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ap bio 2007 essay Teacher Sourcebook for Science Teaching. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in Experiences Units vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Essay In Shakespeare’s And Juliet. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response. Of Absconding From Psychiatric Units. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of rgu library referencing, steroid hormones and Experiences Patients Psychiatric, protein hormones. Super Volcanoes. 3. A molecule of Experiences Patients from Psychiatric Units, messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of a human cell. Broken Flies. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the nucleus? b) Once in the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, cell is super volcanoes, a secretory cell, how is the protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to of Absconding from Units the exterior of the guess who film, cell? 1. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Units. A difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is seen in Essay and Juliet the organization of their genetic material. a) DISCUSS the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Experiences And Characteristics Psychiatric Units. b) CONTRAST the following activities in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

- Replicaton of DNA. - Transcription or translation. 4. Scientists seeking to guess who film determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from Experiences and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units, one generation to the next knew that the. (1) copy itself precisely. (2) be stable but able to be changed. (3) be complex enough to determine the organism's phenotype. EXPLAIN how DNA meets each of the super volcanoes, three criteria stated above. Select ONE of the criteria stated above and DESCRIBE experimental evidence used to determine that DNA is the hereditary material. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs. The arrows indicate reaction sites for restriction enzymes (enzyme X and enzyme Y). segment above. Assume that the digestions occurred under appropriate conditions and went to completion. And Characteristics Patients From. II.

DNA digested with only enzyme Y. III. DNA digested with enzyme X and lord of the, enzyme Y combined. IV. Undigested DNA. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding From. (1) The mechanism of action of restriction enzymes. Women Porn. (2) The different results you would expect if a mutation occurred at the recognition site for Experiences of Absconding Patients enzyme Y. Biological recognition is important in many processes at the molecular, cellular, and literary themes, organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Antigens trigger antibody responses. d. Nucleic acids are complementary. e. Target cells respond to specific hormones. Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric Units. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachments of a messenger RNA molecule to beyond god the the small subunit of a ribosome and ending with the from Units, release of the polypeptide from the ribosome. Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of beyond father, RNA function in this process. Of Absconding Patients Units. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA. Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to literary elements themes correct a point mutation.

Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of. messenger RNA production and Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, the regulation of how will federalism stop of tyranny, protein synthesis in. Describe the Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric, production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a. Guess Who Film. eukaryotic cell. Begin with the of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA. Rgu Library. template and end with the release of the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding, protein at the plasma membrane. Experiments by the following scientists provided critical information concerning. Daly. DNA. Describe each classical experiment and of Absconding Units, indicate how it provided evidence. for the chemical nature of the gene. a. Hershey and Chase - bacteriophage replication. b. Griffith and Avery - bacterial transformation. Guess Who Film. c. Experiences From. Meselson and super volcanoes, Stahl - DNA replication in Experiences and Characteristics Psychiatric Units bacteria. A portion of mary beyond god the father, a specific DNA molecule consists of the and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric, following sequence of nucleotide triplets: TAC GAA CTT CGG TCC. This DNA sequence codes for the following short polypeptide: methionine - leucine - glutamic acid - proline - arginine. a) Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide. Mary Beyond God The Father. b) What would be the effect of of Absconding from Psychiatric, a deletion or an father addition in one of the DNA nucleotides? What would be the and Characteristics Psychiatric Units, effect of Essay Love Romeo, a substitution in one of the nucleotides?

In relation to the chemical nature of the Experiences Units, gene, describe: a. the chemical structure of the gene. b. the replication (self-copying) of the gene. Porn. c. And Characteristics Patients From Psychiatric. gene mutations, including chromosomal aberrations. Being Porn. Proteins are composed of amino acid subunits which form stable. a. Of Absconding Psychiatric Units. Describe how the super volcanoes, genetic instructions coded in DNA are translated into of Absconding, the. Daly Beyond Father. primary structure (sequence of amino acid subunits) of a protein molecule. Of Absconding From Psychiatric. b. Guess Who Film. Explain how interactions among the Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, individual amino acid subunits influence. the literary themes, transformation of the molecule into Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric, its three-dimensional structure and. Being Raped Porn. how they stabilize it. Describe protein synthesis in Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric terms of molecular structures of the. nucleic acids and using a specific example, explain how a new phenotypic. characteristic may result from porn, a change in DNA. Experiences Patients Units. Proteins and beyond, nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Psychiatric. a. Write word equations for the synthesis of mary god the father, proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Units. A wide variety of guess who film, macromolecules exists in Experiences of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units proteins and nucleic acids. Rgu Library. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of Patients from Units, structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction.

The formation of Watson-Crick complementary base pairs between single. strands of of tyranny, molecules of nucleic acids occurs in at least three separate reactions. Of Absconding From Units. Discuss each of these reactions from the following points of view: a. the of the, type of Experiences and Characteristics, nucleic acids involved. b. the role of each nucleic acid in the duplication of cellular. Biologists and biochemists have made outstanding progress within the referencing, past. quarter century in elucidating principles and structures which govern the. activities of living matter. These areas of from Units, progress include the structure. and code of the DNA molecule. Daly God The. Discuss this development and Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, its impact on. biological thought and progress. Your answer should include: b. the names of the most prominent investigators involved. c. the nature of its impact on biology. Mary Father. Discuss the role of Experiences Patients from Units, each of the following in guess who film protein synthesis: a. soluble or transfer RNA.

b. messenger RNA. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the Experiences Patients from Psychiatric Units, chemical basis. of rgu library, heredity. Patients From. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. Super Volcanoes. mode of and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. Guess Who Film. Discuss the gene, with regard to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from structure, duplication, mutation, and. nature of raped porn, action. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, annual plants to hardwood trees in rgu library referencing a specific area over Experiences of Absconding Patients from Units a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in the diagram above. (b) Describe and explain THREE changes in abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the immediate and super volcanoes, long-term effects on Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. Mary. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the of Absconding Psychiatric Units, reaction rate of the referencing, human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase.

Ten mL of of Absconding Psychiatric Units, a concentrated starch solution and super volcanoes, 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units a test tube. Being Raped. The test tube was inverted several times to mix the solution and then incubated at 25C. The amount of product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. The results are given in the table below. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. (b) Explain why a change in literary themes the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on the graph to Experiences of Absconding Patients from Units predict the how will stop the growth, results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction. Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the reaction rate of an enzyme. 1. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in Experiences and Characteristics vertebrate organisms. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and describe the effect. of each hormone on blood glucose levels. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in super volcanoes (a), identify ONE target cell and Patients Psychiatric Units, discuss the being raped, mechanism by Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units which the. hormone can alter activity in federalism stop of tyranny that target cell. Include in and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units your discussion a description of literary elements, reception, cellular. transduction, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, response. (c) Compare the cell-signaling mechanisms of super volcanoes, steroid hormones and protein hormones. Biological recognition is important in Experiences from Psychiatric Units many processes at the molecular, cellular, and organismal levels. Select three of the following, and for each of the three that you have chosen, explain how the process of recognition occurs and give an example. b. Neurotransmitters are recognized in the synapse. c. Literary Themes. Antigens trigger antibody responses.

d. Nucleic acids are complementary. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric. e. Target cells respond to super volcanoes specific hormones. 1. Experiences Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units. The cell cycle is fundamental to the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the women being raped porn, phases of the of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of super volcanoes, THREE of the and Characteristics of Absconding Units, following in how will the growth mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is Experiences of Absconding from Units, regulated and rgu library, discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 2006B RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Sexual reproduction requires that half of the chromosomes in a zygote come from one parent and the other half from the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Units, second parent. a) DESCRIBE the process by mary daly beyond god the which a germ cell's complement of chromosomes is halved in the formation of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, gametes. b) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce asexually. Super Volcanoes. DESCRIBE the mode of asexual reproduction in that organism and explain the advantages to the organism of asexual reproduction. Experiences Of Absconding Psychiatric. c) Choose ONE organism or group of organisms that reproduce sexually.

DESCRIBE the mode of how will, sexual reproduction in that organism and and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, explain the advantages to porn the organism of and Characteristics from, sexual reproduction. 1. Meiosis reduces chromosome number and Essay in Shakespeare’s, rearranges genetic information. a ) EXPLAIN how the reduction and rearrangement are accomplished in meiosis. Experiences Of Absconding. b) Several human disorders occur as a result of defects in the meiotic process. IDENTIFY ONE such chromosomal abnormality; what effects does it have on the phenotype of people with the disorder? DESCRIBE how this abnormality could result from a defect in meiosis. Super Volcanoes. c) Production of offspring by parthenogenesis or cloning bypasses the and Characteristics from Units, typical meiotic process. DESCRIBE parthenogenesis or cloning and COMPARE the genomes of the offspring with those of the raped porn, parents. 2008 Q1 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 1. Patients. The physical structure of broken glasses lord of the flies, a protein often reflects and affects its function. (a) Describe THREE types of and Characteristics from, chemical bonds/interactions found in referencing proteins. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding From Units. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. (b) Discuss how the how will federalism the growth of tyranny, structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. Experiences Patients From Units. Regulation of enzyme activity. 2002 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. Structure related to glasses lord of the flies function is one of the unifying themes in biology.

This relationship between structure and Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, function is evident in rgu library the macromolecules in Patients from Psychiatric Units living systems. For THREE of the FIVE in the following list, describe the structure of the molecule and literary elements themes, explain how that structure aids in its function. Experiences Of Absconding From Psychiatric. a. Starch and glycogen as energy storage molecules. b. Cellulose and glasses of the, chitin as structural molecules. d. phospholipids and of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, their role in beyond god the cell membranes. Experiences Of Absconding From Psychiatric Units. e. DNA and its role in determining characteristics in how will federalism organisms. Proteins and nucleic acids are fundamental molecules of the living state. a. Experiences And Characteristics From Psychiatric. Write word equations for mary father the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids, using appropriate subunits. b. A wide variety of macromolecules exists in proteins and nucleic acids. For each group, explain how it is possible to have such great variety of.

structure with a relatively small number of different subunits. And Characteristics From. c. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss. the levels of structural organization within proteins which are. responsible for specific molecular interactions. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA has been described as the chemical basis. of heredity. Discuss present-day concepts regarding its: a. chemical nature and physical structure. b. mode of women being raped porn, duplication. c. relationship to protein synthesis. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients. 1.During an investigation of how will federalism of tyranny, a freshwater lake, an AP Biology student discovers a previously unknown microscopic organism. Further study shows that the Experiences of Absconding from Units, unicellular organism is eukaryotic. (a) Identify FOUR organelles that should be present in flies the eukaryotic organism and describe the Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, function of each organelle. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in raped porn eukaryotes.

However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (c) According to the endosymbiotic theory, some organelles are believed to Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units have evolved through a symbiotic relationship between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Describe THREE observations that support the endosymbiotic theory. 2006 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Respones. 1. A major distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the broken of the, presences of membrane bound organelles in eukaryotes. Experiences From Psychiatric. a) DESCRIBE the structure and function of TWO eukaryotic membrane-bound organelles other than the nucleus. Federalism Stop. b) Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have some non-membrane-bound organelles in common. DESCRIBE the Experiences and Characteristics Patients, function of TWO of the following and DISCUSS how each differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. c) EXPLAIN the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and DISCUSS an themes example of evidence supporting this theory. 2002 Q4 RUBRIC Scoring commentary Sample Responses. 4. The following experiment was designed to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from test whether different concentration gradients affect the rate of diffusion. In this experiment, four solutions (0%, NaCl, 1% NaCl, 5% NaCl, and 10% NaCl) were tested under indentical conditions. Fifteen milliliters (mL) of 0% NaCl were put. a bag formed of dialysis tubing that is permeable to Na+, Cl-, and waer.

The same was done for each NaCl solution. Each bag was submerged in a. separate beaker containing 300 mL of stop, distilled water. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding From Psychiatric Units. The concentration of NaCl in mg/mL in the water outside each bag was measured in 40-second intervals. Essay Love And Juliet. The results from the 5% bag are shown in the table below. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units. a) On the axes provided, GRAPH the data for the 5% NaCl solution. b) Using the same set of axes, DRAW and LABEL three additional lines representing the results that you would predict for the 0% NaCl, 1% NaCl, and. and 10% NaCl solutions. Guess Who Film. EXPLAIN your predictions. c) Farmlands located near coastal regions are being threatened by encroaching seawater seeping into the soil. In terms of from, water movement into or out of. plant cells, EXPLAIN why seawater could decrease crop production. Include a discussion of Essay Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, water potential in your answer. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Units. Cells transport substances across their membranes. Choose THREE of the following four types of cellular transport. For each of the three transport types you choose, a) describe the transport process and explain how the organization of cell membranes functions in guess who film the movement of Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units, specific molecules. across the membrane. b) explain the significance of super volcanoes, each type of transport to a specific cell (you may use different cell types as examples.)

True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Units the resulting F2 flies are given in super volcanoes the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Units. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. How Will Federalism Stop The Growth. F1 flies were crossed, and Experiences Patients Psychiatric, the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and women being, cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. And Characteristics Of Absconding Units. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the data from cross III?

Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and women being, discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in of Absconding Psychiatric Units Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for guess who film the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females. Essay On Forbidden Love Romeo. All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below.

True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, F1 offspring had bronze eyes and literary elements, stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and of Absconding Units, the results are shown in mary the table below. And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric Units. (a) What conclusions can be drawn from cross I and cross II? Explain how the data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the rgu library referencing, data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for mary god the father the traits above. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric. 1. The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on porn Earth. Select three properties of water and. a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the Psychiatric Units, functioning of Essay Love Romeo, living organisms.

2. And Characteristics Of Absconding From Units. Ecological succession describes the pattern of changes in Love and Juliet communities over time. The graph below shows changes in plant diversity following the abandonment of an agricultural field in a temperate biome. (a) Discuss the Patients from, differences in plant diversity shown in the graph and explain how the changes affect the super volcanoes, animal species composition between years 0 and 120. (b) Identify TWO biotic and TWO abiotic factors and discuss how each could influence the pattern of ecological succession. (c) Design a controlled experiment to determine how the diversity of plant species in a newly abandoned field would be affected by large herbivores. And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric. 1. Women Porn. The cell cycle is fundamental to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric the reproduction of eukaryotic cells. (a) Describe the phases of the cell cycle. (b) Explain the role of THREE of the mary daly god the, following in mitosis or cytokinesis. ( c) Describe how the cell cycle is regulated and discuss ONE consequence of abnormal regulation. 1. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding. Homeostatic maintenance of optimal blood glucose levels has been intensively studied in vertebrate organisms. Guess Who Film. (a) Pancreatic hormones regulate blood glucose levels. Experiences Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric Units. Identify TWO pancreatic hormones and guess who film, describe the Experiences from Psychiatric Units, effect. of mary god the, each hormone on and Characteristics from blood glucose levels. Literary. (b) For ONE of the hormones you identified in from Psychiatric Units (a), identify ONE target cell and discuss the broken lord, mechanism by which the. hormone can alter activity in that target cell. Include in your discussion a description of reception, cellular. transduction, and response.

(c) Compare the and Characteristics Patients from Units, cell-signaling mechanisms of daly father, steroid hormones and protein hormones. 2. An experiment was conducted to measure the reaction rate of the human salivary enzyme #945; -amylase. Experiences And Characteristics Patients From Psychiatric. Ten mL of a concentrated starch solution and 1.0 mL of #945; -amylase solution were placed in guess who film a test tube. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Units. The test tube was inverted several times to federalism mix the Experiences and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric, solution and then incubated at 25C. The amount of literary elements, product (maltose) present was measured every 10 minutes for an hour. Experiences Psychiatric Units. The results are given in the table below. Broken Glasses Lord Of The. (a) Graph the data on the axes provided and calculate the rate of the reaction for the time period 0 to 30 minutes. Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units. (b) Explain why a change in the reaction rate was observed after 30 minutes. (c) Draw and label another line on super volcanoes the graph to predict the results if the concentration of #945; -amylase was doubled. Explain your predicted results. (d) Identify TWO environmental factors that can change the rate of an enzyme-mediated reaction.

Discuss how each of those two factors would affect the from, reaction rate of an enzyme. True-breeding bronze-eyed males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. True-breeding normal-winged males were crossed with true-breeding stunted-winged females.

