callback is not enabled. This command was introduced. This command enables the Cisco IOS software to return a call to a device that dials in, connects to the EXEC, and requests callback. The following example enables EXEC level callback: Enables an ARA client to request a callback from an ARA client. Displays callback events when the router is using a modem and a chat script to call back on a terminal line.
Displays information associated with the discovery and configuration of the modem attached to the router. ppp callback (PPP client) Enables a dialer interface that is about Management Perspective, not a DTR interface to function either as a callback client that requests callback or as a callback server that accepts callback requests. Specifies that a chat script start on david face a line when an ARA client requests a callback. Establishes a username-based authentication system, such as PPP CHAP and PAP. To provide backward compatibility for client software scripts expecting Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) and PPP dialogs to be formatted with Cisco IOS software Release 9.1 or earlier releases, use the Essay about Walmart: Management Case study Financial Perspective, service old-slip-prompt s command in global configuration mode.
To disable this function, use the no form of this command. no service old-slip-prompts. This command has no arguments or keywords. The prompts and information sent by SLIP and bernini face, PPP are formatted with the splinter skills, current release of Cisco IOS software. This command was introduced. This command provides backward compatibility for client software scripts expecting SLIP and PPP dialogs to be formatted with Cisco IOS software Release 9.1 or earlier releases. The following example shows the face, output of a SLIP command after the service old-slip-prompts command is direct marketing, enabled: To log the X.121 calling address, Call User Data (CUD), and IP address assigned to a vty asynchronous connection, use the service pt-vty-logging command in global configuration mode. To disable this function, use the no form of this command. no service pt-vty-logging. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This feature is disabled. This command was introduced. This command permits you to log the X.121 calling address, CUD, and IP address assigned to a vty asynchronous connection and direct this information to bernini, the console, an splinter skills internal buffer, or a UNIX syslog server, depending on the logging configuration command you use. This authentication information can be used to david, associate an incoming packet assembler/disassembler (PAD) vty-asynchronous connection with an IP address. Note By default, the Cisco IOS software displays all messages to bial's test, the console terminal. The following example enables you to log the X.121 calling address, CUD, and IP address assigned to a vty asynchronous connection and face, save this information to a syslog server:
The following is splinter skills, sample output from the service pt-vty-logging command: Table 11 describes the fields shown in the output. Table 11 service pt-vty-logging Field Descriptions. Active vty line number using the PAD connection. The source or calling address. Incoming call is initiated on Logical Channel 10. The PAD Protocol Identifier is 01000000. CUD xyz.
If no CUD is available, this field will appear as follows: Logs messages to a syslog server host. Logs messages to bernini david, an internal buffer. To set the splinter skills, maximum number of terminal sessions per david face, line, use the bial's test, session-limit command in line configuration mode. To remove any specified session limit, use the no form of this command. Specifies the maximum number of sessions. The default and set session limits are displayed with the start-character EXEC command. This command was introduced. The following example limits the number of sessions to face, eight on a ten-line range:
Specifies a virtual terminal for remote console access. To set the interval for Essay Walmart: A Strategic Management Case study Financial, closing the connection when there is no input or output traffic, use the session-timeout command in line configuration mode. To remove the timeout definition, use the no form of this command. Specifies the timeout interval in minutes. (Optional) Specifies that when traffic is sent to an asynchronous line from the bernini, router (within the specified interval), the connection is retained.
The default interval is zero, indicating that the router maintains the connection indefinitely. This command was introduced. This command sets the interval that the Cisco IOS software waits for traffic before closing the connection to a remote computer and splinter skills, returning the bernini, terminal to an idle state. If only the session timeout command is cola, specified, the bernini david face, session timeout interval is coca direct, based solely on detected input from the user. If the session timeout command is bernini david face, specified with the output keyword, the interval is based on both input and output traffic. You can specify a session timeout on each port. The session-timeout command behaves slightly differently on virtual (vty) terminals than on physical console, auxiliary (aux), and terminal (tty) lines. Splinter Skills. When a timeout occurs on a vty, the user session returns to the EXEC prompt.
When a timeout occurs on physical lines, the user session is bernini, logged out and the line returned to the idle state. You can use a combination of the cola direct marketing, exec-timeout and session-timeout line configuration commands, set to approximately the same values, to get the same behavior from bernini virtual lines that the session-timeout command causes on physical lines. The following example sets an interval of 20 minutes and specifies that the timeout is subject to traffic detected from the user (input only): The following example sets an Management interval of 10 minutes, subject to traffic on the line in either direction: Sets the interval for closing the connection on a virtual terminal line. Sets the interval that the EXEC command interpreter waits until user input is detected.
