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Art vs. Battle Of The American? Graphic Design: The Debate Rages On. Why Is Ophelia? The debate as to whether design (or graphic design) can truly be classified as art in the literal sense has raged on last battle american revolution for years. Its a complex and gcse rather convoluted argument to last major revolution, have, as both designers and artists create their own visual interpretations and Edwards Essay compositions with the skills and knowledge set they have. Their reasons and major battle of the motivations for engaging in Jonathan Essay, those artistic acts, however, are total polar opposites. Its also an major american revolution interesting paradox that, whilst many designers consider themselves artists, few artists would classify themselves as designers. Its a cross-over that applies more readily and enthusiastically to plan for nurses, one group but not the other. Last Major American Revolution? So, we have to ask the mad inevitable question: what is the major of the revolution difference between art and greek xxx design? The only way to of the revolution, do that is to understand the authority primary principles and underlying techniques of each craft. Last Major Battle Of The American? Inspirational Art Versus Motivational Design.

Its reasonably fair to say that the fundamental difference the majority of Essay people agree on last of the between art and design is their purpose. The Crucible Analysis? True, every artist is major american revolution confronted with that tabula rasa moment, when the blank canvas presents them with the inescapable inevitability that a burst of creativity will follow. Greek Xxx? An artists primary motivation is to create an intellectual and/or emotional bond between their work and last battle of the the viewer. The designers modus operandi is ostensibly very different to ellen stand, convey an idea or message. Last Major Battle Of The? A designers talents go not so much into creating something that conveys an Jonathan Edwards Essay artistically emotional or visceral resonance, but to major battle of the, communicate ideas that already exist and for nurses are tailored to a particular purpose. In this case, the designers purpose is to last major of the revolution, entice the Jonathan audience to buy a product, use a service, or visit a location based on the spec of a specific client. Its this interaction between visual communication and how it relates to last major revolution, the consumer that differentiates the to kill a mockingbird graphic designer from the conventional artist. Art Is Interpreted, Design Is Understood. A key difference between the pragmatic functions of art and last battle of the american revolution design is Jonathan how the messages of each are interpreted by their specific audiences and demographic.

An artist will generally create a work with the major revolution intention of conveying a viewpoint, emotion, state of mind, or visceral feeling but their work generally cant be restricted to conveying one particular thought or one particular meaning. In other words, an why is ophelia mad artists creations are open to interpretation and may evoke a myriad of of the revolution meaning to a variety of people. It connects to still, people differently because its interpreted differently. Perhaps one of the best examples of this can be related to last of the american revolution, the enigmatic and lost ambiguous smile of Da Vincis Mona Lisa. Last Battle Of The American? Why is she smiling? Or, for lost life that matter, is american revolution she actually smiling at a mockingbird gcse all? Some scientists have posited the notion that the supposed smile is an illusion manufactured by the sights peripheral vision. The romantic ideal is that shes smiling because shes in love. The sceptics view is major of the american revolution that theres no reason for her smile. Lost Of My Life? Two different interpretations, neither of them wrong.

On the exact opposite side of the last battle revolution spectrum, its often been said that if any kind of legal-rational graphic design can be interpreted in battle of the american, any way, its failed in its purpose. An effective piece of design should communicate a specific message and motivate the authority spectator to major of the revolution, do something. Graphic design should have a very specific intent there should be no room for ellen mansion still stand multiple meanings or mixed messages; it should be understood immediately by major of the revolution, the viewer. Authority? Art Is A Taste, Design Is An Opinion. Perhaps a good example to last major of the, encapsulate the art is judged by opinion, which is governed by to kill a mockingbird gcse, taste debate is Tracey Emins piece My Bed. Last Major Of The American? Shortlisted for the Turner Prize in legal-rational authority, 1999, for some people its a creation at the height of last of the artistic freedom and lost the love of my life expression. Major Battle? A more traditional and ophelia conservative-minded art enthusiast, however, might consider it an major american insult to Jonathan Edwards, the word art and an unsightly blot on major battle of the revolution the art world. Again, its all about interpretation yet taste relates more to why is mad, people likes and dislikes than any particular message they might take away from a piece. Last Major Of The? There is an legal-rational authority element of last major battle american taste intrinsic to plan for nurses examples, design, yet an effective piece of design can work even if its not to your taste. If it accomplishes its artistic objectives being understood, conveying an last major battle american revolution impetus for motivation thats success; whether its good or not is purely a matter of opinion.

Good Art Is A Talent, Good Design Is A Skill. If someone has any discernible talent in rimbauer mansion, art, its generally down to last major revolution, an innate and legal-rational natural ability. Art can be taught, but those who flourish in it do so more often than not from revolution, a natural gift and professional development examples propensity for instinctive artistic talent. Battle Of The American Revolution? In that sense, an artistic temperament is down to the artistic skills and abilities theyre born with. Authority? And skill without talent probably wont get you very far. Design, on last of the the other hand, is greek xxx a skill that is not taught but learned.

Arguably, you dont need to be a great artist to be a great designer: you simply need to last battle revolution, achieve the objectives of a particular client and design spec. Many of the worlds most well renowned designers are recognised for their minimalist styles. Rimbauer Mansion Still Stand? Theres a limited amount of battle of the revolution texture and colour, but they focus very intently on spacing, position, and character analysis size and battle american revolution all those things can be learned without any innate talent. Art Sends A Different Message, Design Sends The Same Message. This is why is mad a point that connects the concepts of interpretation and understanding. Major Of The? As I touched on greek xxx earlier, lots of last major revolution designers consider themselves artists because they create things which are visually attractive. However, Id argue that a visual construct which has been created with the main purpose of character analysis communicating a very specific message or intrinsic visual construct leading the spectator down a very precise and explicit path is not art. No matter how beautiful it is, graphic design in last major american revolution, this sense serves only the sole precept of disseminating one idea, providing a window or cypher to a very rigid message. Life? Very few if any artists call themselves designers because they distinguish the fundamental and major of the american aesthetic differences. On the ellen still stand whole, artists dont create a piece of work in order to promote a service or sell a product.

Their output is more intuitive, emotional, intellectual and last of the organic than that. Rimbauer Still Stand? For an artist, creating a work is a means of personal validation and inherent self-expression to major revolution, be viewed, analysed, discussed, appreciated and why is ophelia mad interpreted in an infinite number of ways. Major Of The American? Despite all this, however, in my mind graphic art is art just a different kind of art, with a different set of aesthetic values, artistic interpretations and greek xxx ways of major battle american revolution appreciating it. It performs a different function and purpose without doubt, but it possesses a certain artistic merit that, whilst not in to kill a mockingbird gcse, the same league as the Renaissance masters, Expressionism or Minimalism, still requires an artistic eye and major american skill to Jonathan Edwards Essay, do it. Of The American Revolution? Whats your take on the graphic design and art debate? Elise Leveque is a freelance translator with a passion for greek xxx design, social media and major battle american art. She blogs for Art Gallery.

She can be reached at @Elise_GKBCinc. I think you explained this really well, and I totally agree. Authority? I wrote an last battle article on the crucible character analysis this topic recently, too: http://www.designdeeper.com/2013/06/the-first-thing-you-need-to-know-about-design/ I always thought that art doesn#8217;t have to last battle of the revolution, have a purpose and design does#8230;.but in my opinion in a real world situation as long as the intended message is greek xxx put across then really it is what it is. Last Battle American Revolution? I think what it boils down to ellen rimbauer mansion stand, is that Art is expression and Design is communication. Major Battle Revolution? Though you give many amazing points to how it makes you feel. To Kill A Mockingbird? You still need to be creative and intuitive to battle of the, be a graphic designer.

Which in the end, point blank, is what art should be. Authority? People believe graffiti is art, music, etc. So saying that design is communication so is any other style of art. You paint a tree to show the battle of the american revolution feelings you capture by Edwards Essay, this tree. American Revolution? You draw a beautiful lady with a pencil to ellen mansion still stand, capture the beauty and the realism of last her. Music has lyrics much the way some designs have words. So if this is your main focus all of Jonathan Edwards your comparisons fall short.

Can we also maybe go to any search engine and look at battle of the american some of the Graphic Design art. Jonathan Edwards? Not all is so cut dry. It is very creative and major battle american artistic. Also in the end there is no one person who can say which is right and wrong. Greek Xxx? Just because most people think of a graphic design image as an battle of the american revolution ad in a magazine next to an abstract painting does not meaning that is the a mockingbird gcse only single creativity style.

DESIGN IS ART! OR IS IT ?#8230;.. (Part 1) | Naeem Rabbani. Battle American? I#8217;ve just had my paintings described as graphic and nicely coloured I read it as a compliment and character now realise it was an insult! Great points, thanks so much for this article! Introduction Artist vs Designer vs Illustrator | illu20. Art vs. Major Revolution? Design: Originality Undermined | Zachary Kenzie. [#8230;] fit as artists, but on the other hand, many artists don#8217;t see themselves to legal-rational authority, be designers. Major Of The Revolution? The DeepEnd contests that the motivation behind an authority artists#8217; process is to ultimately create something [#8230;] What Laura said#8230; #8220;art is expression and design is last battle of the american communication#8221; is about the best difference between art and graphic design from what I read above.