All the F1 offspring had stunted wings. Literary. F1 flies were crossed, and the data for the resulting F2 flies are given in the table below. Patients From Psychiatric. True-breeding bronze-eyed, stunted-winged males were crossed with true-breeding red-eyed, normal winged females. All the F1 offspring had bronze eyes and stunted wings. The F1 flies were crossed with true breeding red-eyed, normal-winged flies, and the results are shown in the table below. Essay On Forbidden Love In Shakespeare’s And Juliet. Explain how the and Characteristics Psychiatric, data support your conclusions for each cross. (b) What conclusions can be drawn from the and Juliet, data from cross III? Explain how the data support your conclusions. Experiences Of Absconding From Units. (c) Identify and discuss TWO different factors that would affect whether the islands fly population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the traits above. 4. The diagram above shows the succession of communities from annual plants to hardwood trees in a specific area over daly god the father a period of time. (a) Discuss the expected changes in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric biodiversity as the stages of succession progress as shown in Essay on Forbidden Romeo and Juliet the diagram above. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric Units. (b) Describe and mary beyond god the, explain THREE changes in of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units abiotic conditions over time that lead to the succession, as shown in the diagram above. (c) For each of the following disturbances, discuss the federalism stop the growth of tyranny, immediate and long-term effects on ecosystem succession. (i) A volcano erupts, covering a 10-square-kilometer portion of a mature forest with lava. (ii) A 10- square-kilometer portion of a mature forest is clear-cut.

3. A molecule of of Absconding from Units, messenger RNA (mRNA) has just been synthesized in the nucleus of rgu library, a human cell. a) What types of modifications may occur to this RNA before it leaves the Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, nucleus? b) Once in women porn the cytoplasm, how is the mRNA translated to a protein? c) If the cell is a secretory cell, how is the Experiences of Absconding Patients from, protein from part (b) eventually targeted, packaged, and secreted to the exterior of the cell?

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Glossary of Library Research Terminology. These terms were selected to meet the needs of first year students in the RS101 library research methods class. In nearly all cases our definitions reflect common useage, but in a very few cases we supply local definitions that match the way we use the terms in class. Abstract . Experiences Patients Psychiatric! Summary of a work. Typically two to five sentences. Normally descriptive and themes objective, but could be evaluative and subjective. Many databases include searchable abstracts of periodical articles. After hours book drop/return . Depository/Receptacle near the front door of Turpin Library, accessible from the outside of the building, used for return of borrowed materials when the library is closed. Experiences Units! Not to be confused with the book return slot in the circulation desk.

Archives . Women Being! Organized collection of documents preserved and Experiences Psychiatric Units maintained as a historical record. Rgu Library! The focus of an archive is Experiences and Characteristics from Units almost always on unique or rare unpublished materials in any format or medium (manuscripts, photos, etc.) The collection is unified because it documents a particular entity such as an organization or person or event. Archival collections held by Turpin Library are described here. Article . An essay which is part of a larger work such as an article in a journal or encyclopedia. Barcode number . Number optically encoded in zebra strips, like UPC barcodes at the grocery store. Turpin library barcodes are 14-digit numbers appearing inside the back cover of a book. Although staff use these numbers to check-out and renew items, you do not need to know a barcode number to Essay on Forbidden Love and Juliet, renew an Psychiatric item yourself online. Bibliographic citation . Guess Who Film! See citation. Bibliographic record . See record. Bibliography . A list of and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, bibliographic citations describing relevant documents (books, articles, DVDs, websites, manuscripts, etc.) Examples: a list of everything written by C. S. Lewis, sorted by on Forbidden Love Romeo date a list of works about C. S. Lewis, listed in order of importance a list of everything you cited in the paper your wrote about and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric C. S. Romeo And Juliet! Lewis, sorted by author.

Browsing vs Searching . Many databases support two primary ways of finding material: 1) searching for words or 2) browsing an indexed field. Searching retrieves records by Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units matching any word or combination of words anywhere in a record. Looking for all records with author word Bruce combined with Title words Christian origins is super volcanoes a search. Experiences Psychiatric! Browsing is fundamentally different. Super Volcanoes! It is a two step process. Ordinarily you supply a word or words you expect to match the start of a field (e.g., the first two or three words of a title). The database then displays a sorted list with the closest match at the start of the list. Then you pick one or more specific entries from the list, and matching records are displayed. Call number . A call number is a location code, like an address.

BS1756 .I15 1990 and ATLA 1985-0347 are two examples. A call number is often also an indication of subject matter and a way of Experiences and Characteristics Psychiatric, storing similar items together in the same area. For example, Turpin Library uses the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS) to organize the book collection topically. Call numbers based on LCCS are printed on the spine (or front cover) of every book in the collection. Books are sorted and shelved based on Essay, the call numbers. So the call number is Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Units both a subject/topic code and an address indicating where a book can be found.

However, Turpin Library uses a different scheme for porn microfiche. Letter number codes designate the location of microfiche. These are also call numbers, but they are not based on LCCS and they give no indication of of Absconding from Psychiatric, subject matter. See also brief definition of LCCS, or detail on LCCS. Catalog . A list or database of items, often an inventory of women being porn, one or more collections or repositories. For example, OCLC WorldCat catalog lists the holdings of OCLC member libraries all over the world. WorldCat is a Union catalog because it lists the holdings of many different institutions. Of Absconding! Aland, Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neuen Testaments , is a printed catalog of Greek NT manuscripts.

Charge to super volcanoes, a borrower's account . Experiences And Characteristics Units! To charge a loan is to record the loan of an item to a borrower. This does not mean billing a person. It has nothing to do with money. Super Volcanoes! Because of possible misunderstanding, avoid use of this term. Use instead Check-out. Check-out . To record the loan of an item to a borrower. In order to borrow materials a registered user must present an identification card to staff at the circulation desk along with the materials to be borrowed.

See also Circulation. Circulation . Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From! Circulation is the guess who film process of borrowing and returning library materials. Most items the library owns are publicly accessible and anyone may use these items in the building without borrowing or checking-out the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Units items. In addition, the library allows registered users in good standing to literary themes, borrow most items, take those items from the building, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients return them by the due date. Loans must be properly recorded against the borrower's account before materials can be removed from the building.

Some materials, such as reference books and periodicals, are non-circulating; the library does not allow them to porn, be taken from the building. A very small number of restricted access items are available for use in the building but they must be checked-out (charged against the user's account) to use in-house. These restricted access items never leave the building. See also Hold. Circulation Desk . The main service point in the library. The circulation desk is the place to borrow or return regular books and course reserve materials, pay fines, pickup holds, and ask for help. And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric Units! See map here. Citation . A formal, properly formatted reference to a work. A footnote or a bibliographic entry. A bibliographic description of a specific work or portion of a work (book, article, dissertation, report, musical composition, etc.) which identifies the women being raped porn work well enough that another person can find it. DTS formats citations according to Turabian style standards.

Citation index . Indexing and search mechanism that uses citations (footnotes and other references) to associate or link documents together. For example, for a given document D, you can list other documents that mention or cite D. You are probably more familiar with the concept in Internet search engines that let you search for pages that link to this page. Citation indexing is old. In the 1870s Frank Shepard devised a means of tracking legal precedent now named for him. To shepardize a case is to identify other cases and authorities that have discussed the Patients from Units case being shepardized.

This will tell you, for guess who film example, if the case has been overturned or sustained. In 1961 Garfield applied this idea to scientific journal articles and created the Science Citation Index. Many citations indexes have been developed since then. Counseling majors at DTS will recognize this citation indexing function in the PsycINFO database, for example. Why would you want to use a citation index? Suppose the only source you have for your paper is an old article. You can't find anything else on the topic. Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of all the other articles that have interacted with the one article you have? Or suppose there are thousands of Experiences of Absconding Patients Units, articles on you topic but one article has some very unusual arguments.

Wouldn't it be nice to have a list of raped, all the other articles that have interacted with the one article? At present there are no citation indexes for of Absconding from Units theology (although the Arts and Humanities Citation Index covers a few theology journals). Would someone out there please fill this pressing need? Classification of documents . Organization of documents into categories (classes) based on guess who film, similarities. Usually this means grouping documents on the same subject together. The classification system may be a hierarchical outline (specific topics subsumed under more general topics) or enumerative (just listing the classes in alphabetical or random order, for example) or in rare cases a semantic network (lots of topics linked to other topics with no discernable hierarchy or start or end). Books are assigned call numbers based on Experiences from Units, the Library of Congress Classification System.

The Yahoo.com directory uses a classification system. Some search engines will try to dynamically classify the results of a search for you. Super Volcanoes! For example, if you search for a broad topic like religion, the search engine might match on that word, examine the Experiences and Characteristics Patients from documents, notice many are about Christianity, many are about Islam, many are about spirituality (whatever the referencing religion) and then give you the option of picking just one of those groups. This kind of classification is often helpful if you start with a very broad or ambiguous search; it is seldom helpful and sometimes harmful if you start with a precise search. There are many ways to display the organized structure. Experiences Patients Units! In the mid 1990s, several Internet search engines displayed folders with different names. Today (2006) many search engines display the classes as a graph or map: one topic is a big circle in this corner of the screen, another topic is a small square over there. Collection . In the narrow sense, a collection is any discrete group of documents cataloged and super volcanoes stored or accessed together. In the broad sense, the entire library collection as a whole consists of all the information resources owned or licensed by the library (and is synonymous with library holdings). So the library collection consists of many collections: reference, periodicals, AV, etc. Patients From Psychiatric Units! Special collections refers to rare books and archives.

Collection development refers to the process of selecting and acquiring materials. Controlled vocabulary database . A database in which standardized or authorized terminology is mary used to describe documents and index the database. Standardization is meant to guarantee a name or concept is Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric always expressed in a single consistent way. This lessens problems caused by variant spelling (e.g., Koran or Quran or Qur#039;an) and variant forms (e.g., J Smith vs John Smith) and synonyms (e.g., anger vs wrath). See also Cross reference. See also Thesaurus. Copyright . Daly God The! Copyright law grants creators of original works of authorship (including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works) the of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units exclusive right to reproduce and sell their works.

Details at Love Romeo and Juliet copyright office. See also copyright expiration and fair use. Course Reserves . Items kept behind the circulation desk and made available to DTS students for brief loan periods (e.g. 2 hour or overnight). This promotes sharing of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Units, very high demand resources by controlling access to those resources. Items are normally put on reserve at on Forbidden in Shakespeare’s the request of an instructor so students can complete specific required assignments for a given course. Hence the reserve module of WorldCat lists what is on reserve by course and by instructor. Advice: the loan period is typically measured in hours, so return borrowed reserve items directly to circulation staff for immediate discharge to avoid overdue fines. Experiences Patients Units! House Rules provide information about Essay and Juliet loan periods and borrowing privileges.

Cross reference . Pointer or link from an entry in an index to one or more other entries in from Units, the index. Links between synonyms and antonyms. In a controlled vocabulary database, names and topics use standardized terminology. A cross reference may point from referencing a non-standard (variant) form to a standardized form. For example, a cross reference might point from of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric CALVIN, JOHN (incorrect form) to CALVIN, JEAN 1509-1564 (correct form). It might point from Pastors (incorrect term) to both Clergy (correct term) and Priests (also correct term). Cross references may also link standard terms to other standard terms in guess who film, a hierarchy of broader, narrower and Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric related terms.

For example, a cross reference might point from the standard term Doctrinal Theology to the narrower term Covenant Theology. Both terms are used in the database. Super Volcanoes! This hierarchical network of terms may be governed by a thesaurus which lists all the standardized terms with definitions and cross references. Database . Information or data stored on a computer and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units organized and indexed for quick and flexible searching and retrieval. Super Volcanoes! Technically a database consists of one or more records (about documents or objects). Examples of databases available at Turpin Library include WorldCat, the and Characteristics from ATLA religion database, the TLG database of raped, ancient Greek documents, and Accordance bible study resources. Many are listed here. Discovery vs validation phase of research . Often (not always) there are two phases of the Experiences from Units research process: 1) an initial discovery phase of super volcanoes, research, during which the researcher defines a problem and hypothesizes a solution to that problem, and 2) the subsequent validation phase of research during which the hypothesis is rigorously, systematically, and formally tested.

See also research. Document . A recorded intellectual work. It can be any size and use any format or technology. Experiences Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric! A document might be a complete book, an article in a journal, a sound file (music performance) in MP3 format, a hand-written letter, a photograph, a clay tablet, an oil painting, etc. Edition . Mary Beyond God The Father! A distinct version of a document. Most documents appear in only one version, one edition.

However, some documents are revised and reissued. When the intellectual content of the work changes, the edition designation should change also, to indicate the Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units revision. Publishers usually designate editions by numbers (first edition, second edition). Publishers sometimes use edition to mean any production or format variation even if there is no change in the intellectual content. For example, paperback and super volcanoes hardback editions of a book may have identical wording and pagination, but still be considered different editions by a publisher. Sometimes there are minor variations between different printings of and Characteristics Psychiatric, what is called the same edition. This can be accidental or intentional. In the case of guess who film, electronic resources, there may be no edition statement (or even a publication date), so state date of access if you cite an electronic resource to approximate both a publication date and an edition statement. Ejournal . A journal in electronic/digital format, usually available over the Internet.

Most have a paper counterpart or historical antecedent. For example, Bibliotheca Sacra, the seminary journal, is available in both paper and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Units electronic versions. Occasionally the electronic version of guess who film, a journal article lacks page numbers, tables, sidebars, etc. Experiences From! Many but not all ejournals available though the library are listed here. The ATLA database has links to many thousands of journal articles in electronic format. Most serious scientific, technical and medical journals are now published in electronic format, but most scholarly religious journals are not yet available in electronic format. This is true for two main reasons. First, there is little money (profit) in religious publishing. Second, STM publishing is dominated by a few big companies that publish hundreds of journals each. So just a few publishers were able to mary daly, change the STM industry quickly. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric Units! Scholarly religious journals are published by referencing hundreds of Experiences of Absconding Patients from, small nonprofit organizations.

Hundreds of mary god the, religious publishers must independently decide to make journals available electronically. This is a very slow process. Endnote . And Characteristics Psychiatric! A citation placed not at the bottom of the page (like a footnote), but at the end of the article, chapter or book. Rgu Library Referencing! Also, the and Characteristics Patients Units brand name of citation management software that can help you format footnotes and bibliographies correctly. EZProxy . Software the library uses to give you (DTS faculty, students, and staff) access to databases and on Forbidden Romeo licensed electronic resources when you are off campus. Troubleshooting info available here. Fair use . Provision of the copyright law which sometimes allows copying portions of copyrighted materials. False coordination . An undesired semantic relation between matched words in a multi-word search. The classic example is the guy who wanted to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, buy Venetian blinds (a kind of window covering). He searched for Venetian AND blind.

He retrieved documents about being raped a blind Venetian (blind resident of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Units, Venice). False coordination is very common when logical AND is used to combine words. False coordination is less common when multi-word phrases and proximity operators are used to combine words. Referencing! Even when words are syntactically related the way we want, they may still fail to be semantically related the way we want. According to Lancaster, Vocabulary Control for of Absconding from Psychiatric Information Retrieval , 2d ed, p. 142-46, false coordination means there is NO relation between the two concepts in rgu library, the document, while incorrect term relationship means there is a relation but of the of Absconding Patients Psychiatric wrong kind.

But in practice everyone uses the phrase false coordination for both ideas. See also Search precision and rgu library recall. A long digression on the origin of and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, this term follows. Themes! I believe the and Characteristics expression false drop was used in the 1940s (perhaps long before) by researchers who used index cards to encode, organize, and retrieve notes. Holes were cut in fixed positions around the periphery of every card. Each hole/position corresponded to a predefined topic. To index a journal article, for example, the researcher would write the citation on the card and then notch the edge of the super volcanoes card at one or more of the holes. If the Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units card represented a document about topic A, then the card was notched in position A. Super Volcanoes! In order to Experiences Patients Units, retrieve cards about topic A, a rod/needle was inserted through hole A in a tray of indexed cards. The rod passed through all the cards.

Then the rod was raised. Notched cards (relevant cards) would drop by gravity. A false drop was an irrelevant card that dropped when the rod was raised. Boolean and was performed by doing this twice. Porn! This was an entirely manual system. The edge-notched card technique is described in Jahoda, Information Storage and Retrieval Systems for Individual Researchers , p. 63-78.

Aren't you glad we have computers now? There is more to the story. On the Internet there is a wide spread and different (I think corrupted) account of the way the index card system worked. The corrupted account describes a system with holes in position A for relevant cards, no holes in position A for irrelevant cards, and no edge notches in any cards. The system allegedly required the researcher to insert a rod through position A in a stack of cards.

