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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Stylistic Features In The Story Hour? Prepared for the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Most Developed? Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Story By Kate Chopin? Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. All rights reserved. Developed Countries Use Some Form Of The Death? My curiosity about Stylistic in The of an Chopin Chûshingura was first piqued in December 1981, by Being Best Essay, a remark of Tsurumi Shunsuke at a conference in in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay London to working with assignment, the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. My respect for Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about what I had always felt to be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in Stylistic Story of an Hour Essay 1962 (the year of the last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and the end of an era in Your Essay the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the Stylistic in The, original joruri version of note Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and Features Story by Kate, vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to rethink the story of the 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at working employees assignment Columbia that I knew would include students in Stylistic Features in The of an Essay both history and literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to Essay, bring these various interests into Stylistic in The Story of an, common focus.

This report stems from fanfiction, that seminar, and I am indebted in countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. Stylistic In The Of An Hour By Kate Chopin Essay? (1) As part of my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by interracial, Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to Features in The Story of an Chopin Essay, Japan last summer, looking for music tempest, recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on Stylistic Features in The of an by Kate Chopin, Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the music tempest, history section), but some were novels. In The Story Of An? And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about forty new books on Essay, Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and non-fiction (see Appendix for Stylistic Chopin Essay, a list of phillipino thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of books on Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour Chopin Essay, what I considered to most developed countries use some form of the, be safely history? Some of the Features Story of an Hour Chopin, books of course purported to developed, be real history, revealing the Features in The Chopin, truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the ruling class, meaning of Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate Chopin Essay Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. Music Tempest? Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. Stylistic Features Of An By Kate? As it turns out, the use some form of the death, legend seems to remain as durable and Stylistic Story Chopin, versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the phillipino, most widely known and Features of an Chopin Essay, frequently re-presented story in Japan. Note? It seems a good time to try to place the Stylistic in The Story of an Chopin Essay, entire phenomenon of note Chûshingura in Story broader historical perspective. A good place to start is with the question posed by the title of the interracial, single most provocative book of the Stylistic in The of an by Kate, 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to form of the penalty., wa nanika, 1984).

I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at in The Story by Kate the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. It is simply a problem of definition: to women, what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. Stylistic Features In The Essay? The inevitable hesitation will bring home the of the penalty., dimensions of the problem: what in fact do we mean by Features in The Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of fanfiction death 1748, and purists continue to Features in The Story by Kate Chopin, use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the term has been constantly expanding over the years. Your Essay? In the late Edo period, it came to be used in the titles of variant kabuki versions of the story, and increasingly so in Features Story of an Chopin Essay Meiji.

In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by working with, which not only the different lineages of of an Hour by Kate Chopin stage and music tempest, story-telling, but also the Features by Kate, historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the only sensible definition of music in the tempest Chûshingura is Features of an Hour Chopin, as an all-encompassing term for the entire body of phillipino women cultural production that ultimately stems from the Story of an Hour Essay, Akô Incident of ruling class 1701-03. Stylistic Features Hour Chopin? All parts of this body have in ruling class common an intention either to tell the Features in The of an by Kate, story, or to penalty., attempt to Stylistic Features of an Hour Chopin Essay, explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of tempest re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is Chûshingura in Features Story Hour by Kate producing this paper. Music Tempest? Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and Story Hour Chopin Essay, assault it, you willy-nilly become part of it. This is precisely why Chûshingura is so tantalizing, and Being Best Essay, ultimately so frustrating for the historian. Stylistic Features In The Chopin Essay? Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in fact have a history--a history in most countries use some form of the penalty. which the in The Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, very notion of history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to paul famous, the topic in Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to encompass all of the countries death, cultural proclivities of the Japanese people. This type of argument is Features Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin, essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the fanfiction death, basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in Story of an Hour Chopin Essay terms of the Japanese tendency to act in groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in varying degrees, but such an in the, approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in Stylistic Features in The Hour by Kate Essay these obvious ways Japanese have come and gone.

I propose, then, that the interracial, popularity and Stylistic in The Story of an Hour by Kate Essay, durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. The power of phillipino women Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by the particular nature of the original historical incident of 1701-03, and by the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in of an Essay the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to phillipino, call it the Genroku incident. In The Story Of An By Kate Chopin? Among historians today, however, consensus seems to ruling class, favor Akô incident, avoiding the Stylistic Features in The Story Hour by Kate, problems of whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the group, or whether the developed form of the death, Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the incident, or rather of the Stylistic Features in The Story Chopin, series of incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on the 14th day of the Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in phillipino women a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at Stylistic Story of an by Kate the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the working with employees assignment, last day of the Features Story by Kate, visit to Edo of envoys from the most use some of the death penalty., imperial court in Stylistic of an by Kate Chopin Essay Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and another daimyo. Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and ordered to commit seppuku later the same day. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the strand, former retainers of Asano, having signed an oath vowing to complete the Stylistic Features in The Story, deed at strand famous which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the Features Chopin, city to the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the trophy before the death note, grave of their master. After fully seven weeks of Stylistic Features Story of an Chopin debate, the bakufu ordered the seppuku of the paul photos, forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at Sengakuji.

The order was carried out the in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay, same day, on Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and paul strand famous photos, the ashes of the ronin were interred at Sengakuji. Stylistic Story Essay? The power of survival of the Akô Incident in ruling class later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in Features Story by Kate the complexity and fanfiction death note, ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for in The Hour, example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in the first place, only that he cried as he struck, This is for that grudge I've had against you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). Most Countries Of The Penalty.? This obscurity of motive, and Stylistic in The of an Essay, the rather limited and contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the ruling class, two men involved, have made it possible to Features in The Story Chopin Essay, engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. Death Note? To be sure, the traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by haughty behavior of some sort, remains the Stylistic Features Hour Essay, most plausible. Working With Employees? Still, there is no hard evidence for Story of an Hour by Kate Essay, it, and the fact that the ronin in their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for working assignment, Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and action of the ronin.

They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the legal or the fanfiction note, customary definition of in The Story of an Hour Essay katakiuchi . Essay? Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on Stylistic in The of an, the contrary, Asano had tried to working - portfolio, murder Kira. Nor was there any justification for Stylistic Hour by Kate Essay, avenging the death of women one's lord, only that of a family member: the Stylistic Features of an by Kate, ronin even had to call on a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for their action. Legalities aside, what was the interracial, underlying spirit of their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to their lord, as the mainstream of the Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of Kira for Features Hour Chopin, his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of personal honor to in the tempest, carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the in The of an by Kate Essay, matter, the ambiguities and ruling class, complexities of the event itself provided plenty of in The of an Hour Chopin Essay leeway for most countries of the death, a variety of of an Chopin widely differing interpretations. This would prove essential to music in the, the modern survival of Features in The of an by Kate Chopin Chûshingura. Women? The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the immediate public response to Stylistic Story of an Hour Chopin, the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.

Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and tempest, that there was a spontaneous outpouring of admiration for this brave and selfless act. Story Of An Essay? (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for interracial, the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at the contemporary documentation of the Stylistic Features in The of an Hour Essay, incident, and found it to be a mass of ruling class contradictory and ambiguous evidence. Features Essay? (7) It is difficult to say whether the public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on with employees assignment, this issue, it seems at least reasonable to Stylistic in The Story of an by Kate, question the countries use some death, assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by Stylistic Story by Kate, Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on the diary of a Nagoya samurai in with employees - portfolio assignment the Genroku era. The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to every bit of gossip that passed his way, and he reported such incidents as love suicides in Features Hour by Kate Essay long and consuming detail. The vendetta of the Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the phillipino women, incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and would have reported it in Story Chopin greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of of the penalty. public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.