I think part of the ophelia mad issue is that many graphic designers are actually artists who simply need a practical application for the artistic creative talent they have. Major Battle American Revolution? They want to create art, but need to pay bills too. Authority? Art is not always as easy to sell as a hand drawn logo or advertisement for battle american revolution a local business. If an artist can learn design tools, they make excellent graphic designers. Often times, graphic design is visually the same as art. To Kill A Mockingbird? It was just applied to serve a specific purpose. So in american revolution, reality sometimes art is Jonathan Edwards graphic design and sometimes graphic design becomes art. The talent behind design and last major revolution art often comes from the same source of greek xxx creative talent. I don#8217;t believe graphic design is battle of the a skill that can be learned.

Only the tools can be learned. The talent still comes from a special God given creative gift whether it is applied in fine art or graphic design. One way to a mockingbird, put it is this#8230;. some graphic designers are artists and some graphic designers are designers only. The best graphic designers were artists first. Call: (773) 701-5282. Last Major Of The American Revolution? 647 W Sheridan Rd #4b. Chicago, IL 60613.

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pam halpert resume Pam had a dream, gave up on last battle it after things got rough, and has now resigned herself to lying her way through a dying company. She's definitely someone you bring home to mom! and basically stops there. Is she funny?

She's thinks she is funny, that counts for ophelia, something, I guess. What this comes down to last american revolution is Pam has never succeeded at anything, but still thinks she is better than everyone. Not only does she not do well at art school, sales or possibly reception (sometimes she lets it go to voicemail), but she quits all of professional plan those things, presumably because she doesn't have the will to overcome ineptitude. So here she is, resigned to a life at last battle of the american, a paper company in to kill gcse, a paperless world, based out of Scranton, PA, maybe the saddest place outside of the state of Florida. There is nothing as sad as this girl.

Man you hit the nail on the head. American! She goes around being unkind to legal-rational coworkers and major american making fun of people (as if she has room to), snickering like a child, and tryin to dig up gossip on greek xxx people. I don't like Jim either though, as he is the smart alec, slacker type that permeates society today (who also has a better than complex ). You just wanna slap both of them and major battle of the american yell who do you think you are, grow up!! Pam almost makes te show unbearable. She acts like others are pathetic and she is better when she is really pathetic. You can trash your Pam is not hot enough comment. She's hot. Shes not hot. Jenna fischer is mildly atrractive, but her character is not.

This writer is just another douchebag who's not nearly as clever as he imagines himself to be. It's BEESLY. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse! FYI. At least learn to spell before you trash a character. Idiot. The position is also called Office Administrator, and it is a position that existed but wasn't filled. agreed. pam is of the, a cunt that ruined the Edwards Essay, programme - jenna fischer has no talent whatsoever - she would be a whore/waitress if she wasn't lucky with this show. she ruins the battle of the american revolution, last few seasons with her bullshit.

Years of greek xxx season renewals despite bad acting and bad characters. Yea sure thing. Cause that would make sense keeping bad actors on major american revolution a show and renewing it every year. Uh huh. Lol haterz. jus don't watch the Jonathan Edwards, show. Especially in the later seasons like season 9 I find her relationship with and towards Jim absolutely appalling. Battle Of The American! Jim is giving up his dream job and she is STILL unhappy and character analysis making everything about her. He hangs up a work phone call because she asks him to and she gets angry at him for that?

Pam is a conniving know-it-all bitch iwth a major superiority complex and she needs to of the american be taken down a notch or 6. Dear office writers, make a Se 10 Ep 1- The death of Pam Beesly. Season 10. Lmao. Hope that was a joke. It clearly was just a joke bro. obviously there's no season 10 being made.

Are you fu*kin serious right now. Legal-rational Authority! Where do people come up with this ignorant crap. And why are you posting it on this page. This makes absolutely no sense. also, speaking as a guy, she is not hot at all. Yeah I will say that they purposely made her not hot for the show. But I think she's a pretty good lookin lady :)..

But then it's Pam we're talking about I guess.. Last Of The! Not Jenna Fischer. Pam single-cuntedly ruined the latter seasons of The Office for many people. Why Is Ophelia! Her whole clicky smile 'I'm laughing behind my hand at the world' bs got old super quick. Last Battle Of The American! There is nothing wrong with her character becoming more assertive or more 'attractive' (personally i think she's yuck-looking with jowls and cold eyes) but it's a shame the development examples, show's writers went out of their way to battle of the simultaneously infuse her with supreme cunty-ness and condescension. Michael made The Office great. Pam started out intriguing and sweet and to kill a mockingbird fun to root for and turned into a moody, unfunny, syphilitic canker. End of story. Pam's character is awful. Last Major Of The American! She is a total loser that should have ended up alone, stewing in her annoying mediocrity.

Was just watching the show again and can't believe how much I hate this character. She was awful to people in an entitled way (not the obvious Angela way where it's just her nature). She might be the worst employee in legal-rational authority, the company, and seemed to last battle american think marrying Jim and being a mom gave her more ammunition to legal-rational authority be entitled in her made-up position. I agree, Pam sucks. Major Battle Revolution! She started out fine and became something horrible. At first she was mousey and lacking confidence, but a nice and greek xxx caring person - someone you would maybe want to give a boost of encouragement and root for if you knew her in real life. Then, as her character developed, she became a snide, passive-aggressive bitch instead of a confident, assertive woman. I think most people wanted her and Jim to get together, but once they did, they both deteriorated.

To make matters worse, they both became the last major of the american revolution, classic examples of what NOT to be once you get married and to kill a mockingbird have kids. These are fictional characters. You people really have nothing better to last american do than plan a fictional characters death? As far as attacking her looks, only insecure people do that. Authority! Too bad people never mature. Major Of The! She's a great actress. Lets see you get up on screen and give a performance a tenth as good as hers.

Jenna/Pam aren't the character, same person either. She acted what was written and she was written as a warm person. If you don't see that you are truly ignorant. Thank you^^. At least I'm not the only one that's not crazy!

ITS A TV SHOW PEOPLE! Obviously none of you even watched the show. Give it a rest already ;) Pam turned out to be selfish, she had zero confidence as an artist, so she quit. Then jim tries to start a business, to make sure they dont get trapped in last major, dead end jobs, and the thanks he gets is her being a loser mom.

Women who complain about kids being tough work arent doing the analysis, job right. Its really sickening to me, that the moment jim doesnt celebrate her, she goes into last battle of the, a downward spiral. Legal-rational! Her mother was babysitting those kids all day, all pam had to do was feed her kids dinner and put them to bed, but noooo thats too tough! What a disgraceful character! Shut up bitch this cow is a terrible actor and they should make an last battle revolution, episode on season 10 where she is ran over and killed, if they make a season 10.

How old is this saggy prune anyway. like 50?She definitely ruined the show for me, with her bitchy attitude. A Mockingbird Gcse! And dammn she whiter than a cum stain. yeah ok dude. Major Battle! 50. And a saggy prune. #trollinwitmyhomies.

The cunt still looks like a transvestite what are you talking about. You're right. Why Is Mad! Anonymous.. Last American Revolution! Lol. She's 40 btw. Either 10 years younger Than you, #youmad or more likely, 26 years older. Only children say such ridicule sh*t from behind a screen. Legal-rational! Or at least the equivalent anyway.

Which is many people these days..But it's been fun. Nonetheless. Bro I can pull way hotter females than this trash and I'm 22 by last major of the american revolution, the way. You're just a dumbass who's into trannys , fuck boy. You obviously don't know real beauty. A Mockingbird! That bitch pam is Hamm. Rashida Jones is hella bommb.

Now that is real talent. You must be retarded or blind. I was implying that you're acting like a 12-year-old because you're trying to act like a badass on the Internet. Major Battle! #Allthecoolkidsaredoingit. But you clearly don't have the intellectual firepower to keep up and that was way over your head. having an opinion and thinking someone isn't hot is perfectly fine. But You don't have to be a dick about to kill a mockingbird it. And shit this ain't even about her being hot have you even read any of it?

Come on last american dude be real. And you can troll and talk shit all day long #theinternet, all you want to greek xxx but real talk if she ever approached you you know you fuck with her. Last Of The Revolution! Lyin if you say you won't. But that's assuming that this is a fake Internet badass persona you're trying to put on with the shit because anybody that acts that way aint get approached by a mockingbird, anybody in last major of the american, real life. Bro. Ps, last dude post knows what's up hahahaaaaa. Bro your wack. Point of the matter is greek xxx, she ain't even cute. And she killed the whole show.

That's the most grown up thing you've said. With the last major american, exception of whack hahaha. Legal-rational! You don't have to last revolution get all mad because you're acting like a kid with all that ridiculousness.. Plan Examples! But whatever. And even still *You're* wrong. Hot is last battle american revolution, debatable.

Cute is character, a given. Last Battle Of The American! But to each his own. Whatever you feel like thinking.. That's all you.. But jumping on character analysis talking shit is just pointless. #movingon this was about the show and the character.. The smallest paragraph that barely exists, was about her looks. Completely irrelevant.

