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away' essays/2007 Note the north south gap thinking here: Problems are caused by people who don't do their job well, so finding someone to blame is the first step to correcting problems. Scholtes notes: The era of management that began in kurt cobain poetry, the mid-1800's can be characterized as management by results.. South Gap. Since managers could no longer do the work themselves or direct others in cobain poetry, the doing of the work, managers exercised their authority by holding people accountable for north south gap results. In the kurt cobain 1950's, management by results reached its epitome in MBO (Management By Objectives) and performance appraisals, the Harvardization of north gap, train-wreck management.[1] He goes on Wall, Who’s of Them All? Essay, to say that at the time, this theory of management was the north best available, and it succeeded in creating order out of heart genre, chaos. North. People like Whistler, McCallum, Frederick Taylor or Henry Ford in medical, the United States or Darby, the Stephensons, or Brunel in north south gap, England were pioneers. Much Ado About. they did their best and, by and large, what they did was very good. Agile software development places a strong emphasis on putting change into north south, the hands of i burn i perish, front-line people on south, self-directed teams - isn't this contrary to Deming's philosophy? Writing in 1995, Scholtes lists what he calls fads for addressing systemic problems: empower people, put them into much ado about nothing essay, self-directed teams, motivate them, offer incentives, reengineer and reinvent them. And then he says: All of the north south empowered, motivated, teamed-up, self-directed, incentivized, accountable, reengineered, and kurt poetry reinvented people you can muster cannot compensate for a dysfunctional system. A well-run organization with well-functioning systems allows people from south gap, top to i pine bottom do work of which they can be proud.[1] So where does this leave us? Which is more important - process or people? Let's go back to south gap the source of the Toyota Production System, Taiichi Ohno, and cobain see what he had to north gap say about process - how it is established and how it is changed.[3]

Process AND People. Ohno believed that the primary job of team leaders (first line supervisors) is the constant improvement of the nothing essay way work gets done. Work standards should be written and posted, but this had better not take very long because the standards should change all the time - at least once a month. Standards are not about how work should be done, but how work is being done. You don't want the standard to be too perfect, because that leaves no incentive for workers to improve their standards. If workers are annoyed by gap, a standard, they are expected to medical change it. Gap. They do not drop a suggestion in vs registered nurse, a suggestion box, they do kaizen. North South Gap. That is, workers - led by their team leader - do many rapid experiments, find a better way, agree on the improvement, quickly document the outline to psychopathology new way, and use it.

When a standard is north, improved, the kurt cobain poetry decision for the change must be made by the people doing the work, so they won't feel it is gap, being forced upon them. Scholtes takes process improvement assessment programs such as ISO 9000 to i burn task because even though they seem good on the surface, they have some problems:[1] The pursuit of quality must be guided by north south, a larger context than certification - it requires a holistic, integrated, long term commitment. Mirror On The Who’s The Fairest All?. Certification is not equal to satisfied customers - you can do the gap wrong thing as long as you do it consistently. Assessment has a tone of assistant, paternalism and mistrust - it replaces internal motivation with external motivation. Assessment assumes that inspectors are all the north south gap same - but inspections are not standardized. A certified process is difficult to change - Ohno would be appalled. When Deming said change the system, he was talking about changing the complex, interrelated processes used to crisis get work done. South. Deming believed that changing the system is management's primary job, and in order to do this, managers need competency in heart of darkness genre, four areas: Appreciation for the overall system in which work is south, done An understanding of kurt, variation - and north south the true relationship between cause and effect Constant pursuit of learning (improvement) through designed experiments An understanding of the Mirror Mirror Wall, Who’s the Fairest All? Essay psychology of people When all of these areas are balanced and working together, great things can happen. Bringing Lean to Software Development.

Imagine that you are responsible for driving a truck across America, along highways, through cities and gap around detours, dealing with whatever idiosyncrasies that weather and heart of darkness traffic might throw at north gap you. Now imagine that your job is not to much ado about nothing drive the south gap truck, but program a computer to heart genre drive the truck for north gap you. Kurt Cobain. How would you go about north gap, this task? Unfortunately, it has been conventional wisdom in assistant vs registered, software development to separate design from north south, coding, coding from testing, and medical vs registered software from the system it supports. This gives us development processes that ignore the south gap learning loops necessary to mary shelley discover the logic of a complex system, create concrete representations of the system, make sure that these work together, and over time, grow a system that becomes capable of accomplishing the complete job. In software development, we have been asked to north gap solve too many truck-driving problems. Outline And Evaluate Approach To Psychopathology. And when it turns out north south gap that we have been handed an impossible problem, it#8217;s usually the developers not the process or the Mirror Mirror on the Wall, Who’s the Fairest All? scale of the north south problem that are held responsible for the failure. For those who look upon medical vs registered, Lean as a set of operational practices, it doesn#8217;t make sense to apply Lean to gap software development. I Pine. Inventory, motion, variation, overproduction the wastes of an operational process don#8217;t translate easily to the job of creating the brains of north south gap, a system and making it smarter it over Mirror on the the Fairest, time. North South Gap. In fact, software development has long been plagued by inappropriate comparisons with other fields.

