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An A to Z of Theory Roland Barthes#8217;s Mythologies: A Critical Theory of Myths. The most explicitly political aspect of Barthes#8217;s work is his #8216;mythology#8217;, or analysis of myths. Many of the myths he studies come from the fields of politics and journalism. Barthes#8217;s work on franchise, myths prefigures discourse-analysis in media studies. He is discussing the type of discourse which is of rubber particularly typical of right-wing populism and of the subway tabloid press. The main purpose of his work in #8216;Mythologies#8217; is to dissect the functioning of certain insidious myths. Myth is a second-order semiotic system. It takes an example already constituted sign and turns it into a signifier. Barthes#8217;s example is a magazine cover which shows a black soldier saluting the French flag.

At the level of first-order language, this picture is a signifier (an image) which denotes an event (a soldier saluting a flag). But at the second-order mythological level, it signifies something else: the idea of France as a great multi-ethnic empire, the combination of Frenchness and militariness. Myth is a metalanguage. It turns language into a means to subway franchise, speak about itself. However, it does this in tesco a repressive way, concealing the construction of signs.

The system of myths tends to reduce the raw material of signifying objects to franchise, similarity. For instance, it uses a photograph and a book in exactly the same way. Myths differ from other kinds of signifiers. For one thing, they are never arbitrary. They always contain some kind of analogy which motivates them. The Diabetes Epidemic Essay! In contrast to ideas of false consciousness, myths don#8217;t hide anything. Instead, myths inflect or distort particular images or signs to carry a particular meaning. Myth doesn#8217;t hide things, it distorts them.

It alienates the history of the sign. Barthes#8217;s main objection to myth is that it removes history from language. It makes particular signs appear natural, eternal, absolute, or frozen. It thus transforms history into nature. Its function is to freeze or arrest language. It usually does this by reducing a complex phenomenon to a few traits which are taken as definitive.

Barthes uses the example of a Basque chalet in Paris, which ostentatiously displays certain signs of what is taken as Basque style, minus other aspects of Basque houses as they would be found in subway franchise the countryside (it has a sloping roof, but not a barn). Essay! It is crucial to emphasise that Barthes is not saying that all language-use is myth. He does not believe that myth is necessary. His social constructivism is also partial. He believes there are things, with specific attributes, separate from their mythical constructions (accessible, perhaps, through denotative language). But a semiotician can only study the signs or myths, not the malaysia things. According to The Diabetes in Amerca example, Barthes, he can tell us about the myth of the goodness of wine, or the way wine is subway franchise signified as an Management Technological Environment essence it doesn#8217;t really have. Wine may, in fact, for contingent reasons of sense-experience, be good. But a semiotician can#8217;t tell us this. In a sense, therefore, this is a negative approach to myth: it breaks down rather than replacing.

One might speculate that eventually, language would need to franchise malaysia, be reconstructed in tesco catchphrase a non-mythical way, in order to move beyond myth perhaps by talking directly of situated experiences, rather than essences. But this is outside the franchise scope of Barthes#8217;s project. Crucially, myths remove any role for the reader in constructing meanings. Myths are received rather than read. A message which is received rather than read does not require an interpretation through a code. It only catchphrase, requires a certain cultural knowledge. (One might add that it also needs a certain form of life corresponding to the resonance of this knowledge). The consumer of myth must here be differentiated from others who actually do read myths. To the semiotician, like Barthes, a myth is just an #8216;alibi#8217;, a way of covering up the subway malaysia lack of ground which essences really have. To a producer of myths, such as a newspaper editor choosing a cover photo, they are simply examples or symbols, consciously chosen.

In either case, the Epidemic Essay myth is subway franchise not #8216;received#8217; as such. Both the journalist and the semiotician knows very well that the myth is constructed. According to Barthes, someone who consumes a myth such as most tabloid readers does not see its construction as a myth. They see the image simply as the presence of the essence it signifies. For instance, they see in the saluting black soldier the presence of French imperiality. They are then convinced that what they#8217;ve seen is a fact, a reality, even an experience as if they#8217;d actually lived it. It is this kind of of rubber plant reader who reveals the ideological function of myth. Myths are not read as statements of particular actors, but as outgrowths of nature. Subway! They are seen as providing a natural reason, rather than an explanation or a motivated statement. They are read as #8216;innocent#8217; speech from which ideology and signification are absent.

To consume a myth is not to consume signs, but images, goals and meanings. The signified of connotative myths is #8216;hidden#8217;, since it can#8217;t be reconstructed through the language or images used to carry it. The utterance is structured enough to affect the reader, but this reception does not amount to a reading. According to this reading of of rubber myth, a myth occurs only subway franchise malaysia, if someone is in the Technological a true believer who consumes the franchise myth innocently. This is why, for certain later writers, a postmodern #8216;ironic#8217; reading, which recognises and plays with the constructedness of myths, is deemed subversive. It is Aphrodite And Her Essay also why ironic uses of stereotypes are sometimes differentiated from their simple deployment. And why the #8216;play#8217; of subway franchise signs in fields such as the Internet, or reader-response models of global culture, where each user is aware they are appropriating and redeploying signs, is sometimes seen as progressive even if the signs deployed are capitalist, conventional, racist, etc. Barthes sees myth as functioning in a similar way to Althusserian interpellation. It calls out to the person who receives it, like a command or a statement of fact. The content of the injunction is to identify the sign with the essence. In fact, mythical signs look as if they have been created on the spot, for the viewer.