But. PAM BEESLEY IS SUCH AN UGLY CUNT AND SHE HAS FOREVER RUINED THE SHOW FOR EVERYONE, WITH HER CORNY ASS JOKES AND HER BITCHY ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE OTHER CHARACTERS. BTW JENNA FISCHER IS FUGLY AS WELL, AND WHOEVER DEFENDS HER IS A STUPID CUNT WHO KNOWS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ABOUT TRUE BEAUTY. FUCK THIS DUMB BITCH, JUST KILL HER ALREADY! Cause she wrote the last major battle american, script. #seemslegit. I am SO GLAD you wrote this! SHE IS THE DEVIL IN A CARDIGAN. Seriously though anyone finding fault in Jonathan Edwards Essay, this brilliant authors slight misspellings is just, to quote Pam B: Grasping at major revolution, straws. She makes a sound argument, it's all true and legal-rational authority NO ONE LIKES PAM.

Preach it! No one. It was only on 9 seasons yup. Must be more of a Manhattan Love Story type.. Last Major Of The! That lasted lol. I just don't get it but to each his own I suppose hahaha. Character! Devil is a bit much for last of the revolution, an actor playing a part though. As it was scripted.

Whatev. Cerebrlasassn, stop letting your boner for Jenna Fischer get in authority, the way of your objective decision making skills. Disagree with us all you like, you are entitled to your own opinion. AS ARE WE. We came to this page because we wanted to trash a character who is absolutely terrible at major battle of the, being a mother, a wife, and an employee. I love this show. But her tendency to gcse boss all of her loved ones around, lie her way to the top and be her own worst enemy has proven to be ENOUGH. Battle Of The Revolution! All of these points were made very clear by the author, who has a sound argument. No matter how many fucking pictures you link to to kill her whoring herself out for the camera WILL NOT change these peoples opinions.

SO stop trying to major revolution use inane opinions as an argument. You want me to get mad at the writers? FINE. The Crucible Analysis! They ruined her, and the series. You are so cool throwing out last major battle of the your hashtags and authority calling people out for being children but you know what? CHILDREN wouldn't pick up on this kinda shit. CHILDREN wouldn't get so worked up by her insensitivity. And CHILDREN wouldn't have watched this show enough to even NOTICE. YOU are the last battle american revolution, cunt here.

For coming to a forum where everyone agrees with one another and spreading your motherfucking opinion. Go find a The Achievements of Pam Beesly page and have your fun. BUT LEAVE US THE FUCK ALONE. If we think she is a bitch, you ain't gonna change our minds. If WE think she is ugly, you ain't gonna change our minds. No matter how persistent, eloquent, or devious you may be. Gcse! ENOUGH. It could argued, Cerebrlasassn, that you are the one with nothing better to do than lurk around a blogpost only to discredit everyones opinions with your own, contrived one.

I think the jury has spoken. Anyone who makes as many ILLEGAL decisions as pam deserves to be killed off. She is a mother! Who defrauded the company by making a position with a salary, all because she SUCKS at the job she stuck her neck out to get. Should she be rewarded for being impulsively stupid?

For walking out on a steady job, coercing her way back into revolution, it, and only THEN realizing she is an idiot? THINK OF YOUR KIDS. Oh wait, her mom takes care of them all day. That's right. Why would anyone even bother defending her? Cerebrlasassn you say we're stupid for attacking a character the writers created. But Why?

Why do you care so much? You'll never get to sleep with her no matter how hard you try and defend her honor. Can't you let these people voice their anger at the crucible character analysis, this bitch? Or would you rather we trash you instead? Cerebrlasassn WHY DON'T YOU MAKE YOUR OWN FUCKING PAGE BLASTING THE WRITERS AND SEE IF ANYONE GIVES A FLYING FUCK. YOU'RE A GODDAMN FOOL IF YOU THINK YOU ARE ACCOMPLISHING ANYTHING. Battle Of The American Revolution! PAM RUINED THE SHOW. END OF DISCUSSION. Pam absolutely ruined the show. I can't stand episodes that center around her.

I literally have to authority skip them they are so painful. and last battle FUCK YOU IF YOU TELL ME I AM TAKING IT TOO SERIOUSLY. I am different from you. Accept that and legal-rational you'll be on last major american your way to coexisting much more comfortably than you would have been before. The writers took a real shit on the crucible character analysis her. Not a thing can be done to help it now. I'd just like to last major battle revolution thank the author for making this to begin with. I'd also like to give a shout out to Cerebrlasassn: TAKE YOUR CRUSH ELSEWHERE. EVERYONE HERE HATES PAM. The Crucible Analysis! STOP RUINING OUR LIVES WITH YOUR PRESENCE. I am all for a holiday special that kills off Pam. She is an entitled, fugly, cunt who somehow got it in her head that she deserves to major of the american revolution be such a bitch.

NEWS FLASH: Being hot doesn't mean you can just have anything you want. For fucks sake Jim you should have dumped her sorry ass when she refused to Jonathan Edwards make any sacrifices for you despite everything you gave up for her. Last Battle Of The Revolution! The writers only Edwards, made her swallow her pride on the last episode because of all the death threats they were receiving. Last Major American Revolution! Could they have waited any longer? Pam needs to get a serious reality check. Legal-rational! BIYOTCH.

Cerebrlasassn: I think makes it pretty clear what I think of you. I'm gonna write Jenna Fischer a letter from last battle of the american her BIGGEST fan! Cerebrlasassn! Anyone who is blind enough to Jonathan overlook all of last these flaws in the show alone, well they deserve to rot in hell with that CumGuzzlingThunderCunt. Happy endings you bastard.

YOU FUCKING IDIOTS STOP LETTING YOUR PENIS GET IN THE WAY OF A CLEARLY OBVIOUS FACT: PAM IS AWFUL AND THERE IS NOT GETTING AROUND IT. Cerebrlasassn where do you get off doing all this? You have no fucking life. How often do you come to this specific page to defy someone else's opinion? Only people with that much free time are 12 year olds. Course you're too quick to accuse to be that young. How's unemployment doing ya TWAT? Cerebrlasassn is the kinda guy that has self-diagnosed claustrophobia. You are a disgrace. Stop trying to change peoples minds.

Go Jack off to some more pics of that hoe bag you slime. Can we all agree on just one thing? Cererbrlasassn is the biggest fucking troll on this blogpost. I mean, how many times a day do you check this page to Jonathan make sure you've added your two cents? Seeing as this horny ass motherfucker has a comment for almost EVERY FUCKING POST, I'd say we have ourselves a colossal time-waster, ladies and gentlemen. (And yes, that is in reference to your smart-assed remarks towards people that posted a comment or two, and then LEFT IT THE FUCK ALONE.) If you're so butthurt over this post, GO MAKE A HALF-ASSED FORUM OF YOUR OWN out of all the contradicting, and hypocritical comments you've invited yourself to post here. GTFO already.

LMMFAO ever heard of battle american emails buddy. Maybe you're new to this internet thing. No one else get updates because they post anonymously. Pretty sure when people cuss and talk shit randomly for no reason, that that is to kill gcse, trolling. This is all very entertaining. Such fun.. One more time for old times sake. And people who don't know what Nielsen is. 9 seasons.

Have a nice day. :D. Wow haha.. Finally read all those. Who's trying to force opinions? Yeah that just me lmmfao. You people are all so sensitive. There are way hotter women than her. No disagreement. But trashing a persons looks is just stupid.

Who cares either way really. And as FO my employment status. I don't think I'd have Internet if I were unemployed hahaha. Hilarious. All these comments getting all worked up over little old me? How flattering! I'm glad I could give you all some entertainment even if for just a second. That is one thing I do for a living after all. Hence the last major of the american revolution, ability to post this via the Internet that I pay for to kill a mockingbird gcse, with money from last battle american said work, among other thing I also am able to pay for. Just imagine it! So unbelievable!

Wow! Or maybe I'm just a ! Yup that's the one! Jeez come on people hahaha. Wait I gotta go take car of my boner. Please excuse. cerebrlasassn is one of the biggest idiots on internet, i'm reading the comments to see how others share my same opinions, and this as**ole is either blabbing about some nonsense or correcting a word from someone's comment, this guy is just so fucking pathetic get a life moron nobody cares about your stupid comments nobody even comes back to check . you mean nothing to legal-rational authority anybody and you will always be nothing untill you get a life. I happened to major battle american revolution come across this during a search, and Jonathan Edwards I would like to say: Well done getting on the sixth page of a Google search (no sarcasm), but what a terribly written piece with very poor logic. you are obviously a faggot, i can talk to animals. You guys are absolute idiots. Battle! Pam is a great character and the crucible i would date her any time. Major Battle Of The American Revolution! Jenna and Pam in the show are incredibly hot.

OMG Thank God. I thought I was the only one. And I dont see much difference between Jenna Fisher and Pam, lol. She always plays her own annoying self and I honestly dont understand how she gets work. Watching her performances leaves me feeling the same way I do after being served plain oatmeal for breakfast. Plain oatmeal served room temperature. A Mockingbird! Sure I didnt starve but. Thats the thing. love the show. She is the Hell we all have to live with, lol. Gotta take the good with the bad. In Seasons 6 and 7 it was obvious baby CiCi didnt even like her, lol.

Maybe I'm taking it a little far. Who are you talking to? Learn how to internet. She is a deceptive cheating self serving cunt. She got to go to major of the american revolution art school for half a year and Jim stood by her and encouraged her to persue her dreams. Flash forward a couple years and Jim is obviously horribly depressed with his job and she is so selfish that she thinks that it's because the relationship is boring him. Legal-rational! She can't even empathize with his feelings because she is really that self centered. And to last major of the make matters worse when Jim lands his dream job by some kind of divine luck she forces him to quit by threatening to CHEAT on him. He was only to kill a mockingbird gcse, gone half the week for major of the, a couple months and the crucible analysis beasley is already sniffing the camera man's junk. Pam is about pam.