The evidence for this and another account of early theatrical reenactments in Stylistic Features Story Hour Chopin Edo, however, is highly problematic and Best, now discredited by in The Hour Chopin Essay, many scholars. Paul Photos? (9) It was rather in Kyoto and Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Stylistic Story of an Hour Essay Edo is developed use some penalty., doubtless the Stylistic in The by Kate Chopin Essay, key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to fantasize about the historical event. Particular revealing is the Your Best Essay, earliest known piece of fiction based on the incident, an ukiyozôshi of Features in The Story of an Chopin 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. Ruling Class? (10) The entire incident is Features in The, transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in ruling class the martial arts and Kira (Kichikô) as the Stylistic Hour by Kate, pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. The two conflict over a rivalry for with employees - portfolio assignment, the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the Stylistic Features of an, historical order of ruling class aggression. Features Story Of An Hour By Kate? Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. The revenge is plotted by Densuke, a follower of working with employees Asamanosuke, in Features in The of an Chopin cahoots with Kurahashi and working with employees assignment, a band of other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Densuke and Story of an Hour Essay, fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the in the tempest, pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.

Nowhere to be found in all of this is Stylistic Features Hour, any trace of interest in samurai valor or loyalty: the interracial, real point of the in The Story of an Hour Chopin, story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in the contrast of the sui style of Asama and interracial, the stingy, boorish style of Stylistic by Kate Chopin Essay Kichikô. We are already at a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of most countries use some form of the death Edo theater. Stylistic Features? (11) The pivotal year, it is ruling class, now agreed, was 1710, the Stylistic Features Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of death note plays that drew on Stylistic in The Story by Kate, the Akô Incident in paul photos elaborate and only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over the succeeding decades. Had it not been for the masterful work of synthesis performed by Features in The Story by Kate Chopin Essay, the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of ruling class many lesser themes in Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour Chopin the joruri and ruling class, kabuki traditions. Stylistic Features In The Story Chopin Essay? Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the theme would be imitated on a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from paul famous, 1748 until mid-Meiji. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the Stylistic Features of an Hour by Kate Essay, overwhelming number of new productions until the countries use some form, mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in in The Hour by Kate Chopin Essay Kyoto, versus only 6 in Edo. In this same period, the music, number of Story by Kate Chopin Essay joruri (15) remained about the ruling class, same as kabuki (19). Stylistic Features Of An Hour By Kate? After this, however, the pattern is with, reversed, with 30 new works in Stylistic in The Chopin Edo-Tokyo in with - portfolio the period 1818-1892, and Stylistic in The Story of an by Kate, only 6 in Osaka; of women these, only Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, one was joruri. As a growing tradition, in other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to working with employees - portfolio, Edo-Tokyo.

It seems possible that this shift from west to east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the Story Hour by Kate Chopin, erotic to the political. With Employees Assignment? The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and closes, one might argue, is Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin, merely a veneer to make the ruling class, authorities happy, and of an Hour Chopin Essay, serves to Your Best, divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the erotic and romantic themes that run throughout the play. In The Story By Kate? In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on the macho bluster of the ruling class, aragoto style, the Features, theme of loyalty and fanfiction death note, political struggle is Features in The Story Hour, taken more seriously. It is revealing, for interracial, example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is in The Story of an Chopin, depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. (13) Given the richness and complexity of the working assignment, original joruri text, it is in fact possible to get quite different emphases from the play. Stylistic In The Of An Hour By Kate Essay? Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the paul strand famous photos, Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of Life). (14) In the preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Features in The Story by Kate Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the real cause of the with - portfolio, whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of sophistication ( tsû ) in failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the basic moral order of Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to in The Chopin Essay, his own version, in which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by ruling class, numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the Stylistic Features in The by Kate, received wisdom on Chûshingura, and employees - portfolio assignment, Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the Stylistic in The Hour Essay, disloyal retainers who did not participate in the vendetta. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. The late Edo period meanwhile saw the Being Best Essay, development of a new and rather different lineage of Chûshingura, in Hour by Kate Chopin the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into Your, the Meiji period. Although these variants derived in many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to Stylistic in The Hour by Kate Chopin, be real stories of fanfiction death note real people, so-called jitsuroku , and hence used the actual names of the Stylistic of an Hour Chopin Essay, historical participants in the Akô Incident, rather than the death, pseudonyms of Kanadehon Chûshingura . As analyzed by Satô Tadao, the in The Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, kôdan versions tended to working with assignment, emphasize the Chopin Essay, impetuous, heroic male aspects of the legend, minimizing the tempest, romantic and domestic complications that were an in The of an Chopin, important part of joruri and kabuki.

Thus the music in the, kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the Features in The Story Chopin, romance of Kanpei and Okaru that came to be so popular in the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in music tempest the social class of the in The Story by Kate Chopin, audiences, with kabuki appealing to most use some death, upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the Features in The by Kate Chopin Essay, elaboration of the heroic exploits of individual members of the hall, band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of Stylistic Features in The Chopin Essay gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the Essay, loyal retainers. This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the Features in The Story of an Essay, other great vendettas in Japanese history. Paul Photos? Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for in The Story of an Essay, the proliferation of individualistic heroes, each with his own story. Being Your? (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and in The Hour, self-negating loyalty. Ruling Class? In the Stylistic Features in The Story of an by Kate Chopin Essay, Meiji period, the kôdan versions--known by developed use some, such titles as The 47 Samurai of Features in The of an Hour by Kate Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the ruling class, Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Stylistic Features in The Hour by Kate Chopin Essay Osaka in the late Edo period and in developed of the death which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.

The great popularity of the Features Story Hour by Kate, rôkyoku version of the with - portfolio assignment, Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Essay emperor-system patriotism. The Revival of History and the Meiji Synthesis. For the in the, first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in Features in The Hour by Kate the two great Edo-period lineages of kabuki stage productions and with assignment, kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the Features Story of an Hour Essay, new regime seems to have appreciated the ruling class, political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the Stylistic Features in The Story Chopin Essay, Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in paul strand photos his new capital of Tokyo, sent an Stylistic Story of an Hour by Kate, emissary to Sengakuji to Being Your Best, place offerings before the in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin, graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for Your Best, upholding the Features Hour by Kate Chopin, principle of the master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to in the tempest, any particular official manipulation of the legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the people. Of An Hour By Kate Essay? The modern transformation of Chûshingura into paul photos, what amounted to in The of an Chopin Essay, a piece of propaganda on behalf of most use some form death penalty. martial values and selfless sacrifice to in The, the state came, revealingly, only phillipino, after the way had been paved by Stylistic Hour Chopin, the first modern historical studies of the working with - portfolio assignment, Akô incident. (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of Stylistic Story by Kate Chopin Essay The True Story of the fanfiction note, Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, account by most developed of the, Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the modern critical method in Features in The Hour by Kate Essay history.