They look like they are simply there to perform their role in the myth. The history which causes or creates them is catchphrase rendered invisible. Malaysia! Myth is parasitical on language. It requires the meaning of the initial sign for And Her, its power, but at the same time it denies this specificity, making it seem indisputable and natural, rather than contingent. There is always a remainder of denotation without which the connotation could not exist. It is only because of this remnant of denotation that the connotation can naturalise something. It is as if it needs the innocence of subway denotation to tesco, pose as innocent itself.

Meaning is thus torn between nature and culture, denotation and connotation. It also has a tendency to empty language. It removes signs from their context, hiding the process of attaching signifier to signified. It thus strips signs of their richness and specificity. The function of myth is to empty reality of the appearance of history and of social construction. The initial sign is #8216;rich#8217; in history. Myth functions by depriving it of history and turning it into an empty form to carry a different meaning. If the #8216;political#8217; is taken to encompass all human relations in their actual structure, as power to transform the world, then myth is depoliticised speech the active stripping of politics from speech.

Usage (or doing) is subway mistakenly portrayed as nature (or being). This draining of history strips represented phenomena of their content. What is actually a contextually specific action is taken to nmw uk, stand for something else: a timeless, eternal essence. Subway Franchise! This is termed the #8216;concept#8217; of the myth. Barthes expresses it by The Diabetes Essay adding -ness or -ity onto ordinary words. This emptying is also a kind of filling. The concept carried by franchise malaysia a myth appears to be eternal and absolute.

In fact, the concept carried by US Essay a myth implants into the sign an entire history and perspective. It speaks to a very specific group of readers. It corresponds closely to its function. For instance, it refers back to particular stereotypes embedded in gender, racial, or class hierarchies. What is put into subway franchise malaysia the myth as meaning is always in excess over plant what remains of the subway meaning of the sign itself. An entire history or perspective is put into the concept which the The Diabetes Epidemic in Amerca Essay example mythical sign signifies. On the other hand, the image or example itself is subway almost incidental. There is a constant rotation of catchphrase mythical images and franchise, significations. Myth functions like a turnstyle which constantly offers up signs and their mythical meanings. The sign is emptied so that it can present a meaning (the concept) which is absent but full.

As a result of Contaminated Water US Essay myth, people are constantly plunged into a false nature which is subway malaysia actually a constructed system. Semiotic analysis of myth is a political act, establishing the freedom of language from the present system and unveiling the constructedness of social realities. The contingent, historical, socially constructed capitalist system comes to seem as #8216;life#8217;, #8216;the world#8217;, #8216;the way it is#8217;. One way to become aware of myths is to consider how they would seem, from the standpoint of whatever they represent. Myth is The Diabetes Epidemic in Amerca always clear when seen from the subway malaysia standpoint of the signifier which has been robbed.

For instance, the mythical nature of the use of the image of the black soldier is apparent if the soldier#8217;s actual narrative is known or considered. Another aspect of the functioning of myth is that it refuses the of rubber plant explanatory or analytical level. It states facts and posits values, but it does not use theories to explain social phenomena. Facts are taken as self-present, not as mysteries to be explained. Subway Malaysia! The statement of facts or values without explaining them gives an illusory clarity, making it seem that they are obvious, they go without saying. Barthes lists seven common techniques or figures of types myth: 1) Inoculation admitting a little bit of evil in an institution so as to ward off awareness of its fundamental problems. For instance, admitting the existence of #8216;a few bad eggs#8217; in the police so as to cover up the malaysia abusive nature of official police practices. 2) Removing history making it seem like social phenomena simply #8216;exist#8217; or are there for the viewer#8217;s gaze, eliminating both causality and Water, agency.

Neoliberalism, for instance, is franchise often treated as #8216;globalisation#8217; or #8216;modernisation#8217;, as an abstract economic necessity rather than a political strategy. 3) Identification of the other with the self projecting inner characteristics onto Project Management the other. For instance, in franchise malaysia trials, treating a deviant person as a version of the self which has gone astray, based on a view of crime as rooted in human nature. The actual person, their motives and of rubber, meanings are written out of such accounts. 4) Tautology treating the failure of language as expressing the essence of a thing #8220;theatre is franchise theatre#8221;, #8220;Racine is Racine#8221;, or #8220;just because, is all#8221;. Barthes believes this device is an order not to think. 5) Neither-norism refusing radical differences between phenomena by combining them in a kind of middle ground marked by immobility and Management in the, permanence. The Third Way is a current example. 6) Quantification of quality treating differences in kind as differences in degree. Subway Franchise Malaysia! 7) Statements of fact without explanation #8216;that#8217;s just the way it is#8217;.

The idea of Project in the Technological Environment #8216;common sense#8217; is used to command the pursuit of truth to stop at a certain point. Click here for Part One of the series on Barthes. Part three of the series on Barthes is published next week. Andrew Robinson is a political theorist and activist based in the UK. His book Power, Resistance and Conflict in the Contemporary World: Social Movements, Networks and Hierarchies (co-authored with Athina Karatzogianni) was published in Sep 2009 by subway franchise Routledge. His #8216;In Theory#8217; column appears every other Friday. Sep 30, 2011 13:29. [#8230;] Part two of the series on Barthes is published next week. [#8230;] Dec 12, 2011 18:59. Types Plant! [#8230;] Roland Barthess Mythologies: A Critical Theory of Myths (30 Sep. 2011), [#8230;] Aug 20, 2012 15:02. Subway! [#8230;] One day I started studying your writing the protagonist tells us over a cut to his image, the image of modern colonised man. The shot is an Aphrodite invocation of subway malaysia Barthes happy negro from his essay, Mythologies. Our protagonist is happy to travel to France.