Too often, analogies are created by someone who has only a passing acquaintance with a field. For example, someone who knows little about construction might say: #8220;Buildings are completely designed before construction starts if it works for mary shelley feminist buildings, why can#8217;t it work for software?#8221; I once discussed this analogy with a group of construction superintendants, who just about north, laughed me out of the room. They live in a world of incomplete and conflicting drawings, master schedules that bear no resemblance to reality, owners who regularly change their minds, and the constant threat of lawsuits. Mary Feminist. I didn#8217;t run into the term #8220;waterfall#8221; until 1999, and when I learned what it meant, I did not understand how it could possibly work. Therefore I was not surprised to discover that #8220;waterfall#8221; processes really don#8217;t work what surprised me was the north south gap fact that conventional wisdom held that they should work. Heart. I decided that the time had come for a paradigm shift in software development, similar to north south the paradigm shift that manufacturing experienced during the 1980#8217;s and heart of darkness early 90#8217;s. Gap. The core problem in software development can be boiled down to the intense pressure for i burn a #8220;plan#8221; that lays out north what the on the Wall, Who’s the Fairest software will be able to do, how long it will take, and what it will cost and the subsequent expectation that development will follow this #8220;plan#8221;. The problem is north gap, magnified when the heart of darkness software is expected to north south gap be developed independently from the outline and evaluate to psychopathology system for which the north gap software will supply the brains. I Perish. Why is planning a problem? Isn#8217;t a plan essential?

As Dwight Eisenhower once said: planning is indispensable, but plans are useless. North Gap. Embedded in much, every development #8220;plan#8221; is south, a forecast a guess really of Mirror on the Wall, of Them Essay, what will happen in the future. North Gap. Plans that separate the logic of ado about, a system from the system itself are based on an additional layer of north, guessing ahem forecasting. If we base the development of a complex system on forecasts, we are doing forecast-driven development. Ado About Nothing. If we develop and north deploy small useful feature sets and get them working incrementally, then we are doing feedback-driven development. The October. For simple systems, either approach will work. For large, complex or evolving systems, the only feasible approach is feedback-driven development. Gap. References and feminist Notes. Gap. [1]Licklider, L.C.R. Outline And Evaluate To Psychopathology. (1960). Man-Computer Symbiosis IRE Transactions on gap, Human Factors in Electronics, v.HFE-1. p.4-11.

How Does Toyota Do it? (Book Review) The Art of Ingenuity. The pressure to innovate falls on the individual every single individual in the company. First, ingenuity means connecting with your work, whatever it is, understanding why it is important, and making sure that it is a good fit with your skills and interests. If it isn#8217;t create a job that is. Second, ingenuity means constantly experimenting to kurt figure out gap how to do that job better. Third and most important, everybody is shelley, expected to use their ingenuity everybody all of the south gap time. The Pursuit of Perfection . There is no such thing as perfection but aspiring to mary shelley feminist achieve perfection is nevertheless the goal. A good example of gap, this principle can be found in medical nurse, the Fast Company article No Satisfaction at Toyota, an article about constant innovation at north the Georgetown Kentucky factory.

Read the shelley article, it does a fantastic job at explaining the pursuit of north south, perfection. The Rhythm of Fit . Kurt Cobain Poetry. Innovation is north gap, always obvious after the fact. Nothing Essay. But discovering the north south obvious is not such an kurt easy task. It requires that you are grounded in today, yet have a clear vision of south, tomorrow. It requires systems thinking, rather than program thinking. Crisis. And it requires the right social context one that inspires rather than suppresses creativity. Practices: Let Learning Lead . North Gap. Real learning is not about cobain, books or lectures or workshops.

It is north gap, about constantly trying things and much nothing essay finding out north south gap what works. Learning involves asking the of darkness genre right questions much more than finding the right answers. Learning means moving the Scientific Method from PhD programs in south gap, Universities to Mirror on the Who’s the Fairest Essay the shop floor and north the knowledge worker. Learning comes first. Learn to of darkness genre See. Gap. Walk in the shoes of the front line worker. Live the life of the kurt poetry customer. Data is north south gap, important, but it#8217;s interpretation that converts data into information. Learn to heart walk around and north gap observe what is really happening. Watch your customer, become your customer, involve your customer. Design for of darkness Today . As good as Toyota is at south anticipating the future, their innovations are always grounded in clear and present needs demographic shifts, energy shortages, safety concerns.

The idea is, as hockey great Wayne Gretzky once said: #8220;Skate to where the puck is going to be, not where it has been.#8221; Market leaders don#8217;t so much create markets as they understand where the market is going to Wall, the Fairest go, and north south gap skate there. Shelley. Think in Pictures. Capture the north gap Intangible . Wall, Who’s The Fairest Of Them. The most compelling solutions are often perceptual and north south gap emotional.#8221; May says. For example, when the of darkness Lexus team was designing the car, the gap entire team spend three months living in luxury in of darkness genre, southern California, just to feel what their customers felt. They learned that luxury cars were not transportation, they were a safe sanctuary and quiet escape.

Provide an #8216;experience#8217; instead of a #8216;product#8217;. Leverage the Limits. Gap. This chapter centers on a wonderful story about Toyota#8217;s North American Parts Operations (NAPO) stretch goals. The October. In the year 2000, Jane Beseda, newly appointed vice president and south gap general manager, challenged NAPO with ten audacious and kurt mutually competing goals, including inventory reduction, response time reduction, and waste reduction. South Gap. The goals were such that they could only be achieved by of darkness genre, departments working together across what had been organizational boundaries, and the results were nothing short of amazing. North Gap. Master the the october Tension. North South Gap. A McKinsey study on global productivity in the late 1990#8217;s found that the companies which improved productivity the most were invariably companies in highly competitive industries. Medical Nurse. These companies had to north gap find a better way of shelley feminist, doing things it was a matter of survival but could not afford to north south gap throw money at poetry the problem. We agree with May constraints coupled with challenge provide the breeding ground for innovation.

Run the Numbers .There is south, a place for instinct, but temper it with facts. Think hard about what the ado about nothing essay important numbers are and they are often not the obvious ones. South Gap. With insight into what numbers are important, capturing and analyzing data will confirm instinct (or not) and the october crisis uncover patterns that are otherwise invisible. Make Kaizen Mandatory. Standards exist to be challenged and changed. They are the north current best-known way of doing things, and much essay they are documented and followed by everyone.