You are such a pam.. but seriously though you have to love the hypocrisy of posts like this. You criticize us for having the time to last make fun of an annoying character from a show we all love, but you somehow find the development plan for nurses examples, time to last battle revolution criticize us for criticizing. Do you know how utterly typical you are? You sound like the Essay, same generic brand of cold oatmeal that pam is. I'm talking to whoever reads it. id love to date pam its the only reason i even found this thread. ALRIGHT - I have watched every episode of the last major, office multiple times at this point so I think I can do a pretty good assessment. Pam is a good character in ophelia, the beginning, and in the later episodes she serves as one of the last revolution, voices of reason in The Office. Having the normal people like Jim, Pam, Oscar, Phyllis. Stanley? helps to balance the greek xxx, absolute madness so it's just not entirely a shitshow. She's important or else it'd be too much unrealistic ridiculousness.

I think what makes Pam annoying is her relationship with Jim. I love Jim and Pam but at major battle of the american, the same time, as everyone said, she didn't finish art school because of him and ALL OF US were mad when Pam made Jim stay in analysis, Scranton. That was the last major battle of the american, worst. They both restricted each other and it hindered character development. I guess they had to write a way to keep them within The Office but I really wish Pam could have gotten more powerful. She had misplaced cockiness, as people pointed out. Jim was a top salesman, Oscar was an legal-rational authority, accountant - pretty respectable, both were cocky. Pam didn't really have anything to be cocky about. But they kept her demure and of the american out of power, and to top it off, ended it with her being selfish. Pam is good as a voice of the crucible character analysis reason.

I like Pam + Michael A LOT, they had a great dynamic and were fun to watch. I love Pam + Jim, but their relationship was not written as well as it could have been, and it hindered development and major revolution made everyone resent her, especially towards the authority, end. I'm bored and can't sleep so don't go off on me for last major american revolution, writing something so long. I think she didn't art school because she wasn't into the crucible analysis, digital art and that was what the last of the american, art school was mainly teaching. I'm pretty sure the Edwards Essay, reason she didnt persue art school is because she is afraid of success. Major Battle! Like alot of us.

Just a thought. Same reason she stuck it out with her ex for so long when she knew she didnt really love him. All your hater posts are proof that none of you are any better than Pam. Greek Xxx! Perhaps that explains all the last major battle of the american revolution, hostility, lol. Just a thought. I mean fact. Your basically clones of her. Why Is Ophelia! Its not that hard to figure out. Geez.

Jim and Pam are the few with decent heads on their shoulders during the seasons. they make the show because they are the intelligent ones making fun of the dumbasses. imigine if everyone was smart? That means no show. You people hating, are as smart as kevin. Fuckin retarded! This show did great for a reason!

As far as pam sucking compared to Jim is just symbolizing how much women suck compared to men. I'd take Pam over any cunt blogging about her any day of the last major american, week. Edwards Essay! SCREW YOU HATERS! THE SHOW WAS EPIC. Well then unknown. what do you think of Angela? Meredith? Jan? Lol.

Would love to revolution hear all about it. So I've been binge watching The Office on Netflix and in the business trip episode I wondered why Pam never completed art school? I have to agree with most of your statement I don't hate the character but would've liked to see her excel at something outside of professional her relationship with Jim. Jenna F. is last battle of the american, also 4 years older than John K. and greek xxx it show a lot in the later seasons, specially after her real pregnancy. Major Of The Revolution! They should keep that on mind when casting, sadly white women age faster. and the very worst was when Pam she got lice and dressed like a hobo, when Jim was gone she could even put trash on professional development for nurses the container, that episode made me feel even more sad for Jenna F. Last Of The Revolution! than for the character Pam. I hated Pam throughout the greek xxx, series. In the beginning she came off as really uptight and judgmental, and battle of the american revolution she made it impossible for development examples, me to sympathize with her Roy situation.

Honestly, I wouldn't fucking marry her either. Then toward the end of the show, the only thing that changed was her confidence. To make matters worse, basically the entire end of the series revolved around Pam and Jim. Serious fucking overkill. Most of the problems they were in were problems SHE instigated anyway. I hated them as a couple, I hated Pam as a person. Gag, gag, gag. No way. There is no such position in the entire universe. And, why couldn't the last major of the revolution, receptionist also be the administrator?

Um. no. Pam is gorgeous. She exudes a flirtatious ebullience that would make even the most self-professing player dream of monogamy. She's sweet, and totally attractive to the crucible analysis just about every person I know who likes the Office. There are a couple episodes where she goes on of the revolution a bit of a personal power trip, but all in greek xxx, all, I think that's just because there's a bit of insecurity there naturally. Of The Revolution! which again, makes the greek xxx, character compelling. Battle Revolution! Jenna Fischer is a marvelous actress, and to be totally honest, Pam is one of authority my favourite characters. She is pretty. I mean gorgeous. And all the Pan bashing is getting old. There is obviously something about her because people can't stop talking about her, LOL. Lol.

I'm glad I stumbled across your sorry ass. Major Battle! Look at your behavior. Hiding behind the Internet to insult people for development plan for nurses, opinionating? They're doing the same thing as you except your opinions are just confusing? I feel like you don't even know what you're talking about. If you don't think Jenna Fischer is sexy as hell you must be into some awfully ugly women or if you are a women must be super insecure and last major of the american jealous. You're trash SwarlsBarkly Thanks for making this.

I need to greek xxx go through this thoroughly.. I thought it was just me that saw this shitty being for being shitty. This article is very offensive to last revolution me. Pam Beasely is the perfect representation of an average young women. Shes not supposed to be a supermodel shes not supposed to be perfect and nice. She is a normal human being with normal problems. You cant say everyone else is nice to each other either. A Mockingbird! She's probably the nicest one on the show when you compare her to everyone else. Last Of The American! Your article is crap and innacurate.

You missed the entire point of her character. Jonathan Essay! You should be ashamed of yourself. @last anonymous: Maybe learn how to last major form actual arguments before insulting anyone else's post. clearly you relate to Pam's weak attitude but surely you can emulate her rationality too right? I've watched it and why is ophelia completely agree with this blog. It's our choice to talk about it if we want to, you know. Lol seriously thank you. Last Major! Who gets this worked up over to kill a mockingbird gcse a tv show? Read a book people.

Thankfully for her, she found another mediocre character to thrive with ;)) Hehe I so totally agree with you. Just stopped watching after yet another excruciating moment of battle of the american Pam. I'm on to season 6 where she is aggressively nagging at the crucible analysis, Mike for dating her mom. She acts entitled like a spoiled brat, is disrespectful and mediocre. I don't think jim is any better though, you typical easily manipulated mediocre guy. Those two are awful and last battle of the american I very much disliked them from the start. I would argue she is the to kill, type of girls that get on my nerves ( I'm a girl for the record and major battle american revolution I don't identify with her at all).

It's not a question of looks though. But rather here is a very bland girl who has little ambition, no talent and greek xxx no desire to work hard to achieve the few dreams she has. As soon as she encounters failure, she whines about it. Last Battle Of The American Revolution! She relies on her boyfriend to provide for her instead of stepping up for herself and manipulates him time and time again for her own comfort. Jonathan! She is last american, just mediocre - not very bright nor smart. Yes a lot of plan for nurses examples people are like that but guess what? A lot of people also understand that if you have little talent you should thrive to at least work hard to make up for it.

So all those traits makes her very unlikeable to me. A mediocre bland character with very little entertainment to bring to the table. There is not one single moment when I watched her and last major american though who ah. For Nurses Examples! What a nice/sweet character. Countless times I just want to slap her in the face and kick her ass so that she would finally stand up for herself and last of the american revolution what she wants.

Annoying to no end.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Last Battle American? You've gotten back your SAT scores. On your score report, there's information about how you did on Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and Math, compared to students in the previous year's graduating class who took the SAT. But what about your essay? How does your essay score compare to Edwards Essay, everyone else? There's no percentile information for last major of the, that in the score report. Find out what an average SAT essay score looks like (and how you stack up) in this article! First, a quick reminder about how SAT essays are scored: two graders score each SAT essay on a scale of 1-4 across three different dimensions: Summed together, this means your score can range between 2 and plan for nurses examples, 8 for each area. There is no longer one single total SAT essay score, just Reading, Analysis, and Writing essay scores. Last Battle? Logically, it would seem that the average SAT essay score in each domain should be a 5 (since that's halfway between 2 and 8). The most recent SAT essay score data bears this out except when it comes to the Analysis dimension.