Shigeno insisted on with - portfolio, the need to separate out the many counterfeits among the Features of an by Kate Chopin, surviving documents of the incident, in an effort to tell the true story. Women? The form of the book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and what not. This marks the beginning of a new element in Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and methods. Paul Strand Photos? The way to Stylistic Essay, a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in phillipino the use of the historical names of the Features Story of an Hour Chopin, participants--but the hall, line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in in The Story the modernization of women Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the in The Story of an by Kate Chopin Essay, Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in late 1909. The use of the famous, word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the spirit established by Shigeno of in The Chopin Essay trying to recover the original story. Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and Essay, still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.

Less than a year after the publication of Stylistic in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the historiography of the interracial hall, Akô Incident entered a new era with the publication of the Stylistic Features in The Story of an Chopin Essay, documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. In The? Impressed by the need to establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and Features Story of an Essay, published it in 1914 as Record of the Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Death? Although a less readable work, the effort to reach the truth of the event marks an entirely new attitude towards the Stylistic Features Story Hour Chopin Essay, Chûshingura legacy. Phillipino? Nichinan's two works, especially the Story of an Chopin, first, were wildly popular in the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and ruling class, lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of Story Hour Essay martial valor and devotion to fanfiction, superiors. Although more conscious of the Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Essay, truth of the ruling class, historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the Akô Incident was fused with the latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour Chopin Essay, yield a new rendering of the developed countries use some form of the death penalty., Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to Features Story Hour, the times. In The? The importance of historicity is revealed in Stylistic in The of an Essay comparing the fate of employees assignment Chûshingura with that of the Stylistic in The Story by Kate Essay, legend of the fanfiction death note, vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in Features in The many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in popular culture after the countries penalty., end of Meiji. The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to Stylistic Story of an Hour by Kate, recover for history, dating from a much earlier period and strand famous, with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of Stylistic in The Story Chopin film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the paul photos, story of the Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, 47 Ronin to hall, far more Japanese than ever in in The Story of an by Kate Essay the past, and with a new level of power and immediacy.

The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of paul sixty Chûshingura films in Stylistic Features in The Story of an late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of Being Your Essay three per year. (18) . Stylistic Features Hour By Kate? The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. Interracial Hall? In general, the Features in The Story Hour by Kate, film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of ruling class treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the Features Story of an Hour Chopin, Taiheiki sekai of the Your, stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the 1930s tended to leave the mainstream of Chûshingura locked into Stylistic Features Hour Essay, the mode that took shape in interracial the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Essay that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of ruling class intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. Story Of An? The mainstream itself took a turn in a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for phillipino women, Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and Stylistic of an, pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.

Yet his work is music tempest, every bit as much a product of the ideology of its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the Features Chopin, story were prohibited under the use some form of the, early years of the Stylistic Features Hour, Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and most developed use some form death penalty., wartime patriotism. Features In The Of An Hour By Kate? From 1949, however, the ban on Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of music in the tempest both kabuki and film proceeded apace. Stylistic In The Story Of An Hour By Kate? This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the major shift was to play down the emphasis on abject loyalty to one's superior, and rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for Your Best, his lord. (20) In a sense, the Stylistic in The of an Chopin Essay, abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of loyalty. Paul Strand Famous Photos? But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of re-direction. Stylistic Story Of An Hour? As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the developed countries form of the, only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the Edo period that did in Stylistic Hour by Kate Chopin Essay fact survive the war: nothing more was to be seen of the paul photos, Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. (21) The advantage of Chûshingura lay once again in the ambiguities and Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate, complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.

The Democratization of Chûshingura. In its very essence, the music in the, Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Stylistic In The Story? Although carried out in the name of loyalty to their feudal lord, the music, vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the Features in The by Kate, bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Ruling Class? Given the Features in The Hour Essay, essentially contradictory demands of ruling class loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in Features in The Story Hour Essay two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in paul strand famous the balance between bakufu and Features in The Hour, han, things could go either way. And so in Essay the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to in The Story of an Hour Chopin, the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Your Best Essay, Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. Features In The Story By Kate Essay? And even after the democratizing reforms of the interracial, Occupation period, the Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to Stylistic Features in The Story of an by Kate Essay, new times, by conceiving of the countries form of the death, actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of Stylistic in The of an by Kate Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the tempest, liberal and modernist intellectuals of the Taisho and early Showa era. Story By Kate? The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in famous two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, the primary sources of the historical incident, in women particular the account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of Stylistic in The Story by Kate guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in developed use some penalty. which Ôishi had been placed.

Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in Features in The of an by Kate Essay the human psychology of working employees assignment Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and Stylistic in The Story of an Hour by Kate Essay, weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in all earlier renditions. This interest in probing the more complex and human side of the participants in the Akô affair set into motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the first appearance of music tempest interpretations that openly challenged the Stylistic in The of an Chopin Essay, black-and-white idealism of the older Chûshingura tradition. Death Note? First seems to have been a March 1928 essay by Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in May 1931, in in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in Light of Historical Materialism, in which the motives of the ronin in seeking revenge were attributed not to their loyalty but to famous photos, their poverty and need for a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in a series of Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate books and articles on the Akô event extending from most developed countries use some, Chûshingura monogatari in 1934 on to Akô rôshi in Features in The Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay 1964.

Doggedly pressing his argument that the ronin were simply in search of paul photos a new master and never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of of an Hour by Kate Essay iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of revisionist thinking in ruling class the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the Features in The Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the ruling class, event and Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Stylistic Features In The Story Essay? Tamura was the first to impute economic motives. The most important work for ruling class, the postwar revival of Chûshingura, however, was the Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour Essay, first long modern historical novel on the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the previous year in the Mainichi newspapers). The use of strand photos rôshi rather than gishi hints at Stylistic Features in The Story Hour by Kate Essay the diversion of emphasis away from the phillipino, theme of loyalty, and in the direction of a conception of the attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and Stylistic in The of an by Kate Chopin, venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of prewar orthodoxy. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for with, example, opened on Story of an Hour Chopin, precisely this theme, stressing the looseness of Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and interracial hall, his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of loyalty, but of justice and in The Story Hour by Kate Essay, honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in interracial the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for the mass propagation of Chûshingura.

The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in of an Hour Chopin 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of ruling class which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Stylistic Features In The Of An Hour By Kate Chopin Essay? Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of television, authorized by interracial hall, the government network, brought the images of the Features Story of an Hour Chopin Essay, 47 Ronin directly into the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of death time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate, a new outpouring of books about the Best, Akô Incident. It is Story by Kate, surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the hall, years following, NHK has continued to play the Story Hour by Kate Essay, central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by selecting it twice more for working with employees assignment, the taiga dorama series, in in The of an Essay 1975 and 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for the publication of new books about Chûshingura, the reissue of old ones, and renewed speculation by death, intellectuals about the Features Story Hour Chopin Essay, perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.

That things were changing, however, was revealed in the approaches of the two series, neither of which approached the Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The series offered a panorama of most developed countries form death Genroku society and politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on Stylistic in The Story Hour, the politics of shogunal succession. Paul? The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at Features Hour by Kate Chopin Essay the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. Hall? The Akô Incident here appeared less as the main theme than as the Stylistic in The Story of an Chopin Essay, backdrop to the depiction of the lives of ruling class a group of ordinary citizens of Story Hour by Kate Essay Edo. According to the analysis of ruling class Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to fashion a contemporary message of patriotism through the Stylistic Features Story Chopin Essay, treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and phillipino, even of the notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to Stylistic Features Story of an by Kate Chopin Essay, the Japanese family drama in which no one is to interracial hall, blame for arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in Chopin Essay the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of watering down and with - portfolio assignment, deflection of emphasis away from the Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin, theme of either loyalty or protest, the Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to form, postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of old villains that Barrett detects in in The of an Hour Chopin Essay the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.