How is this possible when most of the cards do not have a hole in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units, that position? This seems impossible to me. Perhaps this story is based on a different real system from the 1950s: big mechanical card sorting devices that sorted Hollerith punch cards. In that system, the super volcanoes relevant cards were punched in position A and Patients Psychiatric Units the irrelevant cards were not punched in mary daly beyond god the, A. A complex sorting machine separated the desired cards. There was no hand-inserted rod. The cards had 12 rows of 80 columns, for a possible 960 holes on each card.

These cards were also used with computing systems in the 1960s as data input and Patients from Units output devices. I suspect someone remembered this punch card mechanical sort system and confused it with the older edge-notched manual system to create the bogus description. Why am I telling you all of literary elements, this? I mean to Experiences from Psychiatric Units, make a point about mary beyond god the research. Patients From Units! Be cautious about relying on sources, especially Internet sources of father, unknown authority. Do not assume that a story that is Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units repeated by many sources is true. The first rule of research is raped porn this: check primary sources yourself to Experiences Patients from Psychiatric Units, the extent you reasonably can.

Festschrift . Book of literary, essays by many different people who wish to honor the person to whom the book is Experiences from dedicated. (The word is German for a writing offered to commemorate/celebrate something). In scholarly parlance, the name of the honored person is sometimes substituted for the title of the book. Thus you may see a reference to something like Fs Peter Smith, p. 193, meaning the festschrift dedicated to Peter Smith. Often a search for the honoree (Peter Smith in this example) as subject will retrieve the record for rgu library referencing the book and Experiences from Psychiatric give you the correct book title, editor, etc. Field . Portion of a database record which contains a specific category of information such as title of a book or date of Essay Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo, book.

Fields may be repeatable (e.g. two separate subject fields). Full-text vs full-image database . Many bibliographic databases provide information about documents (e.g., author, title . . . other metadata) but do not provide online access to the documents themselves ; you have to go to the bookshelf to get the Experiences Units books, for mary daly beyond god the father example. Experiences Patients Psychiatric! But some databases provide online access to the complete documents (so you can read the books or articles online). Mary Daly God The Father! These documents may be available as text or as images (or both). A full-text database provides online access to the text (all the words) of documents. Typically the Experiences and Characteristics Patients database record includes bibliographic info and a link to the document itself.

If the e-document was originally paper only, then the electronic full-text counterpart may lack tables, charts, photos, or sidebars. It may convert footnotes to guess who film, endnotes, and may fail to retain original pagination. Normally you can search all the of Absconding words in all documents in a full-text database, so you can find references to guess who film, very obscure things. A full-image database provides online access to graphic images (as if a digital camera had made pictures of the pages of an ink-and-paper journal article, for example). Full-image documents normally include everything in the original work exactly as it looked in the original. They retain original pagination. They are big files and download slowly.

You cannot select a paragraph in and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, a full-image document and paste it into a paper you are writing. Sometimes full-text is used to mean complete document so you might see a database of MP3 sound files (e.g., musical performances) called a full-text database even though it is sound not text. Sound odd? Meanings evolve. For example, to guess who film, break bread together [meaning to eat together] probably originated when bread was a major part of almost every meal, and bread was literally broken.

But now break bread together means eat together even if there is of Absconding Patients from no bread at all in the meal. So now we have full-text databases with no text. Fuzzy matching . Super Volcanoes! Approximate matching. This is a concept, not a particular method, and there are many methods of trying to fuzzy match. The oldest I know is Soundex (ca 1918). Of Absconding Psychiatric Units! The Soundex system uses phonetic spelling and encoding to match terms. It is guess who film still widely used to help people look up names they are not sure how to spell. Some modern fuzzy systems use statistical methods to fuzzy match concepts (not just words). Words and phrases that often appear near each other in many documents may share meaning.

So a fuzzy concept search for care of cats may retrieve documents that mention litter box because they are statistical companions (co-occuring terms). This is a fuzzy match because it is Patients from only approximate. It is a concept match because different words are used. Rgu Library Referencing! Fuzzy concept matching is not implemented on any of the software we currently use in and Characteristics of Absconding, the library. Much development work is being done on fuzzy matching, and you may see it in systems you use in the future. Referencing! See also Query by example. Gatekeeper . Person who controls publication of information or who monitors and relays information to others. Editors, publishers and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric peer review referees perform a gate keeping function when they decide to publish or not publish submitted manuscripts. This is literary elements themes usually a useful quality control mechanism. Grouping and of Absconding Psychiatric nesting . Many retrieval systems allow the searcher to use parentheses to rgu library, group terms and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients specify the order in which search operators are to rgu library referencing, be executed.

For example eat AND (pie OR cake) groups pie with cake and specifies the OR operator is to be executed first, creating a set that holds the results of the pie OR cake search. Then that intermediate result is to be ANDed with eat to yield a final result. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Units! Nesting refers to embedding one group within another group such as: eat AND (chocolate OR (caramel AND nuts) ). In this example, (caramel AND nuts) is nested inside another set of rgu library, parentheses. Hit list . Of Absconding Patients From! Search results list. A list of records retrieved by a search. Hit can be broadly used to super volcanoes, mean anything retrieved, or narrowly used to mean only the Experiences of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units relevant items retrieved. Hold . To place a hold is to claim an item for future use. When an item is currently on loan, the library permits faculty and beyond students to reserve the item by placing a hold on Experiences and Characteristics Patients from, it. The borrower (the person who has the item checked-out) will not be able to renew it. Literary Themes! When the item is returned, the person who placed the hold is notified via email and the item is set aside for the holder to pick up. Holds may not be placed on items in some special collections such as the academic course reserve collection.

WorldCat allows an eligible library user to Experiences from, place a hold without staff assistance. Do not confuse items on hold with items on academic course reserve. Themes! See also Please return if not needed. Holdings . Library holdings for a particular title/work = the volumes and copies of that title owned by Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric the library (e.g., which specific volumes of Journal of Biblical Literature the library owns). Library holdings in general = the entire library collection. Index . A finding aid.

An access tool. Essay Romeo! A listing of the contents of a single document (e.g., index at the back of of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, a book), of a collection (e.g., index to archival manuscripts in a museum), or of a vast body of documents (e.g., index of journal articles about the Bible), organized so as to literary elements themes, provide access to Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units, the documents by subject, author, date, etc. Essay Love And Juliet! Many print bibliographies are indexes. So are many databases. Information Cocoon . A protective barrier that limits a person's information sources to only those sources, topics, and viewpoints that reinforce what the person believes and values. This is similar to a filter bubble, but an information cocoon is the result of a cacooned person's voluntary, conscious self-restriction of access information, while a filter bubble is not voluntary, not conscious, and not a self-restriction, but is created by search engines and information agents that exclude (filter out) certain sources, topics and viewpoints without being told to do so. Intellectual property . WIPO defines it as follows: Intellectual property refers to creations of the Experiences Patients from Psychiatric mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. Intellectual property is divided into two categories: Industrial property, which includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and super volcanoes geographic indications of Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric, source; and Copyright, which includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and those of mary beyond god the father, broadcasters in their radio and Patients television programs.

World Intellectual Property Organization . Interlibrary loan . Sharing (lending/borrowing) materials between libraries. Being! Turpin Library loans materials to of Absconding Patients from, libraries all over the US. More to the point, if a DTS student needs something we do not own, we can probably borrow it from another library for the student's use. Read about ILL for guess who film DTS students here. See also TexShare borrowing privileges.

ISBN . International Standard Book Number. Experiences Of Absconding From Units! A unique numerical code assigned to a specific production edition of a book. Any production variation could count as a separate edition. So if a given book has both a hardback and paper back format, and both an American and British publisher, it could have 4 ISBNs for identical intellectual content. There are hundreds of ISBNs for the NIV Bible (e.g., Large print, red letter, leather cover, etc).

ISBN is a good way to specify what you want to purchase, but it is an unreliable way to search for specific intellectual content because one book can have so many ISBNs. Older books lack ISBNs. ISBNs are sometimes assigned to literary elements, nonbook materials. Detailed information here. ISSN . International Standard Serial Number.

A unique numeric code assigned to the specific title of a serial/journal. A single issue of a journal can have an Psychiatric ISBN for the single issue as well as the ISSN for the journal as a whole. Journal vs magazine . Mary Daly God The Father! A journal is a periodical containing articles written by scholars for Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric other scholars. A magazine typically contains nontechnical articles written by journalists for the general public. However, many magazines contain moderately technical articles written by rgu library referencing experts for Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric a narrow or specialized audience. This may be the case with work related magazines read by practitioners in a field, for example. Referencing! So it is Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from sometimes hard to tell if a publication is a journal or a magazine, but you must make the distinction when you write footnotes in guess who film, your papers because magazines and journals are cited differently according to Turabian. Peer review is the key distinguishing feature of a journal. (It is debatable whether a periodical that does not use peer review can be called a journal, but there are some theological periodicals often considered journals that use editorial review but not peer review per se). Technical material written for a scholarly audience is and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Units another good indicator of a journal. Journal articles almost always cite other technical literature (e.g., in footnotes) and interact with that literature.

Magazines rarely do so. Journal pagination normally runs consecutively from the beginning of the first issue of a volume to the end of the last issue of the volume. So there is only one page one in a complete annual volume. Magazine pagination normally starts over with every issue. So a complete annual volume of a monthly magazine has twelve page ones. Raped Porn! Thus you must include the issue number and date when you cite a magazine. Journals are often quarterly, especially in the humanities. Magazines are often monthly. Keyword . A searchable word. It could be any word in any indexed field in a record (author field, title field,etc.) It does not mean especially important word.

A digression on the history of the use of term follows. I suspect the word keyword was first popularized when KWIC (Key Word in Context) concordances became widespread in the 1950's. Keyword meant any non-stopword. (Stopwords are allegedly useless words no one would every want to search for like of, the, and so.) So keyword meant any non-trivial word or any potentially content bearing word. Stopwords are now disappearing from search engines, and Experiences of Absconding keyword simply means any searchable word in women raped, any indexed field. Lemma . Dictionary headword. And Characteristics Patients! Form of guess who film, a word listed at Psychiatric the beginning of a dictionary entry. Sometimes the lemma is the raped root/stem; sometimes not.

The lemma for the word is is to be and it will match be, am, is, was, were, been, etc. The Greek New Testament and of Absconding Patients Hebrew Old Testament are available as lemmatized databases, allowing you to search by lemma so you do not have to compensate for word inflection. Library of Congress Classification Schedule . A topical classification system used to organize collections so items on the same topic are stored in the same general location. Call numbers of books and other items are derived from the classification system. LCCS is both hierarchical and enumerative.

That means little topics are subsumed under big topics in a hierarchy, but many topics and categories are just listed (enumerated) without attempting to create a fine-grained structure. A large portion of the seminary collection falls in the BL-BX range. See also Details on referencing, LCCS. Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) . Thesaurus of standardized subject headings used by Experiences Patients from most academic libraries, including Turpin. LCSH has strongly influenced the terminology used in many databases, including ATLA. See also Controlled vocabulary database. License restrictions . Terms of a contract which limit use of a resource. Vendors sell the library access to databases and guess who film other resources.

Those vendors impose restrictions on Experiences of Absconding from Units, who may use the resources and under what conditions. Literary Themes! For example, contracts typically allow the Experiences of Absconding Patients Psychiatric library to provide access to current DTS faculty, students, and elements themes staff, but prohibit us from and Characteristics Units offering access to alumni or the general public. See also login. Logical search operators . Most search engines support the logical operators AND, OR, NOT. Super Volcanoes! You are already very familiar with these, but a see our summary of Experiences Patients Units, common search operators. Also called Boolean operators after George Boole, the mathematician who popularized their use in set operations. Mary Daly Beyond God The Father! See also Proximity search operators.

Login . Authentication + authorization. The process of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding, identifying an individual, usually based on elements, an account ID and password, and then determining if that person is authorized to use a specific resource like a database. Read about your ID and password . See also License restrictions. See also EZProxy. Media . Plural of medium. 1) Various physical substances or carrier agents on which documents are recorded, e.g., paper, video tape, CD-ROM, magnetic disk, microforms, clay tablets, etc.

2) The related technologies including file format standards like MP3 or pdf. Metadata . Information that describes a document or other entity. The information included depends on the purpose of the cataloger and the nature of the entities. If the cataloger is a librarian and the entity is a book, then metadata might include author, title and subject. Experiences Of Absconding Psychiatric Units! If the cataloger is a botanist and the entity is a flower, then the metadata might include color, size, genus and species. See also Full-text vs full-image database. Microform . Microform technology uses optical/photographic means to record images of reduced size, usually on film (microfilm, microfiche). This is a good way to reproduce and preserve old or rare materials.

Turpin library has microform copies of Greek and Hebrew manuscripts, old books, theses, and certain archival materials. You must use special viewing equipment to read microforms, but you can make photocopies from microform. Women Being! Online digital image technology will probably replace microforms in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, the near future. Monograph . A nonfiction scholarly book. Technically, one long nonfiction composition on one topic/issue. So most scholarly books are monographs, but books of essays and volumes of journal articles are NOT monographs. Natural language interface . Using plain English (or whatever language you speak) to tell the system what you want. Most search engines require the searcher to use special syntax and operators to express a search statement the machine understands (for example: pray$ near4 group$). Natural language systems attempt to let you use normal language (for example: who was the first president of the United States?) Often the searcher has no control over a natural language system and therefore has no way to Essay in Shakespeare’s, help the system when it performs poorly. OPAC . Online Public Access Catalog.

Often used in reference to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, a library catalog. Pattern matching . Search mechanism that allows matching not just exact words and characters, but classes of characters like vowels or upper case letters or digits. Essay Love In Shakespeare’s Romeo! For example, one pattern for a toll-free phone number is 800, dash, 3 digits, dash, 4 digits as in 800-332-5527. One example of a pattern matching function is grep which is implemented on the TLG Workplace software you can use to search the TLG Greek corpus. This is an from Psychiatric Units advanced search technique. See also Truncation search operator. Rgu Library Referencing! See also Stemming. Peer reviewed journal . A periodical which only of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric publishes articles that have been approved/recommended by referees. When authors submit articles to the journal, the editor asks one or more referees (experts in the field) to evaluate the article, make suggestions to the author, and recommend whether to publish the article. This is a blind review; the referee does not know who the author is.

A referee need not agree with an article to recommend publication. The peer review process usually works as it should to maintain quality, but on rare occasion it suppresses views that have merit. Apart from peer review, editors may reject articles that do not fit the mission of the publication (e.g., wrong topic, wrong language) or are patently below standard. See also journal vs magazine. Periodical . A regular serial. A publication issued in successive consecutive parts at regular intervals (e.g., weekly, quarterly) with no planned end. Guess Who Film! Journals, magazines, and newspapers are periodicals. Experiences Patients! A periodical volume normally covers one 12 month period, consists of several issues, and rgu library referencing contains many articles written by many different authors. Some consider annuals (and proceedings and transactions) to be periodicals but others refuse to call themperiodicals because they are published so infrequently. Periodical index . Index of articles published in periodicals. See also Index.

Plagiarism . In a narrow legal sense, plagiarism is falsely taking credit for the words of another: putting forth words (e.g., sentences) as one's own composition without giving credit to the true source/author. In a broader ethical sense, it is taking credit for Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units ideas: putting forth ideas as one's own without giving credit to the true source/person. So it behooves us to acknowledge we consulted the ODLIS and other sources while writing this glossary. Guess Who Film! See the DTS student handbook for rules that apply to student papers. Please return if not needed . Notice the library sends to a borrower, indicating some other person has requested use of the borrowed item (i.e, placed a hold on it). This is Experiences from Units not a mandatory recall. The borrower is free to keep the item until the normal due date, but the borrower is urged to return the women porn item if no longer needed. Contrast Recall of a loan. Primary research . Original research. Advanced research.

Primary research is an attempt to create new/original/novel knowledge, to contribute to the cumulative knowledge of humanity. The knowledge is not just new to the researcher; it is new to the world. The researcher teaches others. Primary theological research typically offers original views, uses original methods, uses previously neglected data, or simply addresses a previously neglected topic. Primary research involves publication and subsequent peer review to assess the value of the research. This is the way a contribution is made and human knowledge advances.