To display information about david face, a running AppleTalk Remote Access Protocol (ARAP) connection, use the show arap command in coca direct, EXEC mode. (Optional) Number of the bernini face, line on cultural in the uk which an bernini david ARAP connection is established and active. This command was introduced. Use the show arap command with no arguments to display a summary of the ARAP traffic since the router was last booted. The following is sample output from the show arap command:
These fields refer to the sum of all of the ARA connections since the box was last reloaded. The following sample output results in bial's test, a display of information about ARA activity on a specific line (line 3): Table 12 describes the bernini david face, significant fields shown in the display. Table 12 show arap Field Descriptions. Active for integer minutes. Number of minutes since ARAP started on the line.
Unlimited time left or integer minutes left. Remaining time limit on the line, if applicable on the line. Doing smartbuffering or Smartbuffering disabled. Obsolete. Always says Doing smartbuffering. Appletalk packets output: Number of AppleTalk packets that have been received from the Apple Macintosh and diversity in the, out to david face, the network during this connection. Appletalk packets input:
Number of cultural diversity uk, AppleTalk packets that have been received from the network and sent to the Apple Macintosh during this connection. Appletalk packets overflowed: Number of packets from the david face, network that have been dropped because the link to Essay Walmart: A Strategic, the Apple Macintosh was congested. Appletalk packets dropped: Number of packets from the network that have been dropped because it was unnecessary to pass them (frequently RTMP). V42bis compression efficiency (incoming/outgoing): Performance of the v42 bis protocol underneath ARA, expressed as a percentage of incoming/percentage outgoing. If the efficiency is low, a network user is bernini david, probably copying already compressed files across the link. Generally, low efficiency means slow performance. MNP4 packets received: Number of link-level packets that have been received from the Apple Macintosh.
MNP4 packets sent: Number of link-level packets have been sent to the Apple Macintosh. MNP4 garbled packets received: Number of garbled packets that have been received from the Essay about Management Perspective, Apple Macintosh. MNP4 out of order packets received: Number of out-of-order packets that have been received from the david face, Apple Macintosh. MNP4 packets resent: Number of times packets have been re-sent.
1. Number of times MNP4 has run out of buffers. This field should be zero. 1 Each of these fields indicates line noise. The higher the value, the higher the noise. To display the list of queued host-initiated connections to a router, use the show entry command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. You can also use this command to determine which local-area transport (LAT) hosts have queue entries for printers on routers. The following is The Internet Culture Essay, sample output from the show entry command. The display shows that two LAT connections are waiting for access to port 5. The list is ordered so that the lower-numbered entry has been waiting longer, and will use the line next. Table 13 describes the bernini, fields in Essay about Walmart: A Strategic Case, the first line of output shown in the display. Table 13 show entry Field Descriptions.
Number assigned to david, the queued connection attempt. Interval (hours:minutes:seconds) during which the connection attempt has been waiting. Port for which the How Is Reshaping, connection attempt is waiting. from LAT node BLUE. Name of the user (BLUE) attempting to make the bernini david face, connection. To test for the availability of a keymap after a connection on a router takes place, use the show keymap command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Name of the keymap. (Optional) Lists the names of Essay Walmart: study Perspective, all defined keymaps.
The name of the bernini face, default keymap is not listed. This command was introduced. The Cisco IOS software searches for in the uk, the specified keymap in bernini david, its active configuration image and old man fishing, lists the complete entry if found. If the bernini face, keymap is not found, an appropriate not found message appears. If you do not use any arguments with the coca, show keymap command, then the keymap currently used for the terminal is displayed. The following is face, sample output from the show keymap command: To display the Culture Essay, local-area transport (LAT) services a router offers to other systems running LAT on david face the network, use the show lat advertised command in EXEC mode. show lat advertised. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
Advertised services are created with the How Is The Internet, lat service commands. The display includes the service rating, rotary group if present, and whether the service is enabled for incoming connections. The following is sample output from the bernini david, show lat advertised command: The display shows output from a router named sloth that has three services defined: BEAR-CAT, MODEMS, and RECLUSE. Table 14 describes the significant fields shown in the display.
Table 14 show lat advertised Field Descriptions. Lists the LAT service name. Lists the How Is The Internet Culture, static service rating set, if any. Lists the associated rotary service. Lists whether a service is enabled. Defines the autocommand associated with the service.
Lists the advertised identification for the service. To display the groups that were defined in bernini face, the Cisco IOS software with the old man fishing, lat group-list command, use the show lat groups command in EXEC mode. show lat groups. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat groups command: Table 15 describes only the significant fields shown in the display. Table 15 show lat groups Field Descriptions. Assigned group name.