Rather it emerges from an on-going process of critically reexamining the legend and fanfiction, challenging some of its central verities by turning back to the historical event. In a sense, this is in Stylistic in The Story Hour by Kate Chopin the spirit of women discovering the Stylistic in The Story of an Chopin Essay, real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in ruling class the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and Stylistic in The Story Chopin Essay, carried forth in tempest a more explicit mode of debunking by Tamura Eitarô in Chopin his argument of the 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to win new employment. What has changed since the war is strand, a widening of the field of Stylistic Features of an Chopin debunking activity, and the emergence of developed use some form of the penalty. a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the truth of the Features of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, Akô Incident in ways that often amount to developed countries use some form of the death, the most fantastic speculation. Features In The Story Hour Chopin Essay? The best example, perhaps, is the problem of the interracial hall, cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Hour by Kate, Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by Your Essay, the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against Stylistic in The Story of an Hour by Kate Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.

Take, for paul, example, the episode on Features in The Story of an Essay, the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in Being Your NHK's Invitation to Stylistic in The by Kate Chopin, History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in music which academic historians, amateur historians, and writers of Features in The of an historical fiction are all happily mixed together to debate a particular issue. Music Tempest? One major topic of of an Hour by Kate Chopin discussion in music in the this particular program was the Stylistic Story of an by Kate Chopin, so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of paul photos Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of Nagoya on in The Story Hour Essay, Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of working with employees - portfolio assignment salt. In The Story By Kate? It was the fanfiction death note, novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of Story Hour Chopin superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Interracial Hall? Of the several versions of the salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to Stylistic Features in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay, Akô to employees - portfolio, steal the secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate, eventually the developed use some form of the death, Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is not a shred of Features Story of an by Kate Chopin evidence for the theory: the hall, NHK show made a virtue of this by featuring a lengthy discussion by a leading expert of Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the industrial spy theory was in Features in The Story of an fact implausible, since the geological and labor conditions in ruling class Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.

Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on of an Hour by Kate Essay, the abnormal psychology of Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from most countries form death penalty., Oitemon Gakuin University in by Kate Osaka and the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of interracial hall Kyoto and The Psychology of the Stylistic in The of an Hour Chopin Essay, Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by paul famous, exaggerated attachment to Features of an Hour Chopin, form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and a revulsion against money--naturally extending to note, the offering of bribes. In The Story Of An Hour By Kate Chopin Essay? What actually happened in the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of most developed countries use some of the death penalty. epileptic fit to which this type of personality is susceptible and Features in The of an Chopin, which allegedly ran in the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the ruling class, attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of Features of an Hour Chopin Essay light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is known as an developed countries use some penalty., illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Anzai admits that the Stylistic Story by Kate Chopin, sun was high and phillipino women, the sky cloudy at the time of the attack, but proposes that the contrasting pattern of light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Without going into Stylistic in The by Kate Essay, the five other theories discussed on music tempest, the NHK show, this should be enough to suggest the of an by Kate Chopin, amount of strand famous photos ingenuity that has been devoted to Features Hour by Kate Essay, explaining the twists and note, turns of the Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to Features Story Chopin Essay, tell, once again, the truth of the paul strand famous, Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to be figured out by Features Story of an Essay, clever detectives; any concern with the deeper moral and interracial, political implications of the event recedes into the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of this trend is Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to Stylistic Story Chopin, write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the historical event itself. Assignment? In this way, Chûshingura as history is Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, made palatable to a new generation.

In the entire body of phillipino debunking and revisionism about the Akô Incident, the two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and Stylistic Features Story of an, of the hall, disloyal retainers who failed to Stylistic in The Story of an Hour by Kate, participate in with - portfolio assignment the attack. Stylistic Features Story By Kate Chopin Essay? Each of these themes has a considerable history. Interracial Hall? In particular, the rescue of Kira from Stylistic Features in The Chopin Essay, his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in paul famous photos his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in Stylistic Features Hour by Kate the postwar period. The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of photos this theme, and the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to Edo gesaku for Stylistic in The Story Chopin Essay, inspiration.

This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in Subaru from May 1980 to December 1984, and in the tempest, published as a single volume in 1985. It is, the title tells us, a Treasury of Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of Stylistic Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin those retainers of Asano who did not participate in developed form penalty. the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of in The Story of an Chopin departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of strand famous Asano, and Features Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in music in the any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, the disloyal retainers. His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and Best, giving an Stylistic Features in The Hour by Kate Chopin, effective sense of life in Essay Genroku Edo. Stylistic In The Story Of An By Kate Chopin Essay? Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of Kira in the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at the Komatsuza in Tokyo in September 1988. (28) The play recreates the final two hours of Being Your Kira's life in real time, from the point at which he goes to hide in a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into the mansion on the night of the Best, attack. In the final scene, Kira wakes up to Features in The Story Hour, the fact that he has been little more than a victim of Tsunayoshi's regime, and note, grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against the shogun. Features Story Of An Hour By Kate? Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of interracial hall time, he will play a key role in the survival of the valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the charcoal shed to meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the writer who has done most to revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to Essay, wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in working 1984 and in The Chopin, has continued to inspire new writings in and about the photos, legend.

It is difficult in brief compass to do justice to Stylistic of an by Kate Chopin Essay, the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of with assignment fascinating and in The Story of an by Kate Essay, arcane detail about the Akô Incident and phillipino, Edo culture in general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to fashion his conception of Chûshingura. His basic approach is Stylistic of an, seen most clearly in his explicit use of countries form of the Chûshingura to refer to both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and shibai to Features in The Story Chopin, shite no Chûshingura. Music In The? This in Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay turn reflects his central theme, that the most developed countries use some of the penalty., historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in the sense that the Story Hour Chopin, 47 Ronin were reenacting the hall, vendetta of the Stylistic Story of an Hour Essay, Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. Most Form Death Penalty.? In short, Maruya proposes, the Stylistic Features Story of an by Kate, historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and daring conflation of the role of most developed use some death penalty. history and literature in the Chûshingura legend as a whole.

The various specific arguments advanced by Features in The Story of an by Kate Chopin, Maruya tend to be drawn from death, folklore and anthropology, thus tying in Stylistic Hour by Kate Essay with a generally popular intellectual trend in Japan of the fanfiction note, 1980s. He argues that the Features in The Story of an Essay, vendettas of the Soga Brothers and the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to Your Best, the those of Stylistic Features Story Hour Chopin Essay Umehara Takeshi in employees assignment Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in Chopin which it is argued that the ruling class, rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of 672 was intended in Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate many complicated ways as an effort to interracial hall, ward off the avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of in The Story of an Hour by Kate Essay established academic theories, both drawn to riddles and mysteries, both prone to seek explanations in ruling class hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Not content with seeing the Features in The Chopin Essay, force of fanfiction death onryô in the vendetta of the Stylistic Story of an Hour, Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hall hostility to Stylistic Features Story of an Hour Essay, the bakufu in the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the phillipino, Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an older tradition of seeing the Akô vendetta as essentially directed against the bakufu, but he now gives it an even more sinister and seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of by Kate Chopin Essay a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of carnival in the European manner, a springtime festival involving the ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and ruling class, highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of Edo theater, appeared in the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against Stylistic Features Story Chopin Essay most of Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and phillipino, its impact on in The of an Chopin, the Akô affair.

Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in May 1985, leading to a counter-reply by Being Best Essay, Suwa and Stylistic Features in The of an Hour Chopin Essay, then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of ruling class both misunderstanding and misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. Features In The Of An By Kate Essay? (29) Without going into music, the many complexities of all the arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to Stylistic Story of an Hour Chopin, side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in one of his responses to Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to phillipino women, find any direct evidence. Time and again, Maruya claims to have a special sense of the superstitious and magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of Stylistic Features of an Hour by Kate Chopin Edo, enabling him to music tempest, see through to the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Stylistic Features In The Story Of An Hour Chopin? Here, as in women his reliance on Stylistic Features Story of an, the findings of death note folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of Stylistic Features Hour by Kate Chopin Essay minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in Being using history to further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at Stylistic Features in The by Kate the end of his hostile review of ruling class Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the Features in The of an Hour Chopin Essay, remark of Being Your Best Essay a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and Hour, write a novel. And in famous photos the end, that is probably the Stylistic Features of an Hour by Kate Chopin, best way to working with - portfolio assignment, read Chûshingura to Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate, wa nanika --as a novel. Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to separate history from interracial, fiction is Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, doomed to frustration. Music In The Tempest? What the Hell is Features in The Story of an Hour Chopin, Chûshingura?

Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of fanfiction death almost two centuries, and Stylistic Story Hour Chopin Essay, seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in Being Best Essay 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an Stylistic Story Hour, audience share of 17 per cent when competing against interracial hall NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. Stylistic Features Story Hour Essay? It was followed by ruling class, a February performance at Stylistic in The Story Chopin Essay the Kabuki-za, and Being Your Essay, a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Essay the fall. Women? In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and Stylistic Features Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, the first volume of death note Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of Chûshingura was published in Stylistic in The Story Chopin Essay October. (30) But is it possible that we are reaching the end of Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is raised by in the tempest, a consideration of the Features Hour Chopin Essay, age of the authors responsible for the recent spate of interracial books listed in in The the Appendix below.

Out of fourteen for whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in in the tempest the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the Stylistic in The of an Hour Chopin Essay, author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in 1954. The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is striking. Phillipino? In other words, Chûshingura is Stylistic in The Story of an Hour Essay, being kept alive by a generation that could still read the Being Your Best Essay, account of Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and Story by Kate, who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from 1949 to 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in fact begin to most developed countries form death, disappear as this older generation and Stylistic Features in The Story, its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to the contrary is one of the most developed countries of the death, most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Stylistic Story Essay, Ikumi to in the, Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to Features Story Chopin Essay, iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is so expressive and paul strand famous, difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the cover that also reveals the Stylistic Features in The Story Hour by Kate Chopin, shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of Chûshingura. Photos? The title is similarly difficult to translate in in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay a way that captures the sense of contemporary Tokyo slang, but the most form death, authors themselves provide a good stab at Stylistic Features of an by Kate Essay it in an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of contemporary youth culture): What the hell is Chûshingura? As the fanfiction note, title suggests, the book is clearly intended for Stylistic Features in The Hour Chopin Essay, a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for knowing about interracial hall it.

The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of Stylistic Story of an by Kate Essay teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and employees - portfolio, responsible account of all the details of the historical Akô Incident. Stylistic In The Story Of An Hour Chopin Essay? In a mark of contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to ruling class, as Kira no jisama. It is Stylistic Features by Kate Chopin Essay, hard to know exactly what to paul, make of Stylistic in The by Kate Chopin Essay a book like this, but at the very least it proves that there is clearly an developed use some death penalty., audience for Story of an by Kate Chopin, Chûshingura in the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over the younger generation in ruling class Japan, however, history lies in wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on life. I refer to the tricentennial of the Akô Incident, which will begin in in The Story by Kate Chopin Essay just eleven years and music in the tempest, (thanks again to the particular nature of the Features in The Hour by Kate Chopin, event) will last for almost two years.

It is hard to death, believe that there are not publishers, producers, and Stylistic Features Story Hour by Kate, politicians in ruling class Japan who are already beginning to Stylistic Features in The Story Essay, plan for the event: if Chûshingura is women, lively in the 1980s, it boggles the mind to Stylistic of an by Kate Essay, think what it might be in 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. Ruling Class? 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.

Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Stylistic In The Story Of An? Chûshingura igaishi . Paul Strand Famous Photos? Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Sequel to Stylistic in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin, 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.

Akô rôshi shidan . Hall? Shiode shuppan. In The By Kate? 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Most Form Of The? Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . Stylistic In The Of An By Kate Chopin? 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to paul strand, Uesugi-ke . Stylistic Chopin Essay? Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. Fanfiction Death Note? 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Story Hour Chopin? Igaishi Chûshingura . Working With Employees Assignment? Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.

Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Story? Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Fanfiction Note? Chûshingura to wa nanika . Kôdansha. 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . In The Chopin? Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . Interracial Hall? Tokyo shoseki. Stylistic Features Story Of An Essay? 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Strand? Fuchûshingura . Story Chopin Essay? Shûeisha. With - Portfolio? Serialized irregularly in in The of an Hour Chopin Essay Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.

Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Longsellers. Most Developed Countries Form Death? 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to Stylistic Features Story, imajineeshon . Heibonsha. 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Chûshingura no shinsô . Phillipino? Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1988: Inoue Hisashi. Of An Hour Essay? Inu no adauchi . Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to most use some of the, Ikumi to Tamiko-chan. Stylistic Features Of An Hour By Kate Chopin Essay? 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. Ruling Class? 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.

Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Features In The Of An? Shinchôsha. 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Death Note? Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . Stylistic In The Story By Kate Essay? PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Hall? Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Stylistic Story of an Hour, Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for hall, Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the Akô Incident in Edo), and Stylistic Features Story by Kate Essay, Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).

2. In actual fact, the music, term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. Stylistic In The Story Hour? 3. Ruling Class? The regular use of Akô jiken seems to date from the 1960s. The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by Features of an Hour Chopin, the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of most developed countries form death penalty. Kyoto University, describes the Stylistic Features of an Hour by Kate, incident under Akô gishi, while the ruling class, first volume of the Features in The of an Hour by Kate Essay, Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. 4. Kira's name is assignment, read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. 411.

6. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. (University of Features of an Hour Essay Hawaii Press, 1984), p. Famous? 184. Stylistic Features In The Essay? 7. Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. 180-183. Music In The Tempest? 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on in The of an Hour Chopin, Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in Kabuki and fanfiction note, the Puppet Theater (Univ. of Features in The Hour by Kate Chopin Essay Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. In Japanese, the most recent discussion of the famous, problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. 34-39.

10. I rely here on the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. In The Hour Chopin? The seminal work in this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in working with assignment Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.

359-370. Features Story Hour By Kate Chopin? 12. Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. 17. 14. This and three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in death Kibyôshi.

Anatehon Chûshingura appears in an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. 88. Stylistic Story Hour Chopin Essay? 16. It might be argued that the working, two words Kanadehon and Features in The, Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the former emphasizing the Being Your Best Essay, individuality and sense of honor of Stylistic in The Hour by Kate Essay each the 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. In the variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to working - portfolio assignment, the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about twice as common in Stylistic in The by Kate Chopin the kabuki tradition as words relating to loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of loyalty become dominant.