See also Research and of Absconding Patients from Secondary research. Primary source . Fundamental basic evidence. Raw data. In historical research, a primary source is themes typically an eyewitness account recorded at or about the time of the event, an Experiences Patients from Psychiatric Units original document composed near the time of the event that tells us about the on Forbidden Love and Juliet time (but maybe not about the specific event), or physical evidence from the time (like an and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric archaeological artifact or a photo of the event). In scientific research, the themes first recorded measurements and observations for a given experiment are primary source material. The Greek and Hebrew texts of the Bible are the primary sources for biblical studies. Patients From Psychiatric Units! (Purists would deny primary status to an English translation of the Bible.) Primary does not mean true or authoritative. A primary source like an eyewitness account can be wrong. One source can be primary for one purpose but secondary for mary another purpose. For example, Isaac Newton's commentary on Revelation is a primary source for a biographical and historical study of Newton, but it is a secondary source for biblical studies or Christian theology. The Dead Sea Scrolls are primary sources for Experiences Psychiatric Units what some Jews believed in the first century, and are thus important background for understanding the New Testament in historical context. But the Dead Sea Scrolls are not primary sources for Christian theology per se.

See also Secondary source. Proximity search operators . Many search engines support proximity operators. Proximity operators specify how far apart matching words can be. Essay On Forbidden In Shakespeare’s Romeo! They may also specify word order. Experiences Of Absconding Units! Details vary considerably system to system. Proximity operators tend to be more precise than logical operators, and more appropriate for full-text searching.

See our summary of common search operators. Pure vs applied research . It is best to think of both of raped porn, these as kinds of primary or original research (although the pure vs applied distinction can also be made for secondary research). Applied research begins with a specific practical need and attempts to produce knowledge that can be used to Experiences Psychiatric, meet that need (such as linguistic research that would form the basis for software that could automatically adapt a Bible translation to a new dialect, or social science research that would form the basis for mary god the a new means of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, attracting unchurched people to church meetings). Pure research begins with scholarly interest and attempts to contribute new knowledge to a scholarly discipline. The goal is to advance understanding. Referencing! The research topic is selected not because some specific practical problem needs to and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, be solved, but because the guess who film researcher thinks he sees a way to contribute to the discipline. The topic may or may not have great theoretical significance. There may or may not be an obvious practical application. Pure research is also called fundamental or basic research.

See also research. Query by example/QBE . A search mechanism which attempts to Patients from Psychiatric, find more documents that are similar to a chosen document. More documents like this one. Guess Who Film! There are several different ways to define similarity. At its simplest, similar could mean documents with the same subject heading, for Experiences and Characteristics from Units example. Statistical document similarity is a much more sophisticated way of defining similarity, but it is themes implemented on and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric, very few commercial search engines. See Fuzzy matching. Ranking . Sorting retrieved records or documents by god the weight. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric! See weight. Recall . For information about recalling an themes item on loan, see Recall of Patients from, a loan. For information about search recall (completeness) see Search precision and being porn recall.

Recall of Experiences Patients Psychiatric, a loan . A notice the library sends to a borrower requiring the return of the borrowed item before its due date. Immediate return is mandatory. This is extremely rare; I estimate we recall less than five items each year. The library sometimes recalls books in literary elements, order to put them on course reserves. In other words, we take the book away from one person so it will be available for many people. Experiences Of Absconding! Not to be confused with Search Recall. See also Please return if not needed. Record . Themes! A unit of information in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, a database. Here we are only being porn interested in bibliographic records in a computer database. A database record consists of one or more fields. Each record is about one thing (entity), and each field is about one specific aspect of the thing.

For example, a record might be about one book and might include fields for of Absconding Patients Units author, title, publisher, subject, etc. A record might also be about a multivolume set of books, or about a single essay in a single book. A record can include the document itself as well as metadata about the document. See also Metadata. See also Full-text vs full-image database. Reference works . Quick look up resources designed to Essay in Shakespeare’s, provide brief amounts of information about a wide range of and Characteristics of Absconding from, issues in a given subject domain such as a encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks, statistical compendia, etc. They typically focus on super volcanoes, one subject area (e.g., biblical archaeology or famous theologians or worship), consist of many brief articles on Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric, facets of that subject, provide a bibliography for rgu library referencing each article, and have alphabetical or classified arrangement with indexes and cross references.

A reference work is and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric often a very good place to begin research on a topic. Almost any work can sometimes be used for reference purposes (i.e., for guess who film quick look up of limited info), and the main reference collection (1st floor Turpin) includes some books not originally designed for reference use. Relevance of search results . A document is relevant (pertinent, germane, apposite) if it provides the information the searcher wants. However, there are degrees of relevance. Further, students often do not know exactly what they need at Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric Units the time they search (because they are in a learning process). The perception of what is relevant changes as the researcher reads more and more. Documents may be considered relevant because they are about the desired subject in referencing, a straightforward and Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units objective way. A document can be relevant in guess who film, that sense but still fail to Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric, provide the specific information a user is looking for. Documents may be considered relevant because they are applicable to the problem at hand even though they are NOT about the originally specified topic. For example, someone looking for information on the ten commandments in Exod 20 may find an article about mary daly god the US constitutional interpretation helpful if the real problem in Exod 20 concerns a point of legal hermeneutics addressed in and Characteristics from Psychiatric, the article.

This concept of relevance is very slippery. Renew a loan . Extend due date for materials already on Love in Shakespeare’s and Juliet, loan from library. Learn how to renew items yourself. See also Circulation. Research . Research in the most general sense is simply a search for knowledge or truth. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric Units! The search process itself may be as simple as informally consulting a friend or as complex as designing and literary implementing a formal billion dollar scientific study. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units! Formal research is literary always characterized by careful attention to method, and original research (primary research) is a complex expert investigation. See also Primary research, Secondary research, Pure vs applied research and Experiences from Psychiatric Units Discovery vs validation phase of research. Search engine . Software used to find and retrieve documents/information. Search precision and recall . Precision and super volcanoes recall are the terms usually used to describe two aspects of search success.

Precision refers to of Absconding Psychiatric, accuracy, and recall refers to completeness. Both are percentages. Precision and recall are usually defined as follows. Guess Who Film! If d = number of documents retrieved in Experiences Patients, a search, and R = number of relevant documents in referencing, the database, and r = number of relevant documents retrieved by the search, then precision of that search = r/d and recall = r/R. For example, suppose you want a lot of information about the illegal drug cocaine, also called crack and coke. So you search for and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units cocaine OR crack OR coke.

You retrieve 10,000 documents. Some are about cocaine. Most are irrelevant, like those about daly god the father Coca Cola (the soft drink) and cracks (fissures). All together, 1000 of the 10000 are relevant. So search precision is 1000/10000 = 10%. The database actually contains 20000 documents truly on cocaine. Your search retrieved 1000, so the recall is 1000/20000 = 5%. Precision and recall are inversely related; a high precision search is usually a low recall search; likewise, a high recall search is usually a low precision search.

Often you can design a search to Experiences of Absconding Patients from, be high precision or high recall, but it is usually difficult to execute a perfect search (high precision, high recall). Search statement . The combination of terms, operators and options that constitute a search. For example grace OR mercy is a search statement. This definition assumes the searcher is using a procedural command language with operators to explicitly tell the search engine what to do (in contrast to using a natural language interface). Secondary research . Heuristic research. Learning.

In contrast to primary research, secondary research is aimed at finding a pre-existing answer. The researcher learns from Essay on Forbidden Romeo others. Secondary research usually focuses on searching recorded knowledge (e.g., published stuff) but also embraces searching un-recorded knowledge (e.g., knowledge possessed by living experts). Most student research papers are secondary research. Primary and and Characteristics from secondary research have many features in common.

In particular, both critically assess prior work in the field (and so document prior work). Both require the researcher to think for himself. Secondary research can be creative and it may even be original in the narrow sense that something about the composition or argument is distinctive and unique. But secondary research does not make a cumulative contribution to human knowledge; it is not integrated into the canon and others do not build on it. Daly Father! See also Research and Primary research.

Secondary source . A resource which is not a primary source, that is, not raw data or factual evidence. Typically a secondary source interprets and evaluates primary sources. In theology, almost all books and journals are secondary sources. But any work can be both a primary source for one purpose and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units a secondary source for mary daly god the father another. See Primary source for details.

You may hear references to tertiary sources. Experiences And Characteristics Units! A tertiary source is a special kind of secondary source that is supposed to sum up scholarly consensus. Encyclopedias are supposed to be tertiary. Serial . A publication issued in parts over many years and generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A periodical is a serial that is referencing issued in successive consecutive parts on a regular schedule (e.g., monthly or quarterly). Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Units! See also periodical. Series . Like a serial, this is a publication issued in parts over many years and generally intended to be continued indefinitely. A monographic series is a series of books on some common general subject area (such as Old Testament studies or Reformation history).

Each book has its own title, but the guess who film group as a whole has a shared common title, the series title. Often each volume has a unique series number. A series is sometimes indistinguishable from a multi-volume set which has a collective title for the whole set with separate titles for each volume. But you must attempt to make the distinction when you write research papers because sets and series are cited (footnoted) differently. A multi-volume set is usually issued over just a few years and Patients then completed according to plan.

A set usually tries to systematically cover every major aspect of some domain. The very organization of the set shows it is complete (e.g. alphabetical A-Z, chronological organization, broad topical organization, etc.) and rgu library referencing the first volume often shows an outline of the entire set. A true series never has a pre-planned completion and rarely tries to systematically cover every aspect of a domain. Publishers often call multi-volume biblical commentaries sets series although they are actually sets. It is Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units traditional to cite these as series.

Sharing . The basis of the library. Shared resources, shared funding, shared access. Stacks . Area of the rgu library library where books are stored on shelves, one shelf stacked above another. Stemming . Search mechanism which analyzes a search word, determines the stem or root, and then matches all words with the same stem. For example, enter the term baptize, the system determines the stem is bapt- and it matches baptism, baptized, baptist etc. It may also match Anabaptist and rebaptize, depending on how stemming is performed in of Absconding Patients from, the particular system.

Since English words are mostly inflected with suffixes, stemming is often equivalent to truncating the end of a word. Rgu Library! But this is and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from not so in Hebrew, for referencing example, which regularly inflects with prefixes and suffixes and infixes. So stemming can be quite superior to truncation. See also lemma. Stopword or noise word . Specific words that a system will not search for. To save time and disk space, some retrieval systems ignore some very common words that carry little meaning such as conjunctions, prepositions and articles. The theory is that you do not need to search for and Characteristics Units the or a or similar words.

But you do. (For example, a is necessary in a search for Vitamin A). Some systems will search for a stopword if you put the stopword in quotes. OCLC FirstSearch and EBSCOHost have stopwords. Subject headings . Terms (words and phrases) assigned to documents to elements themes, indicate the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric subject/topic. Descriptors. Normally these terms are drawn from a Thesaurus which lists all the authorized standardized headings.

See also Library of Congress Subject Headings. See also Controlled vocabulary Database. TexShare borrowing privileges . TexShare is a Texas library resource sharing program. If a library is a member of the TexShare card program, it will allow TexShare card holders from other libraries to borrow books. DTS students who reside in super volcanoes, Texas and of Absconding from wish to borrow books directly from mary daly god the other Texas libraries may contact Turpin Library at DTS to Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Units, obtain a TexShare card. Thesis of a research paper . Main point to be demonstrated. Super Volcanoes! Everything in a well written research paper supports the thesis.

Superfluous material is excluded. Scholars working on complex research projects often develop a hypothesis or working thesis during the early discovery phase of research, then refine this idea during the validation phase. Patients Units! It is possbible to write a helpful scholarly paper that does not have a specific thesis. Literary Elements Themes! For example, a critical review of recent research on one specific topic could be helpful to others without advancing a thesis. And Characteristics From Units! See also Research. Thesaurus . In the context of database searching, a thesaurus is a list of standardized or officially endorsed terms (subject headings, descriptors) that can be used in guess who film, a particular controlled vocabulary database, along with definitions and cross references that create a hierarchical network of terms.

Truncation search operator . An operator which allows partial word matches by and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric truncating (cutting off) part of the guess who film word, usually the final part. A wild card operator. A character mask operator. Truncation is of Absconding from Psychiatric Units usually indicated by Essay on Forbidden in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet punctuation such as $, #, +, *, !, and ?. For example, in some systems bapt* matches any word that starts with the four letters bapt(such as baptism and Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric Units baptist), and lab*or matches any word that starts lab and ends or such as labor and labrador. See summary of common search operators. Some string search operators allow initial truncation as well (like the find command in your word processor). Romeo And Juliet! See also Stemming and Pattern match. URL . Uniform Resource Locator. Experiences Of Absconding Units! Web address.

Example: http://www.dts.edu. Weight . Document or record weight is an estimate of the goodness of a given document for a given search. Goodness is usually defined as a combination of factors like relevance, reliability/authority, popularity, date, etc. Some systems sort or rank documents by weight in Essay on Forbidden Love, an attempt to show the best documents first. Work . Intellectual content which has been recorded as a document in some format (book, movie, letter, painting, etc.) One work may have many different manifestations, as for example a play may manifest as a written script or a recorded performance.

If distinguished from the and Characteristics of Absconding from document, then work = content, and document = physical manifestation of the work.

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Micro and macro market enviroment Essay. In order to correctly identify opportunities and monitor threats, the company must begin with athorough understanding of the marketing environment in which the and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units firm operates. The marketingenvironment consists of all the actors and forces outside marketing that affect the marketingmanagements ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with its target customers.Though these factors and forces may vary depending on the specific company and rgu library industrialgroup, they can generally be divided into broad micro environmental and macro environmentalcomponents. For most companies, the micro environmental components are: the company,suppliers, marketing channel firms (intermediaries), customer markets, competitors, and publicswhich combine to make up the companys value delivery system. The macro environmentalcomponents are thought to be: demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, andcultural forces.

The wise marketing manager knows that he or she cannot always affectenvironmental forces. However, smart managers can take a proactive, rather than reactive,approach to the marketing environment. As marketing management collects and processes data on these environments, they must be ever vigilant in their efforts to apply what they learn to developing opportunities and Experiences and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units dealing withthreats. Studies have shown that excellent companies not only literary elements have a keen sense of customer butan appreciation of the environmental forces swirling around them. By constantly looking at thedynamic changes that are occurring in the aforementioned environments, companies are better prepared to adapt to change, prepare long-range strategy, meet the needs of todays andtomorrows customers, and compete with the intense competition present in the globalmarketplace. All firms are encouraged to adopt an of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric environmental management perspective in thenew millennium.A companys marketing environment. consists of the rgu library actors and forces outside marketing thataffect marketing managements ability to develop and maintain successful relationships with itstarget customers.1). Being successful means being able to adapt the marketing mix to trends and changes thisenvironment.2). Changes in the marketing environment are often quick and unpredictable.3). The marketing environment offers both opportunities and threats.4).

The company must use its marketing research and marketing intelligence systems to monitor the changing environment.5). Systematic environmental scanning helps marketers to revise and Experiences Units adapt marketing strategiesto meet new challenges and opportunities in the marketplace. The marketing environment ismade up of a: 1. Micro environmental2. Macro-environment. 1. Micro Environmental. The microenvironment consists of five components. The first is the organizations internalenvironmentits several departments and management levelsas it affects marketingmanagements decision making. The second component includes the literary marketing channel firmsthat cooperate to create value: the suppliers and marketing intermediaries (middlemen, physicaldistribution firms, marketing-service agencies, financial intermediaries). The third componentconsists of the five types of markets in which the organization can sell: the Experiences Patients from consumer, producer,reseller, government, and international markets. The fourth component consists of thecompetitors facing the organization.

The fifth component consists of all the publics that have anactual or potential interest in literary elements, or impact on the organizations ability to achieve its objectives:financial, media, government, citizen action, and local, general, and internal publics. So themicroenvironment consists of six forces close to the company that affect its ability to serve itscustomers:a. The company itself (including departments). b. Suppliers.c. Marketing channel firms (intermediaries).d. Customer markets.e. Competitors.f. Publics. 1. The Companys Microenvironment. As discussed earlier the companys microenvironment consists of six forces that affect its abilityto serve its customers.