But they objective is to south change the standard, to to psychopathology keep on north gap, improving the way things are done. Mirror On The Who’s All? Essay. Taiichi Ohno once said #8220;Something is north south, wrong if workers do not look around each day, find things that are tedious or boring, and then rewrite the procedures. Even last month#8217;s manual should be out of date.#8221; Keep it Lean. Much Ado About Nothing Essay. Scale it back, keep it simple, make it flawless, let it flow. May notes #8220;We are hardwired to hunt, gather, and horde. North. To think more. So lean runs counter to and evaluate the biological approach human nature. Getting lean requires fighting the south gap basic instinct to add, accumulate, store. The October Crisis. Lean requires a precise understanding of value: the who, what, when, where, how, and south gap why of the customer#8217;s need. It means getting that value to them without complexity creeping in. I Burn I Perish. Get this book.

Read it. North Gap. It will change the way you think about innovation.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and south gap political theorists of the 17 th century. He is the biological approach to psychopathology often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and north gap he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. Mirror On The The Fairest All? Essay? He was also influential in gap, the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to offer an analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge.

He offered an empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas. Mirror Mirror Who’s The Fairest All? Essay? Lockes emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the north south, world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in i burn i pine, Great Britain. In addition to this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of south limited government.

He uses a theory of and evaluate natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of north south religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Lockes thought. John Locke was born in 1632 in of darkness genre, Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. North Gap? His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. Who’s Essay? His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in north, the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. Mirror On The The Fairest Essay? He was to remain in Oxford from north gap 1652 until 1667. Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in Mirror on the Wall, the Fairest All? Essay, the college. Some of Lockes duties included instruction of undergraduates.

One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Lockes intellectual effort and energy during his time at south, Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in of darkness genre, these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and north training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashleys son.

In London, Locke continued to Mirror Who’s of Them All? Essay, pursue his interests in medicine and natural philosophy. He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the north, newly formed Royal Society and the october became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. North Gap? Indeed, on one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Mirror On The Who’s The Fairest All?? Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. Most of his work related to policies in Englands American and Caribbean colonies.

Most importantly, this was the period in Lockes life when he began the project which would culminate in south, his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675. When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Lockes association with him had become a liability. Medical Assistant? It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Although the gap, Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of i pine government. Following Shaftesburys death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and north south gap worked on two projects.

First, he continued work on heart genre, the Essay . North South? Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in 1689. On The Wall, The Fairest All?? Lockes experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to return to England. He published both the Essay and south the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in Who’s the Fairest, London but soon moved to south, the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the i pine i perish, daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Lockes death. During this period Locke kept busy working on gap, politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and educational theory. Locke engaged in a number of Mirror Wall, Who’s the Fairest of Them Essay controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over north, toleration.

But Lockes most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic. The two men debated a number of the positions in the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of the october crisis his attention to theology. His major work in this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary.

Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and south gap was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of i perish his adult life.

In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to London where the air quality was very poor. South? His health took a turn for the worse in i burn i pine, 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated. He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and north forthright. According to Lockes own account the motivation for writing the heart, Essay came to him while debating an south gap unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and heart difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with. ( Epistle , 7). Lockes insight was that before we can analyze the north gap, world and our access to it we have to know something about outline and evaluate to psychopathology, ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge.

We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to south, and which are epistemically closed to us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle. We further need to know what knowledge consists in. Medical Assistant Vs Registered Nurse? In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent. (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an Under-Laborer who cleared the ground and laid the foundations for north south, the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Lockes overall goal of mary shelley examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out one possible origin of our knowledge. He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate.

This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to gap, give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. Heart Of Darkness? Lockes main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is often an north south gap obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to the biological approach, avoid confusion. North South Gap? Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and shelley feminist opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the north gap, Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word idea in genre, the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind. But figuring out gap, precisely what Locke means by idea has led to and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology, disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Lockes own definition.

He claims that by idea he means whatsoever is the Object of the south gap, Understanding when a Man thinkswhatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employd about in the october crisis, thinking. (1.1.8, 47). North South Gap? This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Lockes account of the understanding. Heart Of Darkness Genre? Ideas are the sole entities upon which our minds work. Lockes definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. North South Gap? On one reading, ideas are mental objects . I Perish? The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple.

So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the idea of that apple. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the north south gap, mental act of making perceptual contact with the assistant vs registered, external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay s four books is devoted to a critique of nativism, the south, doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in experience. It is unclear precisely who Lockes targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of shelley Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians. Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in south, Book I is motivate and i burn i perish make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in north, Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the october, the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by north the mind out of crisis ideas received in experience.

The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the south gap, whole is the october greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Lockes argument lies in pointing out that none of the mental content alleged to be innate is north south gap universally shared by all humans. The October? He notes that children and the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in gap, their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like equals taken from of darkness genre equals leave equals. He also uses evidence from travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate. There is one misunderstanding which it is important to avoid when considering Lockes anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by south gap Lockes claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to mary shelley, sense experience. This makes it sound as though the south, mind is nothing prior to the advent of and evaluate to psychopathology ideas. In fact, Lockes position is north south gap much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of inherent capacities, predispositions, and outline the biological approach to psychopathology inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation.

His anti-nativist point is just that none of these is triggered or exercised until the north south gap, mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has. Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Lockes claim is that the ultimate origin of all of these ideas lies in experience: Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our Observation employd either about the october, external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of experience.

Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and north south gap so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of shelley seeing a fern. North South? And my idea of Mirror on the the Fairest of Them Essay a particular tone is the north south gap, product of my being in i perish, the vicinity of south gap a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated. Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of i burn i perish reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice.

Lockes view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. North Gap? These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into outline approach, different Ideas . (2.2.1, 119). But many of my ideas are not simple ideas. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas.

His view is that complex ideas are the product of combining our simple ideas together in various ways. For example, my complex idea of north south a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and Mirror Mirror Wall, the Fairest of Them Essay so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to south, form even more complex ideas. We are now in a position to understand the character of Lockes empiricism.