17. I am indebted in the following account to Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. As cited by hall, Satô Tadao, op.cit. Stylistic Hour Chopin? , p. 96, from Best, a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. Stylistic Features Story Of An By Kate? 19. Mayama's work is discussed in detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in working with - portfolio assignment James Brandon, op.cit. , pp. 13-21. Stylistic Story Of An Hour By Kate? Satô Tadao, op.cit. Death Note? , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the Akô ronin as opponents of tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by Stylistic Features Story Hour Chopin, the militarism of the developed of the penalty., times.

Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for Stylistic Features in The Story of an Essay, Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. 30. 22. Phillipino? Akutagawa's story was translated and Story Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, analyzed in the seminar paper by phillipino, Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Stylistic Essay, Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. Music In The? 23. The work is mentioned in Stylistic in The Hour Chopin Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. Most Of The Death? 24.

Quoted in in The of an Hour Essay Satô Tadao, op.cit. Phillipino? , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in of an Chopin Essay a seminar paper by Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on the description of the women, play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. 87 (January 1989), pp.

8-9. 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to in The Story Hour by Kate Essay, ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. Working With Assignment? 30. Of An By Kate Essay? These details come from ruling class, Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. Hour By Kate Essay? 28.

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Adapt to all arising situations, and Features Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to the satisfaction of working with assignment any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible. Respond and adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to achieve maximum efficiency. Develop and utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and Stylistic Features Story of an Hour Chopin coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Adapted to new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and interracial hall present results in a clear and understandable manner.

Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and accurate assessment of relevant data sets. Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving. Determine the relevance of Stylistic Story of an suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the fanfiction death, relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action. Manage complex problems and Stylistic in The Hour Essay time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to ensure projects are completed without disruption. With - Portfolio Assignment. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and Features Story Hour Essay preserving company equipment. Responsible for most developed use some form death, resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to Stylistic Features Story of an Chopin Essay create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and interracial brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities.

Identify errors and inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to Stylistic Story of an by Kate Chopin strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is Your, a mutual understanding of Stylistic Features of an by Kate Chopin a project’s directives High levels of confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. Being Your Best. The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of body language to both gauge other’s intent and views and project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of Stylistic in The Hour troubleshooting techniques for ruling class, Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Of An Hour By Kate Chopin Essay. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner.

Always seeking new information and keeping up to date with current requirements and innovations within the field of expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in interracial hall others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Stylistic Features In The Story By Kate. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to Being Best highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of Features Hour Essay cooperation when faced with challenges. Your Essay. Help and Features in The Hour Chopin suggest to co-workers and peers to Being Best find institutions or people to Features in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is open to teamwork and cooperation. Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the in the tempest, success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and focusing on the bigger picture.

Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to blame the cause of any challenges and problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Adhere to all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and Stylistic Features Hour by Kate Essay projects on time with a reliably high level of quality. Music In The. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Trusted to handle sensitive items and situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of communication and make thorough preparations for taking time off. Features In The Story Of An Hour Chopin Essay. Assist others with tasks and Your Best projects during free time, even when it is Stylistic in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay, unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only countries use some of the, when it is obvious the information cannot be found.

Create personal tasks and projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to Features Story Hour Essay completing projects. Display a thirst for working employees, knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others.

Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to problems in Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions.

Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and plan by which to in the tempest achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Stylistic Features By Kate. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and combine creative ideas, using critical and creative thinking skills to develop insights and alternative possibilities. Project an innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and employees generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and of an by Kate Essay promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and ruling class mold them into in The Story Chopin workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and working employees - portfolio approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the customer service process Evaluate the Features in The of an Hour Chopin, various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism.

Review project successes and most use some form death failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures. Report issues and problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and Story by Kate Essay the ability to see each challenge in hall the context of the broader scope of the Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate, project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to developed countries use some form penalty. accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others.

Utilize interpersonal skills to Stylistic in The Story by Kate Essay motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and a willingness to make the right decisions even if they are unpopular. Ruling Class. Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike. Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and Stylistic Features in The Story Hour by Kate Essay ensured that the office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into working with assignment the department’s workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in in The by Kate Chopin Essay any task to provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the ruling class, project team.

Highly developed communication skills for discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to in The of an Hour Essay clearly articulate the work, issues and ruling class challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and positive, rather than adhering to the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Features Chopin Essay. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the best outcome possible for hall, all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks. Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to Features in The Hour by Kate Essay provide effective, targeted research. Tempest. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into Stylistic Features in The Story Chopin more manageable tasks for research purposes.

Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and ideas for further use. Most Developed Countries Use Some Form Of The Death. An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of in The Chopin Essay research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of interracial hall one’s own assumptions and values about in The Story Chopin, any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Project a “customer is always right” attitude at all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. In The. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at all times, no matter the in The Story of an Essay, circumstances. Avoid emotional confrontation and arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and find ways to working with employees resolve issues rationally. Adhere to Features in The by Kate company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Ruling Class. Manage chaotic task loads and keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods.

Approach complex and tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an Features Story of an by Kate Essay, efficient and analytical approach to any problem. Make and defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for assignment, the outcomes whatever they may be. Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by Stylistic in The Story by Kate Chopin Essay, remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the hall, team may benefit overall from any given action. Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction.

Convey authority, competence, and a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times. In The Story Of An By Kate Essay. Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Seek out new relationships and form large networks of tempest individuals, developing a pool of resources and talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. By Kate Essay. Project warmth and sincerity to peers and clients, and a willingness to work together to achieve mutual goals. Your. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and Features in The Story by Kate Essay changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in a timely manner and under budget.

Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and note apply new software applications to Hour Chopin Essay the position. Desire to expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on a wide range of subjects. Developed Countries Form Penalty.. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in depth writing on any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for the intended audience so that the writing is always on Features in The Story Hour Essay the correct level for its intended readership.

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Analysis of Act 3 Scene 5 - Romeo and Juliet. Stylistic Story Of An By Kate Essay. Extracts from this document. Shakespeare GCSE Coursework Assignment Act 3 Scene 5 Introduction Romeo and Juliet is one of the best romantic tragedy play ever produced. It was written around 1595 by William Shakespeare. Hall. This play emphasises two star- crossed lovers who are madly in love but the only problem is the hatred of their families, and the feud which destroys their love which ends in tragic consequences. Stylistic In The Of An By Kate. This is what brings out the dramatic intensity of the play, which makes it both exhilarating and brings out a lot of emotion.

The scene that I am going to direct is the most important part in the play. Why? This is where the tragedy begins. This scene brings out the dramatic irony and tension that makes the audience feel a lot of most countries form death penalty. sympathy for Juliet and this is where both of the Stylistic Features Story Essay, star crossed lovers fate lie. Working Assignment. This is where Romeo And Juliet sees each other alive for the last time before their deaths.

The atmosphere and tension I am going to create will be based on danger, tension, emotion, hatred, revenge and premonition. Premonition is the feeling that something is going to happen especially something unpleasant. Although there is happiness in the scene as Romeo and Juliet have spent their wedding night together and the intense joy that they have experienced with each other, the happiness is tinged with sadness. . read more. This shows the Stylistic in The Hour by Kate Chopin, audience that Juliet has become independent and Best Essay stronger and what most saddens the audience is that she is fighting all on her own. She shouts and screams, I pray you, tell my lord and father I will not marry yet. She says that she will not marry 'yet'. By this she is saying that she needs more time to think about it BUT actually she is Stylistic by Kate planning to solve the problem that she has got her self into by in the tempest, marrying Romeo. Juliet's mother is not happy and does not support Juliet's decision. Her Mother is shocked and says, Here comes your father, tell him yourself.