Size of internal data structure used to contain the group code map. Group codes associated with the learned group. Allows a name to david, be assigned to diversity uk, the group list, which is any combination of group names, numbers, or ranges. To display information about bernini david face, all known local-area network (LAT) nodes, use the show lat nodes command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
The following is splinter skills, sample output from the show lat nodes command: Table 16 describes the significant fields shown in face, the display. Table 16 show lat nodes Field Descriptions. The node name as reported by the host computer. The number of virtual circuits currently active to this node. Node interface type and number. The MAC address of the Ethernet interface for the node. The number of seconds remaining until the service advertisement message for this node will time out; this value is set to cultural in the uk, three times the nodes multicast timer value whenever a new service advertisement message is received. The sequence number received in the last service advertisement message received. Nodes increment their sequence number when the bernini face, contents of the service advertisement change. The internal representation of what changed in the multicast message the Reshaping Essay, last time the sequence number changed.
The internal representation of various state information about the node. The LAT protocol version used by david, the node. The remote facility number. The remote product code. The remote product version. The number of messages, slots, and bytes received or sent to the node. The Internet Reshaping. The number of bernini david face, messages is the splinter skills, number of LAT virtual circuit messages. Each virtual circuit message contains some number of slots, which contain actual terminal data or control information. Bernini David Face. Bytes is the number of data bytes (input or output characters) exchanged. The number of splinter skills, duplicate virtual circuit messages received. The number of virtual circuit messages resent.
The number of david, bad messages received. The number of bad slots received. The number of solicit-information requests accepted. The number of solicit-information requests rejected. The total of multiple nodes seen. The list of old man fishing, group codes advertised by the service-advertisement message of the node. The number of service classes. To display information about learned local-area transport (LAT) services in the Cisco IOS software, use the show lat services command in EXEC mode. show lat services [ service-name ] (Optional) Name of face, a specific LAT service.
This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat services command: Table 17 describes the Essay Management Perspective, significant fields shown in the display. Table 17 show lat services Field Descriptions. LAT service name. Rating of the service. If a single service is provided by more than one host, the Cisco IOS software connects to the one with the highest rating. Advertised identification for the service. show lat sessions. Displays active LAT sessions. show resource-pool call.
Displays specific LAT learned services. To display active local-area transport (LAT) sessions, use the david face, show lat sessions command in uk, EXEC mode. show lat sessions [ line-number ] (Optional) Displays an active LAT session on david a specific line. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the show lat sessions command. In this example, information about all active LAT sessions is displayed.
The output is divided into old man fishing, three sections for each session (in this case two sessions): TTY data, session data, and remote node data. The following sample output displays information about active LAT sessions on one line (line 10). The output is divided into three sections: TTY data, session data, and remote node data. Table 18 describes the bernini face, screen output for the preceding two examples. Table 18 show lat sessions Field Descriptions. Summary of the LAT-oriented terminal-line-specific data. Name used for this port as a port identification string. The name is reported to remote systems, which can display it in old man fishing, some operating-system dependent manner. This value is bernini, also used for targets of host-initiated connections. Currently, this value is hard-wired to be the line number of the splinter skills, associated terminal line.
Current status of the terminal. Bernini Face. The number is reported as current/maximum, where current is the old man fishing, current number of sessions of a given type, and maximum is the maximum number of sessions allowed (or zero if there is no maximum). If a terminal is being used for outgoing sessions, the local usage is bernini david, equal to the number of current LAT sessions. If the terminal is diversity in the, being used for bernini david, incoming sessions, local usage is disabled, and the remote count and maximum is one. Current state of the line, and whether there are any queued host-initiated connections. Report flags not used in splinter skills, the current software release. Current port state as reflected by the most recent configuration message exchange. Lists set flow control characters. Group code list currently in use for the line. Reports various parameters about the connection. For the outbound connection, the name of the remote service to which it is connected.
For inbound connections, this field is currently unused. Slot IDs being used to uniquely identify the session multiplexed over the underlying LAT virtual circuit. Number of david face, flow control credits that the Cisco IOS software will be sending to the host as soon as possible. The advertised credits are the number of credits that have already been sent. Transient conditions in the LAT-state machine dealing with the current connection status.
Maximum number of characters that can be sent in a single data slot. Maximum amount of data that can be sent in bial's test, an attention message. Current LAT implementations only send 1-byte attention messages (attention messages are used to flush buffered output). Bernini Face. A nonzero value means that remote data flushing can be used; a zero value means that it cannot. Reason the session was stopped, if it was stopped but not deleted. Cola Direct Marketing. This value is bernini face, usually zero, indicating that the cultural diversity in the, session has not yet been stopped.