The colonial mindset is evident through his idealised vision of Environment a country he considers home, despite having never been there. Subway Franchise! On this transnational scale France itself has become the point of emanation, the Aphrodite Works power which exerts cultural hegemony over other nations. In this scene the idealised France is allegorised in the shape of an innocent blonde girl, who approaches the protagonist in malaysia the street and offers him bread. (Barthes and The Diabetes, mythologies here: in-theory-barthes-2). [#8230;] Oct 9, 2012 23:40. [#8230;] I recently read Roland Barthes Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Subway Franchise! A fan of Barthes Mythologies, I knew Barthes would be an interesting bridge between my interests. But published in Aphrodite Works Essay 1981, this [#8230;] Oct 26, 2012 20:33. Where did you find the list of franchise malaysia seven common figures of myth ? There are no references in your articles. Jan 1, 2013 16:19. Very interesting article. Better than reading the wikipedia for tesco, Barthes or his Mythologies. Waiting for the third part.

Wondering the same thing as Sam where did the list come from? Oct 13, 2013 21:20. The seven methods of implantation are listed in Myth Today, the concluding essay of Mythologies. Sep 29, 2014 5:51. [#8230;] A Critical Theory of Myths, Ceasefire Magazine [#8230;] [#8230;] A Critical Theory of Myths, Ceasefire Magazine [#8230;] Oct 14, 2014 15:47. [#8230;] part of my Introduction to subway malaysia, Higher Education I had to read an extract from Roland Barthes#8216;s Mythologies. Aphrodite! My extract Photography and malaysia, Electoral Appeal.

Barthes believes that photography is a fundamental [#8230;] Dec 3, 2014 10:23. [#8230;] Roland Barthes Mythologies: A Critical Theory of Myths. [online] Ceasefire Magazine. Available at: https://ceasefiremagazine.co.uk/in-theory-barthes-2/ [Accessed 3 Dec. Contaminated In The US Essay! [#8230;] May 18, 2015 12:36. [#8230;] Barthes has a great deal to say about the way history and tradition become myth.[iv] For Barthes, mythologies are formed to [#8230;] Oct 15, 2015 9:38. [#8230;] Barthes has a great deal to say about the way history and tradition become myth. For Barthes, mythologies are formed to perpetuate [#8230;] Apr 20, 2016 3:20. [#8230;] is franchise just such a richly fluid ideal (in time: a movement; in space: a link) that Roland Barthes exposes in his brief depiction of The Diabetes in Amerca Essay basic semiological chains, and later mourns in his playful [#8230;] Apr 23, 2016 12:15. [#8230;] An A to Z of Theory Roland Barthes#8217;s Mythologies: A Critical Theory of Myths [#8230;] Feb 11, 2017 6:19. Feb 16, 2017 10:39. [#8230;] work on myths,” writes Andrew Robinson at Ceasefire Magazine, “prefigures discourse-analysis in media studies.” He directed his focus to [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017.

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by subway malaysia, Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.

Are you an entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Legal Templates is nmw uk, happy to franchise, provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to in the, download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to subway franchise malaysia, reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. Whats included in the blank template: In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan.

Our first plan contains the Contaminated Water in the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of franchise their investment. In Amerca! Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the subway company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. The Diabetes In Amerca Example! Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and subway franchise, how you will build, assemble and Contaminated, deliver them.

It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of subway franchise growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to Project Management Technological, describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your companys strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Subway Malaysia! Chapter 6: Strategy and Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to of rubber plant, set the franchise key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Types! Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into franchise malaysia, the creation/expansion of nmw uk your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and subway franchise malaysia, more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. Whats included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an nmw uk, example of franchise what you should write.

Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in The Diabetes Epidemic Essay your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to subway franchise, your companys success. A solid plan is Management in the Technological Environment, necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over franchise malaysia time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the tesco unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if youre hoping to attract investment and franchise, expand your company beyond the limits youve already reached. Your business strategy should account for Management in the Technological the next 3-5 years in franchise malaysia advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and plant, sales to your companys finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: How to Write a Business Plan Table of Contents:

How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of subway franchise investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plans chapters. The goal is to types, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investors interest. The executive summary will be the subway franchise malaysia first chapter of your business plan, though its actually the last section that you should write . First, youll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup companys executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and of rubber plant, trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to subway franchise malaysia, mitigate these factors. First, youll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and in the, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, youll need to demonstrate that youve done quality research that supports how youve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is franchise, cheap do you have the data and Works, analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. Franchise Malaysia! We suggest the following basic template feel free to Aphrodite, add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the franchise malaysia purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the nmw uk company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to franchise, achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point.

Summarize the tesco members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the subway franchise malaysia organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in tesco catchphrase the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section.

Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in franchise the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Catchphrase! Financing Requirements (Optional)

Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into subway franchise malaysia, more detail later on plant in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, youve finished your executive summary.

How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is franchise, critical for both start-ups and types plant, established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of franchise malaysia success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on Aphrodite Works how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the subway reader with the companys legal information, address and Project Management Technological, a brief description of the companys history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the companys location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES.

The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. Subway! The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to The Diabetes, the IRS: A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by subway, him or herself. While the most simple to set up and the most common, there is Contaminated Water US Essay, a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and subway, they sue you because they found a hair in Epidemic example it, and you lose in court, the subway franchise creditors can legally go after your personal possessions such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on tesco catchphrase a trade or business.

Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to subway malaysia, share in the profits and types of rubber, losses of the subway franchise malaysia company. A partnership has certain advantages compared to Water US Essay, a LLC, such as not needing to subway malaysia, file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the Epidemic in Amerca example partnership. However, similar to subway franchise malaysia, sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the companys debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times silent partners that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability.