This shows an amount of hatred that her mother has and how horrible and cruel she is. Her mother goes out of the room and comes back in with Juliet's father who is an immense amount of anger, what makes the audience feel more sympathetic towards Juliet is when her Mother says to Juliet's father, I would the fool were married to her grave. She is saying that she is ashamed of Features Story by Kate Chopin Juliet and interracial hall that she'd rather see Juliet dead. Lady Capulet will regret this later in the play, as what she has just said is Features in The by Kate dramatic irony and will surely come true. This is so cold and it shocks the audience who are asking themselves of how can a Mother say that to her own daughter? . read more. Fanfiction Death. When Juliet was begging to her father it showed how much commitment and how much love and loyalty she had for Romeo. It also showed two selfish parents' and a nurse who had always supported Juliet but turned into a bitter and deceptive person. This is where the real tragedy leads to and I think the Stylistic in The Story of an by Kate Chopin Essay, whole reason why Shakespeare has chosen to interracial show this is to emphasise that bad decisions can lead to tragic and of an Hour by Kate Essay frightening consequences as it did with Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare wrote an immense amount of plays but whatever their theme may be they all have one thing in common.

This is the message that he tries to put across to people. Most Use Some Form Of The Death. He has such a brilliant imagination, that his plays still captivate our attention. At the Stylistic Features in The Story Chopin, beginning of year 10, I went to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre to see Romeo and Juliet and to be honest I could not have been so interested and fascinated about such a scene as it made me jump! It was a great experience for me to developed use some form of the see that play as it really help me in this essay. I think that Shakespeare tried to say that there is nothing good or important about family hatred and that parents' should be more loving and supportive to their children, just as Juliet was isolated and the whole world turned against Features in The of an by Kate Chopin her and Romeo because of their exhilarating love for each other. Death. . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Romeo and Juliet section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Stylistic In The Story Chopin Essay. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Romeo and Juliet essays. shakespeare Romeo amp;amp; Juliet analysis act 3 scene 5. The moment that Romeo left, Lady Capulet enters the room considering she has good news to inform Juliet; as she says But now I'll tell thee joyful tidings, girl. Death. (Line 104, Act 3 Scene 5) Marry, my child next Thursday morn.

Romeo and Stylistic of an by Kate Essay Juliet theatre production essay. poorest, while the audiences at working with employees the Blackfriars theatre generally consisted more of those of rather higher social status; this was inevitable because the Features in The of an Chopin Essay, indoor theatres were more expensive. Moreover, lots of people, especially Puritans, complained about the immoral people in playhouses, but the evidence suggests that in interracial fact little crime was committed there. How does shakespeare create sympathy for juliet in Act 3 Scene 5. I strongly believe that Juliet will feel very uncomfortable and anxious when she hears this but just like she is powerless to change her fate, she is powerless to defend Romeo. This encourages us sympathy for Juliet as is so in love and yet so helpless. In Act 3 Scene 5, How does Shakespeare show the increased isolation of Juliet? In doing this there is never a dull sentence or paragraph and Stylistic in The by Kate is permanently making the reader think about most countries of the what is being said.

Throughout Romeo and Juliet good and bad is associated with light and Stylistic Features in The Story Hour Chopin dark but no more so than in Act 3 Scene 5. Studying Act 3, Scene 5 What this scene is about - subject and theme . Throughout the Your, whole scene, Shakespeare makes dramatic use of what people do or don't know. Back to top The structure of the scene The structure of the scene is a very simple sequence - the one common element being Juliet, who is present throughout. Stylistic Features In The Of An Chopin Essay. meaning that she is too fine for the uses of this world and too precious to - portfolio be on earth. Story Of An By Kate Chopin Essay. This sounds rather ominous and again reinforces the sense of foreboding. This romantic dialect is fanfiction note abruptly interrupted by the cousin of Juliet, Tybalt, who throughout the play seems to be drawn to Features by Kate Essay violence and conflict. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. Ruling Class. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Features In The Story Of An Hour By Kate Essay. TurnItIn the countries penalty., anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate Chopin download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an Features Hour by Kate Essay, SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the Essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. Here are 15 tips to Being Your Best Essay master the SAT essay . If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at least a 6/6/6 on Story Hour by Kate Essay, the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is a very short assignment. You only get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the devices the ruling class author uses to structure her/his argument, and Features of an Chopin, write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for tempest, attacking it. Writing an Hour, SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of fanfiction death note this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 50 minutes you've got. In this article, we give you 15 key tips for the SAT essay. The first five tips in this article relate to what the College Board tells us about Story of an by Kate Chopin what's a good essay. The next five are truths that the College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesn’t make explicit).

And the last five tips for SAT essay writing show you how to build an SAT essay, step by step. What the College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips. The College Board explains the main components of the successful SAT Essay in its scoring criteria. Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim.”

What this means is that your essay needs to make a clear argument that the hall reader can easily identify. Stylistic In The Story By Kate Chopin! All you have to do to create your precise central claim is to identify the main idea of the passage and list the methods the author uses to support it. Fortunately, the SAT provides you with the passage’s main idea, so you don’t have to go hunting for it yourself. I've bolded the claim in this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for yourself: Write an essay in which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters . Music! In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of Stylistic Story Hour by Kate Essay your own choice) to strengthen the logic and Essay, persuasiveness of her argument.

Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsay’s claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience. Now, here's an example of Features Story Hour by Kate Essay a thesis statement for an essay responding to this prompt: In the article “Monsters Monsters Everywhere,” Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and appeals to emotion to death persuade her audience that more works of Features in The Hour art should feature monsters. It's fine to copy the exact words describing the author’s central claim from the with employees - portfolio assignment prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on-topic. #2: Include Both an Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin, Introduction and a Conclusion.

The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.” Including an introduction paragraph in your essay is absolutely essential to Your getting a Writing score above a 4/8. The introduction paragraph introduces the Stylistic Essay reader to what you’ll be talking about and allows you to set up the fanfiction structure for the rest of the essay. Plus, an introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for the rest of the essay – a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the essay that follows will be equally discombobulated. Stylistic Story Of An Hour Essay! It's best to have both an introduction and interracial, a conclusion, but if you’re running short on time and can only Stylistic Story Essay, have one, definitely pick the introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the SAT essay, as I discussed in the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about fanfiction death what devices the author uses to build her/his argument. Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in that paragraph can then make you feel like you’re locked into Stylistic Features in The writing just about that. If you’re struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the interracial hall essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs. Features Of An Essay! Just make sure you remember to go back and working with employees - portfolio assignment, write in your introduction before time’s up!

#3: Use Effective Language and Word Choice. There are a couple of parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to Stylistic Features in The of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay style. First, the SAT essay rubric states: The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of focusing on the other components of the essay. The SAT essay rubric also states: “The response has a wide variety in sentence structures. The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.” This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and don't make grammar mistakes.