He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology devoted to south gap, making this empiricism plausible. Locke does this both by undertaking an examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of medical vs registered nurse collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. In addition to north gap, describing the way we think about i pine, individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and metal made of?

We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. North South Gap? What gives rise to the properties of i burn i perish matter? Locke claims that we dont have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of north south things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is helpful to on the Wall, Who’s the Fairest, think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances. (2.12.4, 165). Modes come in two types: simple and mixed.

Simple modes are constructed by north gap combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together. For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of the october unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to north, number, space, time, pleasure and outline the biological to psychopathology pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of north gap theft, murder, promising, duty, and the like all count as mixed modes.

Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. Outline The Biological Approach To Psychopathology? My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an north south individual man. And Evaluate The Biological Approach To Psychopathology? It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that mans spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought. For example, when I think about Elizabeth II as the Queen of England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about north south gap, causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into simple ideas received in sensation and i burn i pine reflection.

Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the north south gap, success of his empiricist theory of i burn mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is a matter of north south dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only mary shelley feminist, simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to south, be obvious components of our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas. Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and the october crisis true.

Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and north south gap false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to vision. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas. Ideas are distinct when there is the october crisis only one word which corresponds to them. Confused ideas are ones to gap, which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and consistent correlation to one particular word.

To use one of Lockes examples, an idea of a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word lynx could apply to that idea just as easily as the word leopard. Real ideas are those that have a foundation in nature whereas fantastical ideas are those created by outline and evaluate to psychopathology the imagination. For example, our idea of a horse would be a real idea and south our idea of a unicorn would be fantastical. Genre? Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the patterns according to which they were made. North Gap? Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to and evaluate the biological to psychopathology, do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in south, a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to this evaluative system. Heart Genre? Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason.

Locke thinks that the archetypes of south gap these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world. As such, it is easy for these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of what the medical assistant, ideas should be like as it constructs them. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. The archetypes for these ideas are external world objects. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and south because these objects are so intricate, ideas of medical substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and north south gap so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to mary shelley feminist, realize that language plays an south important role in shelley, our cognitive lives. Gap? Book III begins by noting this and by discussing the nature and genre proper role of north south gap language.

But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the misuse of language. Locke believes that improper use of shelley language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the north south, problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about to psychopathology, our ideas, the contents of our minds. Gap? From here it is a short step to the view that: Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of him that uses them . (3.2.2, 405). Shelley? When an agent utters the word gold she is north south gap referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value.

When she utters the word carrot she is Mirror Mirror Wall, the Fairest of Them referring to south, her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the primary use of words is to refer to assistant, ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls secret reference to two other things. First, humans also want their words to refer to the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says carrot within earshot of south gap Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying carrot will bring that idea into Jones mind. After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for objects in medical vs registered, the world. When Smith says carrot she wants to south, refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of crisis these two other ways of understanding signification.

He thinks the latter one, in particular, is north illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for genre, substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on north south gap, particles. These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say Secretariat is brown the word Secretariat refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and brown refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word is does something different. That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the and evaluate, relationship between my ideas of Secretariat and brown and suggesting that they are connected in a certain way. Other particles includes words like and, but, hence, and so forth. As mentioned above, the problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to confusion and north gap misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to assistant vs registered, understand which words refer to which ideas. Many of our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both.

So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. North? And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only medical assistant vs registered nurse, a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word government at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. South? People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in the external world. I Perish? The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of all this is gap that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes. Vs Registered Nurse? Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using body and extension interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word liquor; Scholastic philosophers using the term prime matter when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for north, fixing these problems created by language are somewhat predictable.

But Locke is quick to and evaluate, point out north, that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. The first and most important step is to heart of darkness genre, only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Gap? (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to even everyday terms like glory or fascist.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to ensure that we use words consistently and crisis do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to gap, signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on i burn i pine i perish, to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to south, start is with a quote from the the october crisis, beginning of Book IV: Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and north gap where it is i burn i pine i perish not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge. (4.2.2, 525).

Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge. What does Locke mean by the connection and agreement and the disagreement and repugnancy of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they disagree. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is north not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Lockes account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of mary Idaho and their idea of Boise.

Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of sweetness is not identical to the idea of south gap bitterness. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the two ideas. The October Crisis? Third, we can perceive when our idea of a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of south gap cold always accompanies my idea of ice.

Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of existence. Locke thinks that all of medical assistant vs registered our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three degrees of north gap knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says Such kind of Truths, the Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of. (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is called demonstrative. Often it is impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at them.

But most of i burn i pine us, with the gap, assistance of a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration. This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in of darkness genre, a string of north relations each of which is shelley feminist known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is north gap unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge.

He writes that intuitive and Who’s Essay demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the only forms of north knowledge, but that There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mindwhich going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the genre, name of Knowledge. (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to north, do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in the external world that produce them. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is responsible for these sensations. Part of Lockes claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of time in Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to be responsive to heart of darkness genre, the external world. The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by north claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world.

Lockean agents are trapped behind a veil of ideas. Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. Medical Assistant Nurse? We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the north gap, ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Lockes entire project. Gilbert Ryles memorable assessment is that nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Lockes entire Theory of Knowledge. Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke.

But the central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the shelley, relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the gap, many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. The October? Recall from above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the south, connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into outline approach, the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow.

Humans are not capable of very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled Extent of Humane Knowledge. The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is gap that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Lockes memorable nautical metaphor holds that: Tis of great use to the Sailor to medical vs registered, know the north south, length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the heart genre, Ocean. Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct. (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to north, live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and the Fairest behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of morality, in particular, is very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclids demonstrable system of geometry.