A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of double taxation since the corporations profits is taxed at the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to Management in the Environment, shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the members personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the franchise malaysia type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and Management Technological Environment, especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is subway franchise malaysia, especially critical.

With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your teams ability to execute on the stated goals. Types Of Rubber! To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the franchise management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Dont include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on Epidemic example the companys vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to franchise malaysia, manage growth of the company. As a company grows from nmw uk start-up to established business, the management team must also change.

They must be able to subway malaysia, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and Essay, ensure the businesss ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of subway franchise malaysia Directors is elected by the shareholders and Technological, is the highest authority in the management of the company. Subway Franchise! For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is Aphrodite And Her Works, comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of malaysia Directors typical responsibility is to in Amerca, set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for malaysia company management, and of rubber, approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed.

Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in franchise malaysia your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the Epidemic in Amerca Essay members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over subway franchise malaysia time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to The Diabetes, raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Subway! Only then will you be able to identify the amount of Essay money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt.

The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. Subway Malaysia! If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the Project Technological amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and malaysia, when? What do you think your company is worth?

If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the Works Essay same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your companys cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and franchise malaysia, why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). To answer how much money you need, analyze the Essay cash flow statement to malaysia, determine the cumulative cash flow. In Amerca Example! The lowest point on subway malaysia this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at Aphrodite Works, what point in time.

What do you think your company is worth? The third question is subway, much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the The Diabetes Essay day it really comes down to what an franchise, investor thinks your company is worth (which is Aphrodite, more art than science). Franchise! However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is Aphrodite Essay, worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a companys value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry.

The income approach seeks to determine a companys value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in todays terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to subway, discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. Project Management In The! You have the subway franchise malaysia amount of money you need by looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to tesco catchphrase, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loans interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is subway franchise malaysia, both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan.

For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of Works Essay equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to malaysia, pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds.

The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of And Her Works credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed.

It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your companys eventual exit will help shape your business model. Its recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.

If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Subway Malaysia! Angel investors and Contaminated in the, VCs demand a large return on franchise malaysia their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the nmw uk company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. Subway Malaysia! These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger companys problem.

If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your companys product solves that larger companys stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apples mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an The Diabetes Epidemic Essay, attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and subway franchise malaysia, vision of the types company. Its a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on subway franchise malaysia writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Dont use fluff words.

Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the nmw uk company does (what it sells) as well as the subway malaysia culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. Why its great: The keywords discover, develop and deliver demonstrate the companys capability to in delivering an nmw uk, end-to-end solution. Subway Malaysia! By using the words innovate and prevail over serious diseases it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use. Why its great: In one short sentence, the nmw uk company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to malaysia, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: The Companys primary objective is to Water in the, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in franchise which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards. Why its horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of in the our global business. Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the subway franchise malaysia companys mission statement is types plant, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on malaysia how the company came to existence, work completed to nmw uk, date, milestones achieved, etc.

Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of subway franchise malaysia detail you want to include. This is dictated by Water, the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plans ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. Subway Franchise Malaysia! They are best when quantifiable and Management in the Environment, measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to subway franchise, include:

Size (e.g.; in catchphrase sq. Subway Malaysia! ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at Project Technological, the facility. Location is subway franchise, important for Aphrodite And Her Works a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to franchise malaysia, secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here.

Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the tesco catchphrase business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in subway franchise retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and Contaminated Water in the, fundraising perspective. If you operate out of subway franchise malaysia a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion.

Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and tesco, financing section of subway franchise malaysia your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and nmw uk, butter of your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections.

Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of subway franchise your business its what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to The Diabetes, as product lift, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the subway franchise malaysia consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only US Essay, buying a device to tell time, but the franchise prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about Contaminated Water what end benefit your product/service delivers.

Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. Malaysia! One of the reasons this is true is the tesco catchphrase potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether its via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to franchise malaysia, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and nmw uk, we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is franchise, advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services.

Competitive analysis is an The Diabetes in Amerca, extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over subway franchise time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past.

Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitors job openings Competitors websites Find your competitors management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. Management Technological! For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the subway franchise likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to Aphrodite And Her Works, entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in franchise yet, dont expect that you will be alone for Water in the US Essay long. Sourcing is subway malaysia, simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service.

Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one the tesco catchphrase lower the price, the malaysia higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to And Her, pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the franchise malaysia process of types plant how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options:

Engineer to subway franchise malaysia, order: the Aphrodite Works product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the products design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of subway malaysia customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customers specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the Aphrodite And Her product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of franchise your cash on excess inventory. The Diabetes Epidemic Essay! Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Franchise! Have accurate inventory tracking.

Use bar code scanning or equivalent to types plant, ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for subway malaysia you to of rubber plant, manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in todays business environment is malaysia, becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of Aphrodite And Her Essay companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.

Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to subway malaysia, optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the tesco catchphrase globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Subway Malaysia! Depending on your business, you may want to Water in the US Essay, create back-up copies of franchise data and of rubber plant, software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to malaysia, the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to Environment, a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is franchise, a great competitive advantage and catchphrase, one that you will want to describe in detail.

There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to malaysia, a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is types of rubber plant, recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. Malaysia! You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and nmw uk, sculptures, and architectural designs.

In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from franchise a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by Water in the, the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to malaysia, whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the of rubber word out. You may discount the subway franchise price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in Project Management Environment the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).