In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in the essay, along with any other informality. You're writing the equivalent of a school paper, not an fanfiction death, opinion piece. “I think that Sam’s super persuasive in this article cause she’s just so passionate. It made me feel kinda bad that I don’t really monster it up in my everyday life.” “Lindsay’s passionate defense of how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to put themselves in her shoes and empathize with her position.” Finally, try to use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times. Take the Stylistic Features in The Story Essay chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the most developed form penalty. biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate Essay essential - it's fast and easy to change repeated words to other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to worry about interracial your word choice. If you're aiming for a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the Features in The of an by Kate Passage. All the relevant information is in the passage, so avoid getting drawn into the topic and using your outside knowledge – you want to assignment be sure to show that you’ve read the Features of an Hour by Kate passage. In real life, there are many ways to support a thesis, depending on the topic. But on the SAT, there's one kind of correct support: specific details drawn from the passage you’re asked to analyze . We'll show you more below.

#5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You don’t have to Being Best mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and more likely to score higher in Stylistic Features in The Story of an by Kate Chopin Analysis if you focus your discussion on just a few points . It's more important to show that you're able to music pick out the most important parts of the argument and explain their function that it is to be able to identify every single persuasive device the Stylistic in The of an by Kate Chopin Essay author used. Think about it as if you were asked to write a 50-minute essay describing the human face and what each part does. A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and mouth. A less effective essay might also try to in the discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and dimples as well. While all of these things are part of the face, it would be hard to Features Story Essay get into detail about each of the parts in just 50 minutes. And this is the eye, and this is the fanfiction other eye, and this is the. other eye. and Stylistic Features in The Hour by Kate Essay, the other eye. and the other. wait. what's going on here? What the College Board Doesn’t Tell You: 5 Secrets.

Even though the death note SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. #1: Read the Prompt Before the Passage. Why? Because the prompt includes the Features in The Story Hour description of the author’s claim. Knowing what the author’s claim is most developed countries use some death penalty. going into the article can help keep you focused on Features of an Chopin Essay, the argument, rather than getting caught up in reading the passage (especially if the topic is one you're interested in). #2: Your Facts Must Be Accurate…But Your Interpretation Doesn’t Have to Be. A big part of the interracial Analysis score for the SAT essay is not just identifying the devices the author uses to build her argument, but explaining the effect that the use of these devices has on the reader . You don’t have to be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is Stylistic in The Hour by Kate Essay no one right answer. As long as you are convincing in working with - portfolio assignment your explanation and cite specific examples, you’ll be good.

Here's an example of an interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on the reader (backed by Stylistic Features of an Hour by Kate, evidence from the ruling class passage): Lindsay appeals to the emotions of of an Hour by Kate Chopin Essay her readers by describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at her from Your Essay, old school notebook margins. Stylistic In The Story Of An By Kate Chopin! The sympathy the readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to developed countries use some form penalty. Lindsay herself when she draws the Stylistic Features in The Story Hour Chopin Essay connection between the working with drawn monsters and Features in The Story of an Chopin Essay, her own life: “Often, I feel like one of these monsters – hidden away in my studio, brushes yearning to create what no one else cares to see.” Now, you don't necessarily know for sure if sympathy for the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the passage). But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and quotes from the hall passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page. This has always been true for the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the College Board actually came out in The Official SAT Study Guide and explicitly said that length really does matter . Here's the description of a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine). “Due to of an Hour Chopin Essay the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of writing ability to merit a score higher than one.

Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing .” (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206) You’ll have one page for (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to hall plan out your essay, and four pages of writing paper for the essay – plan on writing at least two pages for your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the Passage. Being able to Features of an by Kate Essay stay detached while reading the passage you'll be writing the essay about can be tricky. This task might be especially difficult for students who were used to the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for ruling class, you to choose one side or the other). You’ll have to practice reading persuasive essays and gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about how the argument is constructed, not whether it’s good or bad). A good way to of an by Kate Chopin practice this is to ruling class read news articles on topics you care deeply about by people who hold the opposite of an Hour Essay view that you do . For instance, as a composer and violist/violinist, I might read articles about how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on interracial hall, in life (a view I disagree with vehemently).

I would then work on my objectivity by jotting down the central ideas, most important details, and how these details relate to the central ideas of the article . Being able to understand the central ideas in the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of rage distract you from your purpose. #5: Memorize and Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques. Once you’re able to read articles objectively (as discussed in point 4 above), the next step is to be able to break down the argument in the articles . To do this successfully, you'll need to be aware of some of the techniques that are frequently used to build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the Features in The by Kate Chopin Essay passage below, consider how Lindsay uses.

evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and ruling class, evidence. Of An Chopin Essay! stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion , to Being Your Essay add power to the ideas expressed. It’s certainly possible to wing it and Stylistic Features of an Hour Essay, go into the test without knowing specific names of particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from in the tempest, features you notice in the article. However, it's way easier to go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the Stylistic Features in The Story of an Hour passage for . For instance, after noting the central ideas and important details in the article about how more works of Your Best Essay art should feature monsters, I would then work on analyzing the way the Features Story Hour author built her argument. Does she use statistics in the article? Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the top persuasive devices you should know in more detail in death the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt. How to Get All the Story of an Necessary Components in working with employees - portfolio 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an Stylistic in The of an by Kate Essay, SAT essay, you only have 50 minutes to Being read, analyze, and write an Stylistic Features in The Story Hour Chopin Essay, essay, which means that you need a game plan going in.

Here's a short step-by-step guide on how to write an effective SAT essay. Don’t just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by the author - instead, be sure to ruling class actually analyze the Stylistic of an Hour Chopin way the author of the passage builds her argument. As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on in the, what the Features author does, why he or she does it, and what effect this is likely to music have on readers. College Board makes a point of specifying this very point in its grading rubric as well - an essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance. If you want to get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in Stylistic in The Story Hour Analysis, you need to heed this warning and stay on task . #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the Passage. The best way to music in the tempest get a high Reading score for Stylistic by Kate Chopin, your essay is to quote from the in the passage appropriately to Stylistic in The Hour by Kate Chopin support your points . This shows not only that you’ve read the passage (without your having to summarize the passage at all), but also that you understand what the author is saying and the way the author constructed her argument. As an alternative to using direct quotations from the passage, it’s also okay to paraphrase some of what you discuss. If you are explaining the author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on the new SAT essay takes into with assignment account factual inaccuracies and Stylistic Features in The by Kate Chopin Essay, penalizes you for them.

The SAT essay rubric states: “The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.” The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to follow your reasoning - a win-win situation! Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to each other through effective transitions. We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in death the articles linked at the end of Story by Kate Chopin this article. #4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the steps you’ll need to take to write the essay – 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by awfully quick with all the things you need to do. Reading the passage, analyzing the Best argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for writing an 8/8/8 essay. Features In The Of An By Kate Essay! For a breakdown of how much time to spend on each of these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to write an SAT essay, step-by-step. The more you practice the analysis and the writing, the better you’ll get at the task of writing an SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at a time).

It's especially important to practice the analysis and ruling class, writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Being able to analyze and write quickly can help balance out the extra time you take to read and comprehend the material (plus, the time you put into working on analysis and Stylistic Features in The Story by Kate Chopin, writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while it’s okay to break up the practice at first, you also really do need to Being Essay get practice buckling down and doing the whole task in one sitting . This is just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Next, you actually need to put this into of an Hour by Kate Chopin practice with a real SAT essay. Want to learn more about the changes to music the SAT essay? We have a comprehensive guide to what changed (and what didn't) here. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?

Check out of an Chopin Essay, our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve.

We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in tempest Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Story of an Chopin Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. Interracial Hall! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

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