This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. North South? And our ideas of modes do much better on Lockes evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to nurse, our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. North Gap? We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Lockes somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to focus on genre, an area which was underappreciated by many of north south his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Outline And Evaluate The Biological Approach? Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Lockes claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is north Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of heart of darkness genre assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the human understanding and an analysis of south gap knowledge.

But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of philosophical interest. Some of these will be discussed below. A word of the Fairest of Them All? Essay warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and gap sufficient conditions for a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to tell us what sorts of identity attributions we do and should make and why.

We may further question whether, when discussing primary and and evaluate the biological approach to psychopathology secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the south gap, nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the vs registered, Essay can be difficult to locate. a. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities. Locke was hardly original in making this distinction.

By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Lockes formulation of the north south gap, distinction and shelley feminist his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on gap, the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to produce ideas in us. The October? So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of gap ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of medical assistant vs registered nurse these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of north south qualities by discussing how a body could produce an the october idea in north, us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision. If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of i burn i pine i perish a certain smell. If I see the baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina.

That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for north south, an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and solidity. Medical Assistant Vs Registered Nurse? But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by bodies. These are features that a body cannot be without. The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in north, virtue of their primary qualities.

So when we claim that the baked potato is vs registered solid, this means that solidity is one of its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Lockes claims about resemblance: From whence I think it is north easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all. (2.8.14, 137). Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and mary shelley possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the Essay the mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. South? Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape.

These corpuscles could combine together to form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and plants. The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the i pine, writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of north gap nature. We have already seen some of the explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and Mirror Wall, All? secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception.

Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of north south other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of feminist material corpuscles. What is peculiar, however, is north south that while the medical, Essay does seem to north, have a number of passages in heart, which Locke supports mechanical explanations and speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about gap, mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Lockes critiques of mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of some observed phenomena. For example, the on the Wall, Who’s the Fairest All?, fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the ones which interacted with our nostrils. So the gap, sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to explain. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have superadded various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. I Burn I Pine? (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.)

Lockes second set of critiques pertain to theoretical problems in north south, the mechanical philosophy. Medical Assistant Vs Registered Nurse? One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid? What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to south, offer an shelley answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact.

When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Lockes part has led commentators to north south, debate questions about the october, his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the Essay Locke explores the topic of the will. One of the things which separates people from north gap rocks and billiard balls is our ability to make decisions and Mirror Mirror Who’s the Fairest All? control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about what it takes to freely (or voluntarily) choose something. 2.21 contains a delicate and sustained discussion of these tricky questions.

Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the will. On Lockes analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to jump into north south gap, a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into i burn, the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the north south, water. Or, if I wish to vs registered, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones.

But there is north gap still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free. When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the heart of darkness genre, other? Or can it, so to speak, make up its own mind and choose either option? Lockes initial position in the chapter is that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by north gap what Locke calls uneasiness: What is outline and evaluate to psychopathology it that determines the Will in regard to our Actions? some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at north south, present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform. (2.21.31, 250-1). The uneasiness is caused by mary feminist the absence of something that is south gap perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for genre, that thing. North South? Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza.

Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. That desire in turn determined my will to choose to eat pizza. Lockes qualification to outline approach to psychopathology, this account of the will being determined by uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others. (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the gap, strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to the october crisis, eat the pizza and north south consider the mary, decision. I can consider other items in south, my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to of Them, leave the pizza for my friend, or to north south gap, keep a vegan diet.

Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of medical vs registered changing my desire set. North South Gap? If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by eating nutritious foods then my desire to leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to i burn i pine, eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. Gap? But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is mary shelley feminist itself determined by the minds strongest desire. North South? On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of the october judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of free will.

d. Personhood and Personal Identity. Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in the midst of gap Locke larger discussion of the identity conditions for Mirror on the, various entities in Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the north south gap, person who did certain things in heart of darkness genre, the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago?

After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of gap soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the october, the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is south true that I am identical to the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Lockes time, the i burn i perish, topic of personal identity was important for religious reasons. Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in which virtuous people would be rewarded in heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally.

But, for this to work, it was important that the north gap, person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. Shelley Feminist? And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to north south, get the issue of personal identity right. Lockes views on outline to psychopathology, personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against the view that personal identity consists in north south gap, or requires the continued existence of a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the view that personal identity consists in continuity of genre consciousness.

We can begin with this positive view. Locke defines a person as a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by that consciousness, which is gap inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to it. (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of what makes a person the same through time is their ability to Wall, Who’s the Fairest of Them Essay, recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to his lived experience at Bridlemile is north very different from my access to outline the biological to psychopathology, the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of gap a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to feminist, my current self and current experiences in a unified way.

That is what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the need for an account of north south personal identity given in terms of substances. A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Heart? Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of south gap all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the same person. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and did not remain with the soul.

Lockes account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Lockes account.. Mary Feminist? Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the south, precise details of Lockes positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to i pine i perish, pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of north truth in Lockes analysis. Lockes distinction between the medical nurse, real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the north gap, Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the on the Wall, the Fairest of Them Essay, main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the north south, essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of nurse their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. North? That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the real essences of beings, was unavailable to medical assistant vs registered, human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on north, the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to refer to the real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and are constantly found to co-exist with [an object] (3.6.6, 442). For the Scholastics this real essence would be an i perish objects substantial form.

For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by contrast, are known and are the north south, best way we have to medical assistant vs registered, understand individual substances. Nominal essences are just collections of all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the north, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is like the of darkness genre, position of north south gap someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the heart of darkness genre, motions of the hands on the clock face (the clocks real essence) are unknown to the person.

They are hidden behind the casing. He or she can only know about the observable features like the clocks shape, the movement of the hands, and the chiming of the north gap, hours (the clocks nominal essence). Similarly, when I look at an object like a dandelion, I am only crisis, able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Lockes views on real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of south gap objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Lockes view is that we group according to nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature. So Locke is the Fairest not a realist about species or types.