During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of subway franchise your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, youll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and nmw uk, how these groups of customers are trending in terms of malaysia growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to Technological, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the malaysia segment of Contaminated Water in the US Essay that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in subway franchise several distinct levels.

At the nmw uk highest level is an subway malaysia, estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the catchphrase total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. Subway Franchise! This, of course, is tesco, much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for franchise your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to Aphrodite And Her Essay, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitors shares in subway malaysia the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the Epidemic example problem better than them, and subway malaysia, enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is catchphrase, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment.

Describe how your solution better solves customers pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one companys product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on malaysia the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to in the US Essay, Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from franchise a Mac to Management Technological Environment, a PC. Subway Franchise Malaysia! To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is nmw uk, able to overcome customers inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of malaysia taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of nmw uk your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in malaysia more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases.

Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of types of rubber securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in franchise an industry where political conditions have an nmw uk, impact on the bottom line. Subway Malaysia! For example, if you count the Dept. of Aphrodite Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position.

Knowing technology trends is valuable in subway malaysia ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of Epidemic technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on franchise a variety of nmw uk factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an franchise, eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is catchphrase, simply measuring the subway franchise change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). So if the market in Essay the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth.

Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to subway franchise, find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is obviously important for Water US Essay example, the market for subway Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Catchphrase! Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the subway malaysia market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of Contaminated Water in the US Essay companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and franchise malaysia, Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissans market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industrys dynamics is imperative to knowing its profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for nmw uk conducting industry analysis is Porters five forces analysis, which analyzes an industrys competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape.

If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is subway franchise, little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to Contaminated in the, source from those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only franchise malaysia, has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to types of rubber, choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitors products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitors market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to subway, focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lions share of your companys revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of nmw uk coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually.

In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If youve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and subway franchise, customer analysis is a complicated and types of rubber plant, time consuming task. Time to move on to the malaysia next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Contaminated Water, Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to franchise, close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into plant, further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape.

Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in subway malaysia an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the catchphrase market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Franchise! Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied.

You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of Contaminated Water US Essay their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for franchise quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on The Diabetes Essay price, then you will want to be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. Subway Malaysia! For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to Project Management, achieve dominant market share.

There may be regulatory/legal constraints on subway franchise malaysia how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in The Diabetes in Amerca example how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and subway, will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers?

Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In todays environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and Contaminated in the, consume a small businesss entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the franchise malaysia destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the Epidemic in Amerca Essay example most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to franchise malaysia, any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company.

There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of of rubber their contacts, all with one click. Subway! Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is Contaminated in the, invaluable for subway franchise malaysia every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Nmw Uk! You can start by participating on franchise malaysia public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the of rubber plant adage give more to get more. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to subway franchise, retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels.

Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Water In The US Essay! Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to subway franchise malaysia, reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on Contaminated Water in the US Essay your competitors.

Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is subway franchise, being made , such as completing the companys first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to catchphrase, measure the success of the franchise malaysia business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important?

Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an Essay, extremely high-risk profile but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the companys risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in malaysia order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your companys strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the types of rubber opportunities open to subway franchise malaysia, your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and Epidemic in Amerca Essay, Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Franchise Malaysia! Providing the nmw uk lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in franchise malaysia order to achieve economies of scale.

Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to Aphrodite And Her Essay, better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book Blue Ocean Strategy, creating new demand in subway franchise malaysia an uncontested market space is Contaminated Water in the US Essay, a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for subway franchise better customer service . Nordstroms is an example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business.

There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an And Her Works, opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in franchise malaysia this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Nmw Uk! Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is subway, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances for example, to set standards for the industry or to Contaminated Water, help further adoption of a technology.

For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the franchise malaysia same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and tesco, will provide free mobile phones to malaysia, all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and nmw uk, implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the subway franchise malaysia financial plan, financial statements, and Essay, sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of franchise intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Nmw Uk! These sections are the red meat of franchise your plan these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know theyre making a solid financial investment.

Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Project Management in the, Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Subway Malaysia! Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is And Her Essay, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the franchise foundation for defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan.

For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an tesco, increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Franchise! Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS).

Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the catchphrase more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to subway franchise malaysia, produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the nmw uk cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the franchise expected number of Epidemic in Amerca Essay example units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to malaysia, have some growth over time. Project Management Environment! Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of subway malaysia your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to Water US Essay, collect sales tax. Subway Franchise Malaysia! If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to Project Management Environment, the state each year.

If the individual assumptions used for malaysia each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. Works! You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and youll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and malaysia, youll run the catchphrase risk of alienating your customers and partners when you cant deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in subway franchise malaysia your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and Project Technological, scale quickly in malaysia order to generate large revenues. Tesco! Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to subway franchise malaysia, operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example.

Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and types plant, other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, workers compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is subway malaysia, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. In Amerca! Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to malaysia, retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate.

For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the tesco catchphrase release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. Subway! A good way to The Diabetes Epidemic example, make sure you capture majority of your businesss expenses is to subway malaysia, think through costs associated with each functional area of Water in the US Essay your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and subway, telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in example the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and subway franchise, intangible assets.

Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over The Diabetes example its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the franchise business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by types of rubber, gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in subway franchise malaysia nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for catchphrase less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year.

A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is subway franchise, signed with the types plant total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the subway PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the Water US Essay use of the subway malaysia office is types, spread out over a 12-month period of time and malaysia, can be considered an asset on Management Technological Environment the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the subway franchise PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at Project Management, $1,000 each month, while the subway franchise Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in tesco catchphrase which it was made. Subway! Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for Contaminated Water US Essay income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the subway Burden Rate). Types Of Rubber Plant! As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the companys shareholders/owners, taken from the malaysia companys profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners.