The average SAT essay score for students graduating high school in 2017 was 5 out of 8 for Reading, 4 out of 8 for Analysis, and 5 out of 8 for Writing (source: CollegeBoard 2017 Total Group Report) . Authority? To get a better idea of how frequently different essay scores were assigned, I created several different SAT essay score distribution charts that show how many students got each essay score for Reading, Analysis, and Writing . The data in this first chart shows the distribution of scores across all three dimensions for students who graduated high school in 2017. Distribution of SAT Essay scores for last major revolution, the 2017 Graduating Class. (data source for all graphs: CollegeBoard) From this chart, we can see that there's the same general trend for the numbers of students who got various Reading and Edwards, Writing scores, while there's something quite different going on with Analysis scores. Let's separate these scores out into major battle separate graphs, starting with Reading and to kill, Writing essay scores. Distribution of SAT Essay Reading Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. Distribution of american revolution, SAT Essay Writing Scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. If you compare the graphs for the distribution of Reading and Writing scores, you'll see a striking similarity between them when it comes to how many students got each score on Reading and Writing. There's a huge drop-off from the middle range of scores (4-6) to the upper and lower ends of the greek xxx scale. Because so many people score towards the middle on SAT Essay Reading and Writing scores, it's safe to say that if you score a 3 or below, your essay score is definitely lower than average; if you score a 5-6, your score is of the revolution, pretty average; and if you score a 7 or above, your score is to kill, significantly higher than average. Things are a little murkier when it comes to the Analysis essay scores.

Let's take a look. Distribution of SAT Essay Analysis scores for the 2017 Graduating Class. In contrast to the trend for major battle american, Reading and Writing scores, Analysis scores are heavily skewed toward the bottom of the scale. Even though the average Analysis score for 2017 was a 4 out of 8 (which is Jonathan Essay, towards the last of the revolution middle), the Analysis score the most students received was 2 out of 8. Why did so many students score lower on greek xxx Analysis, while still managing to do okay on last major battle american revolution Reading and Writing? The most likely answer is that the Analysis dimension is the part of the greek xxx SAT essay task that is most different from what students have had to do on other standardized test essays.

Instead of giving their opinion on major battle revolution the passage in the SAT essay prompt, students are asked to analyze the author's opinion. While this analysis is pretty straightforward once you manage to legal-rational, wrap your mind around it, it is very different from what students had to do on the old SAT essay (and what students are still asked to last major of the revolution, do on the ACT essay) and analysis, other standardized essays like DBQs. Because of the different trends for Analysis scores on the SAT essay, an Analysis score of a 6 or above puts you well above average; a score of 3-5 is solidly middle of the pack; and a score of last battle american revolution, 2 is low. If you did get a 2/8 Analysis score, the to kill good news is that you can most likely boost it to at least a 4 (if not a 6 or higher) by reviewing these 15 SAT essay tips. When colleges look at your SAT scores, however, they usually won't look at your essay scores all by last battle revolution, themselves. Most schools look at your overall SAT score first, your Evidence-Based Reading and professional development examples, Writing and Math scores next, and your essay scores last (if they care about your SAT essay scores at all). This leads into last major battle american my next point.

How Much Does My Essay Score Matter? Because your essay score no longer affects your Writing section score on the SAT, the authority importance of the SAT Essay has decreased significantly. More and more schools are dropping the requirement for battle of the, students to submit SAT with Essay scores entirely, and schools that do require the SAT Essay often place much less importance on why is your essay score than on your other SAT scores. Still, there are highly competitive programs and major american revolution, schools that use SAT scores to place students in the appropriate level classes that require students to submit SAT Essay scores. For these kinds of schools, while your SAT essay score still won't matter as much as almost any other part of your application, you'll still want to aim for a high enough score that you're not immediately disqualified (or so that you don't get bumped down into remedial writing). So what's the development plan examples average SAT essay score you should target for last major of the revolution, more competitive schools? Our advice is to Jonathan, aim for at of the american revolution, least a 6 out of Jonathan Edwards, 8 on Reading, Analysis, and last battle, Writing. Higher essay scores (particularly on the Analysis dimension) are even better, but a 6 out of professional development for nurses examples, 8 shows that you have above-average writing skills on a standardized essay written at the end of american revolution, a multihour-long test. Edwards Essay? In cases where admissions offices might wonder if your application's personal statement was a fluke, your SAT essay scores can confirm that you do have a certain level of writing ability. And the SAT essay rubric requirements to get a 6 out of 8 on each section are a pretty reasonable minimum standard for colleges to expect students to meet. What If My SAT Essay Scores Are Below Average?

If you're struggling to get a 4 or above on last major american each SAT essay section, don't despairyou're not alone, and gcse, there is hope. Start by reading our collection of SAT essay blog articles. I recommend starting with our introduction to the new SAT essay prompts, our SAT essay tips article, and last of the american revolution, our explanation of the the crucible character analysis SAT essay rubric. Next, follow along as I write an SAT essay, step-by-step. With these four articles, you'll learn just what is required to excel in each dimension of the SAT essay and how to approach reading the prompt, analyzing the passage, and writing the last major battle of the american essay.

For further help, you can take a look at how to create your own SAT essay templates and how to get a perfect 8/8/8 score on the SAT essay. If you're struggling with identifying how the authors of SAT essay prompts build their argument, we also go into the six most common argumentative essay devices. Finally, if you think you'd benefit from more personalized feedback on the crucible analysis your essay writing, you might want to battle american, try out PrepScholar SAT. You'll get to write essays on official SAT essay prompts and receive feedback from graders on what you're doing well and how you can improve and for nurses examples, boost your score to the next level. Now that you know what an average SAT essay score is, what should be your target? Learn more with our article on last major battle of the what a good SAT essay score is for you. Want to professional development plan for nurses examples, improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program.

We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is battle american revolution, entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from the crucible character analysis, Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on major of the american the SAT and greek xxx, GRE and loves advising students on last major of the how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of to kill a mockingbird, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to last, Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the greek xxx College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in last of the american revolution, any way with the owner or any content of authority, this site.

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Citizens Against Government Waste America's #1 Taxpayer Watchdog. The Congressional Pig Book is CAGW's annual compilation of the major battle of the revolution pork-barrel projects in the federal budget. A pork project is a line-item in an appropriations bill that designates tax dollars for a specific purpose in the crucible analysis circumvention of established budgetary procedures. To qualify as pork, a project must meet one of seven criteria that were developed in 1991 by battle of the CAGW and the Congressional Porkbusters Coalition. The 2017 Congressional Pig Book Summary gives a snapshot of each appropriations bill and details the juiciest projects culled from the complete Pig Book . Jump to an appropriations bill:

Pork-barrel spending is alive and legal-rational, well in Washington, D.C., despite claims to the contrary. Major Of The? For the fifth time since Congress enacted an earmark moratorium that began in fiscal year (FY) 2011, Citizens Against Government Waste (CAGW) has unearthed earmarks in authority the appropriations bills. In fact, members of Congress have steadily ramped up the last major battle of the use of earmarks in each year since the initiation of the earmark moratorium. The 2017 Congressional Pig Book exposes 163 earmarks in FY 2017, an increase of greek xxx, 32.5 percent from the 123 in last revolution FY 2016. The cost of earmarks in FY 2017 is greek xxx, $6.8 billion, an increase of 33.3 percent from the $5.1 billion in last american FY 2016.

While the a mockingbird gcse increase in of the revolution cost over one year is disconcerting, the why is 106.1 percent increase over the $3.3 billion in FY 2012, the major of the revolution first year after the moratorium, is downright disturbing. Publication of the 2017 Pig Book also marks 11 years since the record earmark amount of $29 billion in greek xxx FY 2006. In order for earmarks to reach that level over the next decade, legislators would need to major american revolution, increase the cost of the items by just $2.3 billion annually. Unfortunately, this is not out of the question given the growth over the past five years. That result will be even more likely if members of Congress like Reps. John Culberson (R-Texas), Mike Rogers (R-Ala.), and Tom Rooney (R-Fla.) prevail in their efforts to overturn the moratorium. On November 16, 2016, eight days after an Jonathan Edwards election that was supposed to drain the swamp in Washington, they filed an amendment to modify the moratorium during a House Republican Conference meeting. Speaker Paul Ryan (R-Wis.) proposed a delay of such a vote until the first quarter of last battle of the revolution, 2017.

The issue is still outstanding. In the midst this debate, it is important to remember why the moratorium was deemed necessary. The movement gained traction because of a number of factors, including the tireless work of members of greek xxx, Congress such as Sens. Jeff Flake (R-Ariz.) and John McCain (R-Ariz.); high-profile boondoggles such as the last major of the Bridge to Nowhere; and a decade of scandals that resulted in jail terms for Reps. Randy Duke Cunningham (R-Calif.) and Bob Ney (R-Ohio), and lobbyist Jack Abramoff. The FY 2017 earmarks were again contained in a consolidated appropriations package, which presents its own challenges regarding how the taxpayers money is being spent. The Crucible Analysis? Throwing all the earmarks into of the revolution one large bill makes it more difficult to identify and eliminate the projects than if Congress adhered to regular order and considered the 12 appropriations bills individually. In FY 2017, as in each of the years following the establishment of the moratorium, there are fewer earmarks than in Jonathan Edwards Essay the peak years, but far more money was spent on average for each earmark and no detailed description was provided. For instance, legislators added 14 earmarks costing $671.5 million for the FY 2017 Army Corps of Engineers in the Energy and Water Development and last major battle american, Related Agencies Appropriations Act.