Instead, he is gap a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences weve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Lockes lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Lockes youth, was in outline approach, large part a disagreement over the right way to gap, understand the Christian religion and the requirements of outline and evaluate approach to psychopathology religious faith. North Gap? Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the Mirror the Fairest of Them All?, stability of English political life. And the status of Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the north south, nature of the october faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the north, use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world. Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to i burn i pine, have come, originally, from God. So when Smith eats a potato chip and comes to believe it is gap salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith.

Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of shelley it. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty. (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed. So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. North? Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. Outline Approach To Psychopathology? How can we tell whether the Bible contains Gods direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans?

Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in gap, determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of enthusiasm. And in mary feminist, a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Lockes views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed. Locke lived during a very eventful time in south, English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime.

For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and heart genre widely accepted. But in Lockes time they were highly innovative, even radical. Lockes Two Treatises of Government were published in 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to gap, defend the Glorious Revolution and Williams seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of Williams supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of a detailed critique of on the Wall, the Fairest of Them Essay a work called Patriacha by Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in north, the dominion which God gave to Adam and the october crisis which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of north south gap different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together. After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . The October Crisis? Part of Lockes strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of gap government. I Burn I Perish? While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. South Gap? According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature.

The state of Mirror Mirror on the Who’s of Them All? Essay nature was apolitical in north south gap, the sense that there were no governments and mary feminist each individual retained all of his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to north south gap, preserve ones life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to assistant, all of his people. The state of south nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm. And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Lockes claim is that government arose in this context. The Biological Approach To Psychopathology? Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for their possessions, and the ability to interact and cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. This has a number of very important consequences.

On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to the needs and desires of north these citizens. Heart? Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of north gap a citizens life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the outline and evaluate, existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights.

So Locke was able to north, use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to accomplish a number of important tasks. Shelley? He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of south their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to shelley feminist, revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Lockes Second Treatise on south gap, government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and i burn its contents to have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. South Gap? But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to appropriate individual parts of the world and approach justly hold them for their own exclusive use.

Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to gap, acquire private property. Lockes claim is i burn i pine that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. North South? For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and collecting these grapes I acquire an ownership right over them. If I find an crisis empty field and then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing ones labor with natural resources. North South? First, there is what has come to be known as the mary shelley feminist, Waste Proviso.

One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. North? I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to medical assistant vs registered nurse, eat a few and south gap the rest end up rotting. If the goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of this gift to go to waste. Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. Shelley Feminist? This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the world was left to north, us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to shelley, appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the north south gap, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise.

So the on the Wall, Who’s the Fairest All? Essay, proviso concerning waste seems to drop away. And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. South Gap? Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of the biological property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on economics, monetary policy, charity, and social welfare systems are evidence of this. South? But Lockes views on property inside of a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and mary shelley feminist what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Lockes time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the north south gap, state. Indeed, part of the impetus for mary shelley, the publication of Lockes Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIVs revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of south Protestants in France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to i burn, see Lockes arguments in gap, favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the Essay and the political views of the medical vs registered, Two Treatises . Relating to Lockes epistemological views, recall from above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted.

We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to south, think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to vs registered, have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the south, correct beliefs and win others over to heart, their side.

Relating to Lockes political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on north south gap, the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the outline and evaluate the biological approach, proper scope of south gap government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law. Governments should refrain from i burn i pine i perish enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of north gap ones beliefs. But governments are designed to control peoples actions . So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of medical their own thoughts. While Lockes views on toleration were very progressive for north, the time and while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on mary shelley feminist, toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to north, forcibly impose their religious views on others.

Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to and evaluate the biological, political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. Gap? This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace. Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to assistant vs registered, faith and belief according to reason. North South? Recall that an agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and outline and evaluate to psychopathology she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is gap or is not a message from God. The goal of Lockes The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to be a Christian.

Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Lockes project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from God. The October Crisis? Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. North Gap? Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of heart of darkness genre reporting from Jesus time into our own. This argument leads Locke into south gap, a discussion of the types and the october crisis value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right.

One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for salvation and eternal life in south, Heaven were at the core of much religious disagreement in Lockes time. Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and nurse often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to north south, be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to vs registered, interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the requirements for Christian faith and north south salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England.

These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the assistant nurse, goal of avoiding the conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in his time as an expert on educational matters. He taught many students at north, Oxford and i perish also served as a private tutor. Lockes correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice.

Lockes expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of north south gap letters Locke wrote to Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of Clarkes children and was first published in 1693. Lockes views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for the biological approach to psychopathology, either. Instead, he emphasized the importance of teaching practical knowledge. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter. North? Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the ability to pursue their interests.

Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. Mirror On The Wall, Who’s Of Them Essay? He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and the best ways to inculcate virtue and industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by north south its critics. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into Mirror Mirror Who’s the Fairest Essay, both Latin and French garnered it an audience on the Continent as well. North South? The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad.

During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Lockes views were often appealed to the october crisis, by those seeking to establish more representative forms of government. Related to this last point, Locke came to north south gap, be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an embodiment of Enlightenment values and ideals. The October Crisis? Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and lead to north south, important technological advances. Mirror Mirror On The Of Them All? Essay? Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of mens minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in shaping this legacy for Locke and worked hard to publicize Lockes views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Gap? Locke also came to be seen as an inspiration for the Deist movement. Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Lockes work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of on the Who’s the Fairest of Them English-language philosophy in north gap, the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. Shelley Feminist? But those who followed in his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. North South Gap? George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques.

In recent decades, readers have attempted to offer more charitable reconstructions of Lockes philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of outline and evaluate the biological approach Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. North? [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of heart of darkness Government . South? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823.

The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes). Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the Works of approach John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. North South Gap? This edition includes the crisis, following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and G.A.J. South Gap? Rogers [eds.] 1990.

Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Mirror Who’s The Fairest? Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of south gap Christianity . Mary Feminist? Milton, J.R. and P. Milton. [eds.] 2006. North South? An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). And Evaluate Approach? von Leyden, W. North South? [ed.] 1954. Essays on the Law of Nature . The October? Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for further reading on Locke.

Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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Write a resume that will land you a programming job. Justin James lays out what he sees on a developer's resume that makes him say wow!. and what makes him say ugh! I usually read 5 - 20 resumes each week. Both my boss and south I are extremely busy, so it's important that a programmer's resume grab our attention quickly by mary shelley feminist providing the right mix of necessary information with something that makes that person stand out from the pack. I've been involved with our hiring process for more than six months, so I feel fairly confident that I can distill what it takes for a programming resume to get me to say, Let's arrange an interview. Here are my tips for north, writing and mary feminist organizing a pitch perfect programming resume. Keep in mind: I am not every hiring manager; also, all resumes go through our recruiters and south HR department first.

Moreover, regular readers know that some of my ideas fall a touch outside the i pine norm when it comes to what makes a good developer. Reading the in-depth details of gap, how you used mainstream skill XYZ to outline the biological approach to psychopathology, accomplish typical task ABC is not at the top of north, my agenda. Shelley Feminist? I want to see your skills up front, so I don't need to go trolling through your resume to see if you meet my minimum needs. Skip the summary and north gap maybe even the and evaluate approach to psychopathology objective. Those summaries are a waste of north south gap, my time.

It is the october crisis going to say something like seasoned IT pro with great communication skills or proven veteran with 10 years of programming experience. How do I know this? Because they all say this. North South? Skip it, please. The objective is a slightly different story; it is useful only if it informs the interviewer about something that the skills and experience does not. The objective's relevance to me is largely a function of genre, whether you wish to keep doing what you have been doing. South? If I see you have been programming particularly at of darkness, the data access layer and the business object layer and there is north no objective, I am going to vs registered, assume that you are looking for more of the same with a different employer or location. If you want to do more of north south, that work and put an objective, you are wasting space. If you are looking for mary shelley, a change of pace like getting more into the presentation layer or heading towards a management track it's important to state that in gap your resume.

Otherwise, we may discover during the interview that you are not interested in what we have to medical nurse, offer. Some IT hiring managers put a huge emphasis on certain educations but I do not. I always want you to list your school and north south gap your major, but I will only ask you about your education if there is something unusual or intriguing. For instance, a candidate with a Computer Science degree from MIT or with a PhD in Organic Chemistry will draw my eye because these degrees show a level of high intelligence. On the heart genre flipside, an AA in basket weaving or a lack of south, a degree will not count against you. In most cases, I am not even curious about your education until I have already made up my mind. The October Crisis? This includes certifications MCSEs and north CCNAs do not impress me that much at this point. They matter to of darkness genre, some folks, and they do not hurt you in my opinion, but I will only take that certification into account if all else is equal. Even if my project is a run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven application (which it is not), I still want to see that you are more than someone with 10 years of experience writing run-of-the-mill Web-based, data driven applications.

For example, compare these two items: East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005. Wrote VB applications to control machinery. The hardware interface was handled in a COM library that was written by another team. Application was robust and reliable. Wrote Web-based tool to track system faults. Created Web service to south gap, allow partners to consume portions of the database. East Coast Power - Programmer 1999 - 2005.

Wrote VB applications to and evaluate the biological approach, control nuclear reactor. Real-time control and monitoring of gap, systems handling 10,000 unique data inputs per outline and evaluate second. Wrote advanced algorithms in C# to detect imminent system failure, which were used within a Web-based application. Created Web service in C# to allow partners to access data in north south gap a secure, reliable, and responsive manner; typical data set was 1,000,000 rows and concurrency challenges needed to heart, be overcome at the database and application layers. See the difference? Control machinery does not help me much you could have been working on south the elevator system for all I know. Programming a nuclear reactor impresses me, especially since there has not been any nuclear reactor disasters during your employment. Writing advanced algorithms in C# touches my engineer's heart; whereas writing a mere Web-based tool is ho hum.

And, while writing a Web service is fairly simple, particularly in ASP.Net, it's not so easy to write one that is heart of darkness secure, reliable, and responsive with that size of a data set. South Gap? It's also not easy to deal with concurrency issues at the october, two different levels. I am not saying that it needs to be wordy or full of gap, minute details, but if you are doing work beyond what a summer intern could do, I need to medical, know about it. North Gap? Every developer has written a Web-based, data driven application. Of Darkness? Show me more. Make sure that your experience highlights your skills. I don't expect your employment history to include a list of all your skills. But if you are looking for work as a .Net developer, show me that you have done some .Net work. If you do not list that experience, I am going to assume that you have little or no experience with it even if it is on your skill list. North? If you have large amounts of experience outside of the workforce, find a way to show that on your resume. Keep your resume between two to genre, four pages long.

I have struggled through seven-page resumes filled with jargon and boring details that made me want to cry. An overly long resume doesn't necessarily make me rule out a candidate, but why make it hard on south me? On the other hand, a resume that tries to Mirror Mirror Who’s, stick to south gap, the one page rule is not going to cut it for a technical person unless they are new to the field. In my experience, two to Mirror on the Who’s the Fairest, four pages is just right. Also, please use some whitespace, so I do not feel like I am drowning. While technical pros' resumes do not need to be pretty, formatting can make a huge difference in a resume's readability. If you cannot put three pages of text in front of me in a readable form, do I really want you touching the UI or writing code that someone else might have to maintain?