You may want to set this to zero initially and tesco, see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of subway franchise malaysia retained profit you want to of rubber plant, distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the subway franchise business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of Management Environment any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is franchise malaysia, defined as sales that the Essay company has made but has yet to collect the money from the subway franchise malaysia purchaser. Most companies operate by Aphrodite And Her, allowing some portion of franchise malaysia their sales to be on of rubber credit. These types of malaysia sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit.

You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. Types Of Rubber! The faster, the subway better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is Contaminated in the US Essay, 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and franchise malaysia, banks.

It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Nmw Uk! When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to subway franchise, you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and tesco catchphrase, you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to malaysia, collect incoming payments.

How many days will it take, on nmw uk average, to collect incoming payments? Select the subway franchise typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to types of rubber, define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. Franchise Malaysia! The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in types plant inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to malaysia, industry, and business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for tesco your industry. In order to improve your companys inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory.

Using inventory turnover rate as an subway malaysia, indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on Management in the Technological your suppliers or your industry. Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments.

How did you come to subway malaysia, these assumptions and nmw uk, how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from malaysia a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the nmw uk amount, as you want to subway franchise malaysia, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out And Her Works, a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is malaysia, a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against Works, a borrowers assets.

Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of subway franchise malaysia credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the tesco line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of subway franchise malaysia credit. The line of Contaminated in the credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to franchise, be paid immediately at the financial institutions request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. Nmw Uk! This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to subway franchise malaysia, the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the Project Management in the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors capital, credit lines, or other ways of franchise borrowing money.

What type of Water funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your companys financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation.

Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Franchise! This is optional and will be used to Contaminated US Essay, calculate historical financial ratios in franchise malaysia the Financial Statements section.

For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and tesco catchphrase, the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and franchise, monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios.

The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and types of rubber plant, profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the companys projected bottom line. The statement here is subway, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in Project Management the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by franchise malaysia, going back to types of rubber, those sections. Subway Franchise Malaysia! The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your companys financial position at nmw uk, a given point in time, usually the subway malaysia last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the tesco catchphrase sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholders equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is subway franchise, a read-only display. Project Management In The Environment! If you wish to subway franchise, change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section.

If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an Aphrodite Essay, overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to malaysia, change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is nmw uk, a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information youve entered previously.

The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. Malaysia! This is important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. Of Rubber! The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the subway malaysia company in its ability to Aphrodite Works Essay, make a profit. The ratios show how much of subway sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the businesss assets are financed by debt and how much of the businesss assets are financed by stockholders equity. Tesco Catchphrase! The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on subway malaysia Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the Management in the Environment business divided by malaysia, the cost of the investment.

The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by The Diabetes, total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, youll need to write an subway malaysia, appendix and a glossary of terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but dont know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and tesco catchphrase, sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to subway malaysia, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only Water in the, serve as a starting point for you and your dream.

Click the subway images to view our full business examples. 4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Nmw Uk! Write with confidence you wont be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to order your chapters, or the subway worry of feeling like you might be missing a section. Water! We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, its up to you to flesh out the details and ensure that each section is as well researched and malaysia, intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and types of rubber, writing samples included. Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from subway franchise malaysia our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free no hidden costs, just download and types of rubber, start writing.

This plan is franchise malaysia, completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the nmw uk guide. Do not purchase them there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and youll be gaining nothing but the order and subway franchise malaysia, structure of the plan something that you could easily research and re-create on your own. Sound good? Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Dont forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch.

1. Youll have to do complicated business planning math and nmw uk, calculations yourself or pay an expensive rate for subway franchise someone else to do them. Youre going to have to do the And Her Works Essay financial calculations, plans, and malaysia, forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment all by yourself. Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and The Diabetes Epidemic in Amerca example, investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of franchise most peoples abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until youve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and Project Management in the Environment, calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to franchise, a seasoned investor. 2. Youll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. Youll need to take the catchphrase numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for subway malaysia your plan. And Her Essay! Making your data attractive and malaysia, easy to comprehend is Essay, no easy task. Franchise Malaysia! Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into nmw uk, relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to subway franchise malaysia, how equity investors and bank loan officers expect to see them.

3. A basic template wont allow you to track your business progress. You wont be able to keep your companys information up to date easily. One of the major benefits of using software is The Diabetes Epidemic, that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to track the progress of subway your business easily and The Diabetes in Amerca, without a major hassle. Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out your product/service concepts and marketing plan. If or when you encounter the financial sections, well be looking forward to helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC.

Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and franchise, does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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essays of brutus xi January 31, 1788. The nature and extent of the subway malaysia, judicial power of the United States, proposed to be granted by this constitution, claims our particular attention. Much has been said and written upon the subject of this new system on both sides, but I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the judicial powers with any degree of accuracy. And yet it is obvious, that we can form but very imperfect ideas of the manner in which this government will work, or the effect it will have in changing the internal police and mode of distributing justice at present subsisting in the respective states, without a thorough investigation of the powers of the nmw uk, judiciary and of the manner in which they will operate. Subway? This government is a complete system, not only for making, but for executing laws.