These earmarks correspond to 482 earmarks costing $541.7 million in FY 2010. In other words, the average dollar amount for the Corps of Engineers earmarks in FY 2017 was $48 million, while in FY 2010 that average was $1.1 million. The Congressionally Directed Spending section at authority, the end of the FY 2010 bill contained the names of the members of Congress requesting each project and its location, as required by the transparency rules. In stark contrast, the FY 2017 earmarks, which cost $129.8 million more than the FY 2010 projects, contained no such data and last major of the american, simply created a pool of money to be distributed at a later date without any specific information about the eventual recipients. Members of Congress will argue that their standards differ from the earmark criteria used in the Pig Book , and the crucible character, that the appropriations bills are earmark-free according to their definition. However, the difference in the definition of earmarks between CAGW and Congress has existed since the first Pig Book in 1991.

The pork-free claim can also be challenged based on the inclusion of projects that have appeared in last american past appropriations bills as earmarks. In addition to examples, meeting CAGWs long-standing seven-point criteria, to qualify for the 2017 Pig Book a project or program must have appeared in prior years as an earmark. The total number and cost of earmarks are, therefore, quite conservative. The question for those in Congress who deny the existence of earmarks in the appropriations bills is: Why were these projects previously considered earmarks, but not in 2017? Unfortunately, the earmark moratorium has not only failed to eliminate earmarks, but also has rendered the process patently less transparent. There are no names of legislators, no list or chart of earmarks, and limited information on where and how the money will be spent. Last Of The Revolution? Earmarks were scattered throughout the greek xxx legislative and report language, requiring substantial detective work to unearth each project.

While the lower number and cost of earmarks are an improvement relative to last american, many prior years, transparency and accountability have regressed immeasurably. One of the most frequently used arguments in the crucible character favor of last battle american revolution, earmarks is that they would help pass certain spending bills. In the past, however, members have voted for excessively expensive legislation because they have received a few earmarks, which means the moratorium has helped restrain spending. A return to rampant earmarking would inevitably increase the risk of authority, corruption and the potential for an explosion in expenditures compared to of the american revolution, current levels. There are also concerns regarding which legislators benefit most in a system with openly-incorporated earmarks. As Sen. Jonathan Essay? McCain explained on May 7, 2014, regarding those making the case for a return to earmarks, The problem with all their arguments is: the more powerful you are, the battle american more likely it is you get the earmark in. Therefore, it is greek xxx, a corrupt system. Earmarks create a few winners (appropriators, special interests, and lobbyists) and a great many losers (taxpayers). They contribute to the deficit directly, by tacking on extra funding, and battle revolution, indirectly, by attracting votes to costly legislation that might not otherwise pass.

Earmarks corrupt democracy by eclipsing more important matters in the minds of legislators and voters. The 25th installment of Jonathan, CAGWs expose of pork-barrel spending includes $9 million for the aquatic plant control program; $5.9 million for the East-West Center, an earmark championed by Senate Appropriations Committee member Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii); and $5 million for Save Americas Treasures grants, which in the past has supported the restoration and last battle of the revolution, operation of theatres, museums, and opera houses. The projects in to kill the 2017 Congressional Pig Book Summary symbolize the most blatant examples of battle revolution, pork. As in greek xxx previous years, all items in of the the Congressional Pig Book meet at least one of CAGWs seven criteria, but most satisfy at least two: Requested by only one chamber of Congress; Not specifically authorized; Not competitively awarded; Not requested by the crucible character the President; Greatly exceeds the Presidents budget request or the previous years funding; Not the subject of congressional hearings; or Serves only a local or special interest. Members of Congress have long used the major battle Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act to Jonathan Essay, feed at last of the, the trough, and that trend continued this year. The number of earmarks increased by 50 percent, from three in legal-rational authority FY 2016 to six in FY 2017, and the cost increased by last american revolution 47.3 percent, from legal-rational, $23.9 million in FY 2016 to $35.2 million in FY 2017. $10,000,000 for high energy cost grants within the Rural Utilities Service (RUS).

The RUS grew out last major battle american revolution, of the ophelia remnants of the last major of the Department of Agricultures Rural Electrification Administration (REA) of the 1930s. The REAs mission was to promote electrification to farmers and residents in communities where the cost of providing electricity was considered to be too expensive for local utilities. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse? By 1981, 98.7 percent electrification and last major, 95 percent telephone service coverage was achieved. Rather than declaring victory and shutting down the REA, the examples agency was transformed into the RUS, and battle of the, expanded into why is other areas. RUS high energy cost grants are intended to assist communities whose energy costs exceed 275 percent of the national average by funding the construction, installation, and repair of energy distribution facilities.

This may sound like a bright idea, but the RUS Electric Loan program is last of the revolution, intended to achieve the same objective. Ophelia Mad? Former President Obamas FY 2013 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings proposed the elimination of the high energy cost program, noting that low-interest electric loans are available through the of the american revolution RUS to residents of the areas served by the high energy cost program, which include Alaska, Hawaii, several communities in certain other states, and the crucible, U.S. Battle Of The American Revolution? territories. Since FY 2002, members of Congress have added seven earmarks for high energy cost grants totaling $123.5 million. $6,000,000 for the Delta Regional Authority (DRA), which also received a $9,064,000 earmark in the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, for Jonathan Edwards, a combined total of $15,064,000, or $2 million more than in FY 2016. The amount earmarked nearly doubled the DRAs budget request of $15.9 million for FY 2017. Established in 2000, the DRA is intended to major american, provide economic development assistance to why is, support the creation of jobs and improve local conditions for the 10 million people who reside in 252 counties and parishes throughout the Mississippi Delta states of Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. According to the Republican Study Committees FY 2016 budget, funding for battle american revolution, the DRA should be terminated because such regional commissions are duplicative of other federal programs and support mostly local projects. Support for cutting DRA funds is bipartisan, as former President Obamas FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended reducing the agencys budget by $3 million annually. President Trumps FY 2018 Major Savings and to kill a mockingbird, Reforms recommended eliminating the DRA, the Appalachian Regional Commission, the Denali Commission, and the Northern Border Regional Commission, saving $156 million. Since FY 2003, the DRA has received 10 earmarks totaling $45.9 million. The Department of Defense (DOD) has received the most earmarks at last major battle american revolution, the highest cost to taxpayers in each year since FY 1994, a trend that continued in FY 2017.

The number of earmarks in the bill rose by 59.7 percent, from 67 in FY 2016 to 107 in FY 2017. The cost of these earmarks expanded correspondingly, increasing by 57.6 percent, from $3.3 billion in greek xxx FY 2016 to $5.2 billion in FY 2017. Major? This total constitutes 76.5 percent of the $6.8 billion in earmarks contained in the 12 appropriations bills for FY 2017. $1,279,200,000 for 31 earmarks for health and disease research under the Defense Health Program, which is an 11.2 percent increase in cost over the 28 earmarks worth $1,150,800,000 in FY 2016. Former Sen. Tom Coburns (R-Okla.) November 2012 report, The Department of Everything, pointed out that the DOD disease earmarks added by Congress mean that fewer resources are available for DOD to address those specific health challenges facing members of the armed forces for which no other agencies are focused. According to authority, the report, in 2010 the Pentagon withheld more than $45 million for overhead related to earmarks, which means those funds were unavailable for national security needs or medical research specifically affecting those serving in the military.

A March 14, 2012, Washington Post article stated that DOD Comptroller Robert Hale proposed decreasing the last major battle american Pentagon health budget in part by eliminating one-time congressional adds, which he said totaled $603.6 million in FY 2012 for the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program. Since FY 1996, members of Congress have added 671 earmarks for the Defense Health Program, costing taxpayers $10.5 billion. $1,020,800,000 for four earmarks funding two planes intended to be replaced by the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): $979 million for 12 additional F/A-18 E/F Hornets for the Navy; $24.8 million for F-16 mission training center simulators; $12 million for a missile warning system for the F-16; and $5 million for gcse, anti-jamming GPS for major battle, the F-16. The Air Force declared its variant of the JSF to be combat ready in August 2016, 15 years after Lockheed Martin won the contract. However, a report released in the same month by former DOD Operational Test and Evaluation Director Michael Gilmore found that, achieving full combat capability with the Joint Strike Fighter is at substantial risk of not occurring prior to the end of development. The report described the JSF as not on a path toward success but instead on a path toward failing to deliver. In the interim, those aircraft the authority JSF is meant to replace are aging rapidly, leaving a readiness gap. During a February 7, 2017 House Armed Services Committee hearing, Vice Chief of Naval Operations Admiral William Moran claimed that the number of last major battle of the american revolution, grounded F/A-18s is double where we should be. As of February 2017, 62 percent of the planes were non-operational, and 53 percent of the greek xxx Navy's total air fleet is last of the, grounded. Beyond the litany of cost overruns and authority, delays, doubts exist as to whether the JSF will be an improvement.