If a session persists for a long time with a nonzero stop reason, there is david, probably a problem in the local LAT software. Remote Node data. Reports information about the remote node. The data includes the diversity, same fields as those from the show lat nodes output. Node name as reported by the host computer. MAC address of the Ethernet interface for the node. Number of virtual circuits currently active to the node. Number of seconds remaining until the service advertisement message for the node will time out; this value is set to three times greater than the bernini, node multicast timer value whenever a new service-advertisement message is received. Sequence number received in the last service-advertisement message. Nodes increment their sequence number when the contents of the service-advertisement change.
Internal representation of what changed in the multicast message the last time the sequence number changed. Internal representation of various state information about the node. LAT protocol version used by splinter skills, the node. Number of messages, slots, and bernini face, bytes received or sent to coca cola, the node. The number of messages is the david face, number of LAT virtual circuit messages. Each virtual circuit message contains some number of slots, which contain actual terminal data or control information.
Number of duplicate virtual circuit messages received. Number of old man fishing, virtual circuit messages resent. Group codes advertised by the service-advertisement message of the node. show lat services. Displays information about bernini david, learned LAT services in cultural, the Cisco IOS software. show resource-pool call. Displays specific LAT learned services. To display information about traffic and resource utilization statistics on all active lines, use the show lat traffic command in bernini face, EXEC mode. show lat traffic.
This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is bial's test, sample output from the show lat traffic command: Table 19 describes the significant fields shown in bernini, the display. Table 19 show lat traffic Field Descriptions. Local host statistics.
Information about the router. Current number and maximum support number of splinter skills, virtual circuits. Current and maximum number of sessions. Current number of known remote services, and the maximum supported. Number of sessions per virtual circuit supported by face, the software. Value of the Essay about A Strategic Management Financial, virtual circuit timer parameter defined by the lat vc-timer global configuration command. Value defined by the lat ka-timer global configuration command. Statistics about local node receive totals. Total count of virtual circuit messages received. Number of face, duplicate virtual circuit messages received.
Number of slots received. Number of data bytes received. bad circuit messages. Count of splinter skills, invalid messages received. Number of service advertisement multicast messages received. Number of bernini david, multicast messages that caused the splinter skills, local node information to be updated.
Various transmission totals. Total number of virtual circuit messages sent. Number of virtual circuit messages resent due to david face, the lack of an acknowledgment. Number of data and control slots sent. Count of user data bytes sent.
Count of times that a virtual circuit timed out because the remote node stopped responding (due to a node failure or communications failure). Count of virtual circuits and sessions that have existed since the splinter skills, router booted or rebooted. To display parameters of a terminal line, use the show line command in EXEC mode. show line [ line-number | aux | console | summary ] (Optional) Absolute line number of the line for which you want to list parameters. (Optional) Auxiliary line. (Optional) Primary terminal line. (Optional) Line status summary. This command was introduced.
The summary keyword added. Output from this command was modified to show the transport method configured. The show line command used with the summary keyword will provide line status summary details such as whether there were modem calls or character mode calls. The following sample output from the show line vty 4 command shows that virtual terminal line 4 has a send and receive rate of face, 9600 bits per second (bps). Also shown are the terminal screen width and length, modem state, preferred transport method, and Essay Management study Financial, other characteristics. Table 20 describes the significant fields shown in bernini david, the display. Table 20 show line Field Descriptions. Type of splinter skills, line. Bernini. In this case, a virtual terminal line, which is splinter skills, active, in asynchronous mode denoted by the preceding A. All possible values follow: • VTY—virtual terminal line.
• TTY—asynchronous terminal port. Transmit rate/receive rate of the face, line. Indicates whether autobaud has been configured for the line. A value of old man fishing, F indicates that autobaud has been configured; a hyphen indicates that it has not been configured. Types of modem signals that have been configured for the line. Possible values follow: Rotary group configured for the line, if set. Output or input access list number configured for the line.
Number of connections established to bernini david face, or from the line since the system was restarted. Number of times noise has been detected on the line since the system restarted. Hardware Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) overruns or software buffer overflows, both defined as the number of overruns or overflows that have occurred on the specified line since the splinter skills, system was restarted. Hardware overruns are buffer overruns; the UART chip has received bits from the software faster than it can process them. A software overflow occurs when the bernini david face, software has received bits from the hardware faster than it can process them. An A at the upper left of the display indicates that the user is running an asynchronous interface; an Essay A Strategic study I indicates that the bernini face, line has an asynchronous interface available; an asterisk (*) indicates that the line is otherwise active (in character mode). Definition of the specified protocol and splinter skills, address of the david, line. Location of the current line.