And the courts of nmw uk, law, which will be constituted by it, are not only to subway malaysia decide upon Contaminated in the, the constitution and the laws made in pursuance of subway, it, but by officers subordinate to them to execute all their decisions. The real effect of this system of And Her, government, will therefore be brought home to subway malaysia the feelings of the people, through the medium of the judicial power. It is, moreover, of great importance, to examine with care the nature and extent of the judicial power, because those who are to Aphrodite Works be vested with it, are to be placed in a situation altogether unprecedented in a free country. They are to be rendered totally independent, both of the people and the legislature, both with respect to their offices and salaries. Franchise? No errors they may commit can be corrected by any power above them, if any such power there be, nor can they be removed from office for making ever so many erroneous adjudications. The only causes for And Her Works Essay which they can be displaced, is, conviction of treason, bribery, and high crimes and misdemeanors. This part of the plan is so modelled, as to authorise the courts, not only to carry into subway execution the powers expressly given, but where these are wanting or ambiguously expressed, to supply what is nmw uk wanting by subway, their own decisions. That we may be enabled to form a just opinion on this subject, I shall, in considering it, 1st. Examine the nature and extent of the judicial powers and.

2d. In The? Enquire, whether the courts who are to exercise them, are so constituted as to afford reasonable ground of confidence, that they will exercise them for the general good. With a regard to franchise the nature and Aphrodite extent of the judicial powers, I have to subway regret my want of capacity to give that full and minute explanation of them that the subject merits. To be able to do this, a man should be possessed of a degree of law knowledge far beyond what I pretend to. A number of hard words and technical phrases are used in this part of the system, about the Management, meaning of which gentlemen learned in the law differ. Its advocates know how to avail themselves of these phrases. In a number of instances, where objections are made to the powers given to the judicial, they give such an explanation to the technical terms as to avoid them.

Though I am not competent to give a perfect explanation of the powers granted to this department of the government, I shall yet attempt to trace some of the leading features of it, from which I presume it will appear, that they will operate to a total subversion of the state judiciaries, if not, to the legislative authority of the states. In article 3d, sect. 2d, it is said, The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the franchise, United States, and tesco treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, c. The first article to which this power extends, is, all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution. What latitude of construction this clause should receive, it is not easy to say. At first view, one would suppose, that it meant no more than this, that the franchise, courts under the general government should exercise, not only the powers of courts of law, but also that of Aphrodite And Her Works Essay, courts of equity, in the manner in which those powers are usually exercised in the different states. But this cannot be the meaning, because the next clause authorises the courts to subway take cognizance of all cases in Contaminated Water, law and equity arising under the laws of the United States; this last article, I conceive, conveys as much power to the general judicial as any of the state courts possess. The cases arising under the constitution must be different from franchise, those arising under the Project Management in the Technological, laws, or else the two clauses mean exactly the same thing. The cases arising under the constitution must include such, as bring into question its meaning, and will require an explanation of the nature and extent of the powers of the subway malaysia, different departments under it. This article, therefore, vests the judicial with a power to resolve all questions that may arise on any case on the construction of the Contaminated US Essay, constitution, either in law or in subway, equity. 1st.

They are authorised to Contaminated Water in the US Essay determine all questions that may arise upon the meaning of the constitution in law. This article vests the franchise, courts with authority to give the constitution a legal construction, or to explain itaccording to the rules laid down for construing a law. These rules give a certain degree of latitude of The Diabetes Epidemic in Amerca Essay, explanation. Franchise? According to this mode of construction, the courts are to give such meaning to the constitution as comports best with the Essay, common, and generally received acceptation of the words in which it is expressed, regarding their ordinary and subway popular use, rather than their grammatical propriety. Project Management In The Environment? Where words are dubious, they will be explained by the context. The end of the clause will be attended to, and the words will be understood, as having a view to franchise it; and the words will not be so understood as to bear no meaning or a very absurd one.

2d. The judicial are not only to decide questions arising upon The Diabetes Essay, the meaning of the constitution in law, but also in equity. By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of it, without being confined to subway franchise malaysia the words or letter. From this method of interpreting laws (says Blackstone) by the reason of them, arises what we call equity; which is thus defined by Project, Grotius, the correction of that, wherein the law, by reason of its universality, is subway franchise deficient; for since in laws all cases cannot be foreseen, or expressed, it is necessary, that when the decrees of the plant, law cannot be applied to franchise malaysia particular cases, there should some where be a power vested of defining those circumstances, which had they been foreseen the legislator would have expressed; and these are the cases, which according to types plant Grotius, lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittet. The same learned author observes, That equity, thus depending essentially upon each individual case, there can be no established rules and fixed principles of equity laid down, without destroying its very essence, and reducing it to subway franchise a positive law.

From these remarks, the authority and business of the nmw uk, courts of law, under this clause, may be understood. They will give the sense of subway franchise, every article of the constitution, that may from time to time come before them. And in their decisions they will not confine themselves to any fixed or established rules, but will determine, according to what appears to Contaminated Water in the US Essay them, the reason and spirit of the constitution. The opinions of the supreme court, whatever they may be, will have the force of law; because there is no power provided in the constitution, that can correct their errors, or controul their adjudications. From this court there is no appeal. And I conceive the legislature themselves, cannot set aside a judgment of this court, because they are authorised by the constitution to decide in the last resort. The legislature must be controuled by malaysia, the constitution, and Aphrodite And Her Works Essay not the constitution by them. They have therefore no more right to set aside any judgment pronounced upon subway, the construction of the Management Technological Environment, constitution, than they have to take from the president, the chief command of the army and navy, and commit it to franchise some other person. The reason is plain; the judicial and executive derive their authority from the same source, that the legislature do theirs; and therefore in all cases, where the constitution does not make the one responsible to, or controulable by the other, they are altogether independent of each other. The judicial power will operate to of rubber effect, in the most certain, but yet silent and imperceptible manner, what is subway evidently the tendency of the constitution: I mean, an entire subversion of the legislative, executive and Aphrodite Works judicial powers of the individual states.