Many members of Congress, including Rep. Martha McSally (R-Ariz.), who served 26 years in major of the revolution the Air Force and retired as a colonel in 2010, have questioned whether the F-35 will exceed the performance of the (far cheaper) A-10 in close-air support of why is ophelia, troops on the ground. In addition, a January 2015 simulation which pitted the JSF against the F-16 found the F-35 to be at a disadvantage in air-to-air combat, according to a leaked test pilots report. $500,000,000 for two additional JSF aircraft for both the Navy and the Marine Corps. The acquisition misadventures of the JSF program have been well-documented. Last Of The American? In development for nearly 16 years and six years behind schedule, the Edwards Essay program is battle of the american, approximately $170 billion over budget and has encountered an abundance of persistent issues. The Crucible? An April 2015 Government Accountability Office (GAO) report noted that the lifetime operation and maintenance costs of the last major battle of the american most expensive weapon system in history will total approximately $1 trillion. Many of the to kill a mockingbird problems with the F-35 program can be traced back to the decision to operate program development and procurement simultaneously. This meant that whenever problems were identified, contractors needed to go back and make changes to aircraft that were already in production. Speaking at the Aspen Security Forum on July 24, 2015, Air Force Secretary Deborah Lee James stated, The biggest lesson I have learned from the F-35 is never again should we be flying an aircraft while were building it. And Under Secretary of battle of the revolution, Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Frank Kendall referred to Jonathan, the purchase of the F-35 as acquisition malpractice in February 2014.

Remarkably, other DOD brass do not appear overly concerned. On December 19, 2016, Lieutenant General Christopher Bogdan, who heads the F-35 Program Office, claimed This program is not out of control. For this stark example of institutional bias, CAGW named Lt. Gen. Bogdan Porker of the Month for January 2017. Rather than asking pressing questions as to whether the JSF remains worthy of further commitment, members of major battle of the american revolution, Congress provided an earmark for four additional aircraft.

Since FY 2001, members of Congress have added 13 earmarks for the crucible analysis, the JSF program, costing $2.4 billion. $150,000,000 for two earmarks for the National Guard Counter-Drug Program. Formerly earmarked to individual states and last revolution, congressional districts, the program, which allows for the use of military personnel in domestic drug enforcement operations, is now funded in one bundle as a work-around to the earmark moratorium. The Drug Enforcement Administration, with a budget of $2.1 billion, is already responsible for these activities. Since FY 2001, there have been 68 earmarks costing taxpayers $642.1 million for professional examples, the National Guard Counter-Drug Program. Members of Congress who have inserted earmarks for this program in the past include longtime pork advocates such as Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), House Appropriations Committee member Harold Rogers (R-Ky.), former Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.), and the late Sens.

Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) and Ted Stevens (R-Alaska). $30,000,000 for battle revolution, the Starbase Youth Program, or $5 million more than the authority amount earmarked in each of the past three years. Starbase teaches science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) to at-risk youth in multiple locations at or near military bases around the country. Since FY 2001, 10 earmarks costing taxpayers $124 million have been added for Starbase, including an earmark worth $1.9 million in FY 2010 added by Sen. Last? Amy Klobuchar (D-Minn.) and the crucible, Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.). A March 2012 GAO annual report on program duplication, overlap, and last major revolution, fragmentation found that $3 billion was spent in FY 2010 across 13 agencies for 209 STEM programs, 83 percent of which overlapped with at least one other program. Former President Obama proposed the consolidation or elimination of 31 STEM programs in FY 2015, and a further 20 STEM programs in FY 2016.

$15,000,000 for authority, alternative energy research within the Combat Vehicle and Automotive Technology program. Since FY 2004, Congress has used the Defense Appropriations bill as a vehicle to major battle of the revolution, insert 27 earmarks worth $289.9 million for this purpose, despite the fact that the professional development for nurses examples Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act supplies billions of major revolution, dollars for alternative energy research every year. During a March 13, 2012, Senate Armed Services Committee hearing, then-Ranking Member John McCain (R-Ariz.) asserted that the character Navys efforts to develop biofuels could turn into another Solyndra situation, citing the revolution solar panel manufacturer that received a $535 million loan guarantee through the Department of Energy before filing for bankruptcy in September 2011. Jonathan Essay? According to Sen. Battle? McCain, the Navy spent in Jonathan Edwards Essay excess of $400 per gallon for last battle american revolution, approximately 20,000 gallons of algae-based biofuel. In a February 2011 hearing, House Armed Services Committee member Randy Forbes (R-Va.) fired a shot across the Navys bow, telling Navy Secretary Ray Mabus, Youre not the secretary of Jonathan Edwards Essay, Energy.

Youre the secretary of the Navy. The Energy and last major battle revolution, Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act is more flooded with pork than it was in FY 2016. The number of earmarks increased by 9.1 percent, from 22 in FY 2016 to 24 in FY 2017, while the cost surged by 40.6 percent, from authority, $704.7 million in FY 2016 to $991 million in FY 2017. $671,540,000 for 14 earmarks for the Army Corps of Engineers, a 22 percent increase in cost from the $549.6 million in last major battle revolution FY 2016. President Trumps FY 2018 Major Savings and Reforms recommended reducing the Corps of Engineers budget by $976 million.

Legislators have long treated the legal-rational Army Corps of Engineers as a prime repository of pork, and american, it is among the most heavily earmarked areas of the federal budget. Professional? Since FY 1996, members of Congress have added 6,916 earmarks for the Corps, costing taxpayers $12.8 billion. Apparently, that is not enough for members of Congress like House Appropriations Committee member Tom Rooney (R-Fla.). On May 4, 2017, he introduced H. Res. 313, which updates the definition of a congressional earmark to permit vetted projects for the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation.

While Rep. Rooney claimed in his May 4 press release that this would be good for the country, his true motivation was to obtain the ability to increase funding for two projects in his congressional district. He stated he did not want a complete repeal of the last of the american revolution earmark moratorium, but the pathology of pork is so pervasive that any change in the earmark definition would never be limited to a particular type of spending. For this hypocrisy, CAGW named Rep. Rooney Porker of the Month for May 2017. $32,000,000 for the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC), a 37.3 percent decrease from the $51 million in FY 2016.

ARC was created by Congress in 1965 to bring the greek xxx 13 Appalachian states into the mainstream of the American economy. The commission represents a partnership of federal, state, and local governments and major, covers all of West Virginia along with portions of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. ARC provides funding for several hundred highway and development projects throughout the Appalachian region. The commission is duplicative of dozens of other programs that exist at the federal, state, and local levels, and unfairly focuses on a region of the country that is no more deserving than other impoverished areas. Since FY 1995, the professional plan for nurses examples ARC has received nine earmarks totaling $253.5 million for projects in Alabama, Kentucky, and West Virginia. $9,064,000 for the Delta Regional Authority, which also received an earmark costing $6 million in the Agriculture Appropriations Act, for a combined total of $15,064,000. $9,000,000 for the aquatic plant control program, an last battle american revolution increase of 12.5 percent from the $8 million earmarked in FY 2016. Since 1994, there have been 23 earmarks worth a total of $47.1 million for aquatic plant control projects, including three by Sen. Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) and one each by Sens. Authority? Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) and Jeff Sessions (R-Ala.).

The FY 2017 version of the Financial Services and General Government Appropriations Act contained two earmarks, double the amount in FY 2016. The cost of these earmarks increased by 3.5 percent, from $56.6 million in FY 2016 to $58.6 million in FY 2017. $57,590,000 for the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas program (HIDTA) at the Office of National Drug Control Policy, an increase of 1.8 percent from the $56.6 million earmarked in FY 2016. Originally intended for Southern border states, members of Congress have used earmarks to last battle american, expand HIDTA to non-border states. Since FY 1997, 31 earmarks costing taxpayers $327.4 million have been provided for mad, HIDTA programs; 16 of the battle of the american earmarks were directed to programs in 10 states, only development for nurses examples, two of last of the american, which, Arizona and New Mexico, are on the Southern border. The other eight states that received HIDTA earmarks were Alabama, Hawaii, Iowa, Louisiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Tennessee, and legal-rational authority, Wisconsin. Former President Obamas FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended trimming the HIDTA program by $54 million, or 21.6 percent, from the $250 million spent in FY 2016.

The earmark canceled out that proposed reduction. While the number of earmarks in the FY 2017 Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Appropriations Act remained steady at seven, the cost of the earmarks decreased by 57 percent, from $329.1 million in FY 2016 to last american revolution, $141.6 million in FY 2017. This sharp reduction can be explained by the absence of earmarks for Jonathan Edwards, the Port Security Grant Program, which received $100 million in last of the american FY 2016, and development for nurses examples, the Offshore Patrol Cutter, which received a $70.5 million earmark. Members of Congress should be congratulated for reducing the cost of earmarks in the DHS bill, bucking the revolution wider trend in FY 2017. $65,000,000 for the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium (NDPC), which strives to increase the preparedness of first responders to Jonathan Edwards, the threats of terrorism. The $65 million earmarked in FY 2017 is a 16.1 percent increase over the $56 million in FY 2016. Since FY 2005, the NDPC has received seven earmarks worth $480.6 million, including a $10.1 million earmark in FY 2010 by major battle american revolution Senate appropriator Tom Udall (D-N.M.) and former Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.). $45,515,000 for the National Predisaster Mitigation Fund (NPMF). Following a one-year absence, the NPMF has returned, with a large increase. To Kill A Mockingbird Gcse? The $45.5 million earmarked in FY 2017 represents an 82 percent increase over the $25 million in FY 2015.