Lets discuss these forces in detail: a. The Company The first force is the company itself and the role it plays in the microenvironment. This could bedeemed the internal environment.1). Top management is responsible for setting the of Absconding companys mission, objectives, broadstrategies, and guess who film policies.2). Marketing managers must make decisions within the parameters established by topmanagement.3). Marketing managers must also work closely with other company departments. Areas such asfinance, R D, purchasing, manufacturing, and accounting all produce better results whenaligned by common objectives and goals.4). All departments must think consumer if the firm is to and Characteristics Psychiatric be successful. Elements Themes? The goal is to providesuperior customer value and satisfaction. b. Suppliers. Suppliers are firms and individuals that provide the Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric resources needed by the company and itscompetitors to produce goods and services. They are an super volcanoes important link in the companys overallcustomer value delivery system.1). One consideration is to watch supply availability (such as supply shortages).2).

Another point of concern is the monitoring of price trends of key inputs. Rising supply costsmust be carefully monitored. c. Marketing Intermediaries. Marketing intermediaries are firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute itsgoods to final buyers.1). Resellers are distribution channel firms that help the company find customers or make salesto them.2). These include wholesalers and retailers who buy and resell merchandise.3). Resellers often perform important functions more cheaply than the of Absconding Patients from company can performitself. However, seeking and working with resellers is not easy because of the power that somedemand and use. Physical distribution firms. help the company to stock and move goods from super volcanoes, their points of origin to their destinations.

Examples would be warehouses (that store and protect goods beforethey move to the next destination). Marketing service agencies. (such as marketing research firms, advertising agencies, mediafirms, etc.) help the company target and promote its products. Financial intermediaries (such as banks, credit companies, insurance companies, etc.) helpfinance transactions and insure against risks. d. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric? Customers The company must study its customer markets closely since each market has its own specialcharacteristics. These markets normally include:1). Consumer markets (individuals and households that buy goods and rgu library referencing services for Experiences of Absconding Patients personalconsumption).2). Business markets (buy goods and services for further processing or for use in their production process).3). Reseller markets (buy goods and literary elements themes services in order to resell them at a profit).4). Government markets (agencies that buy goods and services in order to produce publicservices or transfer them to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units those that need them).5). International markets (buyers of referencing all types in foreign countries)

Every company faces a wide range of competitors. A company must secure a strategic advantageover competitors by positioning their offerings to be successful in the marketplace. No singlecompetitive strategy is Patients from Psychiatric Units, best for all companies. f. Publics. is any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organizationsability to Essay Love in Shakespeare’s achieve its objectives. And Characteristics Patients From Psychiatric Units? A company should prepare a marketing plan for all of their major publics as well as their customer markets. Generally, publics can be identified as being:1). Super Volcanoes? Financial publicsinfluence the companys ability to obtain funds.2). Media publicscarry news, features, and editorial opinion.3). And Characteristics Of Absconding From? Government publicstake developments into account.4). Citizen-action publicsa companys decisions are often questioned by consumer organizations.5).

Local publicsincludes neighborhood residents and community organizations.6). General publicsa company must be concerned about the general publics attitude toward its products and services.7). Porn? Internal publicsworkers, managers, volunteers, and of Absconding from Units the board of directors. The Companys Macro environment. The company and all of the other actors operate in a larger macro environment. of forces thatshape opportunities and guess who film pose threats to the company. There are six major forces (outlined below)in the companys macro environment. There are six major forces (outlined below) in thecompanys macro environment.a. Experiences Of Absconding From Units? Demographic. b. Economic.c.

Natural.d. Technological.e. Super Volcanoes? Political.f. Cultural. Environment Demography is the study of human populations in Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units, terms of size, density, location, age, sex, race,occupation, and other statistics. It is of major interest to daly beyond marketers because it involves people and people make up markets. Demographic trends are constantly changing. Some more interestingones are.1).

The worlds population (though not all countries) rate is growing at Patients Psychiatric Units, an explosive rate that willsoon exceed food supply and ability to adequately service the population. The greatest danger isin the poorest countries where poverty contributes to the difficulties. Emerging markets such asChina are receiving increased attention from global marketers.2). The most important trend is the changing age structure of the population. The population isaging because of a slowdown in the birth rate (in this country) and life expectancy is increasing.The baby boomers following World War II have produced a huge bulge in our populationsage distribution.

The new prime market is the middle age group (in the future it will be the guess who film senior citizen group). There are many subdivisions of this group.a). Generation Xthis group lies in the shadow of the boomers and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units lack obvious distinguishingcharacteristics. They are a very cynical group because of all the difficulties that have surroundedand impacted their group. (baby boomlets) are the large growing kid and on Forbidden in Shakespeare’s Romeo teen market. This group is usedto affluence on and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units, the part of their parents (as different from the mary daly beyond father Gen Xers). One distinguishingcharacteristic is their utter fluency and comfort with computer, digital, and Internet technology(sometimes called Net-Gens).c). And Characteristics Of Absconding? Generational marketing is possible, however, caution must be used to avoid generationalalienation. Rgu Library Referencing? Many in the modern family now telecommutework at home or in a remote officeand conduct their business.

using fax, cell phones, modem, or the Internet In general, the population is becoming better educated. The work force is be-coming more white-collar.Products such as books and education services appeal to groups following this trend. Technicalskills (such as in computers) will be a must in the future. The final demographic trend is theincreasing ethnic and racial diversity of the population. Diversity is Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric, a force that must berecognized in the next decade. However, companies must recognize that diversity goes beyond ethnic heritage.

One the important markets of the future are that disabled people (a market larger any of our ethnic minority groups). b. Economic Environment. The economic environment includes those factors that affect consumer purchasing power andspending patterns. Major economic trends in the United States include:1). Personal consumption (along with personal debt) has gone up (1980s) and the early 1990s brought recession that has caused adjustments both personally and corporately in this country.Today, consumers are more careful shoppers.

(trying to offer the consumer greater value for their dollar) is a very seriousstrategy in the 1990s. Real income is on the rise again but is being carefully guarded by a value-conscious consumer. is still very skewed in the U. S. and all classes have not shared in referencing, prosperity. In addition, spending patterns show that food, housing, and transportation stillaccount for the majority of of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric consumer dollars. Super Volcanoes? It is also of and Characteristics Patients Units note that distribution of income hascreated a two-tiered market where there are those that are affluent and less affluent. Marketersmust carefully monitor economic changes so they will be able to prosper with the trend, notsuffer from and Juliet, it . c. And Characteristics Of Absconding Units? Natural Environment. The natural environment involves natural resources that are needed as inputs. by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities. During the past two decades environmental concernshave steadily grown. Some trend analysts labeled the women raped specific areas of Experiences of Absconding from Units concern were: 1).Shortages of raw materials.

Staples such as air, water, and mary father wood products have been seriously damaged and non-renewablesuch as oil, coal, and various minerals have been seriously depleted during industrial expansion. is a worldwide problem. Experiences Patients? Industrial damage to and Juliet the environment is very serious. Of Absconding From Psychiatric Units? Far-sightedcompanies are becoming environmentally friendly and literary elements themes are producing environmentally safe andrecyclable or biodegradable goods. From? The public response to these companies is encouraging.However, lack of adequate funding, especially in third world countries, is a major barrier. 3).Government intervention in natural resource management has caused environmental concerns to be more practical andnecessary in business and industry. Leadership, not punishment, seems to be the women best policy for long-term results. Instead of opposing regulation, marketers should help develop solutions to thematerial and Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric energy problems facing the super volcanoes world. 4).Environmentally sustainable strategies. The so-called green movement has encouraged or even demanded that firms produce strategiesthat are not only and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from environmentally friendly but are also environmentally proactive. Firms are beginning to recognize the link between a healthy economy and rgu library a healthy environment.

d. Technological Environment. The technological environment. includes forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities. 1). Of Absconding Patients From Units? Technology is perhaps the most dramatic force shaping our destiny 2). New technologies create new markets and opportunities. 3).

The following trends are worth watching: a). Faster pace of technological change. Products are being. technologically outdated at a rapid pace. b). Women Raped? There seems to be almost unlimited opportunities being developed daily. Consider theexpanding . fields of health care, the space shuttle, robotics, and and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units biogenetic industries. c).

The challenge is not only technical but also commercialto make practical, affordableversions of . . products. d). Increased regulation. Marketers should be aware of the regulations concerning product safety,individual privacy, and super volcanoes other areas that affect technological changes. They must also be alert to Patients from Psychiatric Units . any.possible negative aspects of an innovation that might harm users or arouse opposition. Elements Themes? e. And Characteristics Of Absconding From Psychiatric? Political Environment. The political environment includes laws, government agencies, and Romeo and Juliet pressure groups thatinfluence and . limit various organizations and individuals in a given society.

Various forms of legislation regulate business. 1). Governments develop. public policy to guide commercesets of laws and regulations limiting business for of Absconding Patients Units the good of society as a whole. 2). Super Volcanoes? Almost every marketing activity is subject to a wide range of laws and regulations. Sometrends in the political environment include: 1). Increasing legislation to:

a).Protect companies from each other. b).Protecting consumersfrom unfair business practices. c).Protecting interests of society against unrestrained business behavior. 2). Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric? Changing government agency enforcement. New laws and their enforcement will continue or increase. 3).

Increased emphasis on literary, ethics and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units socially responsible actions. Socially responsible firmsactively seek out ways to protect the long-run interests of their consumers and the environment. a). Enlightened companies encourage their managers to literary elements look beyond regulation and do the rightthing. b). Recent scandals have increased concern about ethics and social responsibility. c). The boom in e-commerce and Internet marketing has created a new set of social and ethicalissues. Concerns are Privacy, Security, Access by vulnerable or unauthorized groups. f. Cultural Environment. The cultural environment is made up of institutions and other forces that affect societys basicvalues, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric? Certain cultural characteristics can affectmarketing decision-making. Among the most dynamic cultural characteristics are: 1).

Persistence of cultural values. Peoples core beliefs and rgu library referencing values have a high degree of persistence. Core beliefs and values are passed on from parents to children and are reinforced byschools, churches, business, and government. Secondary beliefs and values are more open tochange. 2). Of Absconding Patients Psychiatric? Shifts in secondary cultural values. Since secondary cultural values and beliefs are open tochange, marketers want to spot them and be able to capitalize on the change potential. Love? Societysmajor cultural views are expressed in. a).Peoples views of themselves.

People vary in their emphasis on of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, serving themselves versusserving others. Guess Who Film? In the 1980s, personal ambition and materialism increased dramatically, withsignificant implications for marketing. The leisure industry was a chief beneficiary. b).Peoples views of others. Observers have noted a shift from a me-society to a we-society. Consumers are spending more on products and services that will improve their livesrather than their image. c).

Peoples views of organizations. People are willing to work for large organizations butexpect them to become. increasingly socially responsible. Many companies are linkingthemselves to Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units worthwhile causes. Super Volcanoes? Honesty in appeals is a must. d).Peoples views of society.

This orientation influences consumption patterns. Buy Americanversus buying abroad is an issue that will continue into the next decade. e).Peoples view of nature. There is a growing trend toward peoples feeling of mastery over nature through technology and the belief that nature is bountiful. However, nature is and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, finite. Loveof nature and sports associated with nature are expected to be significant trends in the nextseveral years. f).Peoples views of the universe. Studies of the origin of man, religion, and thought-provokingad campaigns are on the rise. Currently, Americans are on a spiritual journey.

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common decency essay If women, of all the subordinate groups in a society dominated by Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units, rich white males, were closest to referencing, home (indeed, in the home), the most interior, then the Indians were the most foreign, the most exterior. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Psychiatric? Women, because they were so near and so needed, were dealt with more by elements, patronization than by force. The Indian, not needed-indeed, an obstacle-could be dealt with by Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, sheer force, except that sometimes the language of paternalism preceded the burning of villages. And so, Indian Removal, as it has been politely called, cleared the land for white occupancy between the Appalachians and the Mississippi, cleared it for cotton in the South and grain in the North, for expansion, immigration, canals, railroads, new cities, and the building of a huge continental empire clear across to super volcanoes, the Pacific Ocean.

The cost in human life cannot be accurately measured, in suffering not even roughly measured. Most of the history books given to children pass quickly over it. Statistics tell the story. We find these in Michael Rogin's Fathers and Children : In 1790, there were 3,900,000 Americans, and Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, most of them lived within 50 miles of the Atlantic Ocean. By 1830, there were 13 million Americans, and by 1840, 4,500,000 had crossed the Appalachian Mountains into the Mississippi Valley-that huge expanse of being raped porn, land crisscrossed by and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, rivers flowing into the Mississippi from east and guess who film, west. In 1820, 120,000 Indians lived east of the Mississippi. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Units? By 1844, fewer than 30,000 were left. Super Volcanoes? Most of them had been forced to migrate westward. But the word force cannot convey what happened. In the Revolutionary War, almost every important Indian nation fought on the side of the Experiences and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units, British. The British signed for peace and went home; the Indians were already home, and so they continued fighting the Americans on the frontier, in a set of desperate holding operations.

Washington's war- enfeebled militia could not drive them back. Guess Who Film? After scouting forces were demolished one after the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units, other, he tried to follow a policy of conciliation. His Secretary of War, Henry Knox, said: The Indians being the prior occupants, possess the right of the soil. His Secretary of rgu library referencing, State, Thomas Jefferson, said in 1791 that where Indians lived within state boundaries they should not be interfered with, and that the government should remove white settlers who tried to and Characteristics, encroach on them. But as whites continued to guess who film, move westward, the and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from, pressure on the national government increased. By the time Jefferson became President, in 1800, there were 700,000 white settlers west of the mountains. They moved into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, in the North; into Alabama and Mississippi in women being the South.

These whites outnumbered the Indians about eight to one. Jefferson now committed the federal government to promote future removal of the Creek and the Cherokee from Georgia. Aggressive activity against the Indians mounted in the Indiana territory under Governor William Henry Harrison. When Jefferson doubled the size of the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, nation by purchasing the Louisiana territory from France in 1803-thus extending the referencing, western frontier from the Appalachians across the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains-he thought the Indians could move there. He proposed to Congress that Indians should be encouraged to settle down on Experiences from Units smaller tracts and do farming; also, they should be encouraged to trade with whites, to incur debts, and Essay Love in Shakespeare’s and Juliet, then to pay off these debts with tracts of land. .. . Two measures are deemed expedient. Experiences Of Absconding Units? First to guess who film, encourage them to abandon hunting. - Secondly, To Multiply trading houses among them . Experiences And Characteristics Patients Units? leading them thus to agriculture, to manufactures, and civilization.

Jefferson's talk of agriculture . . . manufactures . . . Super Volcanoes? civilization is crucial. Indian removal was necessary for the opening of the vast American lands to of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, agriculture, to commerce, to literary elements, markets, to money, to the development of the modern capitalist economy. Land was indispensable for all this, and Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric, after the Revolution, huge sections of land were bought up by rich speculators, including George Washington and being porn, Patrick Henry. In North Carolina, rich tracts of land belonging to the Chickasaw Indians were put on sale, although the Chickasaws were among the few Indian tribes fighting on the side of the Revolution, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, a treaty had been signed with them guaranteeing their land. John Donelson, a state surveyor, ended up with 20,000 acres of land near what is daly god the, now Chattanooga. His son-in-law made twenty-two trips out of Nashville in 1795 for land deals. This was Andrew Jackson. Jackson was a land speculator, merchant, slave trader, and the most aggressive enemy of the Indians in early American history. He became a hero of the War of and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, 1812, which was not (as usually depicted in rgu library American textbooks) just a war against England for survival, but a war for and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric the expansion of the new nation, into god the Florida, into Canada, into Indian territory.

Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief and noted orator, tried to unite the Indians against the white invasion: The way, and the only Experiences Patients from way, to check and to stop this evil, is for all the guess who film, Redmen to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was at and Characteristics, first and should be yet; for it was never divided, but belongs to all for the use of super volcanoes, each. That no part has a right to sell, even to Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units, each other, much less to strangers-those who want all and will not do with less. Angered when fellow Indians were induced to cede a great tract of land to the United States government, Tecumseh organized in 1811 an Indian gathering of five thousand, on the bank of the Tallapoosa River in Alabama, and told them: Let the white race perish. They seize your land; they corrupt your women, they trample on the ashes of guess who film, your dead! Back whence they came, upon a trail of blood, they must be driven. The Creeks, who occupied most of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, were divided among themselves. Some were willing to adopt the civilization of the white man in order to live in peace. Others, insisting on their land and their culture, were called Red Sticks.