Type of line, as specified by the line global configuration command. Length of the terminal or screen display, in rows. Width of the coca direct, terminal or screen display, in columns. Transmit rate/receive rate of the face, line, in bps. State of the line: ready or not, connected or disconnected, active or inactive, exit banner or no exit banner, asynchronous interface active or inactive. Current terminal capabilities. Modem control state.
Although this ample output shows the modem state Idle, this field should always say READY. Current settings of special characters that were input by the user (or taken by direct marketing, default) from the bernini face, following global configuration commands: Current settings that were input by the user (or taken by default) from the following global configuration commands: • timeout login response. Maximum number of sessions. Time since activation. Last time start_process was run. Whether command-line editing is enabled.
Current history list size, set by the user (or taken by default) from the history configuration command. DNS resolution in uk, show commands is. Whether Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is configured to look up Domain Name System (DNS) names for use in show EXEC command displays. Whether full user help has been set by face, the user with the terminal full-help EXEC command or by the administrator with the full-help line configuration command. Allowed input transports are. Current set transport method, set by splinter skills, the user (or taken by default) from the face, transport input line configuration command. Allowed output transports are. Current set transport method, set by How Is Essay, the user (or taken by default) from the transport output line configuration command. Preferred transport is. Current set transport method, set by the user (or taken by default) from the transport preferred line configuration command.
. characters are padded. Current set padding, set by the user (or taken by default) from the padding line configuration command. . data dispatching characters. Current dispatch character set by the user (or taken by default) from the bernini david, dispatch-character line configuration command. The following sample output from the show line summary command shows line summary status for lines 1/3/36 through 1/3/102. Each row of output represents 36 lines, and the line status characters in groups of four for readability. For example, the How Is The Internet Reshaping Culture, first row represents information on rows 1/3/36 through 1/3/71, and the first line status character U corresponds to line 1/3/36. Table 21 describes the possible line status characters that can be shown in output from the show line summary command.
Table 21 Line Status Character Descriptions. Line has never been used. Lines has been used but is currently idle. Line does not exist. Line in bernini david, use by a packet mode user such as asynchronous PPP, Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), ARAP or ASTUN. Line in Reshaping Culture, use by a digit mode user such as V.110 or V.120. Line in use by bernini face, a TCP fast-stream user. Line in old man fishing, use by modem management. Line in use by bernini face, character mode user, such as an EXEC user making an outbound packet connection using Telnet, rlogin, local-area transport (LAT), packet assembler/disassembler (PAD), or normal (nonfast-stream) TCP clear.
Line in use by splinter skills, a voice mode user. To display information about bernini, local-area transport (LAT) nodes, use the Reshaping Culture Essay, show node command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Specifies all nodes. (Optional) Indicates the name of the node for which status is required. (Optional) Specifies the various node counters. (Optional) Specifies detailed node status. This is the default if a node name is specified. (Optional) Specifies a status summary for the node.
This is the default if no node name is bernini david face, specified. This command was introduced. Entering the show node command with no arguments is the Essay A Strategic Perspective, same as entering the show node all summary command and shows a one-line summary of david face, all known nodes. You can enter the splinter skills, show node command with either a specific node name or the all keyword, but not both. The show node command displays three different sets of information about a node: the node counters, the node status, or a one-line summary of the node status. You can enter the show node command with only one of the counters , status , or summary keywords. If you enter show node and two of these keywords without specifying a node name, the first keyword is treated as a node name, causing an bernini face error. If you enter the show node node-name command and old man fishing, two of these keywords, the second keyword will be treated as ambiguous. The show node command with a node-name argument but no counters , status , or summary keyword defaults to show node node-name status.
The following is sample output from the show node command with no further keywords (the same as the show node all summary command): Table 22 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 22 show node Field Descriptions. Lists the names of the nodes. Indicates whether the node is reachable or not. Identification string for the node. The following is sample output from the show node output that defaults to show node chaos status . It results in a display of the detailed status of node chaos. Table 23 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 23 show node status Field Descriptions. Lists the node name as reported by bernini face, the host computer. Identifies the MAC address of the node Ethernet interface.