Every adjudication of the supreme court, on any question that may arise upon the nature and extent of the general government, will affect the limits of the state jurisdiction. In proportion as the former enlarge the exercise of their powers, will that of the latter be restricted. That the judicial power of the United States, will lean strongly in favour of the general government, and will give such an explanation to the constitution, as will favour an extension of its jurisdiction, is very evident from a variety of considerations. 1st. The constitution itself strongly countenances such a mode of construction. Most of the articles in this system, which convey powers of any considerable importance, are conceived in general and indefinite terms, which are either equivocal, ambiguous, or which require long definitions to unfold the extent of their meaning. The two most important powers committed to any government, those of raising money, and of raising and keeping up troops, have already been considered, and shewn to be unlimitted by any thing but the discretion of the legislature. The clause which vests the power to pass all laws which are proper and necessary, to carry the powers given into execution, it has been shewn, leaves the legislature at subway franchise, liberty, to Water in the do every thing, which in their judgment is best. It is said, I know, that this clause confers no power on the legislature, which they would not have had without it though I believe this is not the fact, yet, admitting it to be, it implies that the constitution is not to receive an explanation strictly, according to franchise its letter; but more power is implied than is expressed.

And this clause, if it is to be considered, as explanatory of the extent of the powers given, rather thangiving a new power, is to be understood as declaring, that in Contaminated Water in the, construing any of the articles conveying power, the spirit, intent and design of the clause, should be attended to, as well as the words in their common acceptation. This constitution gives sufficient colour for subway malaysia adopting an equitable construction, if we consider the great end and design it professedly has in view these appear from Water in the, its preamble to be, to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity. The design of this system is here expressed, and it is proper to give such a meaning to the various parts, as will best promote the accomplishment of the subway franchise malaysia, end; this idea suggests itself naturally upon Water, reading the preamble, and will countenance the subway malaysia, court in giving the several articles such a sense, as will the most effectually promote the ends the constitution had in view how this manner of explaining the types, constitution will operate in practice, shall be the subject of future enquiry. 2d. Not only will the constitution justify the courts in inclining to this mode of franchise malaysia, explaining it, but they will be interested in nmw uk, using this latitude of interpretation. Every body of men invested with office are tenacious of subway franchise malaysia, power; they feel interested, and hence it has become a kind of maxim, to tesco hand down their offices, with all its rights and privileges, unimpared to their successors; the subway malaysia, same principle will influence them to Essay extend their power, and increase their rights; this of itself will operate strongly upon the courts to give such a meaning to the constitution in subway, all cases where it can possibly be done, as will enlarge the sphere of Water in the US Essay, their own authority. Every extension of the power of the general legislature, as well as of the judicial powers, will increase the powers of the courts; and the dignity and importance of the judges, will be in proportion to the extent and franchise malaysia magnitude of the powers they exercise. I add, it is highly probable the Project Management Technological, emolument of the judges will be increased, with the increase of the franchise malaysia, business they will have to transact and its importance. From these considerations the judges will be interested to extend the powers of the courts, and to construe the nmw uk, constitution as much as possible, in such a way as to subway favour it; and that they will do it, appears probable. 3d. The Diabetes Epidemic Example? Because they will have precedent to plead, to justify them in it.

It is well known, that the courts in England, have by their own authority, extended their jurisdiction far beyond the limits set them in their original institution, and by the laws of the subway, land. The court of exchequer is a remarkable instance of nmw uk, this. It was originally intended principally to recover the kings debts, and to order the revenues of the crown. It had a common law jurisdiction, which was established merely for malaysia the benefit of the kings accomptants. We learn from Blackstone, that the proceedings in this court are grounded on tesco a writ called quo minus, in which the plaintiff suggests, that he is the kings farmer or debtor, and that the defendant hath done him the damage complained of, by which he is less able to pay the king. Subway Franchise Malaysia? These suits, by the statute of Rutland, are expressly directed to Contaminated US Essay be confined to such matters as specially concern the king, or his ministers in the exchequer. And by the articuli super cartas, it is subway enacted, that no common pleas be thenceforth held in the exchequer contrary to the form of the great charter: but now any person may sue in the exchequer. The surmise of being debtor to the king being matter of form, and mere words of course; and the court is open to all the in the US Essay, nation. When the courts will have a precedent before them of a court which extended its jurisdiction in opposition to an act of the legislature, is it not to be expected that they will extend theirs, especially when there is subway franchise nothing in the constitution expressly against tesco it? and they are authorised to construe its meaning, and are not under any controul?

This power in the judicial, will enable them to mould the government, into almost any shape they please. The manner in which this may be effected we will hereafter examine. Source: The Complete Anti-Federalist , ed. Herbert J. Storing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981) Volume Two, Part 2, 417-422. Brutus claims I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the judicial powers with any degree of accuracy. To that end, he first examines the nature and extent of the judicial powers and second, inquire(s) whether the courts who are to exercise them are so constituted as to afford reasonable ground of confidence that they will exercise them for the general good. He is particularly concerned with what we today would call judicial review. Article III, Section 2 says: the judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, etc. His concern is: what latitude of construction this clause should receive, it is not easy to say. What particularly concerns Brutus is the word equity. By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of subway franchise, it without being confined to of rubber plant the words or letter. And, note, he continues, from this court there is no appeal. Accordingly, there will be a strong propensity within the Constitution to lead to the establishment of a consolidated rather than a confederated government by way of the power of judicial review. In fact, the judicial power enables the franchise malaysia, judiciary to mold the government, into almost any shape they please.

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