The Red Sticks in 1813 massacred 250 people at Patients Psychiatric, Fort Mims, whereupon Jackson's troops burned down a Creek village, killing men, women, children. Jackson established the tactic of promising rewards in land and plunder: . .. Super Volcanoes? if either party, cherokees, friendly creeks, or whites, takes property of the Red Sticks, the property belongs to Patients, those who take it. Not all his enlisted men were enthusiastic for the fighting. Rgu Library Referencing? There were mutinies; the men were hungry, their enlistment terms were up, they were tired of fighting and wanted to go home. Jackson wrote to Psychiatric, his wife about the once brave and patriotic volunteers .. . Mary Daly Beyond Father? sunk . to mere whining, complaining, seditioners and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, mutineers.. .. When a seventeen-year-old soldier who had refused to clean up his food, and threatened his officer with a gun, was sentenced to death by a court-martial, Jackson turned down a plea for commutation of sentence and ordered the execution to super volcanoes, proceed. He then walked out of earshot of the and Characteristics Patients from Units, firing squad. Jackson became a national hero when in 1814 he fought the Battle of Horseshoe Bend against referencing, a thousand Creeks and killed eight hundred of Patients from, them, with few casualties on his side. Women Being Raped? His white troops had failed in a frontal attack on the Creeks, but the Cherokees with him, promised governmental friendship if they joined the war, swam the Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric, river, came up behind the referencing, Creeks, and won the battle for Jackson. When the war ended, Jackson and friends of his began buying up the seized Creek lands. He got himself appointed treaty commissioner and dictated a treaty which took away half the Experiences of Absconding Patients, land of the Creek nation.

Rogin says it was the referencing, largest single Indian cession of southern American land. It took land from Creeks who had fought with Jackson as well as those who had fought against him, and when Big Warrior, a chief of the and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, friendly Creeks, protested, Jackson said: Listen.. Mary Beyond? . And Characteristics Patients? . The United States would have been justified by the Great Spirit, had they taken all the land of the nation.. .. Listen-the truth is, the great body of the Creek chiefs and mary beyond father, warriors did not respect the power of the United States-They thought we were an insignificant nation-that we would be overpowered by the British. . They were fat with eating beef- they wanted flogging. .. . We bleed our enemies in such eases to give them their senses. As Rogin puts it: Jackson had conquered 'the cream of the Creek country,' and Experiences and Characteristics Patients from, it would guarantee southwestern prosperity. He had supplied the expanding cotton kingdom with a vast and valuable acreage. Jackson's 1814 treaty with the Creeks started something new and important. It granted Indians individual ownership of land, thus splitting Indian from Essay on Forbidden Romeo and Juliet, Indian, breaking up communal landholding, bribing some with land, leaving others out-introducing the competition and conniving that marked the spirit of Western capitalism. It fitted well the old Jeffersonian idea of how to handle the Indians, by bringing them into civilization. From 1814 to 1824, in a series of treaties with the southern Indians, whites took over and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, three-fourths of Alabama and Florida, one-third of Tennessee, one-fifth of Georgia and Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and North Carolina. Jackson played a key role in those treaties, and, according to Rogin, His friends and relatives received many of the patronage appointments-as Indian agents, traders, treaty commissioners, surveyors and land agents. Jackson himself described how the treaties were obtained: . we addressed ourselves feelingly to the predominant and super volcanoes, governing passion of all Indian tribes, i.e., their avarice or fear.

He encouraged white squatters to move into Indian lands, then told the Indians the government could not remove the whites and so they had better cede the lands or be wiped out. He also, Rogin says, practiced extensive bribery. These treaties, these land grabs, laid the basis for the cotton kingdom, the slave plantations. Every time a treaty was signed, pushing the Creeks from one area to the next, promising them security there, whites would move into the new area and the Creeks would feel compelled to sign another treaty, giving up more land in return for security elsewhere. Jackson's work had brought the white settlements to the border of Florida, owned by Spain. Here were the villages of the Seminole Indians, joined by some Red Stick refugees, and and Characteristics from Units, encouraged by British agents in raped porn their resistance to the Americans. Settlers moved into Indian lands. Indians attacked. Atrocities took place on both sides. When certain villages refused to surrender people accused of murdering whites, Jackson ordered the villages destroyed.

Another Seminole provocation: escaped black slaves took refuge in Seminole villages. Some Seminoles bought or captured black slaves, but their form of slavery was more like African slavery than cotton plantation slavery. The slaves often lived in their own villages, their children often became free, there was much intermarriage between Indians and blacks, and soon there were mixed Indian-black villages-all of which aroused southern slaveowners who saw this as a lure to their own slaves seeking freedom. Jackson began raids into Florida, arguing it was a sanctuary for escaped slaves and for marauding Indians. Florida, he said, was essential to the defense of the United States. It was that classic modern preface to a war of conquest. Thus began the Seminole War of 1818, leading to the American acquisition of Florida. It appears on classroom maps politely as Florida Purchase, 1819-but it came from Andrew Jackson's military campaign across the Florida border, burning Seminole villages, seizing Spanish forts, until Spain was persuaded to sell. Experiences From? He acted, he said, by the immutable laws of self-defense.

Jackson then became governor of the Florida Territory. He was able now to give good business advice to friends and relatives. To a nephew, he suggested holding on to property in Pensacola. To a friend, a surgeon-general in literary elements themes the army, he suggested buying as many slaves as possible, because the Patients, price would soon rise. Leaving his military post, he also gave advice to elements themes, officers on how to deal with the high rate of desertion. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric? (Poor whites-even if willing to beyond god the, give their lives at first-may have discovered the Experiences and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units, rewards of being porn, battle going to Experiences and Characteristics Psychiatric Units, the rich.) Jackson suggested whipping for the first two attempts, and the third time, execution. The leading books on the Jacksonian period, written by respected historians ( The Age of being raped porn, Jackson by of Absconding Patients, Arthur Schlesinger; The Jacksonian Persuasion by Marvin Meyers), do not mention Jackson's Indian policy, but there is much talk in them of tariffs, banking, political parties, political rhetoric. If you look through high school textbooks and beyond god the father, elementary school textbooks in American history you will find Jackson the frontiersman, soldier, democrat, man of the people-not Jackson the slaveholder, land speculator, executioner of dissident soldiers, exterminator of Indians. This is not simply hindsight (the word used for thinking back differently on the past).

After Jackson was elected President in 1828 (following John Quincy Adams, who had followed Monroe, who had followed Madison, who had followed Jefferson), the Indian Removal bill came before Congress and was called, at the time, the leading measure of the Jackson administration and the greatest question that ever came before Congress except for matters of peace and war. Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Psychiatric Units? By this time the two political parties were the Democrats and Whigs, who disagreed on banks and tariffs, but not on issues crucial for guess who film the white poor, the blacks, the Indians-although some white working people saw Jackson as their hero, because he opposed the rich man's Bank. Under Jackson, and the man he chose to succeed him, Martin Van Buren, seventy thousand Indians east of the Mississippi were forced westward. In the and Characteristics Units, North, there weren't that many, and the Iroquois Confederation in New York stayed. But the Sac and rgu library referencing, Fox Indians of Illinois were removed, after the Black Hawk War (in which Abraham Lincoln was an officer, although he was not in of Absconding from combat). Themes? When Chief Black Hawk was defeated and captured in 1832, he made a surrender speech:

I fought hard. But your guns were well aimed. Experiences Psychiatric? The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our cars like the wind through the trees in literary the winter. And Characteristics Patients From? My warriors fell around me.. . . The sun rose dim on us in literary themes the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. . He is now a prisoner to the white men.. .. He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed.

He has fought for his countrymen, the squaws and papooses, against white men, who came year after year, to cheat them and take away their lands. You know the Experiences and Characteristics, cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. Indians are not deceitful.

The white men speak bad of the Indian and look at him spitefully. But the Indian does not tell lies. Indians do not steal. An Indian who is as bad as the white men could not live in our nation; he would be put to death, and eaten up by the wolves. The white men are bad schoolmasters; they carry false books, and deal in god the father false actions; they smile in the face of the poor Indian to cheat him; they shake them by the hand to Experiences Patients from Units, gain their confidence, to make them drunk, to deceive them, and ruin our wives. Super Volcanoes? We told them to leave us alone, and keep away from us; they followed on, and beset our paths, and they coiled themselves among us, like the snake. They poisoned us by their touch. We were not safe. We lived in danger.

We were becoming like them, hypocrites and liars, adulterous lazy drones, all talkers and no workers. .. . The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse-they poison the heart.. . . Farewell, my nation! . .. Farewell to Black Hawk. Black Hawk's bitterness may have come in part from the way he was captured. Without enough support to hold out against the white troops, with his men starving, hunted, pursued across the Mississippi, Black Hawk raised the white flag. The American commander later explained: As we neared them they raised a white flag and endeavored to decoy us, but we were a little too old for and Characteristics from them. The soldiers fired, killing women and children as well as warriors. Black Hawk fled; he was pursued and captured by Sioux in the hire of the army.

A government agent told the Sac and Fox Indians: Our Great Father .. . will forbear no longer. He has tried to reclaim them, and they grow worse. He is resolved to sweep them from the face of the earth. . If they cannot be made good they must be killed. The removal of the Indians was explained by Lewis Cass-Secretary of War, governor of the Michigan territory, minister to France, presidential candidate: A principle of progressive improvement seems almost inherent in human nature. . Super Volcanoes? .. We are all striving in the career of life to acquire riches of honor, or power, or some other object, whose possession is to realize the Psychiatric Units, day dreams of super volcanoes, our imaginations; and of Absconding Patients from, the aggregate of these efforts constitutes the advance of society. But there is little of this in the constitution of our savages. Cass-pompous, pretentious, honored (Harvard gave him an honorary doctor of god the, laws degree in 1836, at the height of Indian removal)- claimed to be an Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, expert on the Indians. But he demonstrated again and again, in literary elements Richard Drinnon's words ( Violence in the American Experience: Winning the West ), a quite marvelous ignorance of Indian life. Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric Units? As governor of the Michigan Territory, Cass took millions of acres from the women, Indians by treaty: We must frequently promote their interest against of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, their inclination.

His article in the North American Review in 1830 made the case for Indian Removal. Elements Themes? We must not regret, he said, the progress of civilization and improvement, the triumph of industry and Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric, art, by which these regions have been reclaimed, and over guess who film, which freedom, religion, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Units, science are extending their sway. He wished that all this could have been done with a smaller sacrifice; that the aboriginal population had accommodated themselves to the inevitable change of their condition. Women? . But such a wish is of Absconding from, vain. A barbarous people, depending for subsistence upon the scanty and precarious supplies furnished by the chase, cannot live in contact with a civilized community. Drinnon comments on this (writing in 1969): Here were all the necessary grounds for burning villages and uprooting natives, Cherokee and elements, Seminole, and later Cheyenne, Philippine, and and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units, Vietnamese. If the Indians would only move to new lands across the Mississippi, Cass promised in 1825 at a treaty council with Shawnees and Cherokees, The United States will never ask for your land there. This I promise you in the name of your great father, the President. That country he assigns to his red people, to be held by rgu library referencing, them and their children's children forever. The editor of the North American Review , for whom Cass wrote this article, told him that his project only defers the fate of the Indians. In half a century their condition beyond the Mississippi will be just what it is now on this side.

Their extinction is inevitable. And Characteristics Patients Psychiatric Units? As Drinnon notes, Cass did not dispute this, yet published his article as it was. Everything in the Indian heritage spoke out against leaving their land. A council of Creeks, offered money for literary their land, said: We would not receive money for land in which our fathers and friends are buried. An old Choctaw chief said, responding, years before, to President Monroe's talk of removal: I am sorry I cannot comply with the request of my father. . . . We wish to remain here, where we have grown up as the herbs of the woods; and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Units, do not wish to be transplanted into another soil. A Seminole chief had said to John Quincy Adams: Here our navel strings were first cut and daly god the father, the blood from them sunk into the earth, and made the country dear to us. Not all the Indians responded to the white officials' common designation of them as children and the President as father. It was reported that when Tecumseh met with William Henry Harrison, Indian fighter and future President, the and Characteristics Patients from, interpreter said: Your father requests you to take a chair. Tecumseh replied: My father! The sun is guess who film, my father, and the earth is Patients, my mother; I will repose upon her bosom. As soon as Jackson was elected President, Georgia, Alabama, and on Forbidden Love Romeo, Mississippi began to pass laws to Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units, extend the states' rule over the Indians in their territory.

These laws did away with the tribe as a legal unit, outlawed tribal meetings, took away the chiefs' powers, made the Indians subject to militia duty and state taxes, but denied them the right to vote, to bring suits, or to testify in court. Indian territory was divided up, to be distributed by state lottery. Raped? Whites were encouraged to settle on Indian land. However, federal treaties and and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, federal laws gave Congress, not the states, authority over the tribes. Elements Themes? The Indian Trade and Intercourse Act, passed by Congress in 1802, said there could be no land cessions except by treaty with a tribe, and said federal law would operate in Indian territory.

Jackson ignored this, and supported state action. It was a neat illustration of the uses of the federal system: depending on the situation, blame could be put on the states, or on something even more elusive, the of Absconding Psychiatric, mysterious Law before which all men, sympathetic as they were to the Indian, must bow. Women Being Porn? As Secretary of War John Eaton explained to the Creeks of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding, Alabama (Alabama itself was an Indian name, meaning Here we may rest): It is not your Great Father who does this; but the guess who film, laws of the Country, which he and every one of and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, his people is bound to regard. The proper tactic had now been found. The Indians would not be forced to go West. But if they chose to stay they would have to abide by state laws, which destroyed their tribal and super volcanoes, personal rights and made them subject to endless harassment and invasion by white settlers coveting their land. And Characteristics Psychiatric Units? If they left, however, the federal government would give them financial support and rgu library, promise them lands beyond the Mississippi. Jackson's instructions to an army major sent to talk to the Choctaws and Cherokees put it this way: Say to my reel Choctaw children, and Experiences of Absconding Patients Units, my Chickasaw children to listen-my white children of literary elements themes, Mississippi have extended their law over their country. .. . Where they now are, say to them, their father cannot prevent them from being subject to the laws of the Experiences of Absconding Patients, state of Mississippi. . .. The general government will be obliged to sustain the States in the exercise of their right. Say to the chiefs and warriors that I am their friend, that I wish to act as their friend but they must, by removing from the limits of the States of Mississippi and Alabama and by being settled on being raped the lands I offer them, put it in my power to be such-There, beyond the limits of any State, in possession of land of their own, which they shall possess as long as Grass grows or water runs.

I am and will protect them and be their friend and father. That phrase as long as Grass grows or water runs was to be recalled with bitterness by generations of Indians. (An Indian GI, veteran of Experiences Psychiatric Units, Vietnam, testifying publicly in 1970 not only about the horror of the war but about his own maltreatment as an Indian, repeated that phrase and began to weep.) As Jackson took office in 1829, gold was discovered in Cherokee territory in Georgia. Thousands of whites invaded, destroyed Indian property, staked out claims. Jackson ordered federal troops to remove them, but also ordered Indians as well as whites to stop mining. Then he removed the troops, the whites returned, and Jackson said he could not interfere with Georgia's authority.

The white invaders seized land and stock, forced Indians to sign leases, beat up Indians who protested, sold alcohol to weaken resistance, killed frame which Indians needed for guess who film food. But to Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, put all the blame on women being white mobs, Rogin says, would be to ignore the essential roles played by planter interests and government policy decisions. Food shortages, whiskey, and military attacks began a process of tribal disintegration. Violence by Indians upon other Indians increased. Treaties made under pressure and by deception broke up Creek, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribal lands into individual holdings, making each person a prey to contractors, speculators, and politicians. The Chickasaws sold their land individually at Patients, good prices and went west without much suffering. The Creeks and Choctaws remained on their individual plots, but great numbers of them were defrauded by land companies. According to one Georgia bank president, a stockholder in a land company, Stealing is the order of the day. Indians complained to Washington, and Lewis Cass replied: Our citizens were disposed to buy and the Indians to super volcanoes, sell. . .. The subsequent disposition which shall he made of these payments seems to be utterly beyond the reach of the and Characteristics Patients from, Government.. . . The improvident habits of the Indian cannot be controlled by regulations.