Lists the version of the splinter skills, LAT protocol used by the node. Data Link Frame Size. Lists the size of the largest packet that can be sent to the LAT host. Lists the identification string for the node. Lists the group code list that is advertised by the remote node, which comes from the service advertisement of the bernini, remote node. Lists the in the uk, LAT service name. Indicates whether the node is currently available on the network. Indicates the rating of the service: an integer from david face 0 to 255, with the highest number being the preferred service.
Used for load balancing. The following sample output displays the counter information for a specific node: In the following sample command and output displays, the status keyword is treated as the node name: In the following example, the second keyword counters is Essay A Strategic Management study, treated as ambiguous: To display specific local-area transport (LAT) learned services, use the show service command in EXEC mode. (Optional) The name of a specific LAT service. This command was introduced. The show service command without a service name displays a list of known LAT learned services. Bernini David Face. When entered with the service-name argument, it displays a more-detailed status of the named service.
If no LAT learned service by the specified name is known, then a lookup is done for an IP host of that name. The following is sample output from the show service command: The following is sample output of the show service command for diversity in the, a specific service: Table 24 describes the significant fields shown in the two previous displays. Table 24 show service Field Descriptions. Name of the service. Name of the nodes advertising the service. Status of the david face, service: Available or Unknown when a command is entered without a service name. Available, Unknown, Initializing, or Unreachable when a command is entered with a service name. Rating of the service: An integer from 0 to 255, with the highest number being the preferred service. Used for load balancing.
To obtain information about the terminal configuration parameter settings for the current terminal line, use the show terminal command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. The following is bial's test, sample output from the show terminal command: Table 25 describes the fields in the first three lines of the show terminal output. Table 25 show terminal Field Descriptions—First Three Lines of Output. Current terminal line.
Location of the current terminal line, as specified using the location line configuration command. Type of the bernini david face, current terminal line, as specified using the line global configuration command. Length: 24 lines. Length of the terminal display. Width: 80 columns.
Width of the terminal display, in character columns. Baud rate (TX/RX) is 9600/9600. Transmit rate/receive rate of the line. The following line of output indicates the status of the line: Table 26 describes possible values for bial's test, the Status field. Table 26 show terminal Field Descriptions—Status Field Values. A process is actively using the line. The line is running the autobaud process. Some sense of carrier has been dropped, so the line process should be killed. The line has at least one active connection. A dial-on-demand routing (DDR) asynchronous interface is dialing a remote site on this line.
The line is not echoing what the user types in face, (for example, because a password must be entered). The first character of the escape sequence has been typed. Both characters of the escape sequence have been typed. The line state is hanging up. The line uses a Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter (UART) that supports XON/XOFF flow control in hardware. (This does not mean that the line is currently using software flow control.) The user typed the hold character (and the line is How Is Essay, paused). The line modem state is idle (see modem state diagrams).
An idle timeout has occurred. The input has been turned off because of hardware flow control or overflow. The normal exit banner will not be displayed on this line. The line is paying attention to typed escape characters. A BREAK sequence has been received on the line. The line has received a special command sequence (for example, ^^B for bernini, send break).
The last character received was a carriage return. The line state is ready. A transition has occurred on old man fishing the RING signal of the line. Send Break Soon. Send a BREAK on the line soon. Buffers are full and bernini david, an XOFF should be sent soon.
A BREAK sequence is being sent on the line. Buffers were full, so an cultural uk XOFF was sent. The line is running SLIP or PPP. The following line of face, output indicates the status of the capabilities of the line. These capabilities correspond closely to configurable parameters that can be set using configuration commands.
Table 27 describes possible values for the Capabilities field. Table 27 show terminal Field Descriptions—Capabilities Field Values. Autobaud Full Range. Corresponds to the autobaud command. At least one pad c x configuration command has been used. The user has enabled successfully. Corresponds to the no exec command. Hangup on Essay about Management Case Financial Last Close.
Corresponds to bernini, the autohangup command. Hardware Flowcontrol In. Corresponds to the flowcontrol hardware in command. Hardware Flowcontrol Out. Corresponds to the flowcontrol hardware out command. Corresponds to the insecure command. Corresponds to coca direct marketing, the lockable command. Corresponds to the modem callin command. Corresponds to the modem callout command. Corresponds to david face, the modem cts-required command. Corresponds to the modem dtr-active command.
Corresponds to the modem ri-is-cd command. No Login Banner. Corresponds to the no exec-banner command. Corresponds to the notify command. Corresponds to the session-timeout command. Corresponds to the slip-dedicated command. Corresponds to the private command.
Corresponds to the telnet refuse command. Receives Logging Output. Corresponds to the monitor command. Refuse Telnet Echo. Corresponds to the telnet refuse command. Send BREAK on IP.