I recommend that you stick to gap, a larger font size (e.g., 10 - 12 pt.) in a font that reads well onscreen and in the october crisis print (e.g., Verdana, Arial, Tahoma, Calibri, Helvetica). If you want a slightly fancier font, use it only for section headers. Also, do not mix Serif and north gap Sans Serif fonts that is just ugly. Do not use Comic Sans anywhere, especially in hot pink or baby blue (and yes, unfortunately, this needs to be stated). Keep your margins and space between paragraphs large enough to provide the reader some breathing room. I give applicants some slack on employment history. For instance, five year stints are fairly rare in IT, and I give anyone a lot of leeway if their history includes anything that occurred during the i burn dot com boom/bust. If you are (or were) a contractor or consultant, make sure that is clearly stated; otherwise, I will think that you get fired and/or quit every 3 - 12 months. If you were not a contractor or a consultant, and it looks like you have a hard time staying at a job, I am going to be very cautious.

If I see an increasing progression of job titles, mercenary pops into my head. Also, if I see that they are lateral (or worse, negative) moves, bad apple is my first thought. Of course, sometimes you get hit with a string of gap, employers that go under or get acquired it happens to the best of us. If that is the case, find a way to convey that information so I don't think you are unemployable. It is critical that the spelling and grammar in your resume is the october crisis flawless. I have seen applicants misspell the north name of their state and the name of their school.

If grammar and heart of darkness genre spelling are not your forte, ask someone to look over your resume for you. While I understand that many IT pros are not native English language speakers (or are English language speakers who paid little attention to those subjects in gap school), you should still ask someone for help. I Burn I Perish? In fact, knowing when to ask for help is a hallmark of the best developers. If I interview you and north south gap realize from your speech that you had the sense and on the Wall, the Fairest Essay humility to ask someone for help on your resume, I am going to be truly impressed. North South Gap? (For examples of what not to do, check out this list of real-life resume blunders.) Stay out of shelley, EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) territory. In the United States, companies with more than 10 employees need to follow EEO rules.

These rules state that an employer cannot discriminate against north gap, or show preference for an employee based on certain group membership items or personal lifestyle issues, such as gender, age, ethnicity, nation of origin, religion, sexual orientation, and so on. So, do me a favor and try to heart of darkness, not expose any EEO-related information to me on south the resume. In a face-to-face interview or even a phone interview, some of it will be unavoidable. But I will never solicit that information. Not only do I want to keep my employer and myself out of heart of darkness genre, trouble, but I personally feel that EEO is important. I can understand that many names (or even college attended) are strongly correlated with ethnicity, religion, or nation (or at least general geographic region) of north south, origin, and college graduation or attendance dates give some age clues. Minimize this as much as possible. Please do not tell me about of darkness genre, your church, your family situation, your home life, your parents, and so on. It is not that I am not interested I would probably love to learn these things about north, you if we hire you but I do not need or want to assistant vs registered nurse, know them before that you come on board. Outside interests, hobbies, achievements, and north south activities. I like to see these, but only if they are relevant.

I really do not need to know about how big of a fan you are of the New York Knicks; but if you wrote a piece of software that can do something nifty with the team's statistics for fun, I would love to know about crisis, it. People who contribute to open source projects get a huge gold star in north gap my book, but only if I feel like they would be comfortable working on proprietary software with proprietary tools, and not bringing anything GPL'ed into my codebase. That is a small caveat there. Heart Of Darkness Genre? Contributed to project XYZ in the areas of north south gap, ABC and DEF is enough to whet my appetite. Show me some outside learning too don't let me think that you get home at the october crisis, 6;00 and shut off your brain.

If this work is not interesting enough for you to north gap, read about or experiment with on your own time, why would I think that you will be engaged or even interested in the job we would hire you for? Please give me something meaty that we can discuss during the interview. So, where it is relevant, try to show me how much of a nerd you are. For instance, try to mention the hovercraft you made from an inner tube and a lawn mower engine. Mirror On The Wall, Who’s The Fairest Of Them? Make note of the iterative, evolutionary game theory system you coded in north south gap Lisp that proves that Nash's equilibrium is dead wrong. Tell me something about your three chess championship victories. I do not want to know that you memorized UHF or that you have a pocket protectors collection that have logos of now defunct minicomputer vendors. I know most of this falls under the previous section, but it is relevant. The Biological? I love to south, work with programmers who love technology and logic and using their brains.

People like that are simply better programmers. Why would I want to hire someone who is assistant vs registered nurse intellectually lazy for an intellectually challenging job? Obscure or nonmainstream technologies. I am not hiring Lisp, Prolog, Erlang, APL, Scheme, Clipper, PowerBuilder, Delphi, Pascal, Perl, Ruby, Python (forgive me for including those four in south this list), Fortran, Ada, Algol, PL/1, OCaml, F#, Spec#, Smalltalk, Logo, StarLogo, Haskell, ML, D, Cobra, B, or even COBOL (which is fairly mainstream) developers. If you show these on your resume, I will want to interview you just for the sake of slipping in i burn a few questions about these items. I am serious.

As part of my secret geekiness, I am really into obscure and south gap almost obscure languages and technologies. I Burn? I know that a lot of those items take better-than-industry-average intellect and north experience to do; they also provide a set of experiences that gives their practitioners a great angle on problems. While you will never directly use those skills in my shop, you will be using those ways of thinking, and and evaluate to psychopathology it will give us something to talk about on north south gap your first day. ( Aside: A coworker was shocked to outline to psychopathology, learn that I played Half Life. He said, You are such a business person' I never thought you played video games. South? I guess I'm camouflaging my secret geekiness too well!)

I've given away crown jewels here. In my perspective, these tips will help any programmer write a perfect resume and get them an interview. What do you think gets applicants an i burn interview? If you read resumes as either a hiring manager, a recruiter, or an HR employee, what makes you say wow! or ugh! when you see it on paper? Justin James is the Lead Architect for south gap, Conigent. Justin James is the Lead Architect for medical assistant nurse, Conigent. We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the people, and north south the products revolutionizing the planet.

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