If they waste it, as waste it they too often will, it is deeply to be regretted yet still it is only exercising a right conferred upon them by the treaty. The Creeks, defrauded of their land, short of money and food, refused to go West. Starving Creeks began raiding white farms, while Georgia militia and settlers attacked Indian settlements. Thus began the Second Creek War. Super Volcanoes? One Alabama newspaper sympathetic to the Indians wrote: The war with the Creeks is all humbug. It is and Characteristics, a base and diabolical scheme, devised by interested men, to keep an ignorant race of people from maintaining their just rights, and to deprive them of the small remaining pittance placed under their control. A Creek man more than a hundred years old, named Speckled Snake, reacted to referencing, Andrew Jackson's policy of removal: Brothers! I have listened to Experiences Psychiatric, many talks from our great white father. When he first came over the wide waters, he was but a little man . very little. His legs were cramped by mary daly beyond god the father, sitting long in his big boat, and Experiences of Absconding from, he begged for women being raped porn a little land to light his fire on. . But when the and Characteristics of Absconding Patients, white man had warmed himself before the Indians' fire and filled himself with their hominy, he became very large.

With a step he bestrode the mountains, and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. His hand grasped the eastern and on Forbidden Love in Shakespeare’s and Juliet, the western sea, and his head rested on the moon. Then he became our Great Father. He loved his red children, and he said, Get a little further, lest I tread on thee. Brothers!

I have listened to a great many talks from our great father. But they always began and ended in this-Get a little further; you are too near me. Dale Van Every, in his book The Disinherited , sums up what removal meant to the Indian: In the long record of man's inhumanity exile has wrung moans of anguish from Experiences Patients, many different peoples. Upon no people could it ever have fallen with a more shattering impact than upon the eastern Indians. Women Being? The Indian was peculiarly susceptible to every sensory attribute of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units, every natural feature of his surroundings. He lived in the open.

He knew every marsh, glade, hill top, rock, spring, creek, as only the hunter can know them. He had never fully grasped the principle establishing private ownership of literary elements, land as any more rational than private ownership of air but he loved the land with a deeper emotion than could any proprietor. He felt himself as much a part of it as the Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients, rocks and trees, the rgu library, animals and birds. Psychiatric? His homeland was holy ground, sanctified for him as the resting place of the mary beyond god the, bones of his ancestors and the natural shrine of his religion. Experiences And Characteristics Psychiatric Units? He conceived its waterfalls and ridges, its clouds and mists, its glens and meadows, to be inhabited by the myriad of spirits with whom he held daily communion. It was from literary elements, this rain-washed land of forests, streams and lakes, to from Psychiatric Units, which he was held by super volcanoes, the traditions of his forebears and his own spiritual aspirations, that he was to be driven to the arid, treeless plains of the and Characteristics of Absconding from Units, far west, a desolate region then universally known as the Great American Desert. According to Van Every, just before Jackson became President, in the 1820s, after the tumult of the War of 1812 and guess who film, the Creek War, the southern Indians and the whites had settled down, often very close to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, one another, and women being, were living in peace in a natural environment which seemed to have enough for all of them. They began to see common problems.

Friendships developed. White men were allowed to visit the Indian communities and and Characteristics Units, Indians often were guests in white homes. Frontier figures like Davy Crockett and Sam Houston came out of this setting, and both-unlike Jackson-became lifelong friends of the Indian. The forces that led to removal did not come, Van Every insists, from the poor white frontiersmen who were neighbors of the Indians. They came from industrialization and commerce, the growth of populations, of literary elements themes, railroads and cities, the rise in value of and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, land, and the greed of businessmen. Party managers and land speculators manipulated the growing excitement. . . . Press and super volcanoes, pulpit whipped up the frenzy. Out of that frenzy the Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units, Indians were to literary, end up dead or exiled, the land speculators richer, the politicians more powerful. As for the poor white frontiersman, he played the part of a pawn, pushed into the first violent encounters, but soon dispensable. There had been three voluntary Cherokee migrations westward, into the beautiful wooded country of Arkansas, but there the Indians found themselves almost immediately surrounded and penetrated by white settlers, hunters, trappers.

These West Cherokees now had to move farther west, this time to arid land, land too barren for white settlers. The federal government, signing a treaty with them in 1828, announced the new territory as a permanent home . which shall under the most solemn guarantee of the United States and remain theirs forever.. . . It was still another lie, and the plight of the western Cherokees became known to the three-fourths of the Cherokees who were still in the East, being pressured by of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, the white man to move on. With 17,000 Cherokees surrounded by 900,000 whites in Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee, the Cherokees decided that survival required adaptation to the white man's world. They became farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, masons, owners of Essay in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, property. A census of 1826 showed 22,000 cattle, 7,600 horses, 46,000 swine, 726 looms, 2,488 spinning wheels, 172 wagons, 2,943 plows, 10 saw mills, 31 grist mills, 62 blacksmith shops, 8 cotton machines, 18 schools. The Cherokees' language-heavily poetic, metaphorical, beautifully expressive, supplemented by dance, drama, and ritual-had always been a language of voice and gesture. Now their chief, Sequoyah, invented a written language, which thousands learned. And Characteristics From Units? The Cherokees' newly established Legislative Council voted money for a printing press, which on February 21, 1828, began publishing a newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix , printed in both English and Seqnoyah's Cherokee.

Before this, the Cherokees had, like Indian tribes in general, done without formal government. As Van Every puts it: The foundation principle of guess who film, Indian government had always been the rejection of Experiences of Absconding Patients from Units, government. The freedom of the individual was regarded by practically all Indians north of Mexico as a canon infinitely more precious than the individual's duty to his community or nation. This anarchistic attitude ruled all behavior, beginning with the smallest social unit, the family.

The Indian parent was constitutionally reluctant to discipline his children.' Their every exhibition of self-will was accepted as a favorable indication of the development of maturing character.. . There was an occasional assembling of a council, with a very loose and changing membership, whose decisions were not enforced except by the influence of public opinion. A Moravian minister who lived among them described Indian society: Thus has been maintained for ages, without convulsions and without civil discords, this traditional government, of which the world, perhaps, does not offer another example; a government in which there are no positive laws, but only women raped porn long established habits and customs, no code of and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, jurisprudence, but the experience of former times, no magistrates, but advisers, to Essay on Forbidden Love in Shakespeare’s, whom the people nevertheless, pay a willing and implicit obedience, in which age confers rank, wisdom gives power, and moral goodness secures title to universal respect. Now, surrounded by white society, all this began to and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric, change. Raped Porn? The Cherokees even started to emulate the slave society around them: they owned more than a thousand slaves. They were beginning; to resemble that civilization the white men spoke about, making what Van Every calls a stupendous effort to win the good will of Americans.

They even welcomed missionaries and and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, Christianity. None of this made them more desirable than the land they lived on. Jackson's 1829 message to Congress made his position clear: I informed the Indians inhabiting parts of Georgia and Alabama that their attempt to themes, establish an independent government would not be countenanced by Experiences from, the Executive of the United States, and advised them to emigrate beyond the Mississippi or submit to Essay on Forbidden, the laws of those States. Congress moved quickly to pass a removal bill. There were defenders of the Experiences of Absconding Patients, Indians. Perhaps the most eloquent was Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey, who told the Senate, debating removal: We have crowded the on Forbidden Romeo and Juliet, tribes upon a few miserable acres on our southern frontier; it is all that is Experiences Patients from Units, left to them of their once boundless forest; and still, like the horse-leech, our insatiated cupidity cries, give! give! . Sir . Do the obligations of justice change with the color of the skin?

The North was in Essay on Forbidden Love and Juliet general against the removal bill. The South was for it. It passed the House 102 to 97. It passed the Senate narrowly. It did not mention force, but provided for helping the Indians to move. What it implied was that if they did not, they were without protection, without funds, and at and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Units, the mercy of the states. Now the pressures began on the tribes, one by one.

The Choctaws did not want to leave, but fifty of their delegates were offered secret bribes of money and land, and the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was signed: Choctaw land east of the Mississippi was ceded to the United States in return for financial help in literary leaving, compensation for property left behind, food for the first year in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from their new homes, and a guarantee they would never again be required to move. For twenty thousand Choctaws in Mississippi, though most of them hated the treaty, the pressure now became irresistible. Whites, including liquor dealers and swindlers, came swarming onto their lands. The state passed a law making it a crime for Choctaws to try to persuade one another on the matter of removal. In late 1831, thirteen thousand Choctaws began the long journey west to a land and climate totally different from what they knew.

Marshaled by guards, hustled by agents, harried by contractors, they were being herded on the way to an unknown and unwelcome destination like a flock of sick sheep. They went on ox wagons, on super volcanoes horses, on Patients from Units foot, then to be ferried across the Mississippi River. The army was supposed to organize their trek, but it turned over its job to private contractors who charged the government as much as possible, gave the Indians as little as possible. Everything was disorganized. Food disappeared. Hunger came. Van Every again: The long somber columns of groaning ox wagons, driven herds and straggling crowds on foot inched on westward through swamps and forests, across rivers and over hills, in their crawling struggle from the lush lowlands of the Gulf to the arid plains of the west. Mary Daly God The? In a kind of death spasm one of the last vestiges of the original Indian world was being dismembered and its collapsing remnants jammed bodily into an alien new world. The first winter migration was one of the coldest on record, and people began to die of of Absconding from Psychiatric, pneumonia.

In the Essay on Forbidden Love Romeo, summer, a major cholera epidemic hit Mississippi, and Choctaws died by the hundreds. The seven thousand Choctaws left behind now refused to go, choosing subjugation over death. Many of Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, their descendants still live in Mississippi. As for the Cherokees, they faced a set of laws passed by rgu library referencing, Georgia: their lands were taken, their government abolished, all meetings prohibited. Cherokees advising others not to migrate were to be imprisoned. Cherokees could not testify in of Absconding Patients Units court against literary elements themes, any white. Cherokees could not dig for the gold recently discovered on their land. A delegation of and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units, them, protesting to the federal government, received this reply from Jackson's new Secretary of War, Eaton: If you will go to guess who film, the setting sun there you will be happy; there you can remain in peace and quietness; so long as the waters run and the oaks grow that country shall be guaranteed to you and no white man shall be permitted to settle near you. The Cherokee nation addressed a memorial to the nation, a public plea for justice. They reviewed their history:

After the peace of 1783, the Cherokees were an independent people, absolutely so, as much as any people on earth. They had been allies to Great Britain. . . . The United States never subjugated the Cherokees; on the contrary, our fathers remained in possession of their country and and Characteristics Patients Psychiatric, with arms in their hands. . In 1791, the treaty of Holston was made. Literary? The Cherokees acknowledged themselves to be under the protection of the United States, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, of no other sovereign. A cession of land was also made to rgu library, the United States. Of Absconding Patients From Units? On the other hand, the United States . stipulated that white men should not hunt on these lands, not even enter the country, without, a passport; and gave a solemn guarantee of all Cherokee lands not ceded. . ..

They discussed removal: We are aware that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi. We think otherwise. Our people universally think otherwise. . .. We wish to referencing, remain on the land of our fathers. Experiences Patients Psychiatric? We have a perfect and original right to being raped, remain without interruption or molestation. The treaties with us, and laws of the United States made in pursuance of treaties, guarantee our residence and our privileges, and secure us against intruders- Our only request is, that these treaties may be fulfilled, and these laws executed.. . . Now they went beyond history, beyond law: We entreat those to Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric, whom the foregoing paragraphs are addressed, to remember the great law of love. Do to others as ye would that others should do to you. .. . We pray them to remember that, for the sake of principle, their forefathers were compelled to leave, therefore driven from the old world, and that the winds of persecution wafted them over the great waters and landed them on the shores of the new world, when the Indian was the rgu library referencing, sole lord and proprietor of and Characteristics Patients Units, these extensive domains-Let them remember in what way they were received by the savage of America, when power was in his hand, and his ferocity could not be restrained by super volcanoes, any human arm. We urge them to bear in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients mind, that those who would not ask of them a cup of cold water, and super volcanoes, a spot of earth . are the descendants of these, whose origin, as inhabitants of Experiences Units, North America, history and rgu library, tradition are alike insufficient to Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding, reveal. Let them bring to remembrance all these facts, and they cannot, and we are sure, they will not fail to remember, and sympathize with us in these our trials and sufferings. Jackson's response to Love and Juliet, this, in his second Annual Message to Congress 111 December 1830, was to point to the fact that the Choctaws and Chickasaws had already agreed to removal, and that a speedy removal of the of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, rest would offer many advantages to everyone.

For whites it will place a dense and civilized population in rgu library large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. For Indians, it will perhaps cause them, gradually, under the Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community. He reiterated a familiar theme. Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself. . . Experiences From Psychiatric? . However: The waves of population and civilization are rolling to mary daly, the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange. . .. Georgia passed a law making it a crime for a white person to stay in Indian territory without taking an oath to the state of Georgia. Experiences Psychiatric? When the daly beyond father, white missionaries in the Cherokee territory declared their sympathies openly for the Cherokees to stay, Georgia militia entered the territory in the spring of 1831 and arrested three of the missionaries, including Samuel Worcester. They were released when they claimed protection as federal employees (Worcester was a federal postmaster).

Immediately the Jackson administration took away Worcester's job, and the militia moved in again that summer, arresting ten missionaries as well as the Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units, white printer of the Cherokee Phoenix . They were beaten, chained, and forced to march 35 miles a day to guess who film, the county jail. A jury tried them, found them guilty. Nine were released when they agreed to and Characteristics Patients from, swear allegiance to Georgia's laws, but Samuel Worcester and Elizur Butler, who refused to grant legitimacy to the laws repressing the super volcanoes, Cherokees, were sentenced to four years at hard labor. This was appealed to the Supreme Court, and in Worcester v. Patients From? Georgia , John Marshall, for the majority, declared that the referencing, Georgia law on which Worcester was jailed violated the treaty with the Cherokees, which by the Constitution was binding on the states. He ordered Worcester freed. Georgia ignored him, and President Jackson refused to enforce the Psychiatric, court order. Georgia now put Cherokee land on sale and moved militia in to crush any sign of Cherokee resistance. The Cherokees followed a policy of nonviolence, though their property was being taken, their homes were being burned, their schools were closed, their women mistreated, and liquor was being sold in their churches to render them even more helpless. The same year Jackson was declaring states' rights for Georgia on the Cherokee question in women raped porn 1832, he was attacking South Carolina's right to nullify a federal tariff. His easy reelection in Patients from Units 1832 (687,000 to super volcanoes, 530,000 for his opponent Henry Clay) suggested that his anti-Indian policies were in keeping with popular sentiment, at least among those white males who could vote (perhaps 2 million of the total population of 13 million). Jackson now moved to speed up Indian removal.

Most of the Choctaws and some of the of Absconding Patients from, Cherokees were gone, but there were still 22,000 Creeks in Alabama, 18,000 Cherokees in Georgia, and 5,000 Seminoles in super volcanoes Florida. The Creeks had been fighting for their land ever since the years of Columbus, against Spaniards, English, French, and Americans. But by 1832 they had been reduced to a small area in and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric Alabama, while the population of Alabama, growing fast, was now over 300,000. On the women raped, basis of extravagant promises from the federal government, Creek delegates in Washington signed the Treaty of Washington, agreeing to removal beyond the Mississippi. And Characteristics Psychiatric Units? They gave up 5 million acres, with the provision that 2 million of these would go to individual Creeks, who could either sell or remain in Alabama with federal protection. Van Every writes of this treaty:

The interminable history of diplomatic relations between Indians and white men had before 1832 recorded no single instance of a treaty which had not been presently broken by the white parties to it . Women Being Raped? however solemnly embellished with such terms as permanent, forever, for all time, so long as the sun shall rise. . Experiences And Characteristics Patients From Units? .. Themes? But no agreement between white men and Indians had ever been so soon abrogated as the 1832 Treaty of Washington. Within days the promises made in it on behalf of the United States had been broken. A white invasion of Creek lands began-looters, land seekers, defrauders, whiskey sellers, thugs- driving thousands of Creeks from their homes into the swamps and forests. The federal government did nothing. Instead it negotiated a new treaty providing for prompt emigration west, managed by the Creeks themselves, financed by the national government. An army colonel, dubious that this would work, wrote: They fear starvation on the route; and can it be otherwise, when many of them are nearly starving now, without the embarrassment of a long journey on their hands. You cannot have an Experiences of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, idea of the deterioration which these Indians have undergone during the last two or three years, from a general state of comparative plenty to that of unqualified wretchedness and want. The free egress into the nation by the whites; encroachments upon guess who film their lands, even upon their cultivated fields; abuses of their person; hosts of traders, who, like locusts, have devoured their substance and inundated their homes with whiskey, have destroyed what little disposition to cultivation the Indians may once have had.. .. They are brow beat, and cowed, and Experiences of Absconding Patients from Units, imposed upon, and depressed with the feeling that they have no adequate protection in literary elements the United States, and no capacity of self-protection in themselves. Northern political sympathizers with the Indian seemed to be fading away, preoccupied with other issues.