Corresponds to the telnet break-on-ip command. Corresponds to the slip address command. Software Flowcontrol In. Corresponds to the flowcontrol software in command. Software Flowcontrol Out. Corresponds to the flowcontrol software out command. Telnet Transparent Mode. Corresponds to the telnet transparent command.
The following line of output indicates the old man fishing, modem state. David. Values include Autobauding, Carrier Dropped, Hanging Up, Idle, and Essay, Ready. The following lines of bernini david, output indicate the special characters that can be entered to activate various terminal operations. Cultural Diversity In The Uk. The none or hyphen (-) values imply that no special characters are set. The following lines of output indicate the timeout values that have been configured for the line: Table 28 describes the david face, fields in the preceding lines of output.
Table 28 show terminal Field Descriptions—Timeouts. Interval that the EXEC command interpreter waits for user input before resuming the current connection; or if no connections exist, returning the terminal to the idle state and disconnecting the bial's test, incoming session. This interval is set using the exec-timeout command. Interval that the Cisco IOS software waits for david face, traffic before closing the connection to a remote computer and returning the terminal to an idle state. This interval is set using the session-timeout command. Interval during which the software raises DTR in response to RING and the modem response to bial's test, CTS.
This interval is set using the modem answer-timeout command. Not implemented in this release. Number of milliseconds the software waits after putting the first character into a packet buffer before sending the packet. This interval is set using the dispatch-timeout command. The following lines of output indicate how various options have been configured: To determine ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings, use the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command in EXEC mode. show tn3270 ascii-hexval. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced. Use the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command to display the hexadecimal value of bernini david face, a character on your keyboard. Splinter Skills. After you enter the bernini face, show tn3270 ascii-hexval command, you will be prompted to bial's test, press a key.
The hexadecimal value of the face, ASCII character is displayed. This command is useful for direct marketing, users who do not know the ASCII codes associated with various keys or do not have manuals for their terminals. The following is bernini, sample output from the show tn3270 ascii-hexval command: show tn3270 character-map. Displays character mappings between ASCII and coca direct, EBCDIC. Converts incoming EBCDIC characters into ASCII characters for TN3270 connections. To display character mappings between ASCII and EBCDIC, use the face, show tn3270 character-map command in How Is The Internet Reshaping Culture, EXEC mode. show tn3270 character-map all | ebcdic-in-hex Displays all nonstandard character mappings. Displays the ASCII mapping for a specific EBCDIC character. This command was introduced.
The following is david, sample output from the splinter skills, show tn3270 character-map command: show tn3270 ascii-hexval. Displays ASCII-hexadecimal character mappings. Converts incoming EBCDIC characters into ASCII characters for TN3270 connections. To view translation sessions that have been configured, use the show translate privileged command in EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. The display from this command shows each translation session set up on the router. It shows the bernini face, incoming device and virtual terminal protocol, and in the uk, the outgoing device and protocol. The following show translate sample output is based on the following translate command configuration: If the previous translate command is enabled, the following output is bernini david, created by the show translate command: Table 29 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 29 show translate Field Descriptions—X.25 to Essay about Management Case Financial Perspective, IP Translation. Translate From: x25 3131415912345. Protocol (X.25) and address (3131415912345) of the bernini david, incoming device. The virtual terminal protocol (PPP).
Obtain an IP address from a DHCP proxy client or a local pool. Specific local scope name (cardinal) from which to Management Case, obtain an IP address. Indicates that keepalive updates have been disabled for bernini, the current translation session. 1/1 users active. Number of users active over the total number of users. Maximum number of translate sessions up at any given time. Total number of bial's test, translation sessions. Number of failed translation attempts resulting from this configuration. The following show translate sample output is based on the following translate command configuration: If the previous translate command is enabled, the following output is created by the show translate command:
Table 30 describes the significant fields shown in the display. Table 30 show translate Field Descriptions—X.25 to IPX Translation. Translate From: x25 31301234. Protocol (X.25) and address (31301234) of the incoming device. To: PPP 192.168.14.23. The virtual terminal protocol (PPP) and IP address of the outgoing device. Indicates that loopback interface 0 has been configured in client mode. 1/1 users active.
Number of users active over the total number of users. Maximum number of translate sessions up at any given time. Total number of translation sessions. Number of failed translation attempts resulting from this configuration. To test for the availability of a ttycap after a connection on face a router takes place, use the show ttycap command in EXEC mode.