Former President Obamas FY 2017 Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings recommended reducing the NPMF by $46 million, nearly matching the last of the amount earmarked by Edwards Essay members of Congress. Since FY 2008, there have been 207 NPMF earmarks requested by more than 100 members of Congress, costing taxpayers $196.1 million. The number of last major revolution, earmarks in greek xxx the FY 2017 Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act increased by 166.7 percent, from three in FY 2016 to eight in FY 2017. Battle Revolution? The cost of the earmarks increased by 33.8 percent, from $29.9 million in FY 2016 to $40 million in FY 2016. $10,374,000 for the Heritage Partnership Program (HPP), which supports the 49 National Heritage Areas (NHAs) created by Congress. Operated through the National Park Service (NPS), the HPP has received 51 earmarks costing $76.5 million since FY 2001, including funding for projects such as park improvements, sports complexes, health centers, water quality monitoring, bike paths, sustainable agriculture, and agricultural tourism. Each of former President Obamas budgets from FYs 2011-2017 slashed funding for NHAs, including the FY 2017 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings, which recommended trimming the budget by 55 percent, from $20 million to $9 million.

President Trumps FY 2018 Major Savings and legal-rational, Reforms proposed an even bigger cut to $1 million, noting that there is no systematic process for designating Heritage Partnership Areas or determining their effectiveness, and that funding for the HPP diverted resources from core NPS responsibilities. Unfortunately, members of last battle american, Congress have continuously ignored these proposed budget reductions, earmarking funding for the HPP in every year since FY 2011. $5,000,000 for the Save Americas Treasures (SAT) grants program, which helps preserve historic locations across the to kill a mockingbird country. The earmark is the first for battle of the american revolution, the program since FY 2010. Since FY 2006, there have been 265 SAT earmarks costing taxpayers $55.5 million. The SAT program exemplifies how any exceptions to the earmark moratorium, such as those proposed by Rep. Tom Rooney (R-Fla.) for the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, will never be limited.

Between FYs 2008-10, when transparency rules required each earmark to contain the name of the professional plan for nurses examples legislator who requested it and the recipients name, city, and state, members of Congress went whole hog for SAT earmarks. In FY 2008, 78 members of of the, Congress added 70 earmarks costing $13.6 million. In FY 2009, 58 members of analysis, Congress added 55 earmarks costing $10 million. And in FY 2010, 72 members of Congress added 52 earmarks costing $10.2 million. During those three years, there were 21 earmarks for last major revolution, theaters costing $4.5 million; 10 earmarks for museums costing $2.4 million; and seven earmarks for greek xxx, opera houses costing $1.5 million. One of last battle of the american, those earmarks, worth $150,000, was obtained by Rep. Rosa DeLauro (D-Conn.) in professional plan for nurses FY 2010 for the Sterling Opera House in Derby, Connecticut; $110,000 of that amount had to american, be returned to the federal government after it was improperly used by the city. SAT earmarks contributed to the downfall of former House Appropriations Committee member Alan Mollohan (D-W.Va.). In FY 2010, he added $150,000 for restoration of the Cottrill Opera House through the Vandalia Heritage Foundation, which was operated by a former aide, Laura Kurtz Kuhn.

This was one of several earmarks that led to Rep. Mollohan being accused of potential ethics violations, a key issue in his primary election loss in May 2010. While the legal-rational earmarks in FYs 2008-2010 were transparent, there is no indication where the FY 2017 earmark is going. As a result, taxpayers will be unaware should a member of Congress direct the SAT money in FY 2017 to a friend, or anyone else. Former President Obama called for the elimination of the SAT program in the FY 2011 version of Cuts, Consolidations, and Savings, to allow the NPS to focus resources on managing national parks and other activities that most closely align with its core mission, since the of the american grants have not demonstrated how they contribute to nationwide historic preservation goals. On top of these problems with the SAT program, many facilities could have simply charged more money or found other ways to match the amount of the earmarks. A prime example is the $147,660 earmarked by Rep. Peter King (R-N.Y.) in FY 2008 for plan examples, the plush de Seversky Center Mansion in Old Westbury, New York, which brings together Gatsby-era opulence, modern convenience, and highly personalized service for corporate events and weddings. Wedding-spot.com calls the facility one of the premier event and major battle revolution, wedding venues in the New York area and cites the greek xxx average wedding cost at between $73,015 and last battle of the revolution, $86,737 for a ceremony reception for 150 guests. In other words, two weddings could have replaced the earmark. Another such facility is the Roberson Center in legal-rational authority Binghamton, N.Y., located in the district of former House appropriator Maurice Hinchey (D-N.Y.), which received a $100,000 earmark in battle revolution FY 2006.

The center raised $50,000 for its 12th annual Wine and Food Fest in 2017, and Jonathan Edwards Essay, charges $215 per last battle of the american revolution week for summer camp, which means just 23 more attendees per week for the 10 weeks of camp would equal the remaining $50,000 of the earmark. Members of Congress should Save Americas Taxpayers by eliminating this earmark. VII. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education (Labor/HHS) For the second consecutive year, the FY 2017 Labor/HHS Appropriations Act experienced a significant drop in greek xxx earmarks. The number of projects in the bill decreased by 55.6 percent, from nine in FY 2016 to four in FY 2017, while the major of the cost was reduced by 77.8 percent, from $252.6 million in FY 2016 to $56.2 million in FY 2017. This total represents a 90 percent decline in cost from the $562.5 million earmarked in FY 2015. $17,409,000 for Rural Hospital Flexibility Grants (Flex) through the Department of Health and Human Services, a 13 percent increase from the $15.4 million earmarked in to kill FY 2016. Major Battle Of The American? Flex grants were created to improve access to hospitals and other health services for families that live in rural communities. The last six Obama administration budgets recommended slashing funding for the Flex program, including by $16 million in FY 2017. In each instance, legislators restored a similar amount of Jonathan Essay, funding via an earmark.

Since FY 2006, Flex grants have received six earmarks totaling $141.7 million. VIII. State and Foreign Operations. The number of earmarks in the FY 2017 State and Foreign Operations Appropriations Act dropped by 20 percent, from five in FY 2016 to four in FY 2017. The cost of the earmarks decreased by 4.1 percent, from $232.4 million in FY 2016 to $222.8 million in FY 2017. $66,500,000 for the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), a private, nonprofit foundation that aims to help grow and strengthen democratic institutions around the world. Major Of The American? Since FY 1997, NED has received seven earmarks worth a total of $279.2 million. $5,900,000 for the crucible character, the East-West Center in last major battle of the american revolution Hawaii.

Intended to promote better relations with Pacific and Asian nations, the to kill a mockingbird gcse center was established by Congress in 1960 with no congressional hearings and over the State Departments opposition. For years, the State Department tried to eliminate the center by not requesting funding in the departments annual budget requests. After Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-Hawaii) passed away in major battle american 2013, Senate Appropriations Committee member Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) took over as the centers champion. In a May 1, 2017, press release, Sen. Professional Plan For Nurses? Schatz claimed credit for securing funding at a level $5.9 million above the administrations request. The East-West Center is similar to the North-South Center, which stopped receiving federal funding in 2001. An April 3, 2009, Congressional Research Service report stated, Congress has not funded the North-South Center since FY 2001, noting that it should be funded by the private sector. Following that logic, the East-West Center should be funded by the private sector as well. It probably would be, except the battle of the center is located in the state of a Senate appropriator. Since FY 1997, the East-West Center has received 14 earmarks totaling $138.2 million. $5,000,000 for plan examples, the Asia Foundation, which is committed to improving lives across a dynamic and developing Asia. Since FY 1997, members of Congress have directed 11 earmarks totaling $64.6 million to the Asia Foundation.

The Asia Foundation has a $100 million annual budget, which means the earmark represents 5 percent of its income. Major Battle Of The? The organization had 500 donors between October 1, 2015, and September 30, 2016, composed of 80 corporations and organizations, 37 government agencies, and 383 individuals. Clearly, it is capable of Jonathan Edwards, raising another $5 million to replace the earmark. Just like the North-South Center did in last major 2001 and a mockingbird, the East-West Center should do now, the Asia Foundation should rely solely on private sources of funding and the earmarks should come to an end. IX.

Transportation Housing and Urban Development (THUD) The number of earmarks in the FY 2017 THUD and Related Agencies Appropriations Act decreased by 50 percent, from two in FY 2016 to one in FY 2017. The cost dropped by 72.7 percent, from $8.8 million in FY 2016 to $2.4 million in FY 2017. $2,387,000 for advanced materials and structural safety within the Airport and american, Airways Trust Fund (AATF), through which the Federal Aviation Administration finances infrastructure improvements for airports. According to a November 21, 2016 Cato Institute report, the AATF has the indirect effect of preventing competition among airlines at airports. Because the AATF allows for only limited funding for maintenance and improvements, airports are limited in why is mad the number of gates they can build.

As a result, airport managers ration gate access through long-term contracts with established companies, creating a barrier to entry for potential competitors. In contrast, according to a 2016 Airport Council International report, market-based reforms in of the European airports have led to greek xxx, significant volumes of investment in necessary infrastructure, higher service quality levels, and a commercial acumen which allows airport operators to diversify revenue streams and minimize the costs that users have to pay. Because privatized European airports are not forced to compete with inefficient government-subsidized airport ownership, healthy competition thrives and consumers pay lower prices. This report was written by Sean Kennedy, Director of battle american, Research, and Curtis Kalin, Director of Edwards, Communications. It was edited by last revolution Thomas A. Schatz, President. CAGW Names Rep. Rodney Frelinghuysen September 2017 Porker of the Month.

Rep. Frelinghuysen is CAGW's September Porker of the Month for earmarking $900 million for a massive transportation boondoggle.