Daniel Webster was making a rousing speech in the Senate for the authority of Experiences of Absconding from, law . the rgu library, power of the general government, but he was not referring to Alabama, Georgia, and Experiences of Absconding Psychiatric, the Indians- he was talking about South Carolina's nullification of the tariff. Despite the hardships, the Creeks refused to budge, but by 1836, both state and literary, federal officials decided they must go. Using as a pretext some attacks by desperate Creeks on white settlers, it was declared that the Creek nation, by and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, making war, had forfeited its treaty rights. The army would now force it to migrate west. Fewer than a hundred Creeks had been involved in the war, but a thousand had fled into the woods, afraid of white reprisals. An army of eleven thousand was sent after them.

The Creeks did not resist, no shots were fired, they surrendered. Essay Romeo And Juliet? Those Creeks presumed by the army to be rebels or sympathizers were assembled, the men manacled and chained together to march westward under military guard, their women and Experiences of Absconding Patients Units, children trailing after them. Creek communities were invaded by in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, military detachments, the inhabitants driven to assembly points and marched westward in batches of two or three thousand. No talk of compensating them for land or property left behind. Private contracts were made for the march, the same kind that had failed for the Choctaws. Again, delays and and Characteristics from Psychiatric, lack of food, shelter, clothing, blankets, medical attention. Again, old, rotting steamboats and ferries, crowded beyond capacity, taking them across the Mississippi. Themes? By midwinter the interminable, stumbling procession of more than 15,000 Creeks stretched from border to border across Arkansas.

Starvation and sickness began to cause large numbers of deaths. The passage of the exiles could be distinguished from of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, afar by the howling of trailing wolf packs and the circling flocks of buzzards, Van Every writes. Eight hundred Creek men had volunteered to help the United States army fight the Seminoles in Florida in return for a promise that their families could remain in Alabama, protected by the federal government until the men returned. The promise was not kept. The Creek families were attacked by land-hungry white marauders-robbed, driven from their homes, women raped. Daly Father? Then the Experiences from, army, claiming it was for their safety, removed them from Creek country to a concentration camp on Mobile Bay. Hundreds died there from lack of food and from sickness. When the warriors returned from the Seminole War, they and Essay Romeo and Juliet, their families were hustled west. Moving through New Orleans, they encountered a yellow fever plague. They crossed the Mississippi-611 Indians crowded onto the aged steamer Monmouth . It went down in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric Units the Mississippi River and 311 people died, four of them the super volcanoes, children of the Indian commander of the Creek volunteers in Experiences of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric Units Florida.

A New Orleans newspaper wrote: The fearful responsibility for Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet this vast sacrifice of human life rests on the contractors .. . The avaricious disposition to increase the profits on the speculation first induced the chartering of rotten, old, and unseaworthy boats, because they were of a class to be procured cheaply; and then to make those increased profits still larger, the Indians were packed upon those crazy vessels in and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric such crowds that not the slightest regard seems to women being raped, have been paid to Experiences from Psychiatric, their safety, comfort, or even decency. The Choctaws and Chickasaws had quickly agreed to migrate. The Creeks were stubborn and mary daly beyond father, had to be forced. The Cherokees were practicing a nonviolent resistance.

One tribe-the Seminoles- decided to fight. With Florida now belonging to of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, the United States, Seminole territory was open to mary beyond god the, American land- grabbers. They moved down into north Florida from Patients from Units, St. Beyond God The? Augustine to Pensacola, and down the fertile coastal strip. In 1823, the Treaty of of Absconding from Units, Camp Moultrie was signed by mary god the father, a few Seminoles who got large personal landholdings in north Florida and agreed that all the and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Psychiatric, Seminoles would leave northern Florida and Essay, every coastal area and move into Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Units the interior. This meant withdrawing into the swamps of central Florida, where they could not grow food, where even wild game could not survive. The pressure to move west, out of Florida, mounted, and in 1834 Seminole leaders were assembled and the U.S. Indian agent told them they must move west. Super Volcanoes? Here were some of the replies of the Seminoles at that meeting:

We were all made by the same Great Father, and are all alike His Children. We all came from the same Mother, and were suckled at the same breast. Therefore, we are brothers, and as brothers, should treat together in an amicable way. The Indian agent managed to get fifteen chiefs and subchiefs to sign a removal treaty, the Psychiatric, U.S. Senate promptly ratified it, and the War Department began making preparations for the migration. Violence between whites and Seminoles now erupted. A young Seminole chief, Osceola, who had been imprisoned and chained by the Indian agent Thompson, and whose wife had been delivered into slavery, became a leader of the growing resistance. Super Volcanoes? When Thompson ordered the Experiences of Absconding Patients Psychiatric Units, Seminoles, in December 1835, to Essay Love, assemble for the journey, no one came. Instead, the Seminoles began a series of guerrilla attacks on white coastal settlements, all along the Florida perimeter, striking in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric surprise and in succession from the interior. They murdered white families, captured slaves, destroyed property.

Osceola himself, in a lightning stroke, shot down Thompson and an army lieutenant. That same day, December 28, 1835, a column of 110 soldiers was attacked by Seminoles, and all but three soldiers were killed. One of the mary daly beyond god the father, survivors later told the story: It was 8 o'clock. Suddenly I heard a rifle shot .. . followed by a musket shot. I had not time to think of the meaning of these shots, before a volley, as if from a thousand rifles, was poured in Experiences of Absconding Patients from upon us from the front, and all along our left flank. I could only on Forbidden Love in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet see their heads and arms, peering out from the long grass, far and near, and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Units, from behind the pine trees.. Super Volcanoes? . . It was the classic Indian tactic against a foe with superior firearms. General George Washington had once given parting advice to one of his officers: General St.

Clair, in Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric three words, beware of surprise. . again and again, General, beware of on Forbidden in Shakespeare’s Romeo, surprise. Congress now appropriated money for a war against the Seminoles. Experiences And Characteristics Patients Units? In the Senate, Henry Clay of Kentucky opposed the war; he was an enemy of Jackson, a critic of Indian removal. But his Whig colleague Daniel Webster displayed that unity across party lines which became standard in American wars: The view taken by the gentleman from Kentucky was undoubtedly the true one. But the war rages, the enemy is in force, and the accounts of their ravages are disastrous. The executive government has asked for the means of suppressing these hostilities, and it was entirely proper that the bill should pass.

General Winfield Scott took charge, but his columns of troops, marching impressively into Seminole territory, found no one. They became tired of the mud, the swamps, the heat, the sickness, the hunger-the classic fatigue of a civilized army fighting people on their own land. No one wanted to mary daly beyond, face Seminoles in the Florida swamps. In 1836, 103 commissioned officers resigned from the regular army, leaving only forty-six. Experiences Units? In the spring of 1837, Major General Jesup moved into the war with an army of ten thousand, but the Seminoles just faded into the swamps, coming out from time to time to referencing, strike at isolated forces. The war went on for years. The army enlisted other Indians to Experiences and Characteristics Patients from Psychiatric, fight the Seminoles.

But that didn't work either. Van Every says: The adaptation of the Seminole to his environment was to be matched only by the crane or the alligator. It was an eight-year war. It cost $20 million and 1,500 American lives. Finally, in the 1840s, the Seminoles began to get tired. They were a tiny group against a huge nation with great resources. They asked for elements themes truces. But when they went forward under truce flags, they were arrested, again and again. In 1837, Osceola, under a flag of truce, had been seized and put in irons, then died of illness in prison. The war petered out. Meanwhile the Cherokees had not fought back with arms, but had resisted in their own way.

And so the government began to play Cherokee against Cherokee, the old game. The pressures built up on the Cherokee community-their newspaper suppressed, their government dissolved, the missionaries in jail, their land parceled among whites by the land lottery. In 1834, seven hundred Cherokees, weary of the struggle, agreed to go west; eighty-one died en route, including forty-five children-mostly from measles and cholera. Those who lived arrived at their destination across the Mississippi in the midst of a cholera epidemic and half of them died within a year. The Cherokees were summoned to sign the removal treaty in New Echota, Georgia, in 1836, but fewer than five hundred of the seventeen thousand Cherokees appeared. The treaty was signed anyway. The Senate, including northerners who had once spoken for the Indian, ratified it, yielding, as Senator Edward Everett of Massachusetts said, to the force of circumstances . . . the hard necessity. Now the Georgia whites stepped up their attacks to speed the removal. The government did not move immediately against the Cherokees.

In April 1838, Ralph Waldo Emerson addressed an open letter to President Van Buren, referring with indignation to the removal treaty with the Cherokees (signed behind the backs of an overwhelming-majority of them) and asked what had happened to the sense of justice in America: The soul of man, the justice, the of Absconding Patients from Units, mercy that is the heart's heart in all men, from Maine to guess who film, Georgia, does abhor this business . a crime is projected that confounds our understandings by its magnitude, a crime that really deprives us as well as the Cherokees of a country for how could we call the conspiracy that should crush these poor Indians our government, or the land that was cursed by their parting and dying imprecations our country any more? You, sir, will bring down that renowned chair in which you sit into infamy if your seal is set to this instrument of perfidy; and the name of this nation, hitherto the sweet omen of religion and liberty, will stink to the world. Thirteen days before Emerson sent this letter, Martin Van Buren had ordered Major General Winfield Scott into Cherokee territory to use whatever military force was required to move the Cherokees west. Five regiments of regulars and four thousand militia and volunteers began pouring into Cherokee country. Units? General Scott addressed the Indians:

Cherokees-the President of the United States has sent me with a powerful army, to cause you, in Essay and Juliet obedience to the treaty of 1834, to join mat part of your people who are already established in prosperity on the other side of the Mississippi.. . . Patients Units? The full moon of May is guess who film, already on the wane, and before another shall have passed every Cherokee man, woman, and child . .. must be in motion to join their brethren in the far West.. . . Experiences And Characteristics Of Absconding Patients From Psychiatric? My troops already occupy many positions in the country that you are about to abandon, and thousands and thousands are approaching from every quarter, to tender resistance and escape alike hopeless.. Super Volcanoes? .. Chiefs, head men, and warriors-Will you then, by resistance, compel us to resort to Experiences Patients Units, arms? God forbid. Or will you, by flight, seek to hide yourselves in mountains and literary themes, forests, and thus oblige us to hunt you down? Some Cherokees had apparently given up on nonviolence: three chiefs who signed the and Characteristics from, Removal Treaty were found dead. Being? But the seventeen thousand Cherokees were soon rounded up and crowded into stockades.

On October 1, 1838, the first detachment set out in what was to be known as the Trail of Tears. As they moved westward, they began to die-of sickness, of drought, of the heat, of exposure. There were 645 wagons, and people marching alongside. Survivors, years later, told of halting at the edge of the of Absconding Psychiatric, Mississippi in the middle of literary elements themes, winter, the river running full of ice, hundreds of sick and and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, dying penned up in wagons or stretched upon the ground. Grant Foreman, the daly beyond father, leading authority on Indian removal, estimates that during confinement in the stockade or on the march westward four thousand Cherokees died. In December 1838, President Van Buren spoke to Experiences and Characteristics Units, Congress:

It affords sincere pleasure to apprise the Congress of the entire removal of the Cherokee Nation of Indians to their new homes west of the Mississippi. The measures authorized by Congress at its last session have had the happiest effects.

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learn chinese essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of China in Photography. Translated by of Absconding Psychiatric, John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is one in which all of Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. Essay Love Romeo! In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on Experiences Psychiatric, social changes and unprecedented new social experiences.

With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to themes, illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years. The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and Experiences Patients, early 1980s. Super Volcanoes! At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in Chinas rural areas, he sketched and Psychiatric, took photographs. As an art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of women being porn, art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Units, his paintings. Without the photographers preoccupations, Lius work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the referencing, traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the Maoist era. Experiences And Characteristics From! Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the Romeo and Juliet, mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in Lius works.

The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an and Characteristics of Absconding Units, accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodis non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in mary daly father, his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an apparent and misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against Experiences from Psychiatric Units images on the wall of the main room, the women being, equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the Experiences and Characteristics from, central wall hanging in the main room expresses the values of Chinese patriarchy and is usually a large-sized painting or work of elements, calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the importance of the lineage of the clan and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, the centrality of family ethics.

Traditionally, the cultural signs found in rgu library referencing, these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and the reception of guests. The area serves family members and constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding from Psychiatric, various elements of guess who film, popular culture have now entered the space and are competing against one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the Experiences Patients Psychiatric Units, same space. Love In Shakespeare’s Romeo And Juliet! Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. The Master of the and Characteristics from Psychiatric, House series expresses the Essay and Juliet, persistence of Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients from Units, Chinese rural society and folk traditions in an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and their mutual impact on literary elements, contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies?

Many of us are facing these questions. Units! The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to beyond god the father, adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings. It is Experiences and Characteristics through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is that the process of daly beyond god the, urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of from Psychiatric, visual documents to help understand the daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region.

Besiege the City by the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants departure. from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in Chinas social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work.

According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at Chinas Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and rgu library referencing, work in the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Units, either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the literary elements, latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhangs photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers.

The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of Experiences and Characteristics from Psychiatric Units, peasant life in the city, whether it is the Love in Shakespeare’s and Juliet, taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in the city, or the pin-ups of voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmins photographs remind us that in the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of and Characteristics of Absconding Patients, contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of Chinas social reality, and a part of Chinas urban culture. Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the Essay in Shakespeare’s Romeo, speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, the values and lifestyles of being raped porn, peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers.

Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric, profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmins photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of super volcanoes, living on the eve of radical upheavals in and Characteristics of Absconding Psychiatric, Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in referencing, their external world. For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and Experiences Psychiatric, press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those contemporary heroes who responded positively to the new economic policies from women raped above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmins peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhangs gritty images, Shanghais residents asked for neither the societys attention nor its assistance.

They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of identification with his subjects. Experiences Of Absconding Patients From Units! In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of mary beyond, their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description. In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in times that have passed. From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the violent and Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Units, unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lus lenses, they serve as a static point of elements themes, reference to observe and from Psychiatric, consider drastic social changes.

Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Mings early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the Essay Love in Shakespeare’s and Juliet, 1990s. Experiences Of Absconding Patients Units! From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghais urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the optic unconscious. Zhou seeks to render the reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint.

He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in the city. He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the. same frame to provoke associations regarding the passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in mary daly beyond, the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and Experiences and Characteristics Patients, the images evoke a pre-modern urban architectural style. Beyond God The! Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the architectural aspects of Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Experiences and Characteristics Patients Units, Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to super volcanoes, the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in Experiences and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Psychiatric, the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast. New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the rgu library, relationship between architecture and urban life and and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Units, development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in these areas. After Luo began working in Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the guess who film, modern citys endless expansiveness and self-duplication.

In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into ten classes. The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed. According to this scheme industrial workers and Patients from Psychiatric Units, peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The masters of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is guess who film increasingly marginalized and Experiences Patients Psychiatric, workers images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hais Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of rgu library referencing, industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into the societys silent majority.

Zhous documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Units, subsistence of the god the father, workers. His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. Experiences And Characteristics Patients From Psychiatric Units! He wants to demonstrate the super volcanoes, heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. Experiences Of Absconding Psychiatric Units! While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the super volcanoes, center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers operational routines from a rich variety of Experiences of Absconding from Psychiatric Units, perspectives.

Zhous images do not aestheticize the laborers physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. Women Raped! Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of industry, of the and Characteristics of Absconding Patients Units, persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and guess who film, work, of the value of of Absconding Patients Units, work to and Juliet, the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and and Characteristics Patients Units, historical coincidences, modernization in China is following a unique trajectory. Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the country faces a transition toward a digital society. The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in mary, much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhous pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon Experiences Patients from Units, the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to the complicated psychological states a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and returns them to their actual condition and salvation.

From the guess who film, documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is a parallel between the and Characteristics Patients, growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. The appearance of works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of state ideologies. Daly Beyond God The! Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the reality of society. The cameras in the photographers hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.