(Optional) Name of a ttycap. (Optional) Lists the names of all defined ttycaps. The name of the default ttycap is not listed. This command was introduced. The Cisco IOS software searches for old man fishing, the specified ttycap in its active configuration image, and lists the complete entry if found. Bernini Face. If it is not found, an appropriate not found message appears. If you do not include any arguments with the show ttycap command, then the current keymap used for the terminal is displayed.
The following is sample output from the show ttycap command: To display information about the active lines on the router, use the Culture, show users command in EXEC mode. (Optional) Specifies that all lines be displayed, regardless of whether anyone is using them. This command was introduced. This command displays the line number, connection name, idle time, hosts (including virtual access interfaces), and terminal location. An asterisk (*) indicates the current terminal session. The following is sample output from the show users command:
The following is sample output identifying an active virtual access interface: The following is sample output from the show users all command: Table 31 describes the significant fields shown in the displays. Table 31 show users Field Descriptions. Contains three subfields: • The first subfield (0 in the sample output) is the absolute line number. • The second subfield (vty) indicates the type of david, line. Possible values follow: tty—asynchronous terminal port. • The third subfield (0 in Essay Walmart: Case Perspective, the * sample output) indicates the relative line number within the bernini david, type. User using the line. If no user is marketing, listed in this field, no one is face, using the line. Host to which the user is diversity in the, connected (outgoing connection).
A value of david, idle means that there is marketing, no outgoing connection to bernini david, a host. Interval (in minutes) since the user has entered something. Either the hard-wired location for the line or, if there is an incoming connection, the host from which incoming connection came. Identifies a specific line for configuration and starts the line configuration command collection mode. Displays the parameters of a terminal line. Configures a username-based authentication system. To display information about current open connections, including packet transmissions, X.3 parameter settings, and cultural diversity in the uk, the current status of virtual circuits, use the bernini face, show x25 pad command in old man fishing, EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords. This command was introduced.
The following is sample output from the show x25 pad command: Table 32 describes fields seen in face, the display from the show x25 pad command. Table 32 show x25 pad Field Descriptions. Number of packets received or sent for bial's test, the connection. Number of packets with Qbit set (X.29 control packets). Number of bytes in each direction. Number of unread packets waiting for the connection. Waiting to send. Local data packet bit not sent (part of a line).
Flags, State, Last error. Displays data for detecting errors and tracing initialization status. Bernini Face. Only useful to your Cisco-certified technical support personnel. Parameters read from the PAD at the start of the connection. Active X.3 parameters. LCI, State, Interface. Status of the X.25 virtual circuit associated with the PAD connection. This is the same display that the show x25 vc command shows. To display XRemote connections and monitor XRemote traffic through the router, use the How Is The Internet Reshaping Culture Essay, show xremote command in bernini face, EXEC mode. This command has no arguments or keywords.
This command was introduced. The show xremote command displays XRemote parameters applied to the entire system, and statistics that are pulled for all active XRemote connections. The following is splinter skills, sample output from the david face, show xremote command when XRemote is splinter skills, enabled and XRemote sessions are active: Connection 1 - LAT connection from bernini david face WHEEL. Client state: CS_ACTIVE Byte order: LSBfirst. Unread input: 0 Unwritten output: 0. Input buffer size: 1024 Output buffer size: 1024. Table 33 describes the How Is The Internet Reshaping, significant fields shown in face, the display. Table 33 show xremote Field Descriptions.
XRemote server-wide parameters. This section displays XRemote parameters that apply to the protocol translator. XRemote font buffer size that was specified with the xremote tftp buffersize global configuration command. Number of retries the Essay Management Case study Perspective, font loader (host) will attempt before declaring an error condition. Font memory errors. Number of font memory error conditions that have been declared for the protocol translator. TFTP font load statistics for host 172.16.1.111. This section displays XRemote statistics for bernini face, fonts that have been loaded from a TFTP font server at the IP address shown.
Number of bytes the host read in cola direct marketing, order to load the fonts. Number of files the host read in order to face, load the diversity in the, fonts. XRemote statistics for tty2. This section displays XRemote for the specified line. Number of clients using this line for active XRemote sessions. Includes the number of bernini david face, clients using this line for active XRemote sessions. Number of clients requesting XRemote service. Number of splinter skills, times that XRemote connection requests were resent. Number assigned to the local UDP port. Amount of time between keepalive messages.
To list XRemote connections and monitor XRemote traffic, use the show xremote line command in EXEC mode. show xremote line number. A decimal value representing the number of virtual terminal lines about which to display information. This command was introduced. The following is sample output from the david, show xremote line command (line 3 is specified) when XRemote is enabled and old man fishing, XRemote sessions are active. Only information specific to an individual terminal line is provided.
See Table 33 for output field